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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 30 (2011): Issue 2011 (December 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

21 Articles
Open Access

Electromyographic Activity and Applied Load During High Intensity Elastic Resistance and Nautilus Machine Exercises

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 5 - 12

Abstract

Electromyographic Activity and Applied Load During High Intensity Elastic Resistance and Nautilus Machine Exercises

This study was designed to quantify and compare Electromyographic activity (EMG) and applied load in quadriceps muscle within performing high intensity knee extension exercises by Elastic Resistance (ER) and Nautilus Machine (NM). Sixteen male and female subjects (22.4 ± 4.7 yrs) completed 8 RM seated knee extension by NM, elastic tubing with original length (E0) and elastic tubing with 30% decrement of original length (E30). The mean value of EMG and external force were calculated and synchronized across various segments of motion for the three modes of training. The results demonstrated that in the early concentric and late eccentric segments of contraction, NM elicited significantly higher muscle activation than both E30 and E0 (p < 0.05). However, in the mid-concentric and mid-eccentric as well as late concentric and early eccentric segments no significant differences were observed between NM and E30. These findings supported the approach that developing external recoil of force in ER device by reducing 30% of initial length of elastic material can offer similar neuromuscular activation compared with NM. On this basis, E30 can be suggested as an affordable and non-gym based exercise device which has the capacity to provide an appropriate high resistance stimulus to meet the training requirement of athletes.

Keywords

  • electromyogram
  • elastic tubing
  • variable resistance training
  • multiple repetitions maximum
Open Access

Kinematics and Kinetics of Taekwon-do Side Kick

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 13 - 20

Abstract

Kinematics and Kinetics of Taekwon-do Side Kick

The aim of the paper is to present an analysis of the influence of selected kinematic factors on the side kick technique. This issue is especially important in the traditional version of taekwon-do, in which a single strike may reveal the winner. Six taekwon-do (International Taekwon-do Federation) athletes were asked to participate in this case study. Generally accepted criteria of sports technique biomechanical analysis were adhered to. The athletes executed a side kick three times (in Taekwon-do terminology referred to as yop chagi) in a way which they use the kick in board breaking. The obtained data were used to determine the mean velocity changes in the function of relative extension length of the kicking leg. The maximum knee and foot velocities in the Cartesian coordinate system were determined. The leg lifting time and the duration of kick execution as well as the maximum force which the standing foot exerted on the ground were also determined. On the basis of the obtained values, mean values and standard deviations were calculated. The correlation dependence (r=0.72) shows that greater knee velocity affects the velocity which the foot develops as well as the fact that the total time of kick execution depends on the velocity which the knee (r = -0.59) and the foot (r = -0.86) develop in the leg lifting phase. The average maximum speed was obtained at the length of the leg equal to 82% of the maximum length of the fully extended leg. This length can be considered the optimum value for achieving the maximum dynamics of the kick.

Keywords

  • taekwon-do
  • movement analysis
  • kick kinetics
  • power test
Open Access

Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 21 - 28

Abstract

Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N × m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (-0.69, -0.81, -0.71 and -0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo.

Keywords

  • judo
  • somatotype
  • strength
  • power
Open Access

Short-Term Isokinetic Training Versus Isotonic Training: Effects on Asymmetry in Strength of Thigh Muscles

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 29 - 35

Abstract

Short-Term Isokinetic Training Versus Isotonic Training: Effects on Asymmetry in Strength of Thigh Muscles

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two training protocols on the isokinetic performance of athletes. The study was conducted in 38 athletes, (age 23.3 ± 3.6 years) participating in national level leagues of different sports, whose initial concentric hamstrings-to-quadriceps (conH/Q) torque ratio was lower than 0.5. During seasonal testing, an isokinetic measurement of knee extensors and flexors was performed at 60º/s. The athletes were divided into two groups. Nineteen athletes performed the isokinetic training protocol (IT) while the second group of 19 athletes followed the isotonic training protocol (RT). Both protocols lasted 4 weeks. After completing the training protocols, both groups underwent a final isokinetic testing. The isokinetic data revealed significant increases after training in measures of peak torque in both extensor and flexor muscle groups, in both the IT and RT study groups (p < 0.05). There were significant increases (p< 0.05) in conH/Q ratio in both groups after the implemented protocols, but greater in IT group. Consequently, applied IT protocol induced changes in working muscles, thereby restoring detected asymmetry to an acceptable balance more efficiently compared to RT protocol.

Keywords

  • Knee joint
  • muscle imbalance
  • isokinetic training
  • isotonic training
Open Access

The Kinematics of Trunk and Upper Extremities in One-Handed and Two-Handed Backhand Stroke

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 37 - 47

Abstract

The Kinematics of Trunk and Upper Extremities in One-Handed and Two-Handed Backhand Stroke

The aim of this study was to present kinematics of trunk and upper extremities in tennis players who perform one-handed and two-handed backhand strokes. The study aimed to address the question of whether one of those techniques has some important advantage over the other. If so, what makes it superior?

The study included 10 tennis coaches with average coaching experience of 9 years. The coaches were asked to hit 15 one-handed and two-handed backhands. The tests were carried out in a laboratory. A sponge ball was used in order to protect the measurement equipment. Video motion analysis was carried out using BTS SMART system; images were recorded with 6 cameras with a rate of 120 frames per second. The analysis of both backhand strokes focused on the second phase of the stroke (acceleration).

The use of an eight-element model of human body for description of upper body motion in both techniques revealed kinematic differences in how both backhands are performed. The two-handed backhand was performed in closed kinetic chain with 8 degrees of freedom, whereas the one-handed backhand involved an open kinetic chain with 7 degrees of freedom. Higher rigidity of upper extremities which are connected with trunk in the two-handed backhand, contributes to an elevated trunk effect in this stroke. This is confirmed by higher component velocities for racket handle, which result from trunk rotation in the two-handed backhand and a negative separation angle in the two-handed backhand at the moment of contact of the racket with the ball.

The study does not provide a clear-cut answer to the question of advantages of one technique over the other; however, it reveals dissimilar patterns of driving the racket in both techniques, which suggests the need for extending the analysis of techniques of both backhands with additional kinematics of tennis racket in consideration of measurements of ball velocities.

Keywords

  • biomechanics
  • motion analysis
  • tennis
  • backhand stroke
Open Access

Physiological and Physical Effects of Different Milk Protein Supplements in Elite Soccer Players

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 49 - 57

Abstract

Physiological and Physical Effects of Different Milk Protein Supplements in Elite Soccer Players

Brazilian soccer championships involve a large number of teams and are known to cause stress and loss of muscle mass besides other negative physical consequences. This study was designed to compare the effects produced by three types of protein supplements on body composition, biochemical parameters and performance of a top Brazilian professional soccer team during an actual tournament. Twenty-four athletes assessed as having a normal nutrient intake were divided into three groups according to supplementation. Immediately after each daily training, the athletes received 1 g × kg-1 of body weight × day-1 of either whey protein (WP), hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP) or casein (CAS) for eight weeks. Before and after the experimental period, anthropometric characteristics, physical performance by the yo-yo and 3000m tests, and several biochemical variables in blood (uric acid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, glucose) were measured. While no improvement in physical performance was observed with regard to the applied treatments, casein supplementation resulted in muscle mass increase (p<0.039), while WP and HWP favoured the maintenance of the initial muscle mass. Moreover, the eight-week intervention was found to cause no abnormalities in biochemical and anthropometric variables monitored, but instead, the intervention showed to be positive in comparison to the adverse anthropometric changes, when no supplementation was made. It was concluded that supplementation immediately after training sessions with any of the three sources of protein during the competitive period is beneficial and safe, as well as capable of sustaining or even increasing muscle mass.

Keywords

  • whey protein
  • protein hydrolyzates
  • casein
  • physical performance
  • soccer athletes
  • BCAA
Open Access

Serum Concentrations of S100B are not Affected by Cycling to Exhaustion With or Without Vibration

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 59 - 63

Abstract

Serum Concentrations of S100B are not Affected by Cycling to Exhaustion With or Without Vibration

The calcium-binding protein S100B is produced primarily by astrocytes and exerts concentration-dependent paracrine and autocrine effects on neurons and glia. The numerous findings of a correlation between S100B and traumatic brain injury (TBI) have resulted in the employment of this protein as a clinical biomarker for such injury. Our present aim was to determine whether cycling with (V) or without (NV) vibration alters serum concentrations of S100B. Twelve healthy, male non-smokers (age: 25.3±1.6 yrs, body mass: 74.2±5.9 kg, body height: 181.0±3.7 cm, VO2peak: 56.9±5.1 ml·min-1·kg-1 (means ± SD)) completed in random order two separate trials to exhaustion on a vibrating bicycle (amplitude 4 mm and frequency 20 Hz) connected to an ergometer. The initial workload of 100 W was elevated by 50 W every 5 min and the mean maximal period of exercise was 25:27±1:30 min. The S100B in venous blood taken at rest, immediately after the test, and 30, 60 and 240 min post-exercise exhibited no significant differences (p>0.05), suggesting that cycling with and without vibration does not influence this parameter.

Keywords

  • biomarker
  • neurotrophin
  • hormone
  • endurance
  • serum
Open Access

The Effect of Three Days of Judo Training Sessions on the Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress Markers

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 65 - 73

Abstract

The Effect of Three Days of Judo Training Sessions on the Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress Markers

The main purpose of this study was to investigate how extreme physical strain influences cytokine response and oxidative stress markers by examining professional judo athletes during a typical 3-day judo training session (randori combat training).

Creatine kinase (CK) activity, a marker of muscle damage, was considerably elevated immediately after randori training. Pro- (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-10) cytokines were also increased. The strongest effect was seen in IL-1β concentration, which correlated with CK activity (r = 0.49, P < 0.05). All the observed cytokines returned to baseline (IL-1β) or even dropped below initial levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) 12 h after completing the training. Lipid peroxides (LPO), a marker of reactive oxygen species, also decreased below their initial values. LPO levels correlated directly with IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10.

This study is the first to evaluate the effect of a 3-day judo training session on muscle damage by evaluating the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. It is also the first to demonstrate significant changes in the blood cytokine profile that correlate with lipid peroxide levels and muscle damage.

Keywords

  • cytokines
  • lipid peroxides
  • muscle damage
  • sport training
Open Access

Impact of 10 Sessions of Whole Body Cryostimulation on Cutaneous Microcirculation Measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 75 - 83

Abstract

Impact of 10 Sessions of Whole Body Cryostimulation on Cutaneous Microcirculation Measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basic and evoked blood flow in the skin microcirculation of the hand, one day and ten days after a series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions, in healthy individuals.

The study group included 32 volunteers - 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of cryotherapy in a cryogenic chamber. The variables were recorded before the series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions (first measurement), one day after the last session (second measurement) and ten days later (third measurement). Rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, reaction to temperature and arterio-venous reflex index were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry.

The values recorded for rest flow, a post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, a reaction to temperature and arterio - venous reflex index were significantly higher both in the second and third measurement compared to the initial one. Differences were recorded both in men and women. The values of frequency in the range of 0,01 Hz to 2 Hz (heart frequency dependent) were significantly lower after whole-body cryostimulation in both men and women. In the range of myogenic frequency significantly higher values were recorded in the second and third measurement compared to the first one.

Recorded data suggest improved response of the cutaneous microcirculation to applied stimuli in both women and men. Positive effects of cryostimulation persist in the tested group for 10 consecutive days.

Keywords

  • cryotherapy
  • skin blood flow
  • rest flow
  • post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction
  • arterio-venous reflex index
Open Access

Application of Platelet Rich Plasma in Sports Medicine

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 85 - 97

Abstract

Application of Platelet Rich Plasma in Sports Medicine

Any new method of treatment is associated with high expectations for its success, particularly if the therapy is based not only on the premise of achieving a symptomatic effect, but also improving functional quality and repairing structurally damaged tissues. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) application was shown to be a successful catalyst in the healing process for a wide variety of conditions in animal and human models. However, its use has been controversial due to many types of the PRP definition, optimal concentration, and modalities of implementation. In the qualification of patients for PRP treatment, not only should medical indications be considered, but also the role of participation in therapy with a physiotherapist supervising physical parameters and techniques used during recovery time. Further study is required in order to define optimal handling procedures of PRP injection. Long-term follow up will reveal if the promise of this substance can be realized and implemented to maximize its potential as a therapeutic remedy.

Keywords

  • Platelet-rich plasma
  • tendinopathy
  • musculoskeletal injuries
Open Access

Comparison of Chosen Physical Fitness Characteristics of Turkish Professional Basketball Players by Division and Playing Position

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 99 - 106

Abstract

Comparison of Chosen Physical Fitness Characteristics of Turkish Professional Basketball Players by Division and Playing Position

The purpose of the present study was to compare chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players in different divisions (first and second division) and playing positions. Forty-five professional male basketball players (14 guards, 15 forwards, 16 centers) participated in this study voluntarily. For each player, anthropometric measurements were performed, as well as a multi-stage 20 m shuttle run, isokinetic leg strength, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-30 meter single-sprint and T-drill agility tests. The differences in terms of division were evaluated by independent t-test and the differences by playing position were evaluated by one-way ANOVA with Post Hoc Tukey test. First division players' CMJ measurements were significantly higher than those of second division players' (p≤0.05), whereas second division players' 10 m sprint times were significantly better than those of first division players' (p≤0.05). In addition, forwards and centers were significantly taller than guards. Centers were significantly heavier and their T-drill test performances were inferior to those of forwards and guards (p≤0.05). Moreover, guards had a significantly higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) than centers. Guards and forwards showed significantly better performance in the 10 and 30 m sprint tests than centers (p≤0.05). Forwards and centers had significantly better left leg flexor strength at 180°.s-1(p≤0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical performance of professional basketball players differed among guards, forwards and centers, whereas there were not significant differences between first and second division players. According to the present study, court positions have different demands and physical attributes which are specific to each playing position in professional basketball players. Therefore, these results suggest that coaches should tailor fitness programs according to specific positions on the court.

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • basketball players
  • isokinetic leg strength
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • agility
  • speed
Open Access

Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 107 - 114

Abstract

Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors

Karate tournaments consist of two equally important karate disciplines: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility ("T"- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically, a higher explosive power could be beneficial for kumite, while both a smaller stature and higher flexibility (particularly of the lower extremity) could be important for the exceptionally low postures of the kata competitors. Although further elucidation is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of importance for both the early selection and training of karate competitors.

Keywords

  • testing
  • training
  • selection
  • morphology
  • karate
  • motor abilities
Open Access

Endurance and Speed Capacity of the Korea Republic Football National Team During the World Cup of 2010

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 115 - 121

Abstract

Endurance and Speed Capacity of the Korea Republic Football National Team During the World Cup of 2010

The aim of the study was to characterize selected indices of endurance and speed of the Korea Republic team with reference to the four best teams during the World Cup of 2010. Five hundred and ninety-nine football players from thirty-two teams participated in the study. All teams played in the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. For the assessment of the players' motor activity during matches common kinematic test results were recorded using the Castrol Performance Index. The following variables were analysed: total distance covered by the team, distance covered by individual players, maximum running speed and average match running speed for the team and individual players, as well as with division with regard to playing position: defenders, midfielders, strikers. In comparison to the four best teams at the football World Cup of 2010, the Korea Republic players achieved the highest running speed (p≤0.05), and similar levels of covered distance and average match running speed.

Keywords

  • Castrol system
  • soccer
  • speed
  • endurance
  • game analysis
Open Access

Assessing the Importance Given by Basketball Coaches to Training Contents

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 123 - 133

Abstract

Assessing the Importance Given by Basketball Coaches to Training Contents

The purpose of this study was to compare the importance given by novice, intermediate and experienced basketball coaches to training contents. To achieve this purpose, a sample composed of Portuguese basketball coaches (n = 212) described how they rate the importance of technical, tactical, physical and drill contents. According to the results, there is a wide-ranging differential from novice to experienced coaches. First, while experienced coaches tend to focus on tactical development, novice and intermediate coaches seem to privilege the improvement of technical skills. Second, whereas significant differences between novice and intermediate coaches were found, evidence confirmed that they were higher (both in number and weight) when comparing experienced coaches against novice and intermediate. The study provided strong support to justify the necessity to adjust coaches' knowledge to players' biological developmental, and could form the basis of focused interventions in coaching development.

Keywords

  • knowledge
  • coaching
  • assessment
  • experience
Open Access

Relationships Between Vertical Jump and Full Squat Power Outputs With Sprint Times in U21 Soccer Players

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 135 - 144

Abstract

Relationships Between Vertical Jump and Full Squat Power Outputs With Sprint Times in U21 Soccer Players

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between power variables in the vertical jump and full squat with the sprint performance in soccer players. Fourteen under-21 soccer players were evaluated in two testing sessions separated by 7 days. In the first testing session, vertical jump height in countermovement was assessed, and power output for both loaded countermovement jump (CMJL) and full squat (FS) exercises in two progressive load tests. The second testing session included sprinting at 10, 20, and 30m (T10, T20, T30, T10-20, T10-30, T20-30). Power variables obtained in the loaded vertical jump with 20kg and full squat exercise with 70kg showed significant relationships with all split times (r=-0.56/-0.79; p≤ 0.01/0.01). The results suggest that power produced either with vertical jump or full squat exercises is an important factor to explain short sprint performance in soccer players. These findings might suggest that certain levels of neuromuscular activation are more related with sprint performance reflecting the greater suitability of loads against others for the improvement of short sprint ability in under-21 soccer players.

Keywords

  • strength
  • physical capacity
  • vertical jump
  • full squat
  • team sports
Open Access

Position-Related Differences in Cardiorespiratory Functional Capacity of Elite Basketball Players

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 145 - 152

Abstract

Position-Related Differences in Cardiorespiratory Functional Capacity of Elite Basketball Players

The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in cardio respiratory functional capacity between perimeter and post elite basketball players. The subjects included 42 highly trained basketball players subdivided into groups of perimeter and post players. Point guards, shooting guards and small forwards were involved in the group of perimeter players, while power forwards and centers represented the group of post players. All players performed a standardized exercise test to evaluate maximal oxygen uptake using a cycle ergometer and automated breath-by-breath system VMAX229C. Collected data of power, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange were compared between the groups of perimeter and post players. Significant differences in anthropometric features between the investigated subgroups were observed. Post players were heavier and taller. Therefore, the perimeter players had significantly higher values of VO2max and relative power. VO2max was related to relative power. Relations between those variables can be described by linear regression. Given regressions can be used as a source of typical values for male basketball players. The results indicate that the empirical repartition of basketball players into perimeter and post players has not only a morphological but a physiological basis as well.

Keywords

  • Oxygen uptake
  • basketball
  • aerobic power
  • perimeter & post players
Open Access

Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 153 - 160

Abstract

Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

The main focus of this study was to identify coordinated motor abilities that affect fighting methods and performance in junior judokas. Subjects were selected for the study in consideration of their age, competition experience, body mass and prior sports level. Subjects' competition history was taken into consideration when analysing the effectiveness of current fight actions, and individual sports level was determined with consideration to rank in the analysed competitions.

The study sought to determine the level of coordinated motor abilities of competitors. The scope of this analysis covered the following aspects: kinaesthetic differentiation, movement frequency, simple and selective reaction time (evoked by a visual or auditory stimulus), spatial orientation, visual-motor coordination, rhythmization, speed, accuracy and precision of movements and the ability to adapt movements and balance. A set of computer tests was employed for the analysis of all of the coordination abilities, while balance examinations were based on the Flamingo Balance Test. Finally, all relationships were determined based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. It was observed that the activity of the contestants during the fight correlated with the ability to differentiate movements and speed, accuracy and precision of movement, whereas the achievement level during competition was connected with reaction time.

Keywords

  • combat sports
  • judo
  • coordination motor abilities
Open Access

Influence of Industrial Environments on the Development of Respiratory Systems and Morphofunctional Features in Preadolescent Boys

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 161 - 171

Abstract

Influence of Industrial Environments on the Development of Respiratory Systems and Morphofunctional Features in Preadolescent Boys

The present study examines the differences between levels of selected structural and functional features of boys 11-13 years in age from regions with varying levels of air pollution, including an industrial and rural region. The sample consisted of 213 boys from the industrial region and 98 from the rural region. Somatic, respiratory parameters and motor abilities were evaluated in both groups. The analysis of respiratory parameters revealed significantly better development of respiratory systems in boys from the rural region. Additionally, motor abilities were also better developed in boys from the rural region.

Keywords

  • air pollution
  • lung development
  • motor abilities
Open Access

Socio-Demographic and Leisure Activity Determinants of Physical Activity of Working Warsaw Residents Aged 60 to 69 Years

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 173 - 181

Abstract

Socio-Demographic and Leisure Activity Determinants of Physical Activity of Working Warsaw Residents Aged 60 to 69 Years

The purpose of the study was to assess factors determining physical activity in persons at the age of 60-69 years in an urban area. The study included 262 working residents of Warsaw at the initial period of old age. The study utilized a questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part concerned recreational and touristic activities in the previous year. The second is a Polish version of IPAQ, assessing the respondents' level of activity throughout the past week. Based on IPAQ results, the respondents were divided into physically active and inactive ones. The active group included people meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity, whereas the inactive group included people who took up no physical activity at all or those with a low physical activity level. The relations between taking up physical activity and the variables characterizing the demographic structure as well as touristic and recreational activity of the respondents were assessed with the use of a log-linear analysis. Out of the variables taken into account, age, education and participation in physical recreation proved to be significant factors in taking up activity by the elderly. The odds ratios computed for the analyzed variables indicate that the risk of being inactive increases over two times after exceeding 65 years of age; a risk of similar magnitude was also observed in case of less educated populations. Regular participation in physical recreation provides a four-times increase in the chances to achieve levels of physical activity sufficient to remain healthy.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • IPAQ
  • BMI
  • environmental factors
  • leisure activity
  • elderly
Open Access

Differences in Maximum Upper and Lower Limb Strength in Older Adults After a 12 Week Intense Resistance Training Program

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 183 - 188

Abstract

Differences in Maximum Upper and Lower Limb Strength in Older Adults After a 12 Week Intense Resistance Training Program

The purpose of this study was to identify differences in maximum strength after an intense strength training program, contrasting muscle groups from upper limbs versus lower limbs. The sample consisted of 10 healthy elderly males (age 73±6 years) with independent living. The training program lasted 12 weeks (3 × week, 50 to 80% of 1RM, 2-3 sets, 6 to 12 repetitions). Two muscle groups were analyzed: LOWER (sum of average values of three exercises for the lower limbs) and UPPER (sum of average values of four exercises for the upper limbs). Measurement of 1RM was performed at intervals of 4 weeks by direct methods. Repeated measures ANOVA identified significant differences in muscle groups (F=8.1, p=0.006), time (F=730.0 p=0.000) and also their interaction (F=4.4, p=0.014). The gains in 1RM values were higher for upper limbs. These results may suggest that the muscles of the lower limbs are elicited more frequently and therefore, have a smaller potential to gain strength at older age. The muscles of the upper limbs are in accelerated muscle atrophy and their trainability is probably higher.

Keywords

  • aging
  • upper limbs
  • lower limbs
  • muscle atrophy
  • exercise
Open Access

Spectator Motives and Points of Attachment: an Investigation on Professional Basketball

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 189 - 196

Abstract

Spectator Motives and Points of Attachment: an Investigation on Professional Basketball

Spectator attendance to professional basketball in Turkey is significantly less than desired. Keeping in mind how important spectators are for team sports, understanding factors that affect game attendance will offer essential clues in terms of increasing spectator attendance. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between basketball spectators' motives and points of attachment. With consideration to this purpose, the present study has tested the validity and reliability of the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption and the Points of Attachment Index for Turkish basketball spectators. 197 basketball spectators participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis results demonstrated that the original models of the measurement tools employed for the study showed an acceptable degree of fit with the data. The internal consistency coefficients of the scales were found to be between 0.59 and 0.80 for the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption and between 0.53 and 0.88 for the Points of Attachment Index. The canonical correlation analysis only returned a single significant function. The motives aesthetics and escape stood out in terms of the significant function, while the sport type (basketball in this study) stood out in the sense of attachment. Relationships identified between basketball spectators' motives and points of attachment could help sports managers and marketing experts to develop strategies focusing on increasing spectator attendance to their teams' games.

Keywords

  • basketball
  • spectator attendance
  • effectiveness
  • strategy
21 Articles
Open Access

Electromyographic Activity and Applied Load During High Intensity Elastic Resistance and Nautilus Machine Exercises

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 5 - 12

Abstract

Electromyographic Activity and Applied Load During High Intensity Elastic Resistance and Nautilus Machine Exercises

This study was designed to quantify and compare Electromyographic activity (EMG) and applied load in quadriceps muscle within performing high intensity knee extension exercises by Elastic Resistance (ER) and Nautilus Machine (NM). Sixteen male and female subjects (22.4 ± 4.7 yrs) completed 8 RM seated knee extension by NM, elastic tubing with original length (E0) and elastic tubing with 30% decrement of original length (E30). The mean value of EMG and external force were calculated and synchronized across various segments of motion for the three modes of training. The results demonstrated that in the early concentric and late eccentric segments of contraction, NM elicited significantly higher muscle activation than both E30 and E0 (p < 0.05). However, in the mid-concentric and mid-eccentric as well as late concentric and early eccentric segments no significant differences were observed between NM and E30. These findings supported the approach that developing external recoil of force in ER device by reducing 30% of initial length of elastic material can offer similar neuromuscular activation compared with NM. On this basis, E30 can be suggested as an affordable and non-gym based exercise device which has the capacity to provide an appropriate high resistance stimulus to meet the training requirement of athletes.

Keywords

  • electromyogram
  • elastic tubing
  • variable resistance training
  • multiple repetitions maximum
Open Access

Kinematics and Kinetics of Taekwon-do Side Kick

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 13 - 20

Abstract

Kinematics and Kinetics of Taekwon-do Side Kick

The aim of the paper is to present an analysis of the influence of selected kinematic factors on the side kick technique. This issue is especially important in the traditional version of taekwon-do, in which a single strike may reveal the winner. Six taekwon-do (International Taekwon-do Federation) athletes were asked to participate in this case study. Generally accepted criteria of sports technique biomechanical analysis were adhered to. The athletes executed a side kick three times (in Taekwon-do terminology referred to as yop chagi) in a way which they use the kick in board breaking. The obtained data were used to determine the mean velocity changes in the function of relative extension length of the kicking leg. The maximum knee and foot velocities in the Cartesian coordinate system were determined. The leg lifting time and the duration of kick execution as well as the maximum force which the standing foot exerted on the ground were also determined. On the basis of the obtained values, mean values and standard deviations were calculated. The correlation dependence (r=0.72) shows that greater knee velocity affects the velocity which the foot develops as well as the fact that the total time of kick execution depends on the velocity which the knee (r = -0.59) and the foot (r = -0.86) develop in the leg lifting phase. The average maximum speed was obtained at the length of the leg equal to 82% of the maximum length of the fully extended leg. This length can be considered the optimum value for achieving the maximum dynamics of the kick.

Keywords

  • taekwon-do
  • movement analysis
  • kick kinetics
  • power test
Open Access

Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 21 - 28

Abstract

Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N × m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (-0.69, -0.81, -0.71 and -0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo.

Keywords

  • judo
  • somatotype
  • strength
  • power
Open Access

Short-Term Isokinetic Training Versus Isotonic Training: Effects on Asymmetry in Strength of Thigh Muscles

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 29 - 35

Abstract

Short-Term Isokinetic Training Versus Isotonic Training: Effects on Asymmetry in Strength of Thigh Muscles

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two training protocols on the isokinetic performance of athletes. The study was conducted in 38 athletes, (age 23.3 ± 3.6 years) participating in national level leagues of different sports, whose initial concentric hamstrings-to-quadriceps (conH/Q) torque ratio was lower than 0.5. During seasonal testing, an isokinetic measurement of knee extensors and flexors was performed at 60º/s. The athletes were divided into two groups. Nineteen athletes performed the isokinetic training protocol (IT) while the second group of 19 athletes followed the isotonic training protocol (RT). Both protocols lasted 4 weeks. After completing the training protocols, both groups underwent a final isokinetic testing. The isokinetic data revealed significant increases after training in measures of peak torque in both extensor and flexor muscle groups, in both the IT and RT study groups (p < 0.05). There were significant increases (p< 0.05) in conH/Q ratio in both groups after the implemented protocols, but greater in IT group. Consequently, applied IT protocol induced changes in working muscles, thereby restoring detected asymmetry to an acceptable balance more efficiently compared to RT protocol.

Keywords

  • Knee joint
  • muscle imbalance
  • isokinetic training
  • isotonic training
Open Access

The Kinematics of Trunk and Upper Extremities in One-Handed and Two-Handed Backhand Stroke

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 37 - 47

Abstract

The Kinematics of Trunk and Upper Extremities in One-Handed and Two-Handed Backhand Stroke

The aim of this study was to present kinematics of trunk and upper extremities in tennis players who perform one-handed and two-handed backhand strokes. The study aimed to address the question of whether one of those techniques has some important advantage over the other. If so, what makes it superior?

The study included 10 tennis coaches with average coaching experience of 9 years. The coaches were asked to hit 15 one-handed and two-handed backhands. The tests were carried out in a laboratory. A sponge ball was used in order to protect the measurement equipment. Video motion analysis was carried out using BTS SMART system; images were recorded with 6 cameras with a rate of 120 frames per second. The analysis of both backhand strokes focused on the second phase of the stroke (acceleration).

The use of an eight-element model of human body for description of upper body motion in both techniques revealed kinematic differences in how both backhands are performed. The two-handed backhand was performed in closed kinetic chain with 8 degrees of freedom, whereas the one-handed backhand involved an open kinetic chain with 7 degrees of freedom. Higher rigidity of upper extremities which are connected with trunk in the two-handed backhand, contributes to an elevated trunk effect in this stroke. This is confirmed by higher component velocities for racket handle, which result from trunk rotation in the two-handed backhand and a negative separation angle in the two-handed backhand at the moment of contact of the racket with the ball.

The study does not provide a clear-cut answer to the question of advantages of one technique over the other; however, it reveals dissimilar patterns of driving the racket in both techniques, which suggests the need for extending the analysis of techniques of both backhands with additional kinematics of tennis racket in consideration of measurements of ball velocities.

Keywords

  • biomechanics
  • motion analysis
  • tennis
  • backhand stroke
Open Access

Physiological and Physical Effects of Different Milk Protein Supplements in Elite Soccer Players

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 49 - 57

Abstract

Physiological and Physical Effects of Different Milk Protein Supplements in Elite Soccer Players

Brazilian soccer championships involve a large number of teams and are known to cause stress and loss of muscle mass besides other negative physical consequences. This study was designed to compare the effects produced by three types of protein supplements on body composition, biochemical parameters and performance of a top Brazilian professional soccer team during an actual tournament. Twenty-four athletes assessed as having a normal nutrient intake were divided into three groups according to supplementation. Immediately after each daily training, the athletes received 1 g × kg-1 of body weight × day-1 of either whey protein (WP), hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP) or casein (CAS) for eight weeks. Before and after the experimental period, anthropometric characteristics, physical performance by the yo-yo and 3000m tests, and several biochemical variables in blood (uric acid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, glucose) were measured. While no improvement in physical performance was observed with regard to the applied treatments, casein supplementation resulted in muscle mass increase (p<0.039), while WP and HWP favoured the maintenance of the initial muscle mass. Moreover, the eight-week intervention was found to cause no abnormalities in biochemical and anthropometric variables monitored, but instead, the intervention showed to be positive in comparison to the adverse anthropometric changes, when no supplementation was made. It was concluded that supplementation immediately after training sessions with any of the three sources of protein during the competitive period is beneficial and safe, as well as capable of sustaining or even increasing muscle mass.

Keywords

  • whey protein
  • protein hydrolyzates
  • casein
  • physical performance
  • soccer athletes
  • BCAA
Open Access

Serum Concentrations of S100B are not Affected by Cycling to Exhaustion With or Without Vibration

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 59 - 63

Abstract

Serum Concentrations of S100B are not Affected by Cycling to Exhaustion With or Without Vibration

The calcium-binding protein S100B is produced primarily by astrocytes and exerts concentration-dependent paracrine and autocrine effects on neurons and glia. The numerous findings of a correlation between S100B and traumatic brain injury (TBI) have resulted in the employment of this protein as a clinical biomarker for such injury. Our present aim was to determine whether cycling with (V) or without (NV) vibration alters serum concentrations of S100B. Twelve healthy, male non-smokers (age: 25.3±1.6 yrs, body mass: 74.2±5.9 kg, body height: 181.0±3.7 cm, VO2peak: 56.9±5.1 ml·min-1·kg-1 (means ± SD)) completed in random order two separate trials to exhaustion on a vibrating bicycle (amplitude 4 mm and frequency 20 Hz) connected to an ergometer. The initial workload of 100 W was elevated by 50 W every 5 min and the mean maximal period of exercise was 25:27±1:30 min. The S100B in venous blood taken at rest, immediately after the test, and 30, 60 and 240 min post-exercise exhibited no significant differences (p>0.05), suggesting that cycling with and without vibration does not influence this parameter.

Keywords

  • biomarker
  • neurotrophin
  • hormone
  • endurance
  • serum
Open Access

The Effect of Three Days of Judo Training Sessions on the Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress Markers

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 65 - 73

Abstract

The Effect of Three Days of Judo Training Sessions on the Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress Markers

The main purpose of this study was to investigate how extreme physical strain influences cytokine response and oxidative stress markers by examining professional judo athletes during a typical 3-day judo training session (randori combat training).

Creatine kinase (CK) activity, a marker of muscle damage, was considerably elevated immediately after randori training. Pro- (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-10) cytokines were also increased. The strongest effect was seen in IL-1β concentration, which correlated with CK activity (r = 0.49, P < 0.05). All the observed cytokines returned to baseline (IL-1β) or even dropped below initial levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) 12 h after completing the training. Lipid peroxides (LPO), a marker of reactive oxygen species, also decreased below their initial values. LPO levels correlated directly with IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10.

This study is the first to evaluate the effect of a 3-day judo training session on muscle damage by evaluating the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. It is also the first to demonstrate significant changes in the blood cytokine profile that correlate with lipid peroxide levels and muscle damage.

Keywords

  • cytokines
  • lipid peroxides
  • muscle damage
  • sport training
Open Access

Impact of 10 Sessions of Whole Body Cryostimulation on Cutaneous Microcirculation Measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 75 - 83

Abstract

Impact of 10 Sessions of Whole Body Cryostimulation on Cutaneous Microcirculation Measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the basic and evoked blood flow in the skin microcirculation of the hand, one day and ten days after a series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions, in healthy individuals.

The study group included 32 volunteers - 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of cryotherapy in a cryogenic chamber. The variables were recorded before the series of 10 whole body cryostimulation sessions (first measurement), one day after the last session (second measurement) and ten days later (third measurement). Rest flow, post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, reaction to temperature and arterio-venous reflex index were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry.

The values recorded for rest flow, a post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction, a reaction to temperature and arterio - venous reflex index were significantly higher both in the second and third measurement compared to the initial one. Differences were recorded both in men and women. The values of frequency in the range of 0,01 Hz to 2 Hz (heart frequency dependent) were significantly lower after whole-body cryostimulation in both men and women. In the range of myogenic frequency significantly higher values were recorded in the second and third measurement compared to the first one.

Recorded data suggest improved response of the cutaneous microcirculation to applied stimuli in both women and men. Positive effects of cryostimulation persist in the tested group for 10 consecutive days.

Keywords

  • cryotherapy
  • skin blood flow
  • rest flow
  • post-occlusive hyperaemic reaction
  • arterio-venous reflex index
Open Access

Application of Platelet Rich Plasma in Sports Medicine

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 85 - 97

Abstract

Application of Platelet Rich Plasma in Sports Medicine

Any new method of treatment is associated with high expectations for its success, particularly if the therapy is based not only on the premise of achieving a symptomatic effect, but also improving functional quality and repairing structurally damaged tissues. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) application was shown to be a successful catalyst in the healing process for a wide variety of conditions in animal and human models. However, its use has been controversial due to many types of the PRP definition, optimal concentration, and modalities of implementation. In the qualification of patients for PRP treatment, not only should medical indications be considered, but also the role of participation in therapy with a physiotherapist supervising physical parameters and techniques used during recovery time. Further study is required in order to define optimal handling procedures of PRP injection. Long-term follow up will reveal if the promise of this substance can be realized and implemented to maximize its potential as a therapeutic remedy.

Keywords

  • Platelet-rich plasma
  • tendinopathy
  • musculoskeletal injuries
Open Access

Comparison of Chosen Physical Fitness Characteristics of Turkish Professional Basketball Players by Division and Playing Position

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 99 - 106

Abstract

Comparison of Chosen Physical Fitness Characteristics of Turkish Professional Basketball Players by Division and Playing Position

The purpose of the present study was to compare chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players in different divisions (first and second division) and playing positions. Forty-five professional male basketball players (14 guards, 15 forwards, 16 centers) participated in this study voluntarily. For each player, anthropometric measurements were performed, as well as a multi-stage 20 m shuttle run, isokinetic leg strength, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-30 meter single-sprint and T-drill agility tests. The differences in terms of division were evaluated by independent t-test and the differences by playing position were evaluated by one-way ANOVA with Post Hoc Tukey test. First division players' CMJ measurements were significantly higher than those of second division players' (p≤0.05), whereas second division players' 10 m sprint times were significantly better than those of first division players' (p≤0.05). In addition, forwards and centers were significantly taller than guards. Centers were significantly heavier and their T-drill test performances were inferior to those of forwards and guards (p≤0.05). Moreover, guards had a significantly higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) than centers. Guards and forwards showed significantly better performance in the 10 and 30 m sprint tests than centers (p≤0.05). Forwards and centers had significantly better left leg flexor strength at 180°.s-1(p≤0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical performance of professional basketball players differed among guards, forwards and centers, whereas there were not significant differences between first and second division players. According to the present study, court positions have different demands and physical attributes which are specific to each playing position in professional basketball players. Therefore, these results suggest that coaches should tailor fitness programs according to specific positions on the court.

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • basketball players
  • isokinetic leg strength
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • agility
  • speed
Open Access

Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 107 - 114

Abstract

Anthropometric and Physical Performance Profiles of Elite Karate Kumite and Kata Competitors

Karate tournaments consist of two equally important karate disciplines: the kumite and kata competitions. Due to being based both on the distinctive selection of movement techniques and their kinematic and kinetic patterns, we hypothesized that the elite kumite and kata competitors could differ regarding their anthropometric and physical performance profiles. Thirty-one senior male karate competitors of the national karate team (kumite n = 19; kata n = 12) participated in this study. The tests applied included both the assessment of anthropometric (body height, mass and body mass index) and the following physical performance measurements: the adductor and hamstring flexibility (sideward leg splits test), speed and acceleration (20-m sprint test with 10-m acceleration time), explosive power (countermovement and standing triple jump), agility ("T"- test) and aerobic endurance (20-m multistage shuttle run test). The kumite competitors revealed a larger body size through body height (p = 0.01) and mass (p = 0.03), while the differences in body composition were non-significant. The kumite competitors also demonstrated higher acceleration (p = 0.03) and explosive power (standing triple jump; p = 0.03). A 6-7° higher flexibility of the kata competitors remained somewhat below the level of significance (p = 0.09). The findings could be interpreted by the distinctive differences in the movement techniques. Specifically, a higher explosive power could be beneficial for kumite, while both a smaller stature and higher flexibility (particularly of the lower extremity) could be important for the exceptionally low postures of the kata competitors. Although further elucidation is apparently needed, the obtained finding could be of importance for both the early selection and training of karate competitors.

Keywords

  • testing
  • training
  • selection
  • morphology
  • karate
  • motor abilities
Open Access

Endurance and Speed Capacity of the Korea Republic Football National Team During the World Cup of 2010

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 115 - 121

Abstract

Endurance and Speed Capacity of the Korea Republic Football National Team During the World Cup of 2010

The aim of the study was to characterize selected indices of endurance and speed of the Korea Republic team with reference to the four best teams during the World Cup of 2010. Five hundred and ninety-nine football players from thirty-two teams participated in the study. All teams played in the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. For the assessment of the players' motor activity during matches common kinematic test results were recorded using the Castrol Performance Index. The following variables were analysed: total distance covered by the team, distance covered by individual players, maximum running speed and average match running speed for the team and individual players, as well as with division with regard to playing position: defenders, midfielders, strikers. In comparison to the four best teams at the football World Cup of 2010, the Korea Republic players achieved the highest running speed (p≤0.05), and similar levels of covered distance and average match running speed.

Keywords

  • Castrol system
  • soccer
  • speed
  • endurance
  • game analysis
Open Access

Assessing the Importance Given by Basketball Coaches to Training Contents

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 123 - 133

Abstract

Assessing the Importance Given by Basketball Coaches to Training Contents

The purpose of this study was to compare the importance given by novice, intermediate and experienced basketball coaches to training contents. To achieve this purpose, a sample composed of Portuguese basketball coaches (n = 212) described how they rate the importance of technical, tactical, physical and drill contents. According to the results, there is a wide-ranging differential from novice to experienced coaches. First, while experienced coaches tend to focus on tactical development, novice and intermediate coaches seem to privilege the improvement of technical skills. Second, whereas significant differences between novice and intermediate coaches were found, evidence confirmed that they were higher (both in number and weight) when comparing experienced coaches against novice and intermediate. The study provided strong support to justify the necessity to adjust coaches' knowledge to players' biological developmental, and could form the basis of focused interventions in coaching development.

Keywords

  • knowledge
  • coaching
  • assessment
  • experience
Open Access

Relationships Between Vertical Jump and Full Squat Power Outputs With Sprint Times in U21 Soccer Players

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 135 - 144

Abstract

Relationships Between Vertical Jump and Full Squat Power Outputs With Sprint Times in U21 Soccer Players

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between power variables in the vertical jump and full squat with the sprint performance in soccer players. Fourteen under-21 soccer players were evaluated in two testing sessions separated by 7 days. In the first testing session, vertical jump height in countermovement was assessed, and power output for both loaded countermovement jump (CMJL) and full squat (FS) exercises in two progressive load tests. The second testing session included sprinting at 10, 20, and 30m (T10, T20, T30, T10-20, T10-30, T20-30). Power variables obtained in the loaded vertical jump with 20kg and full squat exercise with 70kg showed significant relationships with all split times (r=-0.56/-0.79; p≤ 0.01/0.01). The results suggest that power produced either with vertical jump or full squat exercises is an important factor to explain short sprint performance in soccer players. These findings might suggest that certain levels of neuromuscular activation are more related with sprint performance reflecting the greater suitability of loads against others for the improvement of short sprint ability in under-21 soccer players.

Keywords

  • strength
  • physical capacity
  • vertical jump
  • full squat
  • team sports
Open Access

Position-Related Differences in Cardiorespiratory Functional Capacity of Elite Basketball Players

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 145 - 152

Abstract

Position-Related Differences in Cardiorespiratory Functional Capacity of Elite Basketball Players

The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in cardio respiratory functional capacity between perimeter and post elite basketball players. The subjects included 42 highly trained basketball players subdivided into groups of perimeter and post players. Point guards, shooting guards and small forwards were involved in the group of perimeter players, while power forwards and centers represented the group of post players. All players performed a standardized exercise test to evaluate maximal oxygen uptake using a cycle ergometer and automated breath-by-breath system VMAX229C. Collected data of power, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange were compared between the groups of perimeter and post players. Significant differences in anthropometric features between the investigated subgroups were observed. Post players were heavier and taller. Therefore, the perimeter players had significantly higher values of VO2max and relative power. VO2max was related to relative power. Relations between those variables can be described by linear regression. Given regressions can be used as a source of typical values for male basketball players. The results indicate that the empirical repartition of basketball players into perimeter and post players has not only a morphological but a physiological basis as well.

Keywords

  • Oxygen uptake
  • basketball
  • aerobic power
  • perimeter & post players
Open Access

Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 153 - 160

Abstract

Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

The main focus of this study was to identify coordinated motor abilities that affect fighting methods and performance in junior judokas. Subjects were selected for the study in consideration of their age, competition experience, body mass and prior sports level. Subjects' competition history was taken into consideration when analysing the effectiveness of current fight actions, and individual sports level was determined with consideration to rank in the analysed competitions.

The study sought to determine the level of coordinated motor abilities of competitors. The scope of this analysis covered the following aspects: kinaesthetic differentiation, movement frequency, simple and selective reaction time (evoked by a visual or auditory stimulus), spatial orientation, visual-motor coordination, rhythmization, speed, accuracy and precision of movements and the ability to adapt movements and balance. A set of computer tests was employed for the analysis of all of the coordination abilities, while balance examinations were based on the Flamingo Balance Test. Finally, all relationships were determined based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. It was observed that the activity of the contestants during the fight correlated with the ability to differentiate movements and speed, accuracy and precision of movement, whereas the achievement level during competition was connected with reaction time.

Keywords

  • combat sports
  • judo
  • coordination motor abilities
Open Access

Influence of Industrial Environments on the Development of Respiratory Systems and Morphofunctional Features in Preadolescent Boys

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 161 - 171

Abstract

Influence of Industrial Environments on the Development of Respiratory Systems and Morphofunctional Features in Preadolescent Boys

The present study examines the differences between levels of selected structural and functional features of boys 11-13 years in age from regions with varying levels of air pollution, including an industrial and rural region. The sample consisted of 213 boys from the industrial region and 98 from the rural region. Somatic, respiratory parameters and motor abilities were evaluated in both groups. The analysis of respiratory parameters revealed significantly better development of respiratory systems in boys from the rural region. Additionally, motor abilities were also better developed in boys from the rural region.

Keywords

  • air pollution
  • lung development
  • motor abilities
Open Access

Socio-Demographic and Leisure Activity Determinants of Physical Activity of Working Warsaw Residents Aged 60 to 69 Years

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 173 - 181

Abstract

Socio-Demographic and Leisure Activity Determinants of Physical Activity of Working Warsaw Residents Aged 60 to 69 Years

The purpose of the study was to assess factors determining physical activity in persons at the age of 60-69 years in an urban area. The study included 262 working residents of Warsaw at the initial period of old age. The study utilized a questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part concerned recreational and touristic activities in the previous year. The second is a Polish version of IPAQ, assessing the respondents' level of activity throughout the past week. Based on IPAQ results, the respondents were divided into physically active and inactive ones. The active group included people meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity, whereas the inactive group included people who took up no physical activity at all or those with a low physical activity level. The relations between taking up physical activity and the variables characterizing the demographic structure as well as touristic and recreational activity of the respondents were assessed with the use of a log-linear analysis. Out of the variables taken into account, age, education and participation in physical recreation proved to be significant factors in taking up activity by the elderly. The odds ratios computed for the analyzed variables indicate that the risk of being inactive increases over two times after exceeding 65 years of age; a risk of similar magnitude was also observed in case of less educated populations. Regular participation in physical recreation provides a four-times increase in the chances to achieve levels of physical activity sufficient to remain healthy.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • IPAQ
  • BMI
  • environmental factors
  • leisure activity
  • elderly
Open Access

Differences in Maximum Upper and Lower Limb Strength in Older Adults After a 12 Week Intense Resistance Training Program

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 183 - 188

Abstract

Differences in Maximum Upper and Lower Limb Strength in Older Adults After a 12 Week Intense Resistance Training Program

The purpose of this study was to identify differences in maximum strength after an intense strength training program, contrasting muscle groups from upper limbs versus lower limbs. The sample consisted of 10 healthy elderly males (age 73±6 years) with independent living. The training program lasted 12 weeks (3 × week, 50 to 80% of 1RM, 2-3 sets, 6 to 12 repetitions). Two muscle groups were analyzed: LOWER (sum of average values of three exercises for the lower limbs) and UPPER (sum of average values of four exercises for the upper limbs). Measurement of 1RM was performed at intervals of 4 weeks by direct methods. Repeated measures ANOVA identified significant differences in muscle groups (F=8.1, p=0.006), time (F=730.0 p=0.000) and also their interaction (F=4.4, p=0.014). The gains in 1RM values were higher for upper limbs. These results may suggest that the muscles of the lower limbs are elicited more frequently and therefore, have a smaller potential to gain strength at older age. The muscles of the upper limbs are in accelerated muscle atrophy and their trainability is probably higher.

Keywords

  • aging
  • upper limbs
  • lower limbs
  • muscle atrophy
  • exercise
Open Access

Spectator Motives and Points of Attachment: an Investigation on Professional Basketball

Published Online: 25 Dec 2011
Page range: 189 - 196

Abstract

Spectator Motives and Points of Attachment: an Investigation on Professional Basketball

Spectator attendance to professional basketball in Turkey is significantly less than desired. Keeping in mind how important spectators are for team sports, understanding factors that affect game attendance will offer essential clues in terms of increasing spectator attendance. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between basketball spectators' motives and points of attachment. With consideration to this purpose, the present study has tested the validity and reliability of the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption and the Points of Attachment Index for Turkish basketball spectators. 197 basketball spectators participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis results demonstrated that the original models of the measurement tools employed for the study showed an acceptable degree of fit with the data. The internal consistency coefficients of the scales were found to be between 0.59 and 0.80 for the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption and between 0.53 and 0.88 for the Points of Attachment Index. The canonical correlation analysis only returned a single significant function. The motives aesthetics and escape stood out in terms of the significant function, while the sport type (basketball in this study) stood out in the sense of attachment. Relationships identified between basketball spectators' motives and points of attachment could help sports managers and marketing experts to develop strategies focusing on increasing spectator attendance to their teams' games.

Keywords

  • basketball
  • spectator attendance
  • effectiveness
  • strategy

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