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Aquatic Sports and Activities

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Presentation of the 1st International Symposium on Strength & Conditioning (ISSC 2011)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 35 (2012): Issue 1 (December 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Alternating Consecutive Maximum Contraction as a Test of Muscle Function in Athletes Following ACL Reconstruction

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 5 - 13

Abstract

The novel test based on isometric alternating consecutive maximal contractions performed by two antagonisticmuscles has been recently proposed as a test of muscle function in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was toevaluate reliability and sensitivity of a novel test as a test of knee muscles function in athletes recovering from anteriorcruciate ligament reconstruction. Fifteen male athletes with recent ligament reconstruction (4.0 ± 0.1 months followingthe surgery) and 15 sport and physical education students participated in the study. Peak torques of the quadriceps andhamstring muscles assessed both through the alternating consecutive maximal contractions and standard isokinetic testperformed at 60 º/s and 180 º/s served for calculation of the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and the bilateral differencein strength. When applied on individuals recovering from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the novel testrevealed a high within-day reliability and sensitivity for detecting imbalances both between antagonistic and betweencontralateral muscles. The present findings suggest that alternating consecutive maximal contractions could be used asa test of muscle function that is either complementary or alternative to the isokinetic test, particularly in thelaboratories where the isokinetic devices are not available. Potential advantages of the novel test could be both a brieftesting procedure and a possibility to conduct it using relatively inexpensive devices such as custom made kitscontaining a single one-axis force transducer.

Keywords

  • Strength
  • Knee
  • flexor
  • extensor
  • Rehabilitation
Open Access

The Test-Retest Reliability of Anatomical Co-Ordinate Axes Definition for the Quantification of Lower Extremity Kinematics During Running

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 15 - 25

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3-D) kinematic analyses are used widely in both sport and clinical examinations.However, this procedure depends on reliable palpation of anatomical landmarks and mal-positioning of markers betweensessions may result in improperly defined segment co-ordinate system axes which will produce in-consistent jointrotations. This had led some to question the efficacy of this technique. The aim of the current investigation was to assessthe reliability of the anatomical frame definition when quantifying 3-D kinematics of the lower extremities duringrunning. Ten participants completed five successful running trials at 4.0 m·s-1 ± 5%. 3-D angular joint kinematicsparameters from the hip, knee and ankle were collected using an eight camera motion analysis system. Two staticcalibration trials were captured. The first (test) was conducted prior to the running trials following which anatomicallandmarks were removed. The second was obtained following completion of the running trials where anatomicallandmarks were re-positioned (retest). Paired samples t-tests were used to compare 3-D kinematic parameters quantifiedusing the two static trials, and intraclass correlations were employed to examine the similarities between the sagittal,coronal and transverse plane waveforms. The results indicate that no significant (p>0.05) differences were foundbetween test and retest 3-D kinematic parameters and strong (R2≥0.87) correlations were observed between test andretest waveforms. Based on the results obtained from this investigation, it appears that the anatomical co-ordinate axesof the lower extremities can be defined reliably thus confirming the efficacy of studies using this technique.

Keywords

  • Gait analysis
  • running
  • kinematics
  • repeatability
  • motion analysis
Open Access

Kinematic Pattern of the Drag-Flick: a Case Study

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 27 - 33

Abstract

The drag-flick is more efficient than hits or pushes when a penalty corner situation is in effect in field hockey.Previous research has studied the biomechanical pattern of the drag-flick, trying to find the cues for an optimalperformance. On the other hand, some other studies have examined the most effective visual pick-up of relevantinformation in shots and goalkeeper anticipation. The aim of this study was to analyse the individual differences in thedrag-flick pattern in order to provide relevant information for goalkeepers. One female skilled drag-flicker participatedin the study. A VICON optoelectronic system (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) was used to capture the drag-flicks withsix cameras. The results showed that the main significant differences between right and left shots (p<0.05) in the stickangles, stick minimum angular velocity and front foot-ball distance were when the front foot heel contacted the floor(T1) and at the minimum velocity of the stick, before the dragging action (T3). The findings showed that the mostrelevant information might be picked up at the ball-and-stick location before the dragging action.

Keywords

  • drag-flick
  • biomechanics
  • shooting
  • field hockey.
Open Access

Kinematic Structure at the Early Flight Position in Ski Jumping

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 35 - 45

Abstract

The purpose of our research was to establish the variability of correlation between the length of the jumps andselected multi-item kinematic variables (n=9) in the early flight phase technique of ski jumping. This study wasconducted on a sample of elite Slovenian ski jumpers (N=29) who participated in the experiment on a jumping hill inHinterzarten, Germany (HS95m) on the 20th of August, 2008. The highest and most significant correlations (p=0.01)with the length of the ski jump were found in the multi-item variable height of flying, which was also expressed with thehighest level of stability of the explained total variance (TV) on the first factor (TV=69.13%). The most importantcharacteristic of the aerodynamic aspect of early flight was the variable angle between the body chord and the horizontalaxis with significantly high correlations (p<0.05). The stability of that aerodynamic factor was very high (TV=65.04%).The results were essentially similar for the multi-item variable angle between left leg and the horizontal axis(TV=61.88%). The rest of the multi-item kinematic variables did not have significant correlations with the multi-itemvariable length of jump. Only two more variables, the angle between the upper body and the horizontal plane(TV=53.69%), and the angle between left ski and left leg (TV=50.13%), had an explained common variance on the firstfactor greater than 50% of total variance. The results indicated that some kinematic parameters of ski jumping earlyflight technique were more important for success considering the length of the jump.

Keywords

  • ski jumping
  • kinematic analysis
  • early flight phase
Open Access

An Evaluation of Symmetry in the Lower Limb Joints During the Able-Bodied Gait of Women and Men

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 47 - 57

Abstract

For many years, mainly to simplify data analysis, scientists assumed that during a gait, the lower limbsmoved symmetrically. However, even a cursory survey of the more recent literature reveals that the human walkis symmetrical only in some aspects. That is why the presence of asymmetry should be considered in all studiesof locomotion. The gait data were collected using the 3D motion analysis system Vicon. The inclusion criteriaallowed the researchers to analyze a very homogenous group, which consisted of 54 subjects (27 women and 27men). Every selected participant moved at a similar velocity: approximately 1,55 m/s. The analysis includedkinematic parameters defining spatio-temporal structure of locomotion, as well as angular changes of the mainjoints of the lower extremities (ankle, knee and hip) in the sagittal plane. The values of those variables werecalculated separately for the left and for the right leg in women and men. This approach allowed us to determinethe size of the differences, and was the basis for assessing gait asymmetry using a relative asymmetry index,which was constructed by the authors. Analysis of the results demonstrates no differences in the temporal andphasic variables of movements of the right and left lower limb. However, different profiles of angular changes inthe sagittal plane were observed, measured bilaterally for the ankle joint.

Keywords

  • angular changes
  • relative asymmetry index
  • bilateral data
  • Vicon
Open Access

The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onsetof muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-sixvolunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to theresistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistanceexercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (10x5 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40%(women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris andmaximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutivedays. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2and 3 (p≤0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p≥0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at thecentral muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p≤0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group(p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobicwarm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distalmuscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force.

Keywords

  • aerobic exercise
  • pain
  • athletic injuries
  • pain threshold
  • muscles
Open Access

The Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and Chosen Physiological Variables

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 69 - 79

Abstract

Exercise is one of the most powerful non-pharmacological strategies, which can affect nearly all cells andorgans in the body. Changes in the behavior of adult stem cells have been shown to occur in response to exercise.Exercise may act on regenerative potential of tissues by altering the ability to generate new stem cells and differentiatedcells that are able to carry out tissue specific functions. The purpose of this study was to reveal the role of aerobic andanaerobic training programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and chosen physiological variables. Twenty healthy male athletesaged 18-24 years were recruited for this study. Healthy low active males and BMI matched participants (n=10) aged20-22 years were recruited as controls. Aerobic and anaerobic training programs for 12 weeks were conducted.VO2max pulse observation was carried out using the Astrand Rhyming protocol. RBCs, WBCs, HB and hematocritwere estimated using a coulter counter, lactate by the Accusport apparatus, CD34+ stem cells by flow cytometry.VO2max was increased significantly in case of the aerobic training program compared to anaerobic one (62±2.2ml/kg/min vs. 54±2.1 ml/kg/min). Haemotological values increased significantly in the anaerobic program whencompared to the aerobic one, RBCs (5.3±0.3 and 4.9±0.2 mln/ul), WBCs (6.6±0.5 and 6.1±0.4 thous/ul), HB (15.4±0.4and 14.2±0.5 g/de), Hematocrit (4.6±1.2 and 4.4±1.1 %), CD34+ stem cells count increased significantly in case of theanaerobic program compared to the aerobic (251.6±21.64 and 130±14.61) and sedentary one (172±24.10). Thesefindings suggest that anaerobic training programs provoke better adaptation to exercise and stem cell counts may differbetween trained and sedentary subjects. Circulating immature cells are likely to be involved in angiogenesis and repairprocess, both mechanisms being associated with strenuous exercise. Knowledge of the physiological effects of training onstem cells might be of potential clinical use.

Keywords

  • Aerobic and anaerobic training programs
  • CD34+ stem cells
  • physiological variables
Open Access

The Relationship Between the Yo-Yo Tests, Anaerobic Performance and Aerobic Performance in Young Soccer Players

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 81 - 88

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship between performance in the Yo-Yo intermittentrecovery test level 1 (YIRT1), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YIRT2) and the Yo-Yo endurance test(continuous) (YET) with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Wingate anaerobic performance (WaNT) test resultsin young soccer players (age 15.00 ± 0.0 years, body height 176.3 ± 4.2 cm and body mass 68.1 ± 3.6 kg). Anergospirometry device was used during the treadmill test (TRT) to determine VO2max. At the end of the study,significant differences were found between the Yo-Yo tests and TRT in terms of HRmax (TRT = 195,92, YIRT1 =197,83, YIRT2 = 198,5 YET = 198) (p > 0.05). While there were moderate correlations between VO2max and YIRT 1-2performances (respectively, r = 0.56, r = 0.53), there was only a weak relationship between VO2max and YETperformance (r = 0.43) (distance covered). There were also moderate significant negative correlations betweenperformance in the YIRT2 and peak power measured in the WaNT (r = -0.55), although there were no significantcorrelations between performance in the three tests and average power. A moderate negative correlation was foundbetween performance in the YIRT2 and Fatigue index (FI) (r = -0,66). In conclusion, the YIRT2 may be a more suitablefield test for determining both aerobic and anaerobic performance in soccer players.

Keywords

  • Yo-Yo Tests
  • Wingate test
  • VO2max
  • soccer
  • anaerobic power
Open Access

The Role of Situational Variables in Analysing Physical Performance in Soccer

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Performance analysis in sport is used to investigate the performance of teams and players across differentsports. Research within this area, especially when focussing on the determinants of success, has grown rapidly in thelast few years. During this time, the role of a new concept, ‘situational variables’ has emerged. This term includes thedifferent game and situational conditions that may influence performance at a behavioural level. Given that soccer isdominated by strategic factors, it is reasonable to suggest that situational variables of match status (i.e. whether theteam is winning, losing or drawing), quality of opposition (strong or weak), and match location (i.e. playing at home oraway) may somehow influence the teams´ and players´ activities. These situational variables need to be analyzed indepth to understand their influence in team sports. The aim of this article was to examine the independent andinteractive effects of situational variables on physical performance in elite soccer. The view that professional soccerplayers regulate their physical efforts according to the specific demands of individual matches and periods of the game isoffered. In support of this argument results from recent studies are presented. Implications of this perspective for matchanalyst and coaches for evaluating performance are also considered.

Keywords

  • fatigue
  • soccer
  • physical performance
  • situational variables.
Open Access

The Effect of Fatigue on Kicking Velocity in Soccer Players

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 97 - 107

Abstract

Soccer is a game in which fatigue can negatively influence players’ performance. Few studies have examinedthe practical effects of fatigue on soccer performance skills. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectof fatigue, acutely induced by means of a soccer specific circuit on ball velocity. Ten amateur soccer players (age 27.3 ±5.25 yr; experience 16,8 ± 6.05 yr; level secondary division; body height 1,80 m ± 0,06; body mass 75,7 kg ± 5,78),participated in this study and performed maximal instep kicks before and after the implementation of an intensive,intermittent and repeated exercise protocol. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated a significantdecrease (p<0.05) in ball velocity after just one round of the fatigue circuit. However, after the third circuit ball velocityincreased and after the fifth circuit maximal ball velocity increased yet again (compared to the second circuit) and wasnot significantly different from before commencement of the fatigue protocol. The results partly confirmed thehypothesis of the negative influence of fatigue upon ball velocity in soccer kicking, demonstrating also some variabilityin the presented values of ball velocity perhaps theoretically accounted for by the general governor model.

Keywords

  • kicking velocity
  • soccer
  • fatigue
  • general governor model
Open Access

Game Analysis of Olympic, World and European Championships in Men’s Handball

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 109 - 118

Abstract

The development of men’s handball was analyzed using data from the Olympic, World and EuropeanChampionships held within the last eight years. The most obvious change, especially within these last ninetournaments, was that men’s handball was played more dynamically and rapidly, both in attack and defense, especiallyby European teams. The first aim of this study was to conduct a technical analysis of current handball and to determinefactors related to success in this sport discipline. The second aim was to compare the data of European Championshipswith other tournaments, considering the success of European teams in Men’s World Handball. The technical variablesused to compare the tournaments included: the average number of attacks, the efficiency of attacks, the efficiency of goalthrows, fast break goals per game, the efficiency of fast breaks, the efficiency of the goalkeeper, saves by the goalkeeperper game, number of turnovers per game, and the efficiency of position throws (wing, pivot, back court, break-through,fast break, and 7-meter). This technical analysis used cumulative statistics from the European Handball Federation andInternational Handball Federation. ANOVA revealed significant differences between the first eight teams in theEuropean Championships and their counterparts in the other two tournaments (Olympics and World Championships)in terms of several technical variables. The results showed that the efficiency of fast break, pivot position and back courtplayers affected the ranking in favor of the European teams in significant international tournaments.

Keywords

  • Handball
  • Position Efficiency
  • Technical Game Analysis
Open Access

New Regression Models to Evaluate the Relationship between Biomechanics of Gymnastic Vault and Initial Vault Difficulty Values

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 119 - 126

Abstract

The main objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between biomechanical parameters of vaultflights with respect to new models of initial vault difficulty values in men’s artistic gymnastic. The study sampleincluded vaults (n=64) and models (n=5) from the 2009 Code of Points (CoP) of the Federation International ofGymnastics (FIG). The dependent variable included all difficulty values ranging from 2-7.2 points, while the sample ofindependent variables included twelve biomechanical parameters. After implementing the regression analysis, it couldbe established that the best model derived only the second flight phase with 95% of explained variance.

Keywords

  • Modeling
  • Code of Points
  • Gymnastics
  • Biomechanics
Open Access

Effect of Various Warm-Up Protocols on Jump Performance in College Football Players

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 127 - 132

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of warm-up strategies on countermovement jumpperformance. Twenty-nine male college football players (age: 19.4 ± 1.1 years; body height: 179.0 ± 5.1 cm; body mass:73.1 ± 8.0 kg; % body fat: 11.1 ± 2.7) from the Tuzla University underwent a control (no warm-up) and differentwarm-up conditions: 1. general warm-up; 2. general warm-up with dynamic stretching; 3. general warm-up, dynamicstretching and passive stretching; 4. passive static stretching; 5. passive static stretching and general warm-up; and, 6.passive static stretching, general warm-up and dynamic stretching. Countermovement jump performance wasmeasured after each intervention or control. Results from one way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significantdifference on warm-up strategies at F (4.07, 113.86) = 69.56, p < 0.001, eta squared = 0.72. Bonferonni post hocrevealed that a general warm-up and a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted the greatest gains among allinterventions. On the other hand, no warm-up and passive static stretching displayed the least results incountermovement jump performance. In conclusion, countermovement jump performance preceded by a general warmupor a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted superior gains in countermovement jump performance.

Keywords

  • warm-up
  • static stretching
  • dynamic stretching
  • athletes
  • vertical jump
Open Access

Swimming Speed of The Breaststroke Kick

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 133 - 139

Abstract

The breaststroke kick is responsible for a considerable portion of the forward propulsion in breaststrokeswimming. The aim of this study was to measure selected anthropometric variables and functional properties of aswimmer’s body: length of body parts; functional range of motion in the leg joints and anaerobic power of the lowerlimbs. Chosen kinematic variables useful in the evaluation of swimming performance in the breaststroke kick wereevaluated. In the present research, swimming speed using breaststroke kicks depended to the largest extent on anaerobicendurance (0.46, p < 0.05 partial correlations with age control). In addition, knee external rotation and swimmingtechnique index had an impact on swimming speed and kick length (both partial correlations with age control 0.35, p <0.08). A kinematic analysis of the breaststroke kick hip displacement compatible with horizontal body displacement wassignificantly negatively correlated with foot slip in the water opposite to body displacement (partial correlations: withleg length control -0.43, p < 0.05; with shank length control -0.45, p < 0.05, respectively). Present research andmeasurements of selected body properties, physical endurance and kinematic movement analysis may help in making aprecise determination of an athlete’s talent for breaststroke swimming.

Keywords

  • swimming
  • breaststroke kick
  • kinematic analysis
Open Access

The Relationship Between Body Composition, Anaerobic Performance and Sprint Ability of Amputee Soccer Players

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 141 - 146

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, anaerobicperformance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Fifteen amputee soccer players participated in this studyvoluntarily. Subjects’ height, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage (Jackson and Pollock formula) andsomatotype characteristics (Heath-Carter system) were determined. The sprint performance at 10m, 20m and 30m wasevaluated, whereas the counter movement jump (CMJ), relative CMJ (RCMJ), squat jump (SJ) and relative SJ (RSJ)tests were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. The results of the Pearson Product Moment correlationanalysis indicated that body composition was significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ (p < 0.01), on the other hand, nomeasure of body composition was significantly related to the other component (p > 0.05). A significant correlation wasfound between CMJ, RCMJ, SJ, 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p < 0.05); whereas, in contrast, no measureof body composition was significantly related to the 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p > 0.05). In conclusion,the findings of the present study indicated that sprint performance was described as an essential factor in anaerobicperformance whereas body composition and somatotype play a determinant role in anaerobic and sprint performance inamputee soccer players.

Keyword

  • body composition
  • anaerobic performance
  • sprint
  • amputee athletes
15 Articles
Open Access

Alternating Consecutive Maximum Contraction as a Test of Muscle Function in Athletes Following ACL Reconstruction

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 5 - 13

Abstract

The novel test based on isometric alternating consecutive maximal contractions performed by two antagonisticmuscles has been recently proposed as a test of muscle function in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was toevaluate reliability and sensitivity of a novel test as a test of knee muscles function in athletes recovering from anteriorcruciate ligament reconstruction. Fifteen male athletes with recent ligament reconstruction (4.0 ± 0.1 months followingthe surgery) and 15 sport and physical education students participated in the study. Peak torques of the quadriceps andhamstring muscles assessed both through the alternating consecutive maximal contractions and standard isokinetic testperformed at 60 º/s and 180 º/s served for calculation of the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and the bilateral differencein strength. When applied on individuals recovering from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the novel testrevealed a high within-day reliability and sensitivity for detecting imbalances both between antagonistic and betweencontralateral muscles. The present findings suggest that alternating consecutive maximal contractions could be used asa test of muscle function that is either complementary or alternative to the isokinetic test, particularly in thelaboratories where the isokinetic devices are not available. Potential advantages of the novel test could be both a brieftesting procedure and a possibility to conduct it using relatively inexpensive devices such as custom made kitscontaining a single one-axis force transducer.

Keywords

  • Strength
  • Knee
  • flexor
  • extensor
  • Rehabilitation
Open Access

The Test-Retest Reliability of Anatomical Co-Ordinate Axes Definition for the Quantification of Lower Extremity Kinematics During Running

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 15 - 25

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3-D) kinematic analyses are used widely in both sport and clinical examinations.However, this procedure depends on reliable palpation of anatomical landmarks and mal-positioning of markers betweensessions may result in improperly defined segment co-ordinate system axes which will produce in-consistent jointrotations. This had led some to question the efficacy of this technique. The aim of the current investigation was to assessthe reliability of the anatomical frame definition when quantifying 3-D kinematics of the lower extremities duringrunning. Ten participants completed five successful running trials at 4.0 m·s-1 ± 5%. 3-D angular joint kinematicsparameters from the hip, knee and ankle were collected using an eight camera motion analysis system. Two staticcalibration trials were captured. The first (test) was conducted prior to the running trials following which anatomicallandmarks were removed. The second was obtained following completion of the running trials where anatomicallandmarks were re-positioned (retest). Paired samples t-tests were used to compare 3-D kinematic parameters quantifiedusing the two static trials, and intraclass correlations were employed to examine the similarities between the sagittal,coronal and transverse plane waveforms. The results indicate that no significant (p>0.05) differences were foundbetween test and retest 3-D kinematic parameters and strong (R2≥0.87) correlations were observed between test andretest waveforms. Based on the results obtained from this investigation, it appears that the anatomical co-ordinate axesof the lower extremities can be defined reliably thus confirming the efficacy of studies using this technique.

Keywords

  • Gait analysis
  • running
  • kinematics
  • repeatability
  • motion analysis
Open Access

Kinematic Pattern of the Drag-Flick: a Case Study

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 27 - 33

Abstract

The drag-flick is more efficient than hits or pushes when a penalty corner situation is in effect in field hockey.Previous research has studied the biomechanical pattern of the drag-flick, trying to find the cues for an optimalperformance. On the other hand, some other studies have examined the most effective visual pick-up of relevantinformation in shots and goalkeeper anticipation. The aim of this study was to analyse the individual differences in thedrag-flick pattern in order to provide relevant information for goalkeepers. One female skilled drag-flicker participatedin the study. A VICON optoelectronic system (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) was used to capture the drag-flicks withsix cameras. The results showed that the main significant differences between right and left shots (p<0.05) in the stickangles, stick minimum angular velocity and front foot-ball distance were when the front foot heel contacted the floor(T1) and at the minimum velocity of the stick, before the dragging action (T3). The findings showed that the mostrelevant information might be picked up at the ball-and-stick location before the dragging action.

Keywords

  • drag-flick
  • biomechanics
  • shooting
  • field hockey.
Open Access

Kinematic Structure at the Early Flight Position in Ski Jumping

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 35 - 45

Abstract

The purpose of our research was to establish the variability of correlation between the length of the jumps andselected multi-item kinematic variables (n=9) in the early flight phase technique of ski jumping. This study wasconducted on a sample of elite Slovenian ski jumpers (N=29) who participated in the experiment on a jumping hill inHinterzarten, Germany (HS95m) on the 20th of August, 2008. The highest and most significant correlations (p=0.01)with the length of the ski jump were found in the multi-item variable height of flying, which was also expressed with thehighest level of stability of the explained total variance (TV) on the first factor (TV=69.13%). The most importantcharacteristic of the aerodynamic aspect of early flight was the variable angle between the body chord and the horizontalaxis with significantly high correlations (p<0.05). The stability of that aerodynamic factor was very high (TV=65.04%).The results were essentially similar for the multi-item variable angle between left leg and the horizontal axis(TV=61.88%). The rest of the multi-item kinematic variables did not have significant correlations with the multi-itemvariable length of jump. Only two more variables, the angle between the upper body and the horizontal plane(TV=53.69%), and the angle between left ski and left leg (TV=50.13%), had an explained common variance on the firstfactor greater than 50% of total variance. The results indicated that some kinematic parameters of ski jumping earlyflight technique were more important for success considering the length of the jump.

Keywords

  • ski jumping
  • kinematic analysis
  • early flight phase
Open Access

An Evaluation of Symmetry in the Lower Limb Joints During the Able-Bodied Gait of Women and Men

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 47 - 57

Abstract

For many years, mainly to simplify data analysis, scientists assumed that during a gait, the lower limbsmoved symmetrically. However, even a cursory survey of the more recent literature reveals that the human walkis symmetrical only in some aspects. That is why the presence of asymmetry should be considered in all studiesof locomotion. The gait data were collected using the 3D motion analysis system Vicon. The inclusion criteriaallowed the researchers to analyze a very homogenous group, which consisted of 54 subjects (27 women and 27men). Every selected participant moved at a similar velocity: approximately 1,55 m/s. The analysis includedkinematic parameters defining spatio-temporal structure of locomotion, as well as angular changes of the mainjoints of the lower extremities (ankle, knee and hip) in the sagittal plane. The values of those variables werecalculated separately for the left and for the right leg in women and men. This approach allowed us to determinethe size of the differences, and was the basis for assessing gait asymmetry using a relative asymmetry index,which was constructed by the authors. Analysis of the results demonstrates no differences in the temporal andphasic variables of movements of the right and left lower limb. However, different profiles of angular changes inthe sagittal plane were observed, measured bilaterally for the ankle joint.

Keywords

  • angular changes
  • relative asymmetry index
  • bilateral data
  • Vicon
Open Access

The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onsetof muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-sixvolunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to theresistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistanceexercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (10x5 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40%(women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris andmaximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutivedays. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2and 3 (p≤0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p≥0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at thecentral muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p≤0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group(p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobicwarm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distalmuscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force.

Keywords

  • aerobic exercise
  • pain
  • athletic injuries
  • pain threshold
  • muscles
Open Access

The Role of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and Chosen Physiological Variables

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 69 - 79

Abstract

Exercise is one of the most powerful non-pharmacological strategies, which can affect nearly all cells andorgans in the body. Changes in the behavior of adult stem cells have been shown to occur in response to exercise.Exercise may act on regenerative potential of tissues by altering the ability to generate new stem cells and differentiatedcells that are able to carry out tissue specific functions. The purpose of this study was to reveal the role of aerobic andanaerobic training programs on CD34+ Stem Cells and chosen physiological variables. Twenty healthy male athletesaged 18-24 years were recruited for this study. Healthy low active males and BMI matched participants (n=10) aged20-22 years were recruited as controls. Aerobic and anaerobic training programs for 12 weeks were conducted.VO2max pulse observation was carried out using the Astrand Rhyming protocol. RBCs, WBCs, HB and hematocritwere estimated using a coulter counter, lactate by the Accusport apparatus, CD34+ stem cells by flow cytometry.VO2max was increased significantly in case of the aerobic training program compared to anaerobic one (62±2.2ml/kg/min vs. 54±2.1 ml/kg/min). Haemotological values increased significantly in the anaerobic program whencompared to the aerobic one, RBCs (5.3±0.3 and 4.9±0.2 mln/ul), WBCs (6.6±0.5 and 6.1±0.4 thous/ul), HB (15.4±0.4and 14.2±0.5 g/de), Hematocrit (4.6±1.2 and 4.4±1.1 %), CD34+ stem cells count increased significantly in case of theanaerobic program compared to the aerobic (251.6±21.64 and 130±14.61) and sedentary one (172±24.10). Thesefindings suggest that anaerobic training programs provoke better adaptation to exercise and stem cell counts may differbetween trained and sedentary subjects. Circulating immature cells are likely to be involved in angiogenesis and repairprocess, both mechanisms being associated with strenuous exercise. Knowledge of the physiological effects of training onstem cells might be of potential clinical use.

Keywords

  • Aerobic and anaerobic training programs
  • CD34+ stem cells
  • physiological variables
Open Access

The Relationship Between the Yo-Yo Tests, Anaerobic Performance and Aerobic Performance in Young Soccer Players

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 81 - 88

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship between performance in the Yo-Yo intermittentrecovery test level 1 (YIRT1), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YIRT2) and the Yo-Yo endurance test(continuous) (YET) with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Wingate anaerobic performance (WaNT) test resultsin young soccer players (age 15.00 ± 0.0 years, body height 176.3 ± 4.2 cm and body mass 68.1 ± 3.6 kg). Anergospirometry device was used during the treadmill test (TRT) to determine VO2max. At the end of the study,significant differences were found between the Yo-Yo tests and TRT in terms of HRmax (TRT = 195,92, YIRT1 =197,83, YIRT2 = 198,5 YET = 198) (p > 0.05). While there were moderate correlations between VO2max and YIRT 1-2performances (respectively, r = 0.56, r = 0.53), there was only a weak relationship between VO2max and YETperformance (r = 0.43) (distance covered). There were also moderate significant negative correlations betweenperformance in the YIRT2 and peak power measured in the WaNT (r = -0.55), although there were no significantcorrelations between performance in the three tests and average power. A moderate negative correlation was foundbetween performance in the YIRT2 and Fatigue index (FI) (r = -0,66). In conclusion, the YIRT2 may be a more suitablefield test for determining both aerobic and anaerobic performance in soccer players.

Keywords

  • Yo-Yo Tests
  • Wingate test
  • VO2max
  • soccer
  • anaerobic power
Open Access

The Role of Situational Variables in Analysing Physical Performance in Soccer

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Performance analysis in sport is used to investigate the performance of teams and players across differentsports. Research within this area, especially when focussing on the determinants of success, has grown rapidly in thelast few years. During this time, the role of a new concept, ‘situational variables’ has emerged. This term includes thedifferent game and situational conditions that may influence performance at a behavioural level. Given that soccer isdominated by strategic factors, it is reasonable to suggest that situational variables of match status (i.e. whether theteam is winning, losing or drawing), quality of opposition (strong or weak), and match location (i.e. playing at home oraway) may somehow influence the teams´ and players´ activities. These situational variables need to be analyzed indepth to understand their influence in team sports. The aim of this article was to examine the independent andinteractive effects of situational variables on physical performance in elite soccer. The view that professional soccerplayers regulate their physical efforts according to the specific demands of individual matches and periods of the game isoffered. In support of this argument results from recent studies are presented. Implications of this perspective for matchanalyst and coaches for evaluating performance are also considered.

Keywords

  • fatigue
  • soccer
  • physical performance
  • situational variables.
Open Access

The Effect of Fatigue on Kicking Velocity in Soccer Players

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 97 - 107

Abstract

Soccer is a game in which fatigue can negatively influence players’ performance. Few studies have examinedthe practical effects of fatigue on soccer performance skills. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectof fatigue, acutely induced by means of a soccer specific circuit on ball velocity. Ten amateur soccer players (age 27.3 ±5.25 yr; experience 16,8 ± 6.05 yr; level secondary division; body height 1,80 m ± 0,06; body mass 75,7 kg ± 5,78),participated in this study and performed maximal instep kicks before and after the implementation of an intensive,intermittent and repeated exercise protocol. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated a significantdecrease (p<0.05) in ball velocity after just one round of the fatigue circuit. However, after the third circuit ball velocityincreased and after the fifth circuit maximal ball velocity increased yet again (compared to the second circuit) and wasnot significantly different from before commencement of the fatigue protocol. The results partly confirmed thehypothesis of the negative influence of fatigue upon ball velocity in soccer kicking, demonstrating also some variabilityin the presented values of ball velocity perhaps theoretically accounted for by the general governor model.

Keywords

  • kicking velocity
  • soccer
  • fatigue
  • general governor model
Open Access

Game Analysis of Olympic, World and European Championships in Men’s Handball

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 109 - 118

Abstract

The development of men’s handball was analyzed using data from the Olympic, World and EuropeanChampionships held within the last eight years. The most obvious change, especially within these last ninetournaments, was that men’s handball was played more dynamically and rapidly, both in attack and defense, especiallyby European teams. The first aim of this study was to conduct a technical analysis of current handball and to determinefactors related to success in this sport discipline. The second aim was to compare the data of European Championshipswith other tournaments, considering the success of European teams in Men’s World Handball. The technical variablesused to compare the tournaments included: the average number of attacks, the efficiency of attacks, the efficiency of goalthrows, fast break goals per game, the efficiency of fast breaks, the efficiency of the goalkeeper, saves by the goalkeeperper game, number of turnovers per game, and the efficiency of position throws (wing, pivot, back court, break-through,fast break, and 7-meter). This technical analysis used cumulative statistics from the European Handball Federation andInternational Handball Federation. ANOVA revealed significant differences between the first eight teams in theEuropean Championships and their counterparts in the other two tournaments (Olympics and World Championships)in terms of several technical variables. The results showed that the efficiency of fast break, pivot position and back courtplayers affected the ranking in favor of the European teams in significant international tournaments.

Keywords

  • Handball
  • Position Efficiency
  • Technical Game Analysis
Open Access

New Regression Models to Evaluate the Relationship between Biomechanics of Gymnastic Vault and Initial Vault Difficulty Values

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 119 - 126

Abstract

The main objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between biomechanical parameters of vaultflights with respect to new models of initial vault difficulty values in men’s artistic gymnastic. The study sampleincluded vaults (n=64) and models (n=5) from the 2009 Code of Points (CoP) of the Federation International ofGymnastics (FIG). The dependent variable included all difficulty values ranging from 2-7.2 points, while the sample ofindependent variables included twelve biomechanical parameters. After implementing the regression analysis, it couldbe established that the best model derived only the second flight phase with 95% of explained variance.

Keywords

  • Modeling
  • Code of Points
  • Gymnastics
  • Biomechanics
Open Access

Effect of Various Warm-Up Protocols on Jump Performance in College Football Players

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 127 - 132

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of warm-up strategies on countermovement jumpperformance. Twenty-nine male college football players (age: 19.4 ± 1.1 years; body height: 179.0 ± 5.1 cm; body mass:73.1 ± 8.0 kg; % body fat: 11.1 ± 2.7) from the Tuzla University underwent a control (no warm-up) and differentwarm-up conditions: 1. general warm-up; 2. general warm-up with dynamic stretching; 3. general warm-up, dynamicstretching and passive stretching; 4. passive static stretching; 5. passive static stretching and general warm-up; and, 6.passive static stretching, general warm-up and dynamic stretching. Countermovement jump performance wasmeasured after each intervention or control. Results from one way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significantdifference on warm-up strategies at F (4.07, 113.86) = 69.56, p < 0.001, eta squared = 0.72. Bonferonni post hocrevealed that a general warm-up and a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted the greatest gains among allinterventions. On the other hand, no warm-up and passive static stretching displayed the least results incountermovement jump performance. In conclusion, countermovement jump performance preceded by a general warmupor a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted superior gains in countermovement jump performance.

Keywords

  • warm-up
  • static stretching
  • dynamic stretching
  • athletes
  • vertical jump
Open Access

Swimming Speed of The Breaststroke Kick

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 133 - 139

Abstract

The breaststroke kick is responsible for a considerable portion of the forward propulsion in breaststrokeswimming. The aim of this study was to measure selected anthropometric variables and functional properties of aswimmer’s body: length of body parts; functional range of motion in the leg joints and anaerobic power of the lowerlimbs. Chosen kinematic variables useful in the evaluation of swimming performance in the breaststroke kick wereevaluated. In the present research, swimming speed using breaststroke kicks depended to the largest extent on anaerobicendurance (0.46, p < 0.05 partial correlations with age control). In addition, knee external rotation and swimmingtechnique index had an impact on swimming speed and kick length (both partial correlations with age control 0.35, p <0.08). A kinematic analysis of the breaststroke kick hip displacement compatible with horizontal body displacement wassignificantly negatively correlated with foot slip in the water opposite to body displacement (partial correlations: withleg length control -0.43, p < 0.05; with shank length control -0.45, p < 0.05, respectively). Present research andmeasurements of selected body properties, physical endurance and kinematic movement analysis may help in making aprecise determination of an athlete’s talent for breaststroke swimming.

Keywords

  • swimming
  • breaststroke kick
  • kinematic analysis
Open Access

The Relationship Between Body Composition, Anaerobic Performance and Sprint Ability of Amputee Soccer Players

Published Online: 26 Jan 2013
Page range: 141 - 146

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, anaerobicperformance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Fifteen amputee soccer players participated in this studyvoluntarily. Subjects’ height, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage (Jackson and Pollock formula) andsomatotype characteristics (Heath-Carter system) were determined. The sprint performance at 10m, 20m and 30m wasevaluated, whereas the counter movement jump (CMJ), relative CMJ (RCMJ), squat jump (SJ) and relative SJ (RSJ)tests were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. The results of the Pearson Product Moment correlationanalysis indicated that body composition was significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ (p < 0.01), on the other hand, nomeasure of body composition was significantly related to the other component (p > 0.05). A significant correlation wasfound between CMJ, RCMJ, SJ, 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p < 0.05); whereas, in contrast, no measureof body composition was significantly related to the 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p > 0.05). In conclusion,the findings of the present study indicated that sprint performance was described as an essential factor in anaerobicperformance whereas body composition and somatotype play a determinant role in anaerobic and sprint performance inamputee soccer players.

Keyword

  • body composition
  • anaerobic performance
  • sprint
  • amputee athletes

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