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Volume 26 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

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Volume 25 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

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Volume 24 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Volume 23 (2018): Issue 3 (August 2018)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 2 (May 2018)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1 (February 2018)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 3 (August 2017)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 2 (May 2017)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1 (February 2017)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 3 (August 2016)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 2 (May 2016)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 1 (February 2016)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 3 (August 2015)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 2 (May 2015)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1 (February 2015)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 3 (August 2014)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 2 (May 2014)

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Volume 18 (2013): Issue 3 (August 2013)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-9003
ISSN
1734-4492
First Published
19 Apr 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-9003
ISSN
1734-4492
First Published
19 Apr 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Chemically Reacting Ionized Radiative Fluid Flow Through an Impulsively Started Vertical Plate With Induced Magnetic Field

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 5 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Numerical studies have been performed to examine the chemically reacting ionized fluid flow through a vertical plate with induced magnetic field. This study is performed for the cooling problem. To obtain the nondimensional non-similar momentum, the induced magnetic field, energy and concentration equations, usual nondimensional variables have been used. The numerical solutions for the velocity fields, induced magnetic fields, temperature distribution as well as concentration distribution are obtained for associated parameters using the explicit finite difference method. The local and average shear stresses, current densities, Nusselt number as well as the Sherwood number are also investigated. The obtained results are discussed with the help of graphs to observe effects of various parameters entering into the problem. Also the stability conditions of the explicit finite difference method are analyzed. Finally, a qualitative comparison of the present results with previously published results has been made.

Keywords

  • boundary layer
  • radiative flow
  • strong magnetic field
  • ionized gas
  • flow fields
Open Access

Chaotic Convection of Viscoelastic Fluid in Porous Medium Under G-Jitter

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 37 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

The present article aims at investigating the effect of gravity modulation on chaotic convection of a viscoelastic fluid in porous media. For this, the problem is reduced into Lorenz system (non-autonomous) by employing the truncated Galerkin expansion method. The system shows transitions from periodic to chaotic behavior on increasing the scaled Rayleigh number R. The amplitude of modulation advances the chaotic nature in the system while the frequency of modulation has a tendency to delay the chaotic behavior which is in good agreement with the results due to [1]. The behavior of the scaled relaxation and retardation parameter on the system is also studied. The phase portrait and time domain diagrams of the Lorenz system for suitable parameter values have been used to analyze the system.

Keywords

  • non-linear theory
  • gravity modulation
  • chaotic convection
Open Access

Analysis of a Chemically Reactive Mhd Flow With Heat and Mass Transfer Over a Permeable Surface

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 53 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

This paper investigates a chemically reactive Magnetohydrodynamics fluid flow with heat and mass transfer over a permeable surface taking into consideration the buoyancy force, injection/suction, heat source/sink and thermal radiation. The governing momentum, energy and concentration balance equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by method of similarity transformation and solved numerically by Runge- Kutta method based on Shooting technique. The influence of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration fields are discussed graphically. Comparison of this work with previously published works on special cases of the problem was carried out and the results are in excellent agreement. Results also show that the thermo physical parameters in the momentum boundary layer equations increase the skin friction coefficient but decrease the momentum boundary layer. Fluid suction/injection and Prandtl number increase the rate of heat transfer. The order of chemical reaction is quite significant and there is a faster rate of mass transfer when the reaction rate and Schmidt number are increased.

Keywords

  • heat and mass transfer
  • chemically reactive MHD flow
  • permeable surface
Open Access

Influence of Viscosity on the Shape of an Air Taylor Bubble in a Stagnant Liquid Under Turbulent Condition in Falling Film

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 67 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

This work aims to find the influence of the liquid viscosity on the shape of an air Taylor bubble, rising up in a pipe column which contains the liquid under conditions that the liquid is stagnant and the Froude number is approximately equal to 0.35. Five liquid viscosities (from 0.001 to 0.01 Pa · s) were selected for being computationally investigated. An appropriate shape of a Taylor bubble, corresponding to each selected viscosity, was obtained by considering a pressure distribution of the air inside the bubble. Simulation results showed that the Taylor bubble shape would be thicker if the liquid viscosity was decreased. This could be explained by using the theory of the log-law velocity profile.

Keywords

  • Dumitrescu’s model
  • viscosity
  • Taylor bubble
  • turbulence
Open Access

Design With SADSF Method and Analyses of Elastic Properties of Torsion-Loaded Double-Tee Section With Torsional Box

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 79 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

The work presents the results of preliminary strength design of a thin-walled structure based on double-tee section loaded with a torsion moment. One of the solutions to this problem is considered, in which the torsional box is introduced in the central part. Then, one constructs a series of solution variants that differ in the torsional box length. In the design one uses the method of statically admissible discontinuous stress fields (SADSF) assuming the condition of equalized equivalent stress in the limit state. The work is complemented with elastic FEM analyses of one of the solution variants. Using this example, one shows good load-carrying properties of structures designed with the SADSF method, and proves that they could be several times better than the properties of structures designed with traditional or intuitive ways.

Keywords

  • design
  • thin-walled structures
  • limit analysis
  • computer methods
Open Access

Reactive Pollutants Dispersion Modeling in a Street Canyon

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 91 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

Reactive pollutant dispersion in a 3-D urban street canyon is numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (Ansys-CFX), with the k–ε turbulence model and includes transport equations for NO, NO2, and O3 with simple photochemistry. An area emission source of NO and NO2 was considered in the presence of background O3 with an ambient wind perpendicular to the along-canyon direction. The results showed that the magnitude of NOx (NO+NO2) concentrations on the leeward side of the upstream buildings was much larger than the windward side of the downstream building, due to the entrainment and dispersion of traffic emissions by the primary vortex. The reverse is the case for ozone with higher concentrations on the windward side compared to the leeward side. The model has been validated against no-reactive pollutant experimental data of the wind tunnel experiments of Hoydysh and Dabberdt [1].

Keywords

  • street canyon
  • reactive pollutant
  • computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
  • NOx
  • O
Open Access

Temperature and Pressure Dependent Creep Stress Analysis of Spherical Shell

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 105 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

In the present paper, we have studied the temperature and pressure dependent creep stress analysis of spherical shell. The review is critical to enhance the warm resistance of spherical shells in high-temperature conditions. The effect of different parameters was studied and it was noticed that the parameter n has a significant influence on the creep stresses and strain rates. Creep stresses and strain rates are ascertained on the premise of summed up strain measures and Seth’s transition hypothesis. This investigation is completed to demonstrate the impacts of temperature on the creep stresses and strain rates in the spherical shell. The resulting quantities are computed numerically and depicted graphically. It has been watched that the spherical shell made of an incompressible material is on more secure side of configuration when contrasted with the shell made of a compressible material.

Keywords

  • creep
  • temperature
  • pressure
  • spherical shell
  • stress
  • strains
Open Access

Unsteady MHD Thermal Diffusive and Radiative Fluid Flow Past a Vertical Porous Plate with Chemical Reaction in Slip Flow Regime

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 117 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

An analytical solution of an MHD free convective thermal diffusive flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting and heat-absorbing fluid past a infinite vertical permeable porous plate in the presence of radiation and chemical reaction is presented. The flow is considered under the influence of a magnetic field applied normal to the flow. The plate is assumed to move with a constant velocity in the direction of fluid flow in slip flow regime, while free stream velocity is assumed to follow the exponentially increasing small perturbation law. The velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number distributions are derived and have shown through graphs and tables by using the simple perturbation technique.

Keywords

  • MHD
  • free convection
  • heat and mass transfer
  • slip flow regime
  • thermal diffusion
  • radiation and chemical reaction
Open Access

Model Order Reduction Technique Applied on Harmonic Analysis of a Submerged Vibrating Blade

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 131 - 142

Abstract

Abstract

As part of an ongoing study into hydropower runner failure, a submerged, vibrating blade is investigated both experimentally and numerically. The numerical simulations performed are fully coupled acoustic-structural simulations in ANSYS Mechanical. In order to speed up the simulations, a model order reduction technique based on Krylov subspaces is implemented. This paper presents a comparison between the full ANSYS harmonic response and the reduced order model, and shows excellent agreement. The speedup factor obtained by using the reduced order model is shown to be between one and two orders of magnitude. The number of dimensions in the reduced subspace needed for accurate results is investigated, and confirms what is found in other studies on similar model order reduction applications. In addition, experimental results are available for validation, and show good match when not too far from the resonance peak.

Keywords

  • model order reduction
  • FSI
  • vibration
  • harmonic response
Open Access

Strain-Concentration Factor of Internally Pressurized Thick-Walled Cylinders

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 143 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

This study introduces a new definition of the strain-concentration factor (SNCF) of thick walled internally pressurized cylinders. The stress state has been considered in this new definition; i.e. triaxial and biaxial stress states for closed and open ends, respectively. Primarily, the curvature effect of the strain concentration has been studied here. To this end, the inner radius of the employed cylinders has been changed from 0.5 to 50.8 mm. On the other hand, the thickness has been kept constant at 16.7 mm. Moreover, the thickness has been fragmented to 37 elements to study the thickness effect for each case. The results show that the tangential (hoop) strain regularly spread over the whole thickness. It has been revealed that the maximum value of the tangential strain occurs on the inner surface of the cylinder. In particular, it rapidly decreases from a maximum value on the inner surface to reach its minimum value on the outer surface, which is nearly equal to the average value of hoop strain through the thickness. The results also demonstrate that tangential strain values decrease with the increase of the inner radius for any thickness. It is clear that the rate of decrease of the hoop strain changes abruptly with decreasing the inner radius of the cylinder. This led to localization of the strain concentration on the inner surface of the cylinder due to curvature, making the values of the strain concentration factor very high on the inner surface of the cylinder. In addition, the strain concentration factor decreases through the thickness of the cylinder from the inner to outer surfaces, and the rate of the decrease is increasing with a decreasing inner radius of the cylinder. The current results introduce the serious effect of the curvature on the strain concentration even if there are no irregularities in the cylinder.

Keywords

  • vessels
  • stress
  • strain
  • strain concentration
Open Access

Melting Heat Transfer and MHD Boundary Layer Flow of Eyring-Powell Nanofluid Over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet with Slip

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 161 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The steady laminar incompressible viscous magneto hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of an Eyring- Powell fluid over a nonlinear stretching flat surface in a nanofluid with slip condition and heat transfer through melting effect has been investigated numerically. The resulting nonlinear governing partial differential equations with associated boundary conditions of the problem have been formulated and transformed into a non-similar form. The resultant equations are then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with the shooting technique. The physical significance of different parameters on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles is discussed through graphical illustrations. The impact of physical parameters on the local skin friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer is shown in tabulated form.

Keywords

  • Eyring-Powell fluid
  • melting heat transfer
  • MHD
  • nanofluid
  • stretching sheet
  • Brownian motion
  • thermophoresis
Open Access

Rheology of Drugs For Topical and Transdermal Delivery

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 179 - 198

Abstract

Abstract

Skin drug delivery systems are a constant source of interest because of the benefits that they offer to overcome many drawbacks associated with other modes of drug delivery (i.e. oral, intravenous, etc.). Because of the impermeable nature of the skin, designing a suitable drug delivery vehicle that penetrates the skin barrier is challenging. Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal (Fig.1). In a topical administration the drug is intended to act at skin level, this is indicated for the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of transdermal administration is getting a systemic release and in this case the skin represents a barrier not a target. The availability of drugs or other active substances through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of these drugs or substances from vehicle or carrier and their subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles or carriers, such as their rheological behaviours, are of great interest in the field of pharmaceutical products. The objective of the present study is to systematically characterize a nonlinear rheological behaviour and flow properties of drugs and drug carriers into topical and transdermal administration. To this aim, one- and threedimensional rheological models are presented, which may be used to describe drug release through the skin and through the extracellular and interstitial matrix structures. Finally, the rheological measurements of some commercial creams and ointments were made.

Keywords

  • drug delivery
  • human skin
  • drug rheology
  • rheological models
Open Access

Perturbation Solutions For Magnetohydrodynamics (Mhd) Flow of in a Non-Newtonian Fluid Between Concentric Cylinders

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 199 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

The steady-state magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a third-grade fluid with a variable viscosity parameter between concentric cylinders (annular pipe) with heat transfer is examined. The temperature of annular pipes is assumed to be higher than the temperature of the fluid. Three types of viscosity models were used, i.e., the constant viscosity model, space dependent viscosity model and the Reynolds viscosity model which is dependent on temperature in an exponential manner. Approximate analytical solutions are presented by using the perturbation technique. The variation of velocity and temperature profile in the fluid is analytically calculated. In addition, equations of motion are solved numerically. The numerical solutions obtained are compared with analytical solutions. Thus, the validity intervals of the analytical solutions are determined.

Keywords

  • MHD flow
  • perturbation technique
  • annular flow
  • third grade fluid
Open Access

Investigation of Shear Stress Distribution in a 90 Degree Channel Bend

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 213 - 220

Abstract

Abstract

Shear stress is a key parameter that plays an important role in sediment transport mechanisms; therefore, understanding shear stress distribution in rivers, and especially in river bends, is necessary to predict erosion, deposition mechanisms and lateral channel migration. The aim of this study is to analyze the shear stress distribution near a river bed at 90-degree channel bend using a depth-average method based on experimental measurement data. Bed shear stress distribution is calculated using the depth-averaged method based on velocity components data has been collected from a 3D-ADV device (three-dimensional acoustic doppler velocity) at different locations of a meandering channel. Laboratory experiments have been made at the hydraulic laboratory of the RCRFIDF (Research Center for River Flow Impingement and Debris Flow), Gangneung-Wonju National University, South Korea to provide data for simulating the incipient motion of the riverbed materials and then predicting the river morphological changes in the curved rivers. The calculated results show that the maximum value of shear stress distribution near the riverbed in the different cross sections of the surveyed channel occurs in a 70-degree cross section and occurs near the outer bank. From the beginning of a 40-degree curved channel section, the maximum value of the shear stress occurs near the outer bank at the end of the channel.

Keywords

  • experimental channel
  • [deg] bend
  • shear stress
  • erosion
  • deposition
Open Access

Evaluation of Water Impact For Symmetric Wedge by Experimental and Numerical Methods

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 221 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

Evaluation of impact loads when a ship hull contacts the wave surface is one of the main issues for researchers who are going to design the structure of marine vehicles. In this paper, the results of experimental tests and numerical modeling of the distribution of pressure on different wedge-shaped models are reported and the effect of related parameters such as the deadrise angles, the weight and drop heights, is assessed. The output of analyses and the results can give appropriate approximations of the maximum impact pressures for the geometries that are similar to marine vehicle’s hull sections to estimate the hydrodynamic impact loads in different sea-states. In addition, other effective parameters such as the impact speed, acceleration and water entry process can be used for evaluating the performance of such crafts.

Keywords

  • symmetric wedge
  • hydrodynamic impact
  • impact pressure
15 Articles
Open Access

Chemically Reacting Ionized Radiative Fluid Flow Through an Impulsively Started Vertical Plate With Induced Magnetic Field

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 5 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Numerical studies have been performed to examine the chemically reacting ionized fluid flow through a vertical plate with induced magnetic field. This study is performed for the cooling problem. To obtain the nondimensional non-similar momentum, the induced magnetic field, energy and concentration equations, usual nondimensional variables have been used. The numerical solutions for the velocity fields, induced magnetic fields, temperature distribution as well as concentration distribution are obtained for associated parameters using the explicit finite difference method. The local and average shear stresses, current densities, Nusselt number as well as the Sherwood number are also investigated. The obtained results are discussed with the help of graphs to observe effects of various parameters entering into the problem. Also the stability conditions of the explicit finite difference method are analyzed. Finally, a qualitative comparison of the present results with previously published results has been made.

Keywords

  • boundary layer
  • radiative flow
  • strong magnetic field
  • ionized gas
  • flow fields
Open Access

Chaotic Convection of Viscoelastic Fluid in Porous Medium Under G-Jitter

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 37 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

The present article aims at investigating the effect of gravity modulation on chaotic convection of a viscoelastic fluid in porous media. For this, the problem is reduced into Lorenz system (non-autonomous) by employing the truncated Galerkin expansion method. The system shows transitions from periodic to chaotic behavior on increasing the scaled Rayleigh number R. The amplitude of modulation advances the chaotic nature in the system while the frequency of modulation has a tendency to delay the chaotic behavior which is in good agreement with the results due to [1]. The behavior of the scaled relaxation and retardation parameter on the system is also studied. The phase portrait and time domain diagrams of the Lorenz system for suitable parameter values have been used to analyze the system.

Keywords

  • non-linear theory
  • gravity modulation
  • chaotic convection
Open Access

Analysis of a Chemically Reactive Mhd Flow With Heat and Mass Transfer Over a Permeable Surface

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 53 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

This paper investigates a chemically reactive Magnetohydrodynamics fluid flow with heat and mass transfer over a permeable surface taking into consideration the buoyancy force, injection/suction, heat source/sink and thermal radiation. The governing momentum, energy and concentration balance equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by method of similarity transformation and solved numerically by Runge- Kutta method based on Shooting technique. The influence of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration fields are discussed graphically. Comparison of this work with previously published works on special cases of the problem was carried out and the results are in excellent agreement. Results also show that the thermo physical parameters in the momentum boundary layer equations increase the skin friction coefficient but decrease the momentum boundary layer. Fluid suction/injection and Prandtl number increase the rate of heat transfer. The order of chemical reaction is quite significant and there is a faster rate of mass transfer when the reaction rate and Schmidt number are increased.

Keywords

  • heat and mass transfer
  • chemically reactive MHD flow
  • permeable surface
Open Access

Influence of Viscosity on the Shape of an Air Taylor Bubble in a Stagnant Liquid Under Turbulent Condition in Falling Film

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 67 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

This work aims to find the influence of the liquid viscosity on the shape of an air Taylor bubble, rising up in a pipe column which contains the liquid under conditions that the liquid is stagnant and the Froude number is approximately equal to 0.35. Five liquid viscosities (from 0.001 to 0.01 Pa · s) were selected for being computationally investigated. An appropriate shape of a Taylor bubble, corresponding to each selected viscosity, was obtained by considering a pressure distribution of the air inside the bubble. Simulation results showed that the Taylor bubble shape would be thicker if the liquid viscosity was decreased. This could be explained by using the theory of the log-law velocity profile.

Keywords

  • Dumitrescu’s model
  • viscosity
  • Taylor bubble
  • turbulence
Open Access

Design With SADSF Method and Analyses of Elastic Properties of Torsion-Loaded Double-Tee Section With Torsional Box

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 79 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

The work presents the results of preliminary strength design of a thin-walled structure based on double-tee section loaded with a torsion moment. One of the solutions to this problem is considered, in which the torsional box is introduced in the central part. Then, one constructs a series of solution variants that differ in the torsional box length. In the design one uses the method of statically admissible discontinuous stress fields (SADSF) assuming the condition of equalized equivalent stress in the limit state. The work is complemented with elastic FEM analyses of one of the solution variants. Using this example, one shows good load-carrying properties of structures designed with the SADSF method, and proves that they could be several times better than the properties of structures designed with traditional or intuitive ways.

Keywords

  • design
  • thin-walled structures
  • limit analysis
  • computer methods
Open Access

Reactive Pollutants Dispersion Modeling in a Street Canyon

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 91 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

Reactive pollutant dispersion in a 3-D urban street canyon is numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (Ansys-CFX), with the k–ε turbulence model and includes transport equations for NO, NO2, and O3 with simple photochemistry. An area emission source of NO and NO2 was considered in the presence of background O3 with an ambient wind perpendicular to the along-canyon direction. The results showed that the magnitude of NOx (NO+NO2) concentrations on the leeward side of the upstream buildings was much larger than the windward side of the downstream building, due to the entrainment and dispersion of traffic emissions by the primary vortex. The reverse is the case for ozone with higher concentrations on the windward side compared to the leeward side. The model has been validated against no-reactive pollutant experimental data of the wind tunnel experiments of Hoydysh and Dabberdt [1].

Keywords

  • street canyon
  • reactive pollutant
  • computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
  • NOx
  • O
Open Access

Temperature and Pressure Dependent Creep Stress Analysis of Spherical Shell

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 105 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

In the present paper, we have studied the temperature and pressure dependent creep stress analysis of spherical shell. The review is critical to enhance the warm resistance of spherical shells in high-temperature conditions. The effect of different parameters was studied and it was noticed that the parameter n has a significant influence on the creep stresses and strain rates. Creep stresses and strain rates are ascertained on the premise of summed up strain measures and Seth’s transition hypothesis. This investigation is completed to demonstrate the impacts of temperature on the creep stresses and strain rates in the spherical shell. The resulting quantities are computed numerically and depicted graphically. It has been watched that the spherical shell made of an incompressible material is on more secure side of configuration when contrasted with the shell made of a compressible material.

Keywords

  • creep
  • temperature
  • pressure
  • spherical shell
  • stress
  • strains
Open Access

Unsteady MHD Thermal Diffusive and Radiative Fluid Flow Past a Vertical Porous Plate with Chemical Reaction in Slip Flow Regime

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 117 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

An analytical solution of an MHD free convective thermal diffusive flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting and heat-absorbing fluid past a infinite vertical permeable porous plate in the presence of radiation and chemical reaction is presented. The flow is considered under the influence of a magnetic field applied normal to the flow. The plate is assumed to move with a constant velocity in the direction of fluid flow in slip flow regime, while free stream velocity is assumed to follow the exponentially increasing small perturbation law. The velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number distributions are derived and have shown through graphs and tables by using the simple perturbation technique.

Keywords

  • MHD
  • free convection
  • heat and mass transfer
  • slip flow regime
  • thermal diffusion
  • radiation and chemical reaction
Open Access

Model Order Reduction Technique Applied on Harmonic Analysis of a Submerged Vibrating Blade

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 131 - 142

Abstract

Abstract

As part of an ongoing study into hydropower runner failure, a submerged, vibrating blade is investigated both experimentally and numerically. The numerical simulations performed are fully coupled acoustic-structural simulations in ANSYS Mechanical. In order to speed up the simulations, a model order reduction technique based on Krylov subspaces is implemented. This paper presents a comparison between the full ANSYS harmonic response and the reduced order model, and shows excellent agreement. The speedup factor obtained by using the reduced order model is shown to be between one and two orders of magnitude. The number of dimensions in the reduced subspace needed for accurate results is investigated, and confirms what is found in other studies on similar model order reduction applications. In addition, experimental results are available for validation, and show good match when not too far from the resonance peak.

Keywords

  • model order reduction
  • FSI
  • vibration
  • harmonic response
Open Access

Strain-Concentration Factor of Internally Pressurized Thick-Walled Cylinders

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 143 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

This study introduces a new definition of the strain-concentration factor (SNCF) of thick walled internally pressurized cylinders. The stress state has been considered in this new definition; i.e. triaxial and biaxial stress states for closed and open ends, respectively. Primarily, the curvature effect of the strain concentration has been studied here. To this end, the inner radius of the employed cylinders has been changed from 0.5 to 50.8 mm. On the other hand, the thickness has been kept constant at 16.7 mm. Moreover, the thickness has been fragmented to 37 elements to study the thickness effect for each case. The results show that the tangential (hoop) strain regularly spread over the whole thickness. It has been revealed that the maximum value of the tangential strain occurs on the inner surface of the cylinder. In particular, it rapidly decreases from a maximum value on the inner surface to reach its minimum value on the outer surface, which is nearly equal to the average value of hoop strain through the thickness. The results also demonstrate that tangential strain values decrease with the increase of the inner radius for any thickness. It is clear that the rate of decrease of the hoop strain changes abruptly with decreasing the inner radius of the cylinder. This led to localization of the strain concentration on the inner surface of the cylinder due to curvature, making the values of the strain concentration factor very high on the inner surface of the cylinder. In addition, the strain concentration factor decreases through the thickness of the cylinder from the inner to outer surfaces, and the rate of the decrease is increasing with a decreasing inner radius of the cylinder. The current results introduce the serious effect of the curvature on the strain concentration even if there are no irregularities in the cylinder.

Keywords

  • vessels
  • stress
  • strain
  • strain concentration
Open Access

Melting Heat Transfer and MHD Boundary Layer Flow of Eyring-Powell Nanofluid Over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet with Slip

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 161 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The steady laminar incompressible viscous magneto hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of an Eyring- Powell fluid over a nonlinear stretching flat surface in a nanofluid with slip condition and heat transfer through melting effect has been investigated numerically. The resulting nonlinear governing partial differential equations with associated boundary conditions of the problem have been formulated and transformed into a non-similar form. The resultant equations are then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with the shooting technique. The physical significance of different parameters on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles is discussed through graphical illustrations. The impact of physical parameters on the local skin friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer is shown in tabulated form.

Keywords

  • Eyring-Powell fluid
  • melting heat transfer
  • MHD
  • nanofluid
  • stretching sheet
  • Brownian motion
  • thermophoresis
Open Access

Rheology of Drugs For Topical and Transdermal Delivery

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 179 - 198

Abstract

Abstract

Skin drug delivery systems are a constant source of interest because of the benefits that they offer to overcome many drawbacks associated with other modes of drug delivery (i.e. oral, intravenous, etc.). Because of the impermeable nature of the skin, designing a suitable drug delivery vehicle that penetrates the skin barrier is challenging. Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal (Fig.1). In a topical administration the drug is intended to act at skin level, this is indicated for the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of transdermal administration is getting a systemic release and in this case the skin represents a barrier not a target. The availability of drugs or other active substances through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of these drugs or substances from vehicle or carrier and their subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles or carriers, such as their rheological behaviours, are of great interest in the field of pharmaceutical products. The objective of the present study is to systematically characterize a nonlinear rheological behaviour and flow properties of drugs and drug carriers into topical and transdermal administration. To this aim, one- and threedimensional rheological models are presented, which may be used to describe drug release through the skin and through the extracellular and interstitial matrix structures. Finally, the rheological measurements of some commercial creams and ointments were made.

Keywords

  • drug delivery
  • human skin
  • drug rheology
  • rheological models
Open Access

Perturbation Solutions For Magnetohydrodynamics (Mhd) Flow of in a Non-Newtonian Fluid Between Concentric Cylinders

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 199 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

The steady-state magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a third-grade fluid with a variable viscosity parameter between concentric cylinders (annular pipe) with heat transfer is examined. The temperature of annular pipes is assumed to be higher than the temperature of the fluid. Three types of viscosity models were used, i.e., the constant viscosity model, space dependent viscosity model and the Reynolds viscosity model which is dependent on temperature in an exponential manner. Approximate analytical solutions are presented by using the perturbation technique. The variation of velocity and temperature profile in the fluid is analytically calculated. In addition, equations of motion are solved numerically. The numerical solutions obtained are compared with analytical solutions. Thus, the validity intervals of the analytical solutions are determined.

Keywords

  • MHD flow
  • perturbation technique
  • annular flow
  • third grade fluid
Open Access

Investigation of Shear Stress Distribution in a 90 Degree Channel Bend

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 213 - 220

Abstract

Abstract

Shear stress is a key parameter that plays an important role in sediment transport mechanisms; therefore, understanding shear stress distribution in rivers, and especially in river bends, is necessary to predict erosion, deposition mechanisms and lateral channel migration. The aim of this study is to analyze the shear stress distribution near a river bed at 90-degree channel bend using a depth-average method based on experimental measurement data. Bed shear stress distribution is calculated using the depth-averaged method based on velocity components data has been collected from a 3D-ADV device (three-dimensional acoustic doppler velocity) at different locations of a meandering channel. Laboratory experiments have been made at the hydraulic laboratory of the RCRFIDF (Research Center for River Flow Impingement and Debris Flow), Gangneung-Wonju National University, South Korea to provide data for simulating the incipient motion of the riverbed materials and then predicting the river morphological changes in the curved rivers. The calculated results show that the maximum value of shear stress distribution near the riverbed in the different cross sections of the surveyed channel occurs in a 70-degree cross section and occurs near the outer bank. From the beginning of a 40-degree curved channel section, the maximum value of the shear stress occurs near the outer bank at the end of the channel.

Keywords

  • experimental channel
  • [deg] bend
  • shear stress
  • erosion
  • deposition
Open Access

Evaluation of Water Impact For Symmetric Wedge by Experimental and Numerical Methods

Published Online: 12 Mar 2019
Page range: 221 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

Evaluation of impact loads when a ship hull contacts the wave surface is one of the main issues for researchers who are going to design the structure of marine vehicles. In this paper, the results of experimental tests and numerical modeling of the distribution of pressure on different wedge-shaped models are reported and the effect of related parameters such as the deadrise angles, the weight and drop heights, is assessed. The output of analyses and the results can give appropriate approximations of the maximum impact pressures for the geometries that are similar to marine vehicle’s hull sections to estimate the hydrodynamic impact loads in different sea-states. In addition, other effective parameters such as the impact speed, acceleration and water entry process can be used for evaluating the performance of such crafts.

Keywords

  • symmetric wedge
  • hydrodynamic impact
  • impact pressure

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