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Aquatic Sports and Activities

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 37 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

21 Articles
Open Access

Concentric and Eccentric: Muscle Contraction or Exercise?

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 5 - 6

Abstract

Open Access

The Appropriateness of the Helical Axis Technique and Six Available Cardan Sequences for the Representation of 3-D Lead Leg Kinematics During the Fencing Lunge

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 7 - 15

Abstract

Cardan/Euler angles represent the most common technique for the quantification of segmental rotations. Cardan angles are influenced by their ordered sequence, and sensitive to planar-cross talk from the dominant rotation plane, which may affect the angular parameters. The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) currently recommends a sagittal, coronal, and then transverse (XYZ) ordered sequence, although it has been proposed that when quantifying non-sagittal rotations this may not be the most appropriate technique. This study examined the influence of the helical and six available Cardan sequences on lower extremity three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge. Kinematic data were obtained using a 3-D motion capture system as participants completed simulated lunges. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare discrete kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were also utilized to determine evidence of planar crosstalk. The results indicate that in all three planes of rotation, peak angle and range of motion angles using the YXZ and ZXY sequences were significantly greater than the other sequences. It was also noted that the utilization of the YXZ and ZXY sequences was associated with the strongest correlations from the sagittal plane, and the XYZ sequence was found habitually to be associated with the lowest correlations. It appears that for accurate representation of 3-D kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge, the XYZ sequence is the most appropriate and as such its continued utilization is encouraged.

Keywords

  • Cardan sequence
  • Euler angle
  • helical
  • fencing lunge
Open Access

Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of Two Gymnastics Acrobatic Series to Performing the Backward Stretched Somersault

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 17 - 26

Abstract

Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off’s kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs’ variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo.

Keywords

  • motion analysis
  • take-off
  • flic-flac
  • tempo salto
Open Access

Gender, Vertical Height and Horizontal Distance Effects on Single-Leg Landing Kinematics: Implications for Risk of non-contact ACL Injury

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 27 - 38

Abstract

There is a lack of studies investigating gender differences in whole-body kinematics during single-leg landings from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances. This study determined the main effects and interactions of gender, vertical height, and horizontal distance on whole-body joint kinematics during single-leg landings, and established whether these findings could explain the gender disparity in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rate. Recreationally active males (n=6) and females (n=6) performed single-leg landings from a takeoff deck of vertical height of 20, 40, and 60 cm placed at a horizontal distance of 30, 50 and 70 cm from the edge of a force platform, while 3D kinematics and kinetics were simultaneously measured. It was determined that peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and the ankle flexion angle exhibited significant gender differences (p=0.028, partial η2=0.40 and p=0.035, partial η2=0.37, respectively). Peak VGRF was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= -0.59, p=0.04), hip flexion angle (r= -0.74, p=0.006), and trunk flexion angle (r= -0.59, p=0.045). Peak posterior ground reaction force (PGRF) was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= -0.56, p=0.035), while peak knee abduction moment was significantly correlated to the knee flexion angle (r= -0.64, p=0.03). Rearfoot landings may explain the higher ACL injury rate among females. Higher plantar-flexed ankle, hip, and trunk flexion angles were associated with lower peak ground reaction forces, while higher knee flexion angle was associated with lower peak knee abduction moment, and these kinematics implicate reduced risk of non-contact ACL injury.

Keywords

  • Injury mechanism
  • kinematics
  • kinetics
  • ground reaction force (GRF)
  • knee abduction moment
  • risk factors
Open Access

Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Dart Throwing

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 39 - 45

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of accuracy constraints on the characteristics of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) in a task that involves a movement consisting of a controlled phase and a ballistic phase. It was hypothesized that APA scaling with task parameters (target size) would be preserved even when the task is performed by muscles that have no direct effects on APA. Sixteen healthy right handed subjects participated in the study. All participants had no prior experience in dart throwing. Subjects’ average age was 24.1 ± 1.9 years. A force platform and a motion capture system were used to register kinetics of the body and kinematics of the throwing arm and throwing accuracy. The experiment consisted of six series of twenty consecutive dart throws to a specified target. Target sizes (T2-T6) were set at 25%, 50%, 75%, 125% and 150% of target 1 (T1) initially set as the spread of the last 20 throws in a 50 throw training session. This allowed to distinguish six indexes of difficulty (ID’s) ranging from 2,9 to 5,9. A one-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. Results of ANOVA showed a significant effect of target size at Constant Error but no effect at APA time. There were also no significant differences between hit and miss throws. From a control perspective, it can be stated that changes in central commands did not lead to changes in APA time in the analyzed motor task.

Keywords

  • speed-accuracy trade-off
  • Fitts’ law
  • posture control
  • anticipatory postural adjustment
Open Access

Reliability of Concentric, Eccentric and Isometric Knee Extension and Flexion when using the REV9000 Isokinetic Dynamometer

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 47 - 53

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of isokinetic and ISO knee extensor and flexor muscle strength when using the REV9000 (Technogym) isokinetic dynamometer. Moreover, the reliability of several strength imbalance indices and bilateral ratios were also examined. Twenty-four physically active healthy subjects (age 23±3 years) underwent three testing sessions, two on the same day and a third, 7 days later. All sessions proceeded in the same order: five concentric contractions at 60ºs-1 followed by an isometric contraction (5 seconds) and five eccentric contractions (60ºs-1). The results of this study showed a high reproducibility in eccentric (0.95-0.97), concentric (0.95- 0.96) and isometric (0.93-0.96), isokinetic strength for knee extensor and flexor muscles, thus indicating that the REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer can be used in future sports performance studies. A low-to-moderate reliability was found in the isokinetic strength bilateral ratios while the Hamstring:Quadricep concentric ratio showed moderate reliability. The highest reliability (>0.90) was observed in the dynamic control ratio (Hamstring eccentric:Quadricep concentric) which consequently confirms that it is a more valid indicator for imbalanced reciprocal parameters and can be used in rehabilitation and sports medicine.

Keywords

  • reproducibility
  • quadriceps
  • hamstring
  • peak torque
  • imbalance ratios
  • isokinetics
Open Access

A Time-Motion Analysis of Turns Performed by Highly Ranked Viennese Waltz Dancers

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 55 - 62

Abstract

Twenty-four dance couples performing at the 2011 IDSF (International DanceSport Federation) International Slovenia Open were divided into two groups: the first twelve placed couples (top ranked) and the last twelve placed couples (lower ranked). Video recordings were processed automatically using computer vision tracking algorithms under operator supervision to calculate movement parameters. Time and speed of movement were analysed during single natural (right) and reverse (left) turns performed during the Viennese waltz. Both top and lower ranked dancers tended to perform similar proportionate frequencies of reverse (≈ 35%) and natural (≈ 65%) turns. Analysis of reverse turns showed that the top ranked dancers performed less turns on a curved trajectory (16%) than the lower ranked dancers (33%). The top ranked couples performed all turns at similar speeds (F = 1.31, df = 3, p = 0.27; mean = 2.09m/s) all of which were significantly quicker than the lower ranked couples (mean = 1.94m/s), the greatest differences found for reverse turns (12.43% faster for curved trajectories, 8.42% for straight trajectories). This suggests that the ability to maintain a high speed in the more difficult turns, particularly the reverse turns on a curved trajectory, results in the overall dance appearing more fluent as the speed of movement does not fluctuate as much. This aspect of performance needs to be improved by lower ranked dancers if they wish to improve rating of their performance. Future research should determine which factors relate to the speed of turns.

Keywords

  • Dance Sport
  • Ballroom dance
  • movement
  • turns
  • speed
Open Access

Muscle Activation Profiles of Lower Extremities in Different Throwing Techniques and in Jumping Performance in Elite and Novice Greek Judo Athletes

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 63 - 70

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the neuromuscular adaptations of knee muscles during hip throwing techniques and vertical jumps in elite and novice Greek judokas. Ten elite and ten novice judokas performed two hip throws and different vertical jumping tasks. Surface electromyograms were recorded from vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles along with generated kinetics. Elite judokas revealed higher EMG activity of agonist muscles during throws and jumps but lower co-activation levels. Better jumping performance, better utilisation of the stretch-shortening cycle mechanism, higher and earlier generated pushoff forces and shorter contact time periods characterized elite judokas. Total neuromuscular activation that adopt elite judokas reveals a more mature and skill dependent strategy compared to novice ones.

Keywords

  • electromyography
  • judo
  • vertical jumping
  • hip throw
  • co-contraction ratio
Open Access

The Effect of Upper Extremity Fatigue on Grip Strength and Passing Accuracy in Junior Basketball Players

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 71 - 79

Abstract

Fatigue is an unavoidable part of a basketball game, which may affect an athlete’s performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upper extremity fatigue on grip strength and passing accuracy in basketball, and ascertain if the effects of different fatigue protocols on grip strength and passing accuracy are the same. Twenty-four juniors under 18 years old (age: 16.75 ± 0.62 years; body height: 184.5 ± 3.31 cm; body mass: 77.25 ± 3.22 kg) volunteered to participate in the study, and were divided into two groups. After a warm-up, both groups performed the basketball passing test and grip strength was recorded for each group under three different testing conditions: rest, 70% and 90% exercise intensity. The protocol used for the first group was the chest press, and for the second group the wrist curls. Results show that after the upper extremity fatigue protocol all parameters of the study (grip strength and passing accuracy) showed a significant decrease, and there was no significant difference between both groups regarding grip strength and passing accuracy. The study suggested that in order to avoid upper extremity fatigue, basketball trainers and coaches need to include upper extremity conditioning exercises into their training sessions.

Keywords

  • muscle fatigue
  • exercise intensity
  • hand grip strength
  • upper extremity
  • passing accuracy
  • basketball
Open Access

Effects of Different Backpack Loads in Acceleration Transmission during Recreational Distance Walking

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 81 - 89

Abstract

It is well established nowadays the benefits that physical activity can have on the health of individuals. Walking is considered a fundamental method of movement and using a backpack is a common and economical manner of carrying load weight. Nevertheless, the shock wave produced by the impact forces when carrying a backpack can have detrimental effects on health status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in the accelerations placed on males and females whilst carrying different loads when walking. Twenty nine sports science students (16 males and 13 females) participated in the study under 3 different conditions: no weight, 10% and 20% body weight (BW) added in a backpack. Accelerometers were attached to the right shank and the centre of the forehead. Results showed that males have lower accelerations than females both in the head (2.62 ± 0.43G compared to 2.83 + 0.47G) and shank (1.37 ± 0.14G compared to 1.52 ± 0.15G; p<0.01). Accelerations for males and females were consistent throughout each backpack condition (p>0.05). The body acts as a natural shock absorber, reducing the amount of force that transmits through the body between the foot (impact point) and head. Anthropometric and body mass distribution differences between males and females may result in women receiving greater impact acceleration compared to men when the same load is carried.

Keywords

  • accelerometry
  • load carriage
  • treadmill
  • walking
Open Access

Neuromuscular Impairment Following Backpack Load Carriage

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 91 - 98

Abstract

Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage. The physiological responses of 10 male participants to voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions were measured before and immediately after two hours of treadmill walking at 6.5 km•h-1 during level walking with no load [LW], and level walking with load carriage (25 kg backpack) [LC]. Maximal voluntary contraction force decreased by 15 ± 11 % following LC (p=0.006), with no change following LW (p=0.292). Voluntary activation decreased after LW and LC (p=0.033) with no difference between conditions (p=0.405). Doublet contraction time decreased after both LW and LC (p=0.002), with no difference between conditions (p=0.232). There were no other changes in electrically invoked doublet parameters in either condition. The 20:50 Hz ratio did not change following LW (p=0.864) but decreased from 0.88 ± 0.04 to 0.84 ± 0.04 after LC (p=0.011) indicating reduced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during excitation contraction coupling. In conclusion, two hours of load carriage carrying a 25 kg back pack caused neuromuscular impairment through a decrease in voluntary activation (i.e. central drive) and fatigue or damage to the peripheral muscle, including impairment of the excitation contraction coupling process. This may reduce physical performance and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury.

Keywords

  • Load Carriage
  • Neuromuscular Impairment
  • Fatigue
  • Exercise Induced Muscle Damage
Open Access

A Physiological and Kinematic Comparison of two Different Lean Back Positions During Stationary Rowing on a Concept II Machine

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 99 - 108

Abstract

This study compared two different body positions at the finish of a stroke during stationary rowing exercise on physiological and kinematic measurements. Nine male and five female rowers volunteered for the study: mean age (± SD), body height and body mass were 27 ±9 yrs, 180.5 ±12.3 cm and 81.2 ±14.2 kg. The two body positions at the finish were controlled at an upright posture or a novel greater lean back position. All subjects completed 3 different experimental trials on a Concept IID rowing machine at 3 different exercise intensities and comparisons were made between the lean back position at the same stroke rate and the same power output as the upright trial. Power output, heart rate, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure and % efficiency were higher (p<0.05) with the greater lean back position at the same stroke rate compared to all other conditions. Range of motion at the hip, ankle, and elbow and the handle velocity and distance moved were greater (p<0.05) with the lean back position. In conclusion, a greater lean back posture at the finish during stationary rowing produces a higher power output and improved efficiency at the same stroke rate but at an elevated physiological cost compared to a more upright position. Despite the higher energy expenditure, the relative gain in power output and efficiency with no negative kinematic changes suggests that a greater lean back position at the finish will enhance performance during stationary rowing exercise.

Keywords

  • oxygen uptake
  • efficiency
  • power output
  • joint angle
  • range of motion
  • rowing
Open Access

The Effect of Patellar Taping on Squat Depth and the Perception of Pain in People with Anterior Knee Pain

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 109 - 117

Abstract

Patellar taping is a treatment adjunct commonly used in the management of anterior knee pain. The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effects of medial glide patellar taping on sagittal plane lower-limb joint kinematics and knee pain during a unilateral squat in a symptomatic population complaining of anterior knee pain. Ten participants with a history of unilateral or bilateral anterior knee pain were included in the study. Subjects were required to squat on the symptomatic leg under three conditions: placebo tape, patellar tape and no tape. Kinematic data was recorded using the CODA mpx64 motion analysis system and subjects’ pain was assessed using the Numerical Rating Scale. Patellar taping resulted in a significantly greater single-legged squat depth compared to placebo tape (p=0.008) and no tape (p=0.001) and a statistically significant reduction in pain during a squat compared to placebo tape (p=0.001) or no tape (p=0.001). Significant differences were not identified for maximum knee flexion in the patella taping compared to the no tape condition. This study may have significant clinical implications as participants reported less pain and alterations in sagittal plane movement following the application of patellar tape.

Keywords

  • anterior knee pain
  • patellar taping
  • squat
Open Access

The Influence of Body Weight on Chosen Physiological Parameters in Wrestling

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 119 - 127

Abstract

In this study, the authors attempted to determine whether the dynamics of blood lactate and glucose in wrestling depend on the weight class. Blood lactate and glucose curves during and after a wrestling match were determined. We also explained the dynamics of blood lactate and glucose in the context of recent glucose and lactate metabolism research. A sample of 60 youth wrestlers (15-20 years) were divided into three weight groups. Each athlete participated in one wrestling match. During the fight, the athletes' heart rate, glucose, and blood lactate were measured. The differences in body mass between the athletes did not affect the dynamics of lactate and glucose in wrestling competition (Fisher LSD test). We established that lactate and glucose dynamics are the same for all weight groups (Fisher LSD-Lactate 1 < 2 < 3 = 4 > 5, Fisher LSD-Glucose 1 = 2 < 3 < 4 < 5). Understanding lactate and glucose metabolism in wrestling is important for wrestling coaches because they need to evaluate a wrestler's anaerobic energy status.

Keywords

  • combat sport
  • anaerobic
  • lactate
  • glucose
  • weight categories
Open Access

Effect of Kinesio Tape Application on Calf Pain and Ankle Range of Motion in Duathletes

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 129 - 135

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m2) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.

Keywords

  • Kinesio taping
  • Numerical Pain Rating Scale
  • ankle dorsiflexion
  • duathlon competition
Open Access

Home Advantage in Men’s and Women’s Spanish First and Second Division Water Polo Leagues

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 137 - 143

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to quantify the home advantage in both men’s and women’s First and Second Division water polo leagues, to compare the results obtained according to sex of participants and the level of competition, and to test for possible differences in home advantage when considering the interaction between these two factors. The sample comprised four seasons from 2007-2008 to 2010-2011 for a total of 1942 games analyzed. The results showed the existence of home advantage in both men’s and women’s First and Second Divisions. After controlling for the competitive balance of each league in each season, there was a significant difference between men’s and women’s leagues, with higher home advantage for men’s leagues (58.60% compared with 53.70% for women’s leagues). There was also a significant difference between the levels of competition, with greater home advantage for the Second Division (57.95% compared with 54.35% for First Division). No significant differences in home advantage were found when considering the interaction between sex of participants and the level of competition. The results in relation to sex of participants and the level of competition are consistent with previous studies in other sports such as football or handball.

Keywords

  • home court advantage
  • sex of participants
  • level of competition
  • competitive balance
  • water polo
Open Access

Game Indicators Determining Sports Performance in the NBA

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 145 - 151

Abstract

The main goal of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best determine sports level in the National Basketball Association (NBA) league. The research material consisted of all NBA game statistics at the turn of eight seasons (2003-11) and included 52 performance variables. Through detailed analysis the variables with high influence on game effectiveness were selected for final procedures. It has been proven that a limited number of factors, mostly offensive, determines sports performance in the NBA. The most critical indicators are: Win%, Offensive EFF, 3rd Quarter PPG, Win% CG, Avg Fauls and Avg Steals. In practical applications these results connected with top teams and elite players may help coaches to design better training programs.

Keywords

  • basketball
  • NBA
  • performance variables
  • regression model
  • optimization
Open Access

Effects of a Circuit Training Program on Muscular and Cardiovascular Endurance and their Maintenance in Schoolchildren

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 153 - 160

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a circuit training program along with a maintenance program on muscular and cardiovascular endurance in children in a physical education setting. Seventy two children 10-12 years old from four different classes were randomly grouped into either an experimental group (n = 35) or a control group (n = 37) (two classes for each group). After an eight-week development program carried out twice a week and a four-week detraining period, the experimental group performed a four-week maintenance program once a week. The program included one circuit of eight stations of 15/45 to 35/25 seconds of work/rest performed twice. Abdominal muscular endurance (sit-ups in 30 seconds test), upper-limbs muscular endurance (bent arm hang test), and cardiovascular endurance (20-m endurance shuttle run test) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the development program, and at the end of the maintenance program. After the development program, muscular and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in the experimental group (p < 0.05). The gains obtained remained after the maintenance program. The respective values did not change in the control group (p > 0.05). The results showed that the circuit training program was effective to increase and maintain both muscular and cardiovascular endurance among schoolchildren. This could help physical education teachers design programs that permit students to maintain fit muscular and cardiovascular endurance levels.

Keywords

  • physical fitness program
  • health-related physical fitness
  • muscular strength
  • cardiorespiratory fitness
  • school-based program
  • physical education
Open Access

Changes in Selected Parameters of Swimming Technique in the Back Crawl and the Front Crawl in Young Novice Swimmers

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 161 - 171

Abstract

The study aimed to examine changes in selected angular characteristics and duration of the stroke cycle in the back crawl and the front crawl in children learning to swim. Nine boys and two girls, aged 8-13 years, performed seven consecutive swimming tests. The children’s movement technique was recorded with the use of three video cameras. The studied parameters included the angle of incidence between the trunk long axis and the waterline, elbow angle, shoulders roll, stroke cycle duration and stroke length. The results illustrate the development of swimming technique in youth swimmers. The results of the present study indicate the variability and phasing of learning of swimming technique by children.

Keywords

  • stroke cycle
  • angles
  • shoulders roll
  • distance per stroke
  • swimming
Open Access

Is the Quality of Judging in Women Artistic Gymnastics Equivalent at Major Competitions of Different Levels?

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 173 - 181

Abstract

In the present study, the reliability and validity of judging at the European championship in Berlin 2011 were analysed and the results were compared to a different level gymnastic competition - Universiade 2009 in Belgrade. For reliability and consistency assessment, mean absolute judge deviation from final execution score, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, intra-class correlations (ICC) and Armor’s theta coefficient were calculated. For validity assessment mean deviations of judges’ scores, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W and ANOVA eta-squared values were used. For Berlin 2011 in general Cronbach’s alpha was above 0.95, minima of item-total correlations were above 0.8, and the ICC of average scores and Armor’s theta were above 0.94. Comparison with Universiade 2009 identified vault and floor scores at both competitions to have inferior reliability indices. At both competitions average deviations of judges from the final E score were close to zero (p=0.84) but Berlin 2011 competition showed a higher number of apparatuses with significant Kendall’s W (5 vs. 2 for Universiade 2009) and higher eta-squared values indicating higher judge panel bias in all-round and apparatus finals. In conclusion, the quality of judging was comparable at examined gymnastics competitions of different levels. Further work must be done to analyse the inferior results at vault and floor apparatuses.

Keywords

  • aesthetic sports
  • sport statistics
  • evaluation
  • validity
  • bias
Open Access

Benefits of Bandwidth Feedback in Learning a Complex Gymnastic Skill

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 183 - 193

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task.

Keywords

  • guidance hypothesis
  • complex motor skill
  • knowledge of performance
  • gymnastics
21 Articles
Open Access

Concentric and Eccentric: Muscle Contraction or Exercise?

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 5 - 6

Abstract

Open Access

The Appropriateness of the Helical Axis Technique and Six Available Cardan Sequences for the Representation of 3-D Lead Leg Kinematics During the Fencing Lunge

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 7 - 15

Abstract

Cardan/Euler angles represent the most common technique for the quantification of segmental rotations. Cardan angles are influenced by their ordered sequence, and sensitive to planar-cross talk from the dominant rotation plane, which may affect the angular parameters. The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) currently recommends a sagittal, coronal, and then transverse (XYZ) ordered sequence, although it has been proposed that when quantifying non-sagittal rotations this may not be the most appropriate technique. This study examined the influence of the helical and six available Cardan sequences on lower extremity three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge. Kinematic data were obtained using a 3-D motion capture system as participants completed simulated lunges. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare discrete kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were also utilized to determine evidence of planar crosstalk. The results indicate that in all three planes of rotation, peak angle and range of motion angles using the YXZ and ZXY sequences were significantly greater than the other sequences. It was also noted that the utilization of the YXZ and ZXY sequences was associated with the strongest correlations from the sagittal plane, and the XYZ sequence was found habitually to be associated with the lowest correlations. It appears that for accurate representation of 3-D kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge, the XYZ sequence is the most appropriate and as such its continued utilization is encouraged.

Keywords

  • Cardan sequence
  • Euler angle
  • helical
  • fencing lunge
Open Access

Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of Two Gymnastics Acrobatic Series to Performing the Backward Stretched Somersault

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 17 - 26

Abstract

Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off’s kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs’ variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo.

Keywords

  • motion analysis
  • take-off
  • flic-flac
  • tempo salto
Open Access

Gender, Vertical Height and Horizontal Distance Effects on Single-Leg Landing Kinematics: Implications for Risk of non-contact ACL Injury

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 27 - 38

Abstract

There is a lack of studies investigating gender differences in whole-body kinematics during single-leg landings from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances. This study determined the main effects and interactions of gender, vertical height, and horizontal distance on whole-body joint kinematics during single-leg landings, and established whether these findings could explain the gender disparity in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rate. Recreationally active males (n=6) and females (n=6) performed single-leg landings from a takeoff deck of vertical height of 20, 40, and 60 cm placed at a horizontal distance of 30, 50 and 70 cm from the edge of a force platform, while 3D kinematics and kinetics were simultaneously measured. It was determined that peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and the ankle flexion angle exhibited significant gender differences (p=0.028, partial η2=0.40 and p=0.035, partial η2=0.37, respectively). Peak VGRF was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= -0.59, p=0.04), hip flexion angle (r= -0.74, p=0.006), and trunk flexion angle (r= -0.59, p=0.045). Peak posterior ground reaction force (PGRF) was significantly correlated to the ankle flexion angle (r= -0.56, p=0.035), while peak knee abduction moment was significantly correlated to the knee flexion angle (r= -0.64, p=0.03). Rearfoot landings may explain the higher ACL injury rate among females. Higher plantar-flexed ankle, hip, and trunk flexion angles were associated with lower peak ground reaction forces, while higher knee flexion angle was associated with lower peak knee abduction moment, and these kinematics implicate reduced risk of non-contact ACL injury.

Keywords

  • Injury mechanism
  • kinematics
  • kinetics
  • ground reaction force (GRF)
  • knee abduction moment
  • risk factors
Open Access

Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Dart Throwing

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 39 - 45

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of accuracy constraints on the characteristics of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) in a task that involves a movement consisting of a controlled phase and a ballistic phase. It was hypothesized that APA scaling with task parameters (target size) would be preserved even when the task is performed by muscles that have no direct effects on APA. Sixteen healthy right handed subjects participated in the study. All participants had no prior experience in dart throwing. Subjects’ average age was 24.1 ± 1.9 years. A force platform and a motion capture system were used to register kinetics of the body and kinematics of the throwing arm and throwing accuracy. The experiment consisted of six series of twenty consecutive dart throws to a specified target. Target sizes (T2-T6) were set at 25%, 50%, 75%, 125% and 150% of target 1 (T1) initially set as the spread of the last 20 throws in a 50 throw training session. This allowed to distinguish six indexes of difficulty (ID’s) ranging from 2,9 to 5,9. A one-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. Results of ANOVA showed a significant effect of target size at Constant Error but no effect at APA time. There were also no significant differences between hit and miss throws. From a control perspective, it can be stated that changes in central commands did not lead to changes in APA time in the analyzed motor task.

Keywords

  • speed-accuracy trade-off
  • Fitts’ law
  • posture control
  • anticipatory postural adjustment
Open Access

Reliability of Concentric, Eccentric and Isometric Knee Extension and Flexion when using the REV9000 Isokinetic Dynamometer

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 47 - 53

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of isokinetic and ISO knee extensor and flexor muscle strength when using the REV9000 (Technogym) isokinetic dynamometer. Moreover, the reliability of several strength imbalance indices and bilateral ratios were also examined. Twenty-four physically active healthy subjects (age 23±3 years) underwent three testing sessions, two on the same day and a third, 7 days later. All sessions proceeded in the same order: five concentric contractions at 60ºs-1 followed by an isometric contraction (5 seconds) and five eccentric contractions (60ºs-1). The results of this study showed a high reproducibility in eccentric (0.95-0.97), concentric (0.95- 0.96) and isometric (0.93-0.96), isokinetic strength for knee extensor and flexor muscles, thus indicating that the REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer can be used in future sports performance studies. A low-to-moderate reliability was found in the isokinetic strength bilateral ratios while the Hamstring:Quadricep concentric ratio showed moderate reliability. The highest reliability (>0.90) was observed in the dynamic control ratio (Hamstring eccentric:Quadricep concentric) which consequently confirms that it is a more valid indicator for imbalanced reciprocal parameters and can be used in rehabilitation and sports medicine.

Keywords

  • reproducibility
  • quadriceps
  • hamstring
  • peak torque
  • imbalance ratios
  • isokinetics
Open Access

A Time-Motion Analysis of Turns Performed by Highly Ranked Viennese Waltz Dancers

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 55 - 62

Abstract

Twenty-four dance couples performing at the 2011 IDSF (International DanceSport Federation) International Slovenia Open were divided into two groups: the first twelve placed couples (top ranked) and the last twelve placed couples (lower ranked). Video recordings were processed automatically using computer vision tracking algorithms under operator supervision to calculate movement parameters. Time and speed of movement were analysed during single natural (right) and reverse (left) turns performed during the Viennese waltz. Both top and lower ranked dancers tended to perform similar proportionate frequencies of reverse (≈ 35%) and natural (≈ 65%) turns. Analysis of reverse turns showed that the top ranked dancers performed less turns on a curved trajectory (16%) than the lower ranked dancers (33%). The top ranked couples performed all turns at similar speeds (F = 1.31, df = 3, p = 0.27; mean = 2.09m/s) all of which were significantly quicker than the lower ranked couples (mean = 1.94m/s), the greatest differences found for reverse turns (12.43% faster for curved trajectories, 8.42% for straight trajectories). This suggests that the ability to maintain a high speed in the more difficult turns, particularly the reverse turns on a curved trajectory, results in the overall dance appearing more fluent as the speed of movement does not fluctuate as much. This aspect of performance needs to be improved by lower ranked dancers if they wish to improve rating of their performance. Future research should determine which factors relate to the speed of turns.

Keywords

  • Dance Sport
  • Ballroom dance
  • movement
  • turns
  • speed
Open Access

Muscle Activation Profiles of Lower Extremities in Different Throwing Techniques and in Jumping Performance in Elite and Novice Greek Judo Athletes

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 63 - 70

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the neuromuscular adaptations of knee muscles during hip throwing techniques and vertical jumps in elite and novice Greek judokas. Ten elite and ten novice judokas performed two hip throws and different vertical jumping tasks. Surface electromyograms were recorded from vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles along with generated kinetics. Elite judokas revealed higher EMG activity of agonist muscles during throws and jumps but lower co-activation levels. Better jumping performance, better utilisation of the stretch-shortening cycle mechanism, higher and earlier generated pushoff forces and shorter contact time periods characterized elite judokas. Total neuromuscular activation that adopt elite judokas reveals a more mature and skill dependent strategy compared to novice ones.

Keywords

  • electromyography
  • judo
  • vertical jumping
  • hip throw
  • co-contraction ratio
Open Access

The Effect of Upper Extremity Fatigue on Grip Strength and Passing Accuracy in Junior Basketball Players

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 71 - 79

Abstract

Fatigue is an unavoidable part of a basketball game, which may affect an athlete’s performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upper extremity fatigue on grip strength and passing accuracy in basketball, and ascertain if the effects of different fatigue protocols on grip strength and passing accuracy are the same. Twenty-four juniors under 18 years old (age: 16.75 ± 0.62 years; body height: 184.5 ± 3.31 cm; body mass: 77.25 ± 3.22 kg) volunteered to participate in the study, and were divided into two groups. After a warm-up, both groups performed the basketball passing test and grip strength was recorded for each group under three different testing conditions: rest, 70% and 90% exercise intensity. The protocol used for the first group was the chest press, and for the second group the wrist curls. Results show that after the upper extremity fatigue protocol all parameters of the study (grip strength and passing accuracy) showed a significant decrease, and there was no significant difference between both groups regarding grip strength and passing accuracy. The study suggested that in order to avoid upper extremity fatigue, basketball trainers and coaches need to include upper extremity conditioning exercises into their training sessions.

Keywords

  • muscle fatigue
  • exercise intensity
  • hand grip strength
  • upper extremity
  • passing accuracy
  • basketball
Open Access

Effects of Different Backpack Loads in Acceleration Transmission during Recreational Distance Walking

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 81 - 89

Abstract

It is well established nowadays the benefits that physical activity can have on the health of individuals. Walking is considered a fundamental method of movement and using a backpack is a common and economical manner of carrying load weight. Nevertheless, the shock wave produced by the impact forces when carrying a backpack can have detrimental effects on health status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in the accelerations placed on males and females whilst carrying different loads when walking. Twenty nine sports science students (16 males and 13 females) participated in the study under 3 different conditions: no weight, 10% and 20% body weight (BW) added in a backpack. Accelerometers were attached to the right shank and the centre of the forehead. Results showed that males have lower accelerations than females both in the head (2.62 ± 0.43G compared to 2.83 + 0.47G) and shank (1.37 ± 0.14G compared to 1.52 ± 0.15G; p<0.01). Accelerations for males and females were consistent throughout each backpack condition (p>0.05). The body acts as a natural shock absorber, reducing the amount of force that transmits through the body between the foot (impact point) and head. Anthropometric and body mass distribution differences between males and females may result in women receiving greater impact acceleration compared to men when the same load is carried.

Keywords

  • accelerometry
  • load carriage
  • treadmill
  • walking
Open Access

Neuromuscular Impairment Following Backpack Load Carriage

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 91 - 98

Abstract

Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage. The physiological responses of 10 male participants to voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions were measured before and immediately after two hours of treadmill walking at 6.5 km•h-1 during level walking with no load [LW], and level walking with load carriage (25 kg backpack) [LC]. Maximal voluntary contraction force decreased by 15 ± 11 % following LC (p=0.006), with no change following LW (p=0.292). Voluntary activation decreased after LW and LC (p=0.033) with no difference between conditions (p=0.405). Doublet contraction time decreased after both LW and LC (p=0.002), with no difference between conditions (p=0.232). There were no other changes in electrically invoked doublet parameters in either condition. The 20:50 Hz ratio did not change following LW (p=0.864) but decreased from 0.88 ± 0.04 to 0.84 ± 0.04 after LC (p=0.011) indicating reduced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during excitation contraction coupling. In conclusion, two hours of load carriage carrying a 25 kg back pack caused neuromuscular impairment through a decrease in voluntary activation (i.e. central drive) and fatigue or damage to the peripheral muscle, including impairment of the excitation contraction coupling process. This may reduce physical performance and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury.

Keywords

  • Load Carriage
  • Neuromuscular Impairment
  • Fatigue
  • Exercise Induced Muscle Damage
Open Access

A Physiological and Kinematic Comparison of two Different Lean Back Positions During Stationary Rowing on a Concept II Machine

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 99 - 108

Abstract

This study compared two different body positions at the finish of a stroke during stationary rowing exercise on physiological and kinematic measurements. Nine male and five female rowers volunteered for the study: mean age (± SD), body height and body mass were 27 ±9 yrs, 180.5 ±12.3 cm and 81.2 ±14.2 kg. The two body positions at the finish were controlled at an upright posture or a novel greater lean back position. All subjects completed 3 different experimental trials on a Concept IID rowing machine at 3 different exercise intensities and comparisons were made between the lean back position at the same stroke rate and the same power output as the upright trial. Power output, heart rate, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure and % efficiency were higher (p<0.05) with the greater lean back position at the same stroke rate compared to all other conditions. Range of motion at the hip, ankle, and elbow and the handle velocity and distance moved were greater (p<0.05) with the lean back position. In conclusion, a greater lean back posture at the finish during stationary rowing produces a higher power output and improved efficiency at the same stroke rate but at an elevated physiological cost compared to a more upright position. Despite the higher energy expenditure, the relative gain in power output and efficiency with no negative kinematic changes suggests that a greater lean back position at the finish will enhance performance during stationary rowing exercise.

Keywords

  • oxygen uptake
  • efficiency
  • power output
  • joint angle
  • range of motion
  • rowing
Open Access

The Effect of Patellar Taping on Squat Depth and the Perception of Pain in People with Anterior Knee Pain

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 109 - 117

Abstract

Patellar taping is a treatment adjunct commonly used in the management of anterior knee pain. The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effects of medial glide patellar taping on sagittal plane lower-limb joint kinematics and knee pain during a unilateral squat in a symptomatic population complaining of anterior knee pain. Ten participants with a history of unilateral or bilateral anterior knee pain were included in the study. Subjects were required to squat on the symptomatic leg under three conditions: placebo tape, patellar tape and no tape. Kinematic data was recorded using the CODA mpx64 motion analysis system and subjects’ pain was assessed using the Numerical Rating Scale. Patellar taping resulted in a significantly greater single-legged squat depth compared to placebo tape (p=0.008) and no tape (p=0.001) and a statistically significant reduction in pain during a squat compared to placebo tape (p=0.001) or no tape (p=0.001). Significant differences were not identified for maximum knee flexion in the patella taping compared to the no tape condition. This study may have significant clinical implications as participants reported less pain and alterations in sagittal plane movement following the application of patellar tape.

Keywords

  • anterior knee pain
  • patellar taping
  • squat
Open Access

The Influence of Body Weight on Chosen Physiological Parameters in Wrestling

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 119 - 127

Abstract

In this study, the authors attempted to determine whether the dynamics of blood lactate and glucose in wrestling depend on the weight class. Blood lactate and glucose curves during and after a wrestling match were determined. We also explained the dynamics of blood lactate and glucose in the context of recent glucose and lactate metabolism research. A sample of 60 youth wrestlers (15-20 years) were divided into three weight groups. Each athlete participated in one wrestling match. During the fight, the athletes' heart rate, glucose, and blood lactate were measured. The differences in body mass between the athletes did not affect the dynamics of lactate and glucose in wrestling competition (Fisher LSD test). We established that lactate and glucose dynamics are the same for all weight groups (Fisher LSD-Lactate 1 < 2 < 3 = 4 > 5, Fisher LSD-Glucose 1 = 2 < 3 < 4 < 5). Understanding lactate and glucose metabolism in wrestling is important for wrestling coaches because they need to evaluate a wrestler's anaerobic energy status.

Keywords

  • combat sport
  • anaerobic
  • lactate
  • glucose
  • weight categories
Open Access

Effect of Kinesio Tape Application on Calf Pain and Ankle Range of Motion in Duathletes

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 129 - 135

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m2) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.

Keywords

  • Kinesio taping
  • Numerical Pain Rating Scale
  • ankle dorsiflexion
  • duathlon competition
Open Access

Home Advantage in Men’s and Women’s Spanish First and Second Division Water Polo Leagues

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 137 - 143

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to quantify the home advantage in both men’s and women’s First and Second Division water polo leagues, to compare the results obtained according to sex of participants and the level of competition, and to test for possible differences in home advantage when considering the interaction between these two factors. The sample comprised four seasons from 2007-2008 to 2010-2011 for a total of 1942 games analyzed. The results showed the existence of home advantage in both men’s and women’s First and Second Divisions. After controlling for the competitive balance of each league in each season, there was a significant difference between men’s and women’s leagues, with higher home advantage for men’s leagues (58.60% compared with 53.70% for women’s leagues). There was also a significant difference between the levels of competition, with greater home advantage for the Second Division (57.95% compared with 54.35% for First Division). No significant differences in home advantage were found when considering the interaction between sex of participants and the level of competition. The results in relation to sex of participants and the level of competition are consistent with previous studies in other sports such as football or handball.

Keywords

  • home court advantage
  • sex of participants
  • level of competition
  • competitive balance
  • water polo
Open Access

Game Indicators Determining Sports Performance in the NBA

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 145 - 151

Abstract

The main goal of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best determine sports level in the National Basketball Association (NBA) league. The research material consisted of all NBA game statistics at the turn of eight seasons (2003-11) and included 52 performance variables. Through detailed analysis the variables with high influence on game effectiveness were selected for final procedures. It has been proven that a limited number of factors, mostly offensive, determines sports performance in the NBA. The most critical indicators are: Win%, Offensive EFF, 3rd Quarter PPG, Win% CG, Avg Fauls and Avg Steals. In practical applications these results connected with top teams and elite players may help coaches to design better training programs.

Keywords

  • basketball
  • NBA
  • performance variables
  • regression model
  • optimization
Open Access

Effects of a Circuit Training Program on Muscular and Cardiovascular Endurance and their Maintenance in Schoolchildren

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 153 - 160

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a circuit training program along with a maintenance program on muscular and cardiovascular endurance in children in a physical education setting. Seventy two children 10-12 years old from four different classes were randomly grouped into either an experimental group (n = 35) or a control group (n = 37) (two classes for each group). After an eight-week development program carried out twice a week and a four-week detraining period, the experimental group performed a four-week maintenance program once a week. The program included one circuit of eight stations of 15/45 to 35/25 seconds of work/rest performed twice. Abdominal muscular endurance (sit-ups in 30 seconds test), upper-limbs muscular endurance (bent arm hang test), and cardiovascular endurance (20-m endurance shuttle run test) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the development program, and at the end of the maintenance program. After the development program, muscular and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in the experimental group (p < 0.05). The gains obtained remained after the maintenance program. The respective values did not change in the control group (p > 0.05). The results showed that the circuit training program was effective to increase and maintain both muscular and cardiovascular endurance among schoolchildren. This could help physical education teachers design programs that permit students to maintain fit muscular and cardiovascular endurance levels.

Keywords

  • physical fitness program
  • health-related physical fitness
  • muscular strength
  • cardiorespiratory fitness
  • school-based program
  • physical education
Open Access

Changes in Selected Parameters of Swimming Technique in the Back Crawl and the Front Crawl in Young Novice Swimmers

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 161 - 171

Abstract

The study aimed to examine changes in selected angular characteristics and duration of the stroke cycle in the back crawl and the front crawl in children learning to swim. Nine boys and two girls, aged 8-13 years, performed seven consecutive swimming tests. The children’s movement technique was recorded with the use of three video cameras. The studied parameters included the angle of incidence between the trunk long axis and the waterline, elbow angle, shoulders roll, stroke cycle duration and stroke length. The results illustrate the development of swimming technique in youth swimmers. The results of the present study indicate the variability and phasing of learning of swimming technique by children.

Keywords

  • stroke cycle
  • angles
  • shoulders roll
  • distance per stroke
  • swimming
Open Access

Is the Quality of Judging in Women Artistic Gymnastics Equivalent at Major Competitions of Different Levels?

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 173 - 181

Abstract

In the present study, the reliability and validity of judging at the European championship in Berlin 2011 were analysed and the results were compared to a different level gymnastic competition - Universiade 2009 in Belgrade. For reliability and consistency assessment, mean absolute judge deviation from final execution score, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, intra-class correlations (ICC) and Armor’s theta coefficient were calculated. For validity assessment mean deviations of judges’ scores, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W and ANOVA eta-squared values were used. For Berlin 2011 in general Cronbach’s alpha was above 0.95, minima of item-total correlations were above 0.8, and the ICC of average scores and Armor’s theta were above 0.94. Comparison with Universiade 2009 identified vault and floor scores at both competitions to have inferior reliability indices. At both competitions average deviations of judges from the final E score were close to zero (p=0.84) but Berlin 2011 competition showed a higher number of apparatuses with significant Kendall’s W (5 vs. 2 for Universiade 2009) and higher eta-squared values indicating higher judge panel bias in all-round and apparatus finals. In conclusion, the quality of judging was comparable at examined gymnastics competitions of different levels. Further work must be done to analyse the inferior results at vault and floor apparatuses.

Keywords

  • aesthetic sports
  • sport statistics
  • evaluation
  • validity
  • bias
Open Access

Benefits of Bandwidth Feedback in Learning a Complex Gymnastic Skill

Published Online: 05 Jul 2013
Page range: 183 - 193

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task.

Keywords

  • guidance hypothesis
  • complex motor skill
  • knowledge of performance
  • gymnastics

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