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Aquatic Sports and Activities

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 31 (2012): Issue 2012 (March 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

17 Articles
Open Access

The Effects of Rearfoot Position on Lower Limb Kinematics during Bilateral Squatting in Asymptomatic Individuals with a Pronated Foot Type

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 5 - 15

Abstract

The Effects of Rearfoot Position on Lower Limb Kinematics during Bilateral Squatting in Asymptomatic Individuals with a Pronated Foot Type

Clinicians frequently assess movement performance during a bilateral squat to observe the biomechanical effects of foot orthotic prescription. However, the effects of rearfoot position on bilateral squat kinematics have not been established objectively to date. This study aims to investigate these effects in a population of healthy adults with a pronated foot type.

Ten healthy participants with a pronated foot type bilaterally (defined as a navicular drop >9mm) performed three squats in each of three conditions: barefoot, standing on 10mm shoe pitch platforms and standing on the platforms with foam wedges supporting the rearfoot in subtalar neutral. Kinematic data was recorded using a 3D motion analysis system. Between-conditions changes in peak joint angles attained were analysed.

Peak ankle dorsiflexion (p=0.0005) and hip abduction (p=0.024) were significantly reduced, while peak knee varus (p=0.028) and flexion (p=0.0005) were significantly increased during squatting in the subtalar neutral position compared to barefoot. Peak subtalar pronation decreased by 5.33° (SD 4.52°) when squatting on the platforms compared to barefoot (p=0.006), but no additional significant effects were noted in subtalar neutral.

Significant changes in lower limb kinematics may be observed during bilateral squatting when rearfoot alignment is altered. Shoe pitch alone may significantly reduce peak pronation during squatting in this population, but additional reductions were not observed in the subtalar neutral position. Further research investigating the effects of footwear and the subtalar neutral position in populations with lower limb pathology is required.

Keywords

  • orthotics
  • squat
  • lower limb
  • kinematics
  • pronation
Open Access

Intra- and Inter-Instrument Reliability of the Actiwatch 4 Accelerometer in a Mechanical Laboratory Setting

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 17 - 24

Abstract

Intra- and Inter-Instrument Reliability of the Actiwatch 4 Accelerometer in a Mechanical Laboratory Setting

This study aimed to quantify the intra-and inter-instrument reliability of the Actiwatch 4 accelerometer (AW4) in a mechanical setting. Twenty seven AW4 were attached to an isokinetic dynamometer and subjected to angular acceleration for 30 min at 50 deg/sec representing moderate intensity (MPA condition) and 200 deg/sec representing vigorous intensity (VPA condition), with a repeat trial conducted. Reliability was assessed using coefficient of variation (CV), absolute percent error (APE), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean AW4 activity counts displayed acceptable reliability according to CV in both conditions (ConMPA: CVintra = 4.6%, APEintra = 6.6%, CVinter = 6.4%, APEinter = 5.2%; ConVPA: CVintra = 3.9%, APEintra = 5.6%, CVinter = 5.9%, APEinter = 4.7%). When counts were re-categorised into minutes of MPA and VPA, lower CV values were observed (ConMPA: CVintra = 3.2%, APEintra = 4.5%, CVinter = 4.3%, APEinter = 3.2%; ConVPA: CVintra = 0.0%, APEintra = 0.0%, CVinter = 0.0%, APEinter = 0.0%). When activity counts were re-categorised as minutes of MVPA, excellent reliability was observed (CVintra, APEintra, CVinter, and APEinter = 0.0%) in both conditions. Mean AW4 activity counts exhibit reliability statistics comparable to other accelerometers. Reliability is improved when activity counts are re-categorised as time spent in MPA and VPA, with greatest reliability obtained when counts are recategorised as time spent in MVPA. As MVPA is the subcomponent of physical activity most associated with health benefits it would appear that the AW4 is reliable for measuring time spent in this health enhancing intensity category, at least from testing in a mechanical laboratory setting.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • activity monitor
  • measurement
  • repeatability
  • accelerometer
Open Access

Reliability of Handgrip Strength Test in Basketball Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 25 - 36

Abstract

Reliability of Handgrip Strength Test in Basketball Players

Handgrip strength is important in basketball as various movements rely on the continuous use of wrist and digits flexor muscles when catching, holding, shooting and throwing the ball. Therefore, the assessment of handgrip strength is used in prepubertal, adolescent and adult basketball players. The reliability of handgrip strength may be influenced by several factors including age. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of handgrip strength in basketball players from childhood to adulthood. Male basketball players (n = 90) were assigned into three groups: prepubertal (9.8 ± 0.7yrs), adolescents (14.4 ± 0.6yrs), and adults (26.1 ± 5.6yrs). Each participant performed three maximal isometric contractions on each hand in two occasions, one day apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. The test-retest reliability was high for both preferred (ICC = 0.94 - 0.98) and non-preferred (ICC = 0.96 - 0.98) hands, without differences in reliability among age-groups. The results showed a significant age-related increase (p < 0.05) in absolute and relative handgrip strength irrespective of hand preference. The present results indicate that maximum handgrip strength can be measured reliably, using the Jamar hand dynamometer, in basketball players from childhood to adulthood.

Keywords

  • test-retest
  • isometric strength
  • hand preference
  • age
  • children
Open Access

Effect of Olympic Weight Category on Performance in the Roundhouse Kick to the Head in Taekwondo

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 37 - 43

Abstract

Effect of Olympic Weight Category on Performance in the Roundhouse Kick to the Head in Taekwondo

In taekwondo, kick performance is generally measured using impact force and time. This study aimed to analyse performance in the roundhouse kick to the head according to execution distance between and within Olympic weight categories. The participants were 36 male athletes divided into three categories: featherweight (n = 10), welterweight (n = 15) and heavyweight (n = 11). Our results show that taekwondo athletes in all weight categories generate a similar relative impact force. However, the results indicate that weight has a large impact on kick performance, particularly in relation to total response time.

Keywords

  • biomechanics
  • taekwondo combat
  • execution distance
  • body mass
Open Access

A Comparison of a Multi-body Model and 3D Kinematics and EMG of Double-leg Circle on Pommel Horse

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 45 - 53

Abstract

A Comparison of a Multi-body Model and 3D Kinematics and EMG of Double-leg Circle on Pommel Horse

The purpose of this study was to establish a multi-segment dynamic model in the LifeMOD to examine kinematics of the center of mass and foot, and muscle forces of selected upper extremity muslces during a double-leg circle (DLC) movement on pommel horse in gymnastics and compared with three-dimensional kinematics of the movement and surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the muscles. The DLC movement of one elite male gymnast was collected. The three-dimensional (3D) data was imported in the Lifemod to create a full-body human model. A 16-Channel surface electromyography system was used to collect sEMG signals of middle deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimusdorsi, and pectoralis major. The 3D center of mass and foot displacement showed a good match with the computer simulated results. The muscle force estimations from the model during the four DLC phases were also generally supported by the integrated sEMG results, suggesting that the model was valid. A potential application of this model is to help identify shortcomings of athletes and help establish appropriate training plans errors in the DLC technique during training.

Keywords

  • gymnastics
  • DLC
  • kinematics
  • computer simulation
  • COG
Open Access

Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 55 - 68

Abstract

Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18-22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. -0.015 g/cm2). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women.

Keywords

  • osteoporosis
  • peak bone mass
  • bone mineral density
  • whole body vibration
  • resistance training
Open Access

Acute Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Sagittal Spinal Curvatures and Pelvic Tilt

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 69 - 78

Abstract

Acute Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Sagittal Spinal Curvatures and Pelvic Tilt

The aim of this study was to determine acute effects of hamstring stretching in thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt. Fifty-five adults (29.24 ± 7.41 years) were recruited for this study. Subjects performed a hamstring stretching protocol consisting of four exercises. The session consisted of 3 sets of each exercise and subjects held the position for 20 seconds with a 30-second rest period between sets and exercises . Thoracic and lumbar spinal angles and pelvic tilt were measured with a SpinalMouse in relaxed standing, sit-and-reach test and Macrae & Wright position. Hamstring extensibility was determined by active straight leg raise test and sit-and-reach score. All measures were performed before and immediately after the hamstring stretching protocol. Active straight leg raise angle and sit-and-reach score significantly improved immediately after the stretching protocol (p<0.001). Greater anterior pelvic tilt (p<0.001) and lumbar flexion (p<0.05) and a smaller thoracic kyphosis in the sit-and-reach (p<0.001) were found after the stretching protocol. However, stretching produced no significant change on spinal curvatures or pelvic tilt in standing and maximal trunk flexion with knees flexed. In conclusion, static stretching of the hamstring is associated to an immediate change in the sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic position when performing trunk flexion with knees extended, so that allowing for greater lumbar flexion and anterior pelvic tilt and lower thoracic kyphosis. Hamstring stretching is recommended prior to sport activities involving trunk flexion with the knees straight.

Keywords

  • flexibility
  • posture
  • thoracic
  • lumbar
  • spine
Open Access

Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 79 - 87

Abstract

Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas' psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction.

Keywords

  • anaerobic threshold
  • aerobic training
  • ballet
  • maximal oxygen uptake
Open Access

A Comparison Of Physiological Responses To Various Intermittent And Continuous Small-Sided Games In Young Soccer Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 89 - 96

Abstract

A Comparison Of Physiological Responses To Various Intermittent And Continuous Small-Sided Games In Young Soccer Players

The purpose of this study was to investigate physiological responses to various intermittent and continuous small-sided games (SSGs) - including 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side games - in young soccer players. Twenty soccer players (average age 16.6±0.5 years; mean body height 176.2±4.6 cm; mean body mass 65.9±5.6 kg) voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects underwent anthropometric measurements followed by the YoYo intermittent recovery test. Then, they played intermittent (SSGint) and continuous (SSGcon) 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side soccer-specific SSGs in random order at 2-day intervals. Paired t-tests were used to assess differences between the training regimens (intermittent and continuous) in terms of heart rate (HR), percentage of maximum HR (%HRmax), and blood lactate concentration (LA). The differences in LA, HR and %HRmax between the 2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side SSGint or the 2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side SSGcon were identified using a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The results demonstrated that the 3-a-side SSGint and SSGcon measurements were significantly higher than the 2-a-side and 4-a-side games in terms of HR and %HRmax, whereas the 2-a-side SSGint and SSGcon resulted in higher LA responses compared to other SSG types. The study results also demonstrated that SSGint and SSGcon are similar in terms of physiological responses except for 2-a-side game LA responses. The results of this study suggest that both SSGint and SSGcon could be used for the physiological adaptations required for soccer specific aerobic endurance.

Keywords

  • Aerobic endurance
  • training regimens
  • heart rate
  • percentage of maximum heart rate
Open Access

Determination of Maximal Oxygen Uptake Using the Bruce or a Novel Athlete-Led Protocol in a Mixed Population

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 97 - 104

Abstract

Determination of Maximal Oxygen Uptake Using the Bruce or a Novel Athlete-Led Protocol in a Mixed Population

Treadmill tests for maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) have traditionally used set speed and incline increments regardless of participants training or exercise background. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of a novel athlete-led protocol for determining maximal aerobic fitness in adults. Twenty-nine participants (21 male, 8 female, age 29.8 ± 9.5 y, BMI 24.4 ± 3.1, mean ± SD) from a variety of exercise backgrounds were asked to complete two maximal treadmill running tests (using the standard Bruce or a novel athlete-led protocol [ALP]) to volitional failure in a counter-balanced randomised cross-over trial one week apart. We found no substantial difference in maximal oxygen uptake (47.0 ± 9.1 and 46.8 ± 10.7 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean ± SD for the ALP and Bruce protocols respectively), evidenced by the Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.93 (90% confidence limits, 0.88-0.96). However, compared to the Bruce protocol, participants completing the ALP protocol attained a substantially higher maximal heart rate (ALP = 182.8 ± 10.5, Bruce = 179.7 ± 8.7 beats.min-1). Additionally, using the Bruce protocol took a longer period of time (23.2 ± 17.0 s) compared to the ALP protocol. It seems that using either treadmill protocol will give you similar maximal oxygen uptake results. We suggest the ALP protocol which is simpler, quicker and probably better at achieving maximal heart rates is a useful alternative to the traditional Bruce protocol.

Keywords

  • treadmill
  • running time
  • aerobic performance
Open Access

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 105 - 113

Abstract

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently.

Keywords

  • athletic performance
  • gender differences
  • age differences
  • stretching
Open Access

The GABPB1 gene A/G polymorphism in Polish rowers

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 115 - 120

Abstract

The <italic>GABPB1</italic> gene A/G polymorphism in Polish rowers

Nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF2), also referred to as the GA-binding protein (GABP) transcription factor, is a key transcriptional activator of many nuclear genes which encode a wide range of mitochondrial enzymes. The variants of the GABPB1 gene encoding the beta1 subunit of NRF2 protein have been associated with physical performance, particularly endurance. The aim of this study was to confirm the possible importance of the A/G polymorphism (rs7181866) in intron 3 of the GABPB1 gene in Polish rowers. The study was carried out on 55 Polish rowers and sedentary individuals, to evaluate the possible relationships between genotype and physical performance. DNA was extracted from buccal cells donated by the subjects. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the frequency of the GABPB1 A/G genotype (89.09% AA; 10.91% AG, 0% GG; vs. 97.69% AA; 2.31% AG; 0.00% GG) %; P = 0.012) and G allele (5.50% vs. 1.17%; P = 0.014) was significantly higher in the rowers compared to controls. The results suggest that the GABPB1 gene can be taken into consideration as a genetic marker in endurance athletes. However, these conclusions should be supported with more experimental studies on other GABPB1 polymorphisms and other genes in elite endurance athletes.

Keywords

  • GABPB1
  • GABP
  • NRF2
  • gene polymorphism
  • rowing
Open Access

The Effect of Immediate Post-Training Active and Passive Recovery Interventions on Anaerobic Performance and Lower Limb Flexibility in Professional Soccer Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 121 - 129

Abstract

The Effect of Immediate Post-Training Active and Passive Recovery Interventions on Anaerobic Performance and Lower Limb Flexibility in Professional Soccer Players

The capacity to recover from intense training, competition and matches is considered an important determinant in soccer performance. At present, there is no consensus on the effect of post-training recovery interventions on subsequent training session. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of active (12 min submaximal running and 8 min of static stretching) and passive recovery (20 min sitting on a bench) interventions performed immediately after a training session on anaerobic performances (CMJ, 20 m sprint and Balsom agility test) and lower limb flexibility 24 h after the training. During two experimental sessions, 31 professional soccer players participated in a randomized fully controlled trial design. The first session was designed to evaluate the player's anaerobic performances and lower limb flexibility (pretest). After baseline measurements, participants performed a standardized soccer training during which heart rate and RPE were recorded to evaluate the training load. At the end of the training unit all players were randomly assigned to the active recovery group and the passive recovery group. A second experimental session was organized to obtain the posttest values. Players performed the same test, administered in the same order than in the first trial. No significant differences between groups were observed in heart rate and RPE. No significant effect due to recovery interventions was found on lower limb flexibility and anaerobic performances except CMJ that posttest value was significantly greater in the active recovery group than in the passive group (p < 0.05).

Keywords

  • soccer
  • recovery
  • cool-down
  • fatigue
Open Access

The Effect of Introducing a Smaller and Lighter Basketball on Female Basketball Players' Shot Accuracy

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 131 - 137

Abstract

The Effect of Introducing a Smaller and Lighter Basketball on Female Basketball Players' Shot Accuracy

Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players' shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior women's European championships in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. A size 7 (larger and heavier) basketball was used by 286 players in 1,870 matches, and a size 6 basketball was used by 287 players in 1,966 matches. The players were categorised into three playing positions: guards, forwards and centres. The results revealed that statistically significant changes by year occurred only in terms of the percentage of successful free throws. With the size 6 basketball, this percentage decreased. Statistically significant differences between the playing positions were observed in terms of the percentage of field goals worth three points (between guards and forwards) and two points (between guards and centres). The results show that the introduction of the size 6 basketball did not lead to improvement in shooting accuracy (the opposite was found for free throws), although the number of three-point shots increased.

Keywords

  • basketball
  • women
  • size 6 basketball
  • playing efficiency
Open Access

The Use of Match Statistics that Discriminate Between Successful and Unsuccessful Soccer Teams

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 137 - 147

Abstract

The Use of Match Statistics that Discriminate Between Successful and Unsuccessful Soccer Teams

Three soccer World Cups were analysed with the aim of identifying the match statistics which best discriminated between winning, drawing and losing teams. The analysis was based on 177 matches played during the three most recent World Cup tournaments: Korea/Japan 2002 (59), Germany 2006 (59) and South Africa 2010 (59). Two categories of variables were studied: 1) those related to attacking play: goals scored, total shots, shots on target, shots off target, ball possession, number of off-sides committed, fouls received and corners; and 2) those related to defence: total shots received, shots on target received, shots off target received, off-sides received, fouls committed, corners against, yellow cards and red cards. Discriminant analysis of these matches revealed the following: (a) the variables related to attacking play that best differentiated between winning, drawing and losing teams were total shots, shots on target and ball possession; and (b) the most discriminating variables related to defence were total shots received and shots on target received. These results suggest that winning, drawing and losing national teams may be discriminated from one another on the basis of variables such as ball possession and the effectiveness of their attacking play. This information may be of benefit to both coaches and players, adding to their knowledge about soccer performance indicators and helping to guide the training process.

Keywords

  • soccer
  • match analysis
  • performance indicators
  • discriminant analysis
Open Access

The Relationship Between Muscle Strength, Anaerobic Performance, Agility, Sprint Ability and Vertical Jump Performance in Professional Basketball Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 149 - 158

Abstract

The Relationship Between Muscle Strength, Anaerobic Performance, Agility, Sprint Ability and Vertical Jump Performance in Professional Basketball Players

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic knee strength, anaerobic performance, sprinting ability, agility and vertical jump performance in first division basketball players. Twelve male first division basketball players participated in this study. The mean age was 25.1 ± 1.7 yrs; mean body height 194.8 ± 5.7 cm; mean body mass 92.3± 9.8 kg; mean PBF 10.1± 5.1; and mean VO2max 50.55 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min. Quadriceps and hamstrings were measured at 60° and 180°/s, anaerobic performance was evaluated using the Wingate anaerobic power test, sprint ability was determined by single sprint performance (10-30 m), jump performance was evaluated by countermovement (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests and agility performance was measured using the T drill agility test. Quadriceps strength was significantly correlated with peak power at all contraction velocities. However, for mean power, significant correlation was only found between the 60° left and 180° right knee quadriceps measurements. No measure of strength was significantly related to the measurements from/results of field tests. Moreover, strong relations were found between the performance of athletes in different field tests (p< 0.05). The use of correlation analysis is the limitation of the this study.

Keywords

  • Isokinetic strength
  • anaerobic power
  • vertical jump
  • sprinting
  • agility
Open Access

Isokinetic Strength Responses to Season-long Training and Competition in Turkish Elite Soccer Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 159 - 168

Abstract

Isokinetic Strength Responses to Season-long Training and Competition in Turkish Elite Soccer Players

There are not enough studies that describe the isokinetic strength of professional soccer players at high angular velocities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in isokinetic strength of Turkish professional soccer players (n=14) over the course of a 24-week soccer season. The isokinetic strength of players who underwent usual soccer training and weekly competition throughout the soccer season was assessed by means of the Biodex System 3 dynamometer with the knee attachment. The peak torque of knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured at angular velocities of 60°/s, 300°/s and 500°/s. Players were tested at the beginning and end of the competitive season. While the first- and second-test measurements did not show significant changes at 60°/s and 300°/s angular velocities, at the end of the training period, players' knee strength changed significantly at 500°/s angular velocities. In addition, the H/Q ratio improved significantly for the dominant as well as non-dominant leg at 500°/s. Significant bilateral strength improvements for knee flexors were also observed at 500°/s. The findings of this study suggest that usual daily soccer training (technical, tactical, power, strength, endurance, flexibility, etc.) and weekly competition might produce changes in knee strength at high angular velocities.

Keywords

  • isokinetic strength
  • H/Q ratio
  • bilateral strength
  • soccer
  • seasonal changes
17 Articles
Open Access

The Effects of Rearfoot Position on Lower Limb Kinematics during Bilateral Squatting in Asymptomatic Individuals with a Pronated Foot Type

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 5 - 15

Abstract

The Effects of Rearfoot Position on Lower Limb Kinematics during Bilateral Squatting in Asymptomatic Individuals with a Pronated Foot Type

Clinicians frequently assess movement performance during a bilateral squat to observe the biomechanical effects of foot orthotic prescription. However, the effects of rearfoot position on bilateral squat kinematics have not been established objectively to date. This study aims to investigate these effects in a population of healthy adults with a pronated foot type.

Ten healthy participants with a pronated foot type bilaterally (defined as a navicular drop >9mm) performed three squats in each of three conditions: barefoot, standing on 10mm shoe pitch platforms and standing on the platforms with foam wedges supporting the rearfoot in subtalar neutral. Kinematic data was recorded using a 3D motion analysis system. Between-conditions changes in peak joint angles attained were analysed.

Peak ankle dorsiflexion (p=0.0005) and hip abduction (p=0.024) were significantly reduced, while peak knee varus (p=0.028) and flexion (p=0.0005) were significantly increased during squatting in the subtalar neutral position compared to barefoot. Peak subtalar pronation decreased by 5.33° (SD 4.52°) when squatting on the platforms compared to barefoot (p=0.006), but no additional significant effects were noted in subtalar neutral.

Significant changes in lower limb kinematics may be observed during bilateral squatting when rearfoot alignment is altered. Shoe pitch alone may significantly reduce peak pronation during squatting in this population, but additional reductions were not observed in the subtalar neutral position. Further research investigating the effects of footwear and the subtalar neutral position in populations with lower limb pathology is required.

Keywords

  • orthotics
  • squat
  • lower limb
  • kinematics
  • pronation
Open Access

Intra- and Inter-Instrument Reliability of the Actiwatch 4 Accelerometer in a Mechanical Laboratory Setting

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 17 - 24

Abstract

Intra- and Inter-Instrument Reliability of the Actiwatch 4 Accelerometer in a Mechanical Laboratory Setting

This study aimed to quantify the intra-and inter-instrument reliability of the Actiwatch 4 accelerometer (AW4) in a mechanical setting. Twenty seven AW4 were attached to an isokinetic dynamometer and subjected to angular acceleration for 30 min at 50 deg/sec representing moderate intensity (MPA condition) and 200 deg/sec representing vigorous intensity (VPA condition), with a repeat trial conducted. Reliability was assessed using coefficient of variation (CV), absolute percent error (APE), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean AW4 activity counts displayed acceptable reliability according to CV in both conditions (ConMPA: CVintra = 4.6%, APEintra = 6.6%, CVinter = 6.4%, APEinter = 5.2%; ConVPA: CVintra = 3.9%, APEintra = 5.6%, CVinter = 5.9%, APEinter = 4.7%). When counts were re-categorised into minutes of MPA and VPA, lower CV values were observed (ConMPA: CVintra = 3.2%, APEintra = 4.5%, CVinter = 4.3%, APEinter = 3.2%; ConVPA: CVintra = 0.0%, APEintra = 0.0%, CVinter = 0.0%, APEinter = 0.0%). When activity counts were re-categorised as minutes of MVPA, excellent reliability was observed (CVintra, APEintra, CVinter, and APEinter = 0.0%) in both conditions. Mean AW4 activity counts exhibit reliability statistics comparable to other accelerometers. Reliability is improved when activity counts are re-categorised as time spent in MPA and VPA, with greatest reliability obtained when counts are recategorised as time spent in MVPA. As MVPA is the subcomponent of physical activity most associated with health benefits it would appear that the AW4 is reliable for measuring time spent in this health enhancing intensity category, at least from testing in a mechanical laboratory setting.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • activity monitor
  • measurement
  • repeatability
  • accelerometer
Open Access

Reliability of Handgrip Strength Test in Basketball Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 25 - 36

Abstract

Reliability of Handgrip Strength Test in Basketball Players

Handgrip strength is important in basketball as various movements rely on the continuous use of wrist and digits flexor muscles when catching, holding, shooting and throwing the ball. Therefore, the assessment of handgrip strength is used in prepubertal, adolescent and adult basketball players. The reliability of handgrip strength may be influenced by several factors including age. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of handgrip strength in basketball players from childhood to adulthood. Male basketball players (n = 90) were assigned into three groups: prepubertal (9.8 ± 0.7yrs), adolescents (14.4 ± 0.6yrs), and adults (26.1 ± 5.6yrs). Each participant performed three maximal isometric contractions on each hand in two occasions, one day apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. The test-retest reliability was high for both preferred (ICC = 0.94 - 0.98) and non-preferred (ICC = 0.96 - 0.98) hands, without differences in reliability among age-groups. The results showed a significant age-related increase (p < 0.05) in absolute and relative handgrip strength irrespective of hand preference. The present results indicate that maximum handgrip strength can be measured reliably, using the Jamar hand dynamometer, in basketball players from childhood to adulthood.

Keywords

  • test-retest
  • isometric strength
  • hand preference
  • age
  • children
Open Access

Effect of Olympic Weight Category on Performance in the Roundhouse Kick to the Head in Taekwondo

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 37 - 43

Abstract

Effect of Olympic Weight Category on Performance in the Roundhouse Kick to the Head in Taekwondo

In taekwondo, kick performance is generally measured using impact force and time. This study aimed to analyse performance in the roundhouse kick to the head according to execution distance between and within Olympic weight categories. The participants were 36 male athletes divided into three categories: featherweight (n = 10), welterweight (n = 15) and heavyweight (n = 11). Our results show that taekwondo athletes in all weight categories generate a similar relative impact force. However, the results indicate that weight has a large impact on kick performance, particularly in relation to total response time.

Keywords

  • biomechanics
  • taekwondo combat
  • execution distance
  • body mass
Open Access

A Comparison of a Multi-body Model and 3D Kinematics and EMG of Double-leg Circle on Pommel Horse

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 45 - 53

Abstract

A Comparison of a Multi-body Model and 3D Kinematics and EMG of Double-leg Circle on Pommel Horse

The purpose of this study was to establish a multi-segment dynamic model in the LifeMOD to examine kinematics of the center of mass and foot, and muscle forces of selected upper extremity muslces during a double-leg circle (DLC) movement on pommel horse in gymnastics and compared with three-dimensional kinematics of the movement and surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the muscles. The DLC movement of one elite male gymnast was collected. The three-dimensional (3D) data was imported in the Lifemod to create a full-body human model. A 16-Channel surface electromyography system was used to collect sEMG signals of middle deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, latissimusdorsi, and pectoralis major. The 3D center of mass and foot displacement showed a good match with the computer simulated results. The muscle force estimations from the model during the four DLC phases were also generally supported by the integrated sEMG results, suggesting that the model was valid. A potential application of this model is to help identify shortcomings of athletes and help establish appropriate training plans errors in the DLC technique during training.

Keywords

  • gymnastics
  • DLC
  • kinematics
  • computer simulation
  • COG
Open Access

Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 55 - 68

Abstract

Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18-22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. -0.015 g/cm2). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women.

Keywords

  • osteoporosis
  • peak bone mass
  • bone mineral density
  • whole body vibration
  • resistance training
Open Access

Acute Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Sagittal Spinal Curvatures and Pelvic Tilt

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 69 - 78

Abstract

Acute Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Sagittal Spinal Curvatures and Pelvic Tilt

The aim of this study was to determine acute effects of hamstring stretching in thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt. Fifty-five adults (29.24 ± 7.41 years) were recruited for this study. Subjects performed a hamstring stretching protocol consisting of four exercises. The session consisted of 3 sets of each exercise and subjects held the position for 20 seconds with a 30-second rest period between sets and exercises . Thoracic and lumbar spinal angles and pelvic tilt were measured with a SpinalMouse in relaxed standing, sit-and-reach test and Macrae & Wright position. Hamstring extensibility was determined by active straight leg raise test and sit-and-reach score. All measures were performed before and immediately after the hamstring stretching protocol. Active straight leg raise angle and sit-and-reach score significantly improved immediately after the stretching protocol (p<0.001). Greater anterior pelvic tilt (p<0.001) and lumbar flexion (p<0.05) and a smaller thoracic kyphosis in the sit-and-reach (p<0.001) were found after the stretching protocol. However, stretching produced no significant change on spinal curvatures or pelvic tilt in standing and maximal trunk flexion with knees flexed. In conclusion, static stretching of the hamstring is associated to an immediate change in the sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic position when performing trunk flexion with knees extended, so that allowing for greater lumbar flexion and anterior pelvic tilt and lower thoracic kyphosis. Hamstring stretching is recommended prior to sport activities involving trunk flexion with the knees straight.

Keywords

  • flexibility
  • posture
  • thoracic
  • lumbar
  • spine
Open Access

Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 79 - 87

Abstract

Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas' psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction.

Keywords

  • anaerobic threshold
  • aerobic training
  • ballet
  • maximal oxygen uptake
Open Access

A Comparison Of Physiological Responses To Various Intermittent And Continuous Small-Sided Games In Young Soccer Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 89 - 96

Abstract

A Comparison Of Physiological Responses To Various Intermittent And Continuous Small-Sided Games In Young Soccer Players

The purpose of this study was to investigate physiological responses to various intermittent and continuous small-sided games (SSGs) - including 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side games - in young soccer players. Twenty soccer players (average age 16.6±0.5 years; mean body height 176.2±4.6 cm; mean body mass 65.9±5.6 kg) voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects underwent anthropometric measurements followed by the YoYo intermittent recovery test. Then, they played intermittent (SSGint) and continuous (SSGcon) 2-a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side soccer-specific SSGs in random order at 2-day intervals. Paired t-tests were used to assess differences between the training regimens (intermittent and continuous) in terms of heart rate (HR), percentage of maximum HR (%HRmax), and blood lactate concentration (LA). The differences in LA, HR and %HRmax between the 2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side SSGint or the 2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side SSGcon were identified using a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The results demonstrated that the 3-a-side SSGint and SSGcon measurements were significantly higher than the 2-a-side and 4-a-side games in terms of HR and %HRmax, whereas the 2-a-side SSGint and SSGcon resulted in higher LA responses compared to other SSG types. The study results also demonstrated that SSGint and SSGcon are similar in terms of physiological responses except for 2-a-side game LA responses. The results of this study suggest that both SSGint and SSGcon could be used for the physiological adaptations required for soccer specific aerobic endurance.

Keywords

  • Aerobic endurance
  • training regimens
  • heart rate
  • percentage of maximum heart rate
Open Access

Determination of Maximal Oxygen Uptake Using the Bruce or a Novel Athlete-Led Protocol in a Mixed Population

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 97 - 104

Abstract

Determination of Maximal Oxygen Uptake Using the Bruce or a Novel Athlete-Led Protocol in a Mixed Population

Treadmill tests for maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) have traditionally used set speed and incline increments regardless of participants training or exercise background. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of a novel athlete-led protocol for determining maximal aerobic fitness in adults. Twenty-nine participants (21 male, 8 female, age 29.8 ± 9.5 y, BMI 24.4 ± 3.1, mean ± SD) from a variety of exercise backgrounds were asked to complete two maximal treadmill running tests (using the standard Bruce or a novel athlete-led protocol [ALP]) to volitional failure in a counter-balanced randomised cross-over trial one week apart. We found no substantial difference in maximal oxygen uptake (47.0 ± 9.1 and 46.8 ± 10.7 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean ± SD for the ALP and Bruce protocols respectively), evidenced by the Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.93 (90% confidence limits, 0.88-0.96). However, compared to the Bruce protocol, participants completing the ALP protocol attained a substantially higher maximal heart rate (ALP = 182.8 ± 10.5, Bruce = 179.7 ± 8.7 beats.min-1). Additionally, using the Bruce protocol took a longer period of time (23.2 ± 17.0 s) compared to the ALP protocol. It seems that using either treadmill protocol will give you similar maximal oxygen uptake results. We suggest the ALP protocol which is simpler, quicker and probably better at achieving maximal heart rates is a useful alternative to the traditional Bruce protocol.

Keywords

  • treadmill
  • running time
  • aerobic performance
Open Access

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 105 - 113

Abstract

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently.

Keywords

  • athletic performance
  • gender differences
  • age differences
  • stretching
Open Access

The GABPB1 gene A/G polymorphism in Polish rowers

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 115 - 120

Abstract

The <italic>GABPB1</italic> gene A/G polymorphism in Polish rowers

Nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF2), also referred to as the GA-binding protein (GABP) transcription factor, is a key transcriptional activator of many nuclear genes which encode a wide range of mitochondrial enzymes. The variants of the GABPB1 gene encoding the beta1 subunit of NRF2 protein have been associated with physical performance, particularly endurance. The aim of this study was to confirm the possible importance of the A/G polymorphism (rs7181866) in intron 3 of the GABPB1 gene in Polish rowers. The study was carried out on 55 Polish rowers and sedentary individuals, to evaluate the possible relationships between genotype and physical performance. DNA was extracted from buccal cells donated by the subjects. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the frequency of the GABPB1 A/G genotype (89.09% AA; 10.91% AG, 0% GG; vs. 97.69% AA; 2.31% AG; 0.00% GG) %; P = 0.012) and G allele (5.50% vs. 1.17%; P = 0.014) was significantly higher in the rowers compared to controls. The results suggest that the GABPB1 gene can be taken into consideration as a genetic marker in endurance athletes. However, these conclusions should be supported with more experimental studies on other GABPB1 polymorphisms and other genes in elite endurance athletes.

Keywords

  • GABPB1
  • GABP
  • NRF2
  • gene polymorphism
  • rowing
Open Access

The Effect of Immediate Post-Training Active and Passive Recovery Interventions on Anaerobic Performance and Lower Limb Flexibility in Professional Soccer Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 121 - 129

Abstract

The Effect of Immediate Post-Training Active and Passive Recovery Interventions on Anaerobic Performance and Lower Limb Flexibility in Professional Soccer Players

The capacity to recover from intense training, competition and matches is considered an important determinant in soccer performance. At present, there is no consensus on the effect of post-training recovery interventions on subsequent training session. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of active (12 min submaximal running and 8 min of static stretching) and passive recovery (20 min sitting on a bench) interventions performed immediately after a training session on anaerobic performances (CMJ, 20 m sprint and Balsom agility test) and lower limb flexibility 24 h after the training. During two experimental sessions, 31 professional soccer players participated in a randomized fully controlled trial design. The first session was designed to evaluate the player's anaerobic performances and lower limb flexibility (pretest). After baseline measurements, participants performed a standardized soccer training during which heart rate and RPE were recorded to evaluate the training load. At the end of the training unit all players were randomly assigned to the active recovery group and the passive recovery group. A second experimental session was organized to obtain the posttest values. Players performed the same test, administered in the same order than in the first trial. No significant differences between groups were observed in heart rate and RPE. No significant effect due to recovery interventions was found on lower limb flexibility and anaerobic performances except CMJ that posttest value was significantly greater in the active recovery group than in the passive group (p < 0.05).

Keywords

  • soccer
  • recovery
  • cool-down
  • fatigue
Open Access

The Effect of Introducing a Smaller and Lighter Basketball on Female Basketball Players' Shot Accuracy

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 131 - 137

Abstract

The Effect of Introducing a Smaller and Lighter Basketball on Female Basketball Players' Shot Accuracy

Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players' shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior women's European championships in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. A size 7 (larger and heavier) basketball was used by 286 players in 1,870 matches, and a size 6 basketball was used by 287 players in 1,966 matches. The players were categorised into three playing positions: guards, forwards and centres. The results revealed that statistically significant changes by year occurred only in terms of the percentage of successful free throws. With the size 6 basketball, this percentage decreased. Statistically significant differences between the playing positions were observed in terms of the percentage of field goals worth three points (between guards and forwards) and two points (between guards and centres). The results show that the introduction of the size 6 basketball did not lead to improvement in shooting accuracy (the opposite was found for free throws), although the number of three-point shots increased.

Keywords

  • basketball
  • women
  • size 6 basketball
  • playing efficiency
Open Access

The Use of Match Statistics that Discriminate Between Successful and Unsuccessful Soccer Teams

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 137 - 147

Abstract

The Use of Match Statistics that Discriminate Between Successful and Unsuccessful Soccer Teams

Three soccer World Cups were analysed with the aim of identifying the match statistics which best discriminated between winning, drawing and losing teams. The analysis was based on 177 matches played during the three most recent World Cup tournaments: Korea/Japan 2002 (59), Germany 2006 (59) and South Africa 2010 (59). Two categories of variables were studied: 1) those related to attacking play: goals scored, total shots, shots on target, shots off target, ball possession, number of off-sides committed, fouls received and corners; and 2) those related to defence: total shots received, shots on target received, shots off target received, off-sides received, fouls committed, corners against, yellow cards and red cards. Discriminant analysis of these matches revealed the following: (a) the variables related to attacking play that best differentiated between winning, drawing and losing teams were total shots, shots on target and ball possession; and (b) the most discriminating variables related to defence were total shots received and shots on target received. These results suggest that winning, drawing and losing national teams may be discriminated from one another on the basis of variables such as ball possession and the effectiveness of their attacking play. This information may be of benefit to both coaches and players, adding to their knowledge about soccer performance indicators and helping to guide the training process.

Keywords

  • soccer
  • match analysis
  • performance indicators
  • discriminant analysis
Open Access

The Relationship Between Muscle Strength, Anaerobic Performance, Agility, Sprint Ability and Vertical Jump Performance in Professional Basketball Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 149 - 158

Abstract

The Relationship Between Muscle Strength, Anaerobic Performance, Agility, Sprint Ability and Vertical Jump Performance in Professional Basketball Players

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic knee strength, anaerobic performance, sprinting ability, agility and vertical jump performance in first division basketball players. Twelve male first division basketball players participated in this study. The mean age was 25.1 ± 1.7 yrs; mean body height 194.8 ± 5.7 cm; mean body mass 92.3± 9.8 kg; mean PBF 10.1± 5.1; and mean VO2max 50.55 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min. Quadriceps and hamstrings were measured at 60° and 180°/s, anaerobic performance was evaluated using the Wingate anaerobic power test, sprint ability was determined by single sprint performance (10-30 m), jump performance was evaluated by countermovement (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests and agility performance was measured using the T drill agility test. Quadriceps strength was significantly correlated with peak power at all contraction velocities. However, for mean power, significant correlation was only found between the 60° left and 180° right knee quadriceps measurements. No measure of strength was significantly related to the measurements from/results of field tests. Moreover, strong relations were found between the performance of athletes in different field tests (p< 0.05). The use of correlation analysis is the limitation of the this study.

Keywords

  • Isokinetic strength
  • anaerobic power
  • vertical jump
  • sprinting
  • agility
Open Access

Isokinetic Strength Responses to Season-long Training and Competition in Turkish Elite Soccer Players

Published Online: 03 Apr 2012
Page range: 159 - 168

Abstract

Isokinetic Strength Responses to Season-long Training and Competition in Turkish Elite Soccer Players

There are not enough studies that describe the isokinetic strength of professional soccer players at high angular velocities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in isokinetic strength of Turkish professional soccer players (n=14) over the course of a 24-week soccer season. The isokinetic strength of players who underwent usual soccer training and weekly competition throughout the soccer season was assessed by means of the Biodex System 3 dynamometer with the knee attachment. The peak torque of knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured at angular velocities of 60°/s, 300°/s and 500°/s. Players were tested at the beginning and end of the competitive season. While the first- and second-test measurements did not show significant changes at 60°/s and 300°/s angular velocities, at the end of the training period, players' knee strength changed significantly at 500°/s angular velocities. In addition, the H/Q ratio improved significantly for the dominant as well as non-dominant leg at 500°/s. Significant bilateral strength improvements for knee flexors were also observed at 500°/s. The findings of this study suggest that usual daily soccer training (technical, tactical, power, strength, endurance, flexibility, etc.) and weekly competition might produce changes in knee strength at high angular velocities.

Keywords

  • isokinetic strength
  • H/Q ratio
  • bilateral strength
  • soccer
  • seasonal changes

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