Journal & Issues

Volume 74 (2023): Issue 5 (October 2023)

Volume 74 (2023): Issue 4 (August 2023)

Volume 74 (2023): Issue 3 (June 2023)

Volume 74 (2023): Issue 2 (April 2023)

Volume 74 (2023): Issue 1 (February 2023)

Volume 73 (2022): Issue 6 (December 2022)

Volume 73 (2022): Issue 5 (September 2022)

Volume 73 (2022): Issue 4 (August 2022)

Volume 73 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

Volume 73 (2022): Issue 2 (April 2022)

Volume 73 (2022): Issue 1 (February 2022)

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 6 (December 2021)

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 5 (September 2021)

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 4 (August 2021)

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 3 (June 2021)

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 2 (April 2021)

Volume 72 (2021): Issue 1 (February 2021)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 6 (December 2020)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 5 (September 2020)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 4 (August 2020)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 3 (June 2020)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 2 (April 2020)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 1 (February 2020)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 7 (December 2019)
Special Issue

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 6 (December 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 5 (September 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 4 (August 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 3 (June 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 2 (April 2019)

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 1 (February 2019)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 6 (December 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 5 (September 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 4 (August 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 3 (June 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 2 (March 2018)

Volume 69 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 7 (December 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 6 (November 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 5 (September 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 4 (August 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 3 (May 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 2 (March 2017)

Volume 68 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 6 (December 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 5 (September 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 4 (July 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 3 (May 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 2 (April 2016)

Volume 67 (2016): Issue 1 (January 2016)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 6 (November 2015)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 5 (September 2015)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 4 (July 2015)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 3 (May 2015)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 2 (March 2015)

Volume 66 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 6 (January 2015)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 5 (September 2014)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 4 (August 2014)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 3 (May 2014)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 2 (March 2014)

Volume 65 (2014): Issue 1 (January 2014)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 6 (November 2013)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 5 (September 2013)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 4 (June 2013)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 3 (May 2013)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 2 (March 2013)

Volume 64 (2013): Issue 1 (January 2013)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 6 (December 2012)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 5 (November 2012)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 4 (July 2012)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 3 (May 2012)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 2 (March 2012)

Volume 63 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 6 (November 2011)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 5 (September 2011)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 4 (July 2011)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 3 (May 2011)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 2 (March 2011)

Volume 62 (2011): Issue 1 (January 2011)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 6 (November 2010)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 5 (September 2010)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 4 (July 2010)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 3 (May 2010)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 2 (March 2010)

Volume 61 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1339-309X
First Published
07 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 70 (2019): Issue 4 (August 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1339-309X
First Published
07 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

0 Articles
Open Access

Statistical feature embedding for heart sound classification

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 259 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is considered as one of the principal causes of death in the world. Over recent years, this field of study has attracted researchers’ attention to investigate heart sounds’ patterns for disease diagnostics. In this study, an approach is proposed for normal/abnormal heart sound classification on the Physionet challenge 2016 dataset. For the first time, a fixed length feature vector; called i-vector; is extracted from each heart sound using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) features. Afterwards, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) transform and Variational Autoencoder (VAE) are applied on the i-vector to achieve dimension reduction. Eventually, the reduced size vector is fed to Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for classification purpose. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed method could achieve a performance improvement of 16% based on Modified Accuracy (MAcc) compared with the baseline system on the Physionet2016 dataset.

Keywords

  • heart sound classification
  • i-vector
  • Gaussian mixture models
  • support vector machine
  • principal component analysis
  • variational autoencoders
Open Access

Investigation of error performance in network coded MIMO-VBLAST wireless communication systems

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 273 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

Paper aims to enhance the performance of bit error rate (BER) in wireless communication based on the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system of vertical Bell laboratories layered space-time (VBLAST) algorithm. The VBLAST algorithm uses zero-forcing (ZF) and the minimum mean square error (MMSE) to evaluate the BER of wireless communication. MIMO VBLAST techniques function as an adaptive filter and can minimize the interference and multipath fading in the received signal of the channel. Physical layer network coding (PNC) is a new technique used to exploit the spatial diversity of the MIMO VBLAST system to improve the throughput and performance of wireless communication. The bit-error-rate (BER) of proposed VBLAST MIMO with PNC with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation over the additive white Gaussian noise and Rayleigh fading channel are analyzed. The performance of both BPSK and QPSK modulation in two and four antennas are compared. From the simulation results, it was found that the proposed scheme MIMO VBLAST PNC has a 45.2 % higher BER performance compared to the traditional MIMO scheme with an increase in the BER using MMSE and ZF respectively in both two and four antennas.

Keywords

  • multiple input multiple output
  • vertical Bell laboratories layered space-time
  • zero forcing
  • minimum mean square error
  • physical layer network coding
Open Access

Experimental load test statistics for the selected IPS tools on low-performance IoT devices

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 285 - 294

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to propose a testing procedure for selected intrusion prevention systems (IPS) in a realistic network traffic in terms of their suitability on a given hardware microcomputers for low-performance devices for internet of things (IoT). We perform an IPS research in terms of resource usage in order to establish a universal procedure of checking, whether a given microcomputer controlling IoT devices (often in overloaded state) can additionally burden the installation and start-up of IPS. The experiment is repeated on several boards under overload condition to determine the maximum data rate, above which transmission degrades. The presented testing method is an exemplary tool for IoT applications concerning the security of embedded devices with low performance.

Keywords

  • security
  • intrusion prevention systems
  • load analysis
  • low-power devices
  • IoT
  • horn method
Open Access

A low-cost aerometric sensor system for sport aviation

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 295 - 302

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with the concept, the design and an experimental prototype of a low-cost aerometric sensor system for sport aviation. The performance of an experimental prototype of the sensor system is compared with the performance of a standard system. The possible further development of the system is also mentioned. The system presented here originates from and extends earlier basic work on an aerometric system for general aviation. The extension implements and focuses general designs from the earlier system for real use of the current system in the category of sport airplanes and gliders. The objective of the system is to reduce the cost of aircraft instrumental equipment, and to provide improved measurement performance of the aerometric system using an innovative approach of altitude measurements. In the experimental system, altitude is still determined based on the classic barometric principle. However, for measurements of atmospheric pressure, the differential pressure sensor is used primarily in combination with a low-cost absolute pressure sensor, which also measures in a differential mode.

Keywords

  • aerometric system
  • differential pressure sensor
  • sport aviation
  • altitude measurements
  • differential pressure measurements
Open Access

Permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC) model identification and controller design

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 303 - 309

Abstract

Abstract

System modeling is a set of mathematical equations that describe the dynamical behavior of a system. It is considered as a primary concern in determining a suitable controller to meet specific requirements. An autoregressive with exogenous terms (ARX) model for a PMDC motor is identified experimentally based on the recursive least square (RLS) method. Adaptive discrete pole placement controller (APPC) is proposed and designed aiming to control the motor revolving speed. For the comparison purpose, a discrete Proportional Integral (PI) controller is also considered in this work. The steady step response, transient response, and the mean squared error (MSE) is counted throughout the comparison. The e ect of the uncertainties in the PMDC model is also investigated in this paper. The result shows a superiority in the performance of the proposed controller compared to that obtained using PI controller.

Keywords

  • adaptive pole placement controller
  • ARX model
  • discrete proportional integral controller
  • parameter estimation
  • permanent magnet DC motor
Open Access

Using spline-extrapolation in the research of self-similar traffic characteristics

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 310 - 316

Abstract

Abstract

The problem of predicting self-similar traffic is considered, the solution of which modeling of self-similar traffic was performed using the Simulink software package in MATLAB environment. For the simulation, the queuing system WB/M/1/K with Weibull distribution was used. The use of the spline-extrapolation method made it possible to predict self-similar traffic outside the considered period of time on which packet data transmission is considered. Extrapolation of traffic for short-term and long-term forecasts is considered. Comparison of the results of the prediction of self-similar traffic using various spline functions has shown that the accuracy of the forecast can be improved through the use of cubic splines. A method is proposed for estimating the error of traffic prediction for each variant of traffic forecasting using linear, cubic splines. The results of the research will allow you to perform effective traffic management with the support of quality characteristics, by providing the required parameters of network hardware and software in order to avoid overloads in the network.

Keywords

  • self-similar traffic
  • quality of service
  • predicting
  • extrapolation
  • spline functions
  • the error of recovery
Open Access

Antenna array synthesis using a newly evolved optimization approach: Strawberry algorithm

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 317 - 322

Abstract

Abstract

An attempt has been made for the first time to apply this proposed Strawberry optimization technique to antenna array synthesis problem. The case study cited here refer to linear and circular array configurations. The design constraints are limited to minimizing the side lobe level and restricting the first null beam width, which play significant roles in antenna array performances. The key parameters which greatly influence in achieving the said objectives are either placement of antenna elements or amplitudes of excitations of these elements or both. And the recently reported meta heuristic nature inspired optimization algorithms have addressed to these problems quite effectively and the exciting result obtained using the said approach has undoubtedly proved the strawberry algorithm as a potential contender in the optimization domain.

Keywords

  • strawberry algorithm
  • antenna array
  • optimization
  • peak SLL
  • null depth
Open Access

Design of area-efficient GHz range current mode frequency synthesizer using standard CMOS technology

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 323 - 328

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, an area and power efficient current mode frequency synthesizer for system-on-chip (SoC) is proposed. A current-mode transformer loop filter suitable for low supply voltage is implemented to remove the need of a large capacitor in the loop filter, and a current controlled oscillator with additional voltage based frequency tuning mechanism is designed with an active inductor. The proposed design is further integrated with a fully programmable frequency divider to maintain a good balance among output frequency operating range, power consumption as well as silicon area. A test chip is implemented in a standard 0.13 µm CMOS technology, measurement result demonstrates that the proposed design has a working range from 916 MHz to 1.1 l GHz and occupies a silicon area of 0.25 mm2 while consuming 8.4 mW from a 1.2 V supply.

Keywords

  • frequency-locked loop
  • CMOS
  • integrated circuit
  • active inductor
Open Access

Graphene prepared on SiC by chemical vapor deposition process at low temperature

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 329 - 331

Abstract

Abstract

Graphene preparation by the method of chemical vapour deposition on SiC substrates is described. Despite very low growth temperature (1080 °C) and with use of methane atmosphere, carbon layers in the form of multi-layer graphene were prepared. Graphene quality was verified by means of available analytical methods: Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Van der Paw method.

Keywords

  • graphene
  • CVD process
  • SiC
Open Access

STEM education supported by virtual laboratory incorporated in self-directed learning process

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 332 - 344

Abstract

Abstract

Students education in various fields (such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is constantly looking for ways and techniques on how to motivate students to learn, how to increase their engagement and how to increase the e ciency of knowledge acquisition. Information and communication technologies are developing at a very rapid speed and o er many new opportunities that could be used for such purposes. This paper focuses on virtual laboratory technologies that could be very helpful for these learning problems especially for subjects that lose the interest of young people. We have conducted two pilots at a Slovak secondary school and university to analyse the usability of self-directed learning applied to teach networking topics such as software-defined networking and network functions virtualisation. This learning approach was enhanced by a developed virtual lab and a set of self-tests. Knowledge tests and questionnaires have been used to investigate the impact of this self-directed virtual lab-based learning approach on students motivation to learn, feelings, satisfaction with learning approach and knowledge gain. The results showed that students appreciated the virtual laboratory for improving learning and their motivation to learn and their knowledge acquisition was noticeably improved when the virtual lab was included.

Keywords

  • self-directed learning
  • virtual lab
  • SDN
  • NFV
  • knowledge gain
  • questionnaire
0 Articles
Open Access

Statistical feature embedding for heart sound classification

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 259 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is considered as one of the principal causes of death in the world. Over recent years, this field of study has attracted researchers’ attention to investigate heart sounds’ patterns for disease diagnostics. In this study, an approach is proposed for normal/abnormal heart sound classification on the Physionet challenge 2016 dataset. For the first time, a fixed length feature vector; called i-vector; is extracted from each heart sound using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) features. Afterwards, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) transform and Variational Autoencoder (VAE) are applied on the i-vector to achieve dimension reduction. Eventually, the reduced size vector is fed to Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for classification purpose. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed method could achieve a performance improvement of 16% based on Modified Accuracy (MAcc) compared with the baseline system on the Physionet2016 dataset.

Keywords

  • heart sound classification
  • i-vector
  • Gaussian mixture models
  • support vector machine
  • principal component analysis
  • variational autoencoders
Open Access

Investigation of error performance in network coded MIMO-VBLAST wireless communication systems

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 273 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

Paper aims to enhance the performance of bit error rate (BER) in wireless communication based on the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system of vertical Bell laboratories layered space-time (VBLAST) algorithm. The VBLAST algorithm uses zero-forcing (ZF) and the minimum mean square error (MMSE) to evaluate the BER of wireless communication. MIMO VBLAST techniques function as an adaptive filter and can minimize the interference and multipath fading in the received signal of the channel. Physical layer network coding (PNC) is a new technique used to exploit the spatial diversity of the MIMO VBLAST system to improve the throughput and performance of wireless communication. The bit-error-rate (BER) of proposed VBLAST MIMO with PNC with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation over the additive white Gaussian noise and Rayleigh fading channel are analyzed. The performance of both BPSK and QPSK modulation in two and four antennas are compared. From the simulation results, it was found that the proposed scheme MIMO VBLAST PNC has a 45.2 % higher BER performance compared to the traditional MIMO scheme with an increase in the BER using MMSE and ZF respectively in both two and four antennas.

Keywords

  • multiple input multiple output
  • vertical Bell laboratories layered space-time
  • zero forcing
  • minimum mean square error
  • physical layer network coding
Open Access

Experimental load test statistics for the selected IPS tools on low-performance IoT devices

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 285 - 294

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to propose a testing procedure for selected intrusion prevention systems (IPS) in a realistic network traffic in terms of their suitability on a given hardware microcomputers for low-performance devices for internet of things (IoT). We perform an IPS research in terms of resource usage in order to establish a universal procedure of checking, whether a given microcomputer controlling IoT devices (often in overloaded state) can additionally burden the installation and start-up of IPS. The experiment is repeated on several boards under overload condition to determine the maximum data rate, above which transmission degrades. The presented testing method is an exemplary tool for IoT applications concerning the security of embedded devices with low performance.

Keywords

  • security
  • intrusion prevention systems
  • load analysis
  • low-power devices
  • IoT
  • horn method
Open Access

A low-cost aerometric sensor system for sport aviation

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 295 - 302

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with the concept, the design and an experimental prototype of a low-cost aerometric sensor system for sport aviation. The performance of an experimental prototype of the sensor system is compared with the performance of a standard system. The possible further development of the system is also mentioned. The system presented here originates from and extends earlier basic work on an aerometric system for general aviation. The extension implements and focuses general designs from the earlier system for real use of the current system in the category of sport airplanes and gliders. The objective of the system is to reduce the cost of aircraft instrumental equipment, and to provide improved measurement performance of the aerometric system using an innovative approach of altitude measurements. In the experimental system, altitude is still determined based on the classic barometric principle. However, for measurements of atmospheric pressure, the differential pressure sensor is used primarily in combination with a low-cost absolute pressure sensor, which also measures in a differential mode.

Keywords

  • aerometric system
  • differential pressure sensor
  • sport aviation
  • altitude measurements
  • differential pressure measurements
Open Access

Permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC) model identification and controller design

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 303 - 309

Abstract

Abstract

System modeling is a set of mathematical equations that describe the dynamical behavior of a system. It is considered as a primary concern in determining a suitable controller to meet specific requirements. An autoregressive with exogenous terms (ARX) model for a PMDC motor is identified experimentally based on the recursive least square (RLS) method. Adaptive discrete pole placement controller (APPC) is proposed and designed aiming to control the motor revolving speed. For the comparison purpose, a discrete Proportional Integral (PI) controller is also considered in this work. The steady step response, transient response, and the mean squared error (MSE) is counted throughout the comparison. The e ect of the uncertainties in the PMDC model is also investigated in this paper. The result shows a superiority in the performance of the proposed controller compared to that obtained using PI controller.

Keywords

  • adaptive pole placement controller
  • ARX model
  • discrete proportional integral controller
  • parameter estimation
  • permanent magnet DC motor
Open Access

Using spline-extrapolation in the research of self-similar traffic characteristics

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 310 - 316

Abstract

Abstract

The problem of predicting self-similar traffic is considered, the solution of which modeling of self-similar traffic was performed using the Simulink software package in MATLAB environment. For the simulation, the queuing system WB/M/1/K with Weibull distribution was used. The use of the spline-extrapolation method made it possible to predict self-similar traffic outside the considered period of time on which packet data transmission is considered. Extrapolation of traffic for short-term and long-term forecasts is considered. Comparison of the results of the prediction of self-similar traffic using various spline functions has shown that the accuracy of the forecast can be improved through the use of cubic splines. A method is proposed for estimating the error of traffic prediction for each variant of traffic forecasting using linear, cubic splines. The results of the research will allow you to perform effective traffic management with the support of quality characteristics, by providing the required parameters of network hardware and software in order to avoid overloads in the network.

Keywords

  • self-similar traffic
  • quality of service
  • predicting
  • extrapolation
  • spline functions
  • the error of recovery
Open Access

Antenna array synthesis using a newly evolved optimization approach: Strawberry algorithm

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 317 - 322

Abstract

Abstract

An attempt has been made for the first time to apply this proposed Strawberry optimization technique to antenna array synthesis problem. The case study cited here refer to linear and circular array configurations. The design constraints are limited to minimizing the side lobe level and restricting the first null beam width, which play significant roles in antenna array performances. The key parameters which greatly influence in achieving the said objectives are either placement of antenna elements or amplitudes of excitations of these elements or both. And the recently reported meta heuristic nature inspired optimization algorithms have addressed to these problems quite effectively and the exciting result obtained using the said approach has undoubtedly proved the strawberry algorithm as a potential contender in the optimization domain.

Keywords

  • strawberry algorithm
  • antenna array
  • optimization
  • peak SLL
  • null depth
Open Access

Design of area-efficient GHz range current mode frequency synthesizer using standard CMOS technology

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 323 - 328

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, an area and power efficient current mode frequency synthesizer for system-on-chip (SoC) is proposed. A current-mode transformer loop filter suitable for low supply voltage is implemented to remove the need of a large capacitor in the loop filter, and a current controlled oscillator with additional voltage based frequency tuning mechanism is designed with an active inductor. The proposed design is further integrated with a fully programmable frequency divider to maintain a good balance among output frequency operating range, power consumption as well as silicon area. A test chip is implemented in a standard 0.13 µm CMOS technology, measurement result demonstrates that the proposed design has a working range from 916 MHz to 1.1 l GHz and occupies a silicon area of 0.25 mm2 while consuming 8.4 mW from a 1.2 V supply.

Keywords

  • frequency-locked loop
  • CMOS
  • integrated circuit
  • active inductor
Open Access

Graphene prepared on SiC by chemical vapor deposition process at low temperature

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 329 - 331

Abstract

Abstract

Graphene preparation by the method of chemical vapour deposition on SiC substrates is described. Despite very low growth temperature (1080 °C) and with use of methane atmosphere, carbon layers in the form of multi-layer graphene were prepared. Graphene quality was verified by means of available analytical methods: Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Van der Paw method.

Keywords

  • graphene
  • CVD process
  • SiC
Open Access

STEM education supported by virtual laboratory incorporated in self-directed learning process

Published Online: 21 Oct 2019
Page range: 332 - 344

Abstract

Abstract

Students education in various fields (such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is constantly looking for ways and techniques on how to motivate students to learn, how to increase their engagement and how to increase the e ciency of knowledge acquisition. Information and communication technologies are developing at a very rapid speed and o er many new opportunities that could be used for such purposes. This paper focuses on virtual laboratory technologies that could be very helpful for these learning problems especially for subjects that lose the interest of young people. We have conducted two pilots at a Slovak secondary school and university to analyse the usability of self-directed learning applied to teach networking topics such as software-defined networking and network functions virtualisation. This learning approach was enhanced by a developed virtual lab and a set of self-tests. Knowledge tests and questionnaires have been used to investigate the impact of this self-directed virtual lab-based learning approach on students motivation to learn, feelings, satisfaction with learning approach and knowledge gain. The results showed that students appreciated the virtual laboratory for improving learning and their motivation to learn and their knowledge acquisition was noticeably improved when the virtual lab was included.

Keywords

  • self-directed learning
  • virtual lab
  • SDN
  • NFV
  • knowledge gain
  • questionnaire