Journal & Issues

Volume 27 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 27 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 27 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 27 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 4 (November 2018)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 3 (August 2018)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 2 (May 2018)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1 (February 2018)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 3 (August 2017)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 2 (May 2017)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1 (February 2017)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 3 (August 2016)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 2 (May 2016)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 1 (February 2016)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 3 (August 2015)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 2 (May 2015)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1 (February 2015)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 3 (August 2014)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 2 (May 2014)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 1 (February 2014)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 3 (August 2013)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-9003
First Published
19 Apr 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-9003
First Published
19 Apr 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Loop-Shaping ℋ Control of an Aeropendulum Model

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 1 - 16

Abstract

Abstract

This work presents a mathematical model of an aeropendulum system with two sets of motors with propellers and the design and simulation of a loop-shaping ℋ control for this system. In this plant, the objective is to control the angular position of the pendulum rod through the torque generated by the thrust of the motorized propellers at the end of the rod’s axis. The control design is obtained by first using feedback linearization and then designing the ℋ controller using the resulting linear system. For the control strategy validation, simulations were conducted in the Matlab/Simulink® environment, and the weighting functions for the ℋ controller were adjusted to obtain the desired performance and stability of the closed-loop system. The simulation results show the efficiency of the applied methodology.

Keywords

  • dynamic system modeling
  • aeropendulum
  • ℋ control
Open Access

Modelling of Work of the Rotor-Type Blade Pump with Revolving Stator

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 17 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

In the article, the analytical dependences of modelling the cell cross-sectional area between two adjacent blades of a rotary blade pump and capacity for a pump with fixed and rotating stators are given, and analytical dependences are derived to model the power necessary to overcome the friction forces of the blades. The forces acting on the radially placed blade of a rotary pump with a fixed stator (non-rotating or stationary) and a rotating stator are analyzed. Design and technological parameters that influence the pump capacity and power are taken into account. The power required for the movement of the pump blade without taking into account the compression of the air has the opposite character of the change as to the pump capacity The capacity of a rotary pump with a rotating stator is three times higher than that of a stationary stator. The rotary pump with a rotating stator, with six radially spaced blades, consumes 0.854 [kW] less power to overcome the blade friction of 1 313 [kW]. The results of modelling of the pump work are given.

Keywords

  • rotor-type pump
  • stator
  • capacity
  • analytical model
  • speed
  • acceleration
Open Access

Effects of Rotation on Transient Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Through a Curved Square Duct: The Case of Negative Rotation

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 29 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

The fluid flow and heat transfer through a rotating curved duct has received much attention in recent years because of vast applications in mechanical devices. It is noticed that there occur two different types of rotations in a rotating curved duct such as positive and negative rotation. The positive rotation through the curved duct is widely investigated while the investigation on the negative rotation is rarely available. The paper investigates the influence of negative rotation for a wide range of Taylor number (−10 ≤ Tr ≤ −2500) when the duct itself rotates about the center of curvature. Due to the rotation, three types of forces including Coriolis, centrifugal, and buoyancy forces are generated. The study focuses and explains the combined effect of these forces on the fluid flow in details. First, the linear stability of the steady solution is performed. An unsteady solution is then obtained by time-evolution calculation and flow transition is determined by calculating phase space and power spectrum. When Tr is raised in the negative direction, the flow behavior shows different flow instabilities including steady-state, periodic, multi-periodic, and chaotic oscillations. Furthermore, the pattern variations of axial and secondary flow velocity and isotherms are obtained, and it is found that there is a strong interaction between the flow velocities and the isotherms. Then temperature gradients are calculated which show that the fluid mixing and the acts of secondary flow have a strong influence on heat transfer in the fluid. Diagrams of unsteady flow and vortex structure are further sketched and precisely elucidate the curvature effects on unsteady fluid flow. Finally, a comparison between the numerical and experimental data is discussed which demonstrates that both data coincide with each other.

Keywords

  • flow transition
  • temperature gradient
  • unsteady and vortex diagram
  • experimental validation
Open Access

Reduced Equations of Slope-Deflection Method in Structural Analysis

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 51 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an update of the slope-deflection method, which is used in the analysis of statically indeterminate structures. In this study, new reduced equations are presented based on including both the effects of the member rotations and the fixed end moments in one term, rather than two terms, in order to simplify the application of the slope-deflection method. The reduced equations are developed, then three numerical examples with comprehensive cases of beams are solved by applying both the original and the proposed reduced equations. The analysis outputs indicated that the reduced equations are applicable for all cases that can be analyzed by the slope-deflection method, and give identical results compared with the original equations. It is found that the reduced equations require less computations when the structure has no support settlement, compared with the original equations, whereas the computations are approximately similar when the structure has a support settlement.

Keywords

  • indeterminate structures
  • slope-deflection
  • structural analysis
  • classical methods
  • reduced equations
Open Access

Axisymmetric Free Vibration of Layered Cylindrical Shell Filled with Fluid

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 63 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study is to analyse the axisymmetric free vibration of layered cylindrical shells filled with a quiescent fluid. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and inviscid. The equations of axisymmetric vibrations of layered cylindrical shell filled with fluid, on the longitudinal and transverse displacement components are obtained using Love’s first approximation theory. The solutions of displacement functions are assumed in a separable form to obtain a system of coupled differential equations in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by Bickley-type splines. A generalized eigenvalue problem is obtained and solved numerically for a frequency parameter and an associated eigenvector of spline coefficients. Two layered shells with three different types of materials under clamped-clamped boundary conditions are considered. Parametric studies are made on the variation of the frequency parameter with respect to length-to-radius ratio and length-to-thickness ratio.

Keywords

  • axisymmetric
  • free vibration
  • cylindrical shell
  • Love’s first approximation theory
  • inviscid fluid
  • spline approximation
  • eigenvalues
Open Access

Unsteady MHD Plane Couette-Poiseuille Flow of Fourth-Grade Fluid with Thermal Radiation, Chemical Reaction and Suction Effects

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 77 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigates the unsteady MHD flow of a fourth-grade fluid in a horizontal parallel plates channel. The upper plate is oscillating and moving while the bottom plate is stationary. Solutions for momentum, energy and concentration equations are obtained by the He-Laplace scheme. This method was also used by Idowu and Sani [12] and there is agreement with our results. The effect of various flow parameters controlling the physical situation is discussed with the aid of graphs. Significant results from this study show that velocity and temperature fields increase with the increase in the thermal radiation parameter, while velocity and concentric fields decrease with an increase in the chemical reaction parameter. Furthermore, velocity, temperature and concentric fields decrease with an increase in the suction parameter. It is also interesting to note that when S4 = 0, our results will be in complete agreement with Idowu and Sani [12] results. The results of this work are applicable to industrial processes such as polymer extrusion of dye, draining of plastic films etc.

Keywords

  • thermal radiation
  • MHD
  • chemical reaction
  • fourth-grade fluid
  • suction
  • He-Laplace
Open Access

Influence of Diffusion and Impedence Parameters on Wave Propagation in Thermoelastic Medium

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 99 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to study the impact of diffusion and impedance parameters on the propagation of plane waves in a thermoelastic medium for Green and Lindsay theory (G-L) and the Coupled theory (C-T) of thermoelasticity. Results are demonstrated for impedance boundary conditions and the amplitude ratios of various reflected waves against the angle of incidence are calculated numerically. The characteristics of diffusion, relaxation time and impedence parameter on amplitude ratios have been depicted graphically. Some cases of interest are also derived from the present investigation.

Keywords

  • plane waves
  • amplitude ratios
  • diffusion
  • impedance parameters
Open Access

Effects of the Control Parameters on the Stability of a Laminar Boundary Layer on a Porous Flat Plate

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 113 - 127

Abstract

Abstract

This work is devoted to the analysis of the linear temporal stability of a laminar dynamic boundary layer on a horizontal porous plane plate. The basic flow is assumed to be laminar and two-dimensional. The basic flow velocity profiles are obtained by numerically solving the Blasius equation using the Runge-Kutta method. The perturbations of these basic solutions are expressed in the form of three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The formulation of the stability problem leads to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation modified by the permeability parameter (Darcy number) and the small Reynolds number. This equation is given in a general form which can be applied to the Chebyshev domain and the boundary layer domain and solved numerically using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The marginal stability diagrams, the critical Reynolds numbers and the eigenvalue spectra are obtained for different values of the parameters which have modified the stability equation. Numerical solutions indicate the importance of the effect of these parameters on the flow stability characteristics.

Keywords

  • permeability parameter
  • small Reynolds number
  • linear temporal stability
  • boundary layer
  • modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation
  • spectral collocation method
Open Access

Electro-Magnetohydrodynamic Two Fluid Flow of Ionized-Gases with Hall and Rotation Effects

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 128 - 144

Abstract

Abstract

An electro-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) two fluid flow and heat transfer of ionized gases through a horizontal channel surrounded by non-conducting plates in a rotating framework with Hall currents is investigated. The Hall effect is considered with an assumption that the gases are completely ionized and the strength of the applied transverse magnetic field is strong. The governing equations are solved analytically for the temperature and velocity distributions in two fluid flow regions. The numerical solutions are demonstrated graphically for various physical parameters such the Hartmann number, Hall parameter, rotation parameter, and so on. It was noticed that an increment is either due to the Hall parameter or the rotation parameter reduces the temperature in the two regions.

Keywords

  • magnetic and electric fields
  • immiscible flow
  • plasma
  • Hall effect
  • rotating frame
  • heat transfer
  • insulating plates
Open Access

The FDM Technique in Processes of Prototyping Spare Parts for Servicing and Repairing Agricultural Machines: A General Outline

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 145 - 155

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine the possibility of applying alternative techniques for the production of prototypes for spare parts in agriculture and to determine the possible directions of development of their applications in the engineering industry. Then, to determine which spare parts could be produced using the FDM technique, comparisons of the most important parameters of spare parts produced independently (using the FDM technique) and obtained from producers (produced using traditional methods in professional factories) were made. A number of factors were analysed, from technical parameters such as machine type, processed material and its consumption including required as support structures, to economic issues such as manufacturing or purchase delivery total time and cost. The FDM technique has proven itself in many ways in the production of spare parts for agricultural machinery.

Keywords

  • FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)
  • FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication)
  • 3D printing
  • spare parts
  • agricultural machinery
  • cost analysis
Open Access

Numerical Investigation and Cost Analysis of FRP-Concrete Unidirectional Hybrid Slabs

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 156 - 166

Abstract

Abstract

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been commonly used to reinforce concrete structures. The kinds of FRP demonstrate an effective alternative to various methods of reinforcement in concrete structures subjected to bad environmental conditions which cause corrosion and damage to concrete. Due to their lightweight, high strength, and high corrosion and fatigue resistance, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites have been widely applied in steel substitution during revitalization interventions. This paper presents numerical three-points bending tests on different models to investigate the effect of the reinforcements; Carbon, Glass, and Aramid fibers to find the corresponding cost of each one. Also, there is an available experimental model for verifying the results of the FEM that demonstrated broad agreement with the experimental statement, concerning the load-displacement curve. After validating the models, alternative designs such as type of the FRP, position of the FRP, and amount of the FRP usage were numerically tested to study the influence of each on the load-bearing capacity. The results showed that the best configuration would be one with GFRP and the load-bearing capacity is around 9 kN in the optimum design.

Keywords

  • CFRP
  • GFRP
  • AFRP
  • hybrid slabs
  • numerical simulation
  • costs
Open Access

Experimental Study of Bearing Capacity Effect in Swelling Soil

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 167 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The current study aims to investigate the effects of swell pressure on the bearing capacity of swelling soil. A model and some laboratory tests have been created to investigate the swell pressure effect on the bearing capacity variation of soil swelling due to swelling pressure. The influence of varying water content w/c and dry unit weight (γd) on the shear strength and swelling pressure was studied. The soil has been taken from Diwan Residential Compound-Mosul. It is classified as highly swelling soil. The swell pressure of soils at their natural water content reached 385 kN / m2. Experiment results show that the parameters of shear resistance decreased with the w/c increase at the constant value of (γd), increased with the (γd) increase when the w/c was constant. Results show that the swelling pressure decreased with the w/c increase, while it increased with the (γd) increase. Also, the results obtained using was model show that the resistance of bearing capacity of pre-saturated selected soil was 196 kN / m2, while the bearing capacity was 620kN / m2 when taking into account in the generation of swelling pressure.

Keywords

  • swell pressure
  • swelling soil
  • bearing capacity
  • water content
  • dry unit weight
Open Access

Similarity Solution of Stagnation-Point Flow and Heat Transfer of a Micropolar Fluid Towards a Horizontal Permeable Exponentially Elongating Sheet with Radiation, Heat Production/ Immersion

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 179 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

The current study aims to explore stagnation spot flow of a micropolar fluid about a plain linear exponentially expanding penetrable surface in the incidence of radiation and in-house heat production/immersion. Through similarity mapping, the mathematical modeling statements are transformed to ODE’s and numerical results are found by shooting techniques. The impact of varying physical constants on momentum, micro-rotation and temperature is demonstrated through graphs. The computed measures including shear, couple stress, mass transfer and the local surface heat flux with distinct measures of factors involved in this proposed problem are presented through a table.

Keywords

  • exponentially stretching sheet
  • heat spring/drop
  • micropolar fluid
  • radiation
  • suction/injection
Open Access

Thermoelastic Analysis of Pressurized Hollow Spherical Vessels with Arbitrary Radial Non-Homogeneity

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 192 - 205

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, a general analysis of one dimensional steady-state thermal stresses of a functionally graded hollow spherical vessel with spherical isotropy and spherically transversely isotropy is presented with material properties of arbitrary radial non-homogeneity. The material properties may arbitrarily vary as continuous or piecewise functions. The boundary value problem associated with a thermo-elastic problem is converted to an integral equation. Radial and tangential thermal stress components distribution can be determined numerically by solving the resulting equation. The influence of the gradient variation of the material properties on the thermal stresses is investigated and the numerical results are presented graphically.

Keywords

  • functionally graded material
  • thermal stresses
  • radial non-homogeneity
  • pressure
  • spherical vessel
Open Access

Review on Relationship Between the Universality Class of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Equation and the Ballistic Deposition Model

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 206 - 216

Abstract

Abstract

We have analysed the research findings on the universality class and discussed the connection between the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class and the ballistic deposition model in microscopic rules. In one dimension and 1+1 dimensions deviations are not important in the presence of noise. At the same time, they are very relevant for higher dimensions or deterministic evolution. Mostly, in the analyses a correction scale higher than 1280 has not been studied yet. Therefore, the growth of the interface for finite system size β ≥ 0.30 value predicted by the KPZ universality class is still predominant. Also, values of α ≥ 0.40, β ≥ 0.30, and z1.16 obtained from literature are consistent with the expected KPZ values of α = 1/2, β = 1/3, and z = 3/2. A connection between the ballistic deposition and the KPZ equation through the limiting procedure and by applying the perturbation method was also presented.

Keywords

  • universality class
  • ballistic deposition model
  • KPZ equation
  • finite-size scaling
  • perturbation method
15 Articles
Open Access

Loop-Shaping ℋ Control of an Aeropendulum Model

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 1 - 16

Abstract

Abstract

This work presents a mathematical model of an aeropendulum system with two sets of motors with propellers and the design and simulation of a loop-shaping ℋ control for this system. In this plant, the objective is to control the angular position of the pendulum rod through the torque generated by the thrust of the motorized propellers at the end of the rod’s axis. The control design is obtained by first using feedback linearization and then designing the ℋ controller using the resulting linear system. For the control strategy validation, simulations were conducted in the Matlab/Simulink® environment, and the weighting functions for the ℋ controller were adjusted to obtain the desired performance and stability of the closed-loop system. The simulation results show the efficiency of the applied methodology.

Keywords

  • dynamic system modeling
  • aeropendulum
  • ℋ control
Open Access

Modelling of Work of the Rotor-Type Blade Pump with Revolving Stator

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 17 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

In the article, the analytical dependences of modelling the cell cross-sectional area between two adjacent blades of a rotary blade pump and capacity for a pump with fixed and rotating stators are given, and analytical dependences are derived to model the power necessary to overcome the friction forces of the blades. The forces acting on the radially placed blade of a rotary pump with a fixed stator (non-rotating or stationary) and a rotating stator are analyzed. Design and technological parameters that influence the pump capacity and power are taken into account. The power required for the movement of the pump blade without taking into account the compression of the air has the opposite character of the change as to the pump capacity The capacity of a rotary pump with a rotating stator is three times higher than that of a stationary stator. The rotary pump with a rotating stator, with six radially spaced blades, consumes 0.854 [kW] less power to overcome the blade friction of 1 313 [kW]. The results of modelling of the pump work are given.

Keywords

  • rotor-type pump
  • stator
  • capacity
  • analytical model
  • speed
  • acceleration
Open Access

Effects of Rotation on Transient Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Through a Curved Square Duct: The Case of Negative Rotation

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 29 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

The fluid flow and heat transfer through a rotating curved duct has received much attention in recent years because of vast applications in mechanical devices. It is noticed that there occur two different types of rotations in a rotating curved duct such as positive and negative rotation. The positive rotation through the curved duct is widely investigated while the investigation on the negative rotation is rarely available. The paper investigates the influence of negative rotation for a wide range of Taylor number (−10 ≤ Tr ≤ −2500) when the duct itself rotates about the center of curvature. Due to the rotation, three types of forces including Coriolis, centrifugal, and buoyancy forces are generated. The study focuses and explains the combined effect of these forces on the fluid flow in details. First, the linear stability of the steady solution is performed. An unsteady solution is then obtained by time-evolution calculation and flow transition is determined by calculating phase space and power spectrum. When Tr is raised in the negative direction, the flow behavior shows different flow instabilities including steady-state, periodic, multi-periodic, and chaotic oscillations. Furthermore, the pattern variations of axial and secondary flow velocity and isotherms are obtained, and it is found that there is a strong interaction between the flow velocities and the isotherms. Then temperature gradients are calculated which show that the fluid mixing and the acts of secondary flow have a strong influence on heat transfer in the fluid. Diagrams of unsteady flow and vortex structure are further sketched and precisely elucidate the curvature effects on unsteady fluid flow. Finally, a comparison between the numerical and experimental data is discussed which demonstrates that both data coincide with each other.

Keywords

  • flow transition
  • temperature gradient
  • unsteady and vortex diagram
  • experimental validation
Open Access

Reduced Equations of Slope-Deflection Method in Structural Analysis

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 51 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an update of the slope-deflection method, which is used in the analysis of statically indeterminate structures. In this study, new reduced equations are presented based on including both the effects of the member rotations and the fixed end moments in one term, rather than two terms, in order to simplify the application of the slope-deflection method. The reduced equations are developed, then three numerical examples with comprehensive cases of beams are solved by applying both the original and the proposed reduced equations. The analysis outputs indicated that the reduced equations are applicable for all cases that can be analyzed by the slope-deflection method, and give identical results compared with the original equations. It is found that the reduced equations require less computations when the structure has no support settlement, compared with the original equations, whereas the computations are approximately similar when the structure has a support settlement.

Keywords

  • indeterminate structures
  • slope-deflection
  • structural analysis
  • classical methods
  • reduced equations
Open Access

Axisymmetric Free Vibration of Layered Cylindrical Shell Filled with Fluid

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 63 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study is to analyse the axisymmetric free vibration of layered cylindrical shells filled with a quiescent fluid. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and inviscid. The equations of axisymmetric vibrations of layered cylindrical shell filled with fluid, on the longitudinal and transverse displacement components are obtained using Love’s first approximation theory. The solutions of displacement functions are assumed in a separable form to obtain a system of coupled differential equations in terms of displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by Bickley-type splines. A generalized eigenvalue problem is obtained and solved numerically for a frequency parameter and an associated eigenvector of spline coefficients. Two layered shells with three different types of materials under clamped-clamped boundary conditions are considered. Parametric studies are made on the variation of the frequency parameter with respect to length-to-radius ratio and length-to-thickness ratio.

Keywords

  • axisymmetric
  • free vibration
  • cylindrical shell
  • Love’s first approximation theory
  • inviscid fluid
  • spline approximation
  • eigenvalues
Open Access

Unsteady MHD Plane Couette-Poiseuille Flow of Fourth-Grade Fluid with Thermal Radiation, Chemical Reaction and Suction Effects

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 77 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigates the unsteady MHD flow of a fourth-grade fluid in a horizontal parallel plates channel. The upper plate is oscillating and moving while the bottom plate is stationary. Solutions for momentum, energy and concentration equations are obtained by the He-Laplace scheme. This method was also used by Idowu and Sani [12] and there is agreement with our results. The effect of various flow parameters controlling the physical situation is discussed with the aid of graphs. Significant results from this study show that velocity and temperature fields increase with the increase in the thermal radiation parameter, while velocity and concentric fields decrease with an increase in the chemical reaction parameter. Furthermore, velocity, temperature and concentric fields decrease with an increase in the suction parameter. It is also interesting to note that when S4 = 0, our results will be in complete agreement with Idowu and Sani [12] results. The results of this work are applicable to industrial processes such as polymer extrusion of dye, draining of plastic films etc.

Keywords

  • thermal radiation
  • MHD
  • chemical reaction
  • fourth-grade fluid
  • suction
  • He-Laplace
Open Access

Influence of Diffusion and Impedence Parameters on Wave Propagation in Thermoelastic Medium

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 99 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to study the impact of diffusion and impedance parameters on the propagation of plane waves in a thermoelastic medium for Green and Lindsay theory (G-L) and the Coupled theory (C-T) of thermoelasticity. Results are demonstrated for impedance boundary conditions and the amplitude ratios of various reflected waves against the angle of incidence are calculated numerically. The characteristics of diffusion, relaxation time and impedence parameter on amplitude ratios have been depicted graphically. Some cases of interest are also derived from the present investigation.

Keywords

  • plane waves
  • amplitude ratios
  • diffusion
  • impedance parameters
Open Access

Effects of the Control Parameters on the Stability of a Laminar Boundary Layer on a Porous Flat Plate

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 113 - 127

Abstract

Abstract

This work is devoted to the analysis of the linear temporal stability of a laminar dynamic boundary layer on a horizontal porous plane plate. The basic flow is assumed to be laminar and two-dimensional. The basic flow velocity profiles are obtained by numerically solving the Blasius equation using the Runge-Kutta method. The perturbations of these basic solutions are expressed in the form of three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The formulation of the stability problem leads to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation modified by the permeability parameter (Darcy number) and the small Reynolds number. This equation is given in a general form which can be applied to the Chebyshev domain and the boundary layer domain and solved numerically using the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The marginal stability diagrams, the critical Reynolds numbers and the eigenvalue spectra are obtained for different values of the parameters which have modified the stability equation. Numerical solutions indicate the importance of the effect of these parameters on the flow stability characteristics.

Keywords

  • permeability parameter
  • small Reynolds number
  • linear temporal stability
  • boundary layer
  • modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation
  • spectral collocation method
Open Access

Electro-Magnetohydrodynamic Two Fluid Flow of Ionized-Gases with Hall and Rotation Effects

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 128 - 144

Abstract

Abstract

An electro-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) two fluid flow and heat transfer of ionized gases through a horizontal channel surrounded by non-conducting plates in a rotating framework with Hall currents is investigated. The Hall effect is considered with an assumption that the gases are completely ionized and the strength of the applied transverse magnetic field is strong. The governing equations are solved analytically for the temperature and velocity distributions in two fluid flow regions. The numerical solutions are demonstrated graphically for various physical parameters such the Hartmann number, Hall parameter, rotation parameter, and so on. It was noticed that an increment is either due to the Hall parameter or the rotation parameter reduces the temperature in the two regions.

Keywords

  • magnetic and electric fields
  • immiscible flow
  • plasma
  • Hall effect
  • rotating frame
  • heat transfer
  • insulating plates
Open Access

The FDM Technique in Processes of Prototyping Spare Parts for Servicing and Repairing Agricultural Machines: A General Outline

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 145 - 155

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine the possibility of applying alternative techniques for the production of prototypes for spare parts in agriculture and to determine the possible directions of development of their applications in the engineering industry. Then, to determine which spare parts could be produced using the FDM technique, comparisons of the most important parameters of spare parts produced independently (using the FDM technique) and obtained from producers (produced using traditional methods in professional factories) were made. A number of factors were analysed, from technical parameters such as machine type, processed material and its consumption including required as support structures, to economic issues such as manufacturing or purchase delivery total time and cost. The FDM technique has proven itself in many ways in the production of spare parts for agricultural machinery.

Keywords

  • FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)
  • FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication)
  • 3D printing
  • spare parts
  • agricultural machinery
  • cost analysis
Open Access

Numerical Investigation and Cost Analysis of FRP-Concrete Unidirectional Hybrid Slabs

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 156 - 166

Abstract

Abstract

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been commonly used to reinforce concrete structures. The kinds of FRP demonstrate an effective alternative to various methods of reinforcement in concrete structures subjected to bad environmental conditions which cause corrosion and damage to concrete. Due to their lightweight, high strength, and high corrosion and fatigue resistance, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites have been widely applied in steel substitution during revitalization interventions. This paper presents numerical three-points bending tests on different models to investigate the effect of the reinforcements; Carbon, Glass, and Aramid fibers to find the corresponding cost of each one. Also, there is an available experimental model for verifying the results of the FEM that demonstrated broad agreement with the experimental statement, concerning the load-displacement curve. After validating the models, alternative designs such as type of the FRP, position of the FRP, and amount of the FRP usage were numerically tested to study the influence of each on the load-bearing capacity. The results showed that the best configuration would be one with GFRP and the load-bearing capacity is around 9 kN in the optimum design.

Keywords

  • CFRP
  • GFRP
  • AFRP
  • hybrid slabs
  • numerical simulation
  • costs
Open Access

Experimental Study of Bearing Capacity Effect in Swelling Soil

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 167 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The current study aims to investigate the effects of swell pressure on the bearing capacity of swelling soil. A model and some laboratory tests have been created to investigate the swell pressure effect on the bearing capacity variation of soil swelling due to swelling pressure. The influence of varying water content w/c and dry unit weight (γd) on the shear strength and swelling pressure was studied. The soil has been taken from Diwan Residential Compound-Mosul. It is classified as highly swelling soil. The swell pressure of soils at their natural water content reached 385 kN / m2. Experiment results show that the parameters of shear resistance decreased with the w/c increase at the constant value of (γd), increased with the (γd) increase when the w/c was constant. Results show that the swelling pressure decreased with the w/c increase, while it increased with the (γd) increase. Also, the results obtained using was model show that the resistance of bearing capacity of pre-saturated selected soil was 196 kN / m2, while the bearing capacity was 620kN / m2 when taking into account in the generation of swelling pressure.

Keywords

  • swell pressure
  • swelling soil
  • bearing capacity
  • water content
  • dry unit weight
Open Access

Similarity Solution of Stagnation-Point Flow and Heat Transfer of a Micropolar Fluid Towards a Horizontal Permeable Exponentially Elongating Sheet with Radiation, Heat Production/ Immersion

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 179 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

The current study aims to explore stagnation spot flow of a micropolar fluid about a plain linear exponentially expanding penetrable surface in the incidence of radiation and in-house heat production/immersion. Through similarity mapping, the mathematical modeling statements are transformed to ODE’s and numerical results are found by shooting techniques. The impact of varying physical constants on momentum, micro-rotation and temperature is demonstrated through graphs. The computed measures including shear, couple stress, mass transfer and the local surface heat flux with distinct measures of factors involved in this proposed problem are presented through a table.

Keywords

  • exponentially stretching sheet
  • heat spring/drop
  • micropolar fluid
  • radiation
  • suction/injection
Open Access

Thermoelastic Analysis of Pressurized Hollow Spherical Vessels with Arbitrary Radial Non-Homogeneity

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 192 - 205

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, a general analysis of one dimensional steady-state thermal stresses of a functionally graded hollow spherical vessel with spherical isotropy and spherically transversely isotropy is presented with material properties of arbitrary radial non-homogeneity. The material properties may arbitrarily vary as continuous or piecewise functions. The boundary value problem associated with a thermo-elastic problem is converted to an integral equation. Radial and tangential thermal stress components distribution can be determined numerically by solving the resulting equation. The influence of the gradient variation of the material properties on the thermal stresses is investigated and the numerical results are presented graphically.

Keywords

  • functionally graded material
  • thermal stresses
  • radial non-homogeneity
  • pressure
  • spherical vessel
Open Access

Review on Relationship Between the Universality Class of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Equation and the Ballistic Deposition Model

Published Online: 07 Dec 2021
Page range: 206 - 216

Abstract

Abstract

We have analysed the research findings on the universality class and discussed the connection between the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class and the ballistic deposition model in microscopic rules. In one dimension and 1+1 dimensions deviations are not important in the presence of noise. At the same time, they are very relevant for higher dimensions or deterministic evolution. Mostly, in the analyses a correction scale higher than 1280 has not been studied yet. Therefore, the growth of the interface for finite system size β ≥ 0.30 value predicted by the KPZ universality class is still predominant. Also, values of α ≥ 0.40, β ≥ 0.30, and z1.16 obtained from literature are consistent with the expected KPZ values of α = 1/2, β = 1/3, and z = 3/2. A connection between the ballistic deposition and the KPZ equation through the limiting procedure and by applying the perturbation method was also presented.

Keywords

  • universality class
  • ballistic deposition model
  • KPZ equation
  • finite-size scaling
  • perturbation method

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