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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 23 (2010): Issue 2010 (March 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

14 Articles
Open Access

Application of Novel Inertial Technique to Compare the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Legs in the Soccer Instep Kick

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 5 - 13

Abstract

Application of Novel Inertial Technique to Compare the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Legs in the Soccer Instep Kick

The kinematic and kinetic parameters of dominant and non-dominant legs examined with a new technology on 15 male, university soccer players in the field. A sensor module with special configuration of accelerometers placement, connected to a data logger, which attached to the shank and thigh, was applied to execute four instep kicks in the field. The angular velocity, linear velocity, angular acceleration and Z-axis linear acceleration (p<0.005) of the shank in dominant and non-dominant leg before impact were: 1970 ± 210, 1648 ± 300 °/s; 14.9 ± 3.0, 12.4 ± 2.6 m/s; 586.4 ± 121.9, 498.2 ± 160.4 rad/s2; 5.7 ± 1.7 and 4.0 ± 0.9 gravity, respectively. The leg swing time, force (X) (p<0.001), torque, angular momentum, angular power and angular impulse (p<0.05) of the shank, for dominant and non-dominant leg, before impact were: 271 ± 48 vs. 263 ± 62 msec; 172.4 ± 46.6 vs. 68.7 ± 47.1 N; 133.2 ± 29.8 vs. 111.8 ± 34.9 N.m.; 5.3 ± 1.1 vs. 4.1 ± 1.0 kg.m2/s; 2443 ± 666 vs. 1660 ± 790.1 W; 4.0 ± 0.9 vs. 3.3 ± 1.2 N.s., respectively. Even though there was lower shank angular velocity of the dominant leg compared with reported professional players, similar shape and gradient of the kicking pattern were found in the curves.

Keywords

  • Accelerometer
  • Data Logger
  • Kinematic Analysis
  • Kinetic Analysis
Open Access

Kinematics Analysis: Number of Trials Necessary to Achieve Performance Stability during Soccer Instep Kicking

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 15 - 19

Abstract

Kinematics Analysis: Number of Trials Necessary to Achieve Performance Stability during Soccer Instep Kicking

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of kinematics responses related to stretch shortening cycle (SSC) during 10 consecutive soccer instep kicks. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from five experienced adult male soccer players (body height: 184.60 ± 4.49 cm; body mass: 80 ± 4.24 kg; age: 25.60 ± 1.14 years) using a three-dimensional infra-red high speed camera at 200 Hz. Some important kinematic parameters include eccentric angular velocity (AVe), concentric angular velocity (AVc), duration of eccentric (Te), and duration of concentric (Tc) at forward and impact phases selected to analyses. The AVe result of the sixth kick, relative to the first kick, was significantly lower when compared to the other kicks (with p ≤ 0.001). The AVc result of the fifth kick, relative to the first kick, was significantly lower when compared to the other kicks (with p ≤ 0.001). The Te result of the fourth kick, relative to the first kick, was significantly lower when compared to the other kicks (with p ≤ 0.011). The Tc result of the fifth kick, relative to the first kick, was significantly lower when compared to the other kicks (p ≤ 0.029). We concluded that 5 consecutive kicks are adequate to achieve high kinematic responses related to SSC.

Keywords

  • Angular velocity
  • Concentric
  • Eccentric
  • Soccer instep Kicking
Open Access

Speed of Visual Sensorimotor Processes and Conductivity of Visual Pathway in Volleyball Players

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 21 - 27

Abstract

Speed of Visual Sensorimotor Processes and Conductivity of Visual Pathway in Volleyball Players

Volleyball is a dynamic game which requires a high level of visual skills. The first aim of this study was to investigate the several aspects of reaction times (RT) to visual stimuli in volleyball players (12) compared to non-athletic subjects (12). By using the tests included in the Vienna Test System (Schuhfried, Austria), simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and peripheral reaction time (PRT) were examined. The second aim of this study was to assess the neurophysiological basis of early visual sensory processing in both examined groups. We measured two sets of pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during monocular central field stimulation (Reti Scan, Roland Consult, Germany). The latencies of waves N75, P100 and N135 were determined. We observed significantly shorter (p<0.05) total reaction time to stimuli appearing in the central and peripheral field of vision in the volleyball players compared to non-athletes. With regard to SRT and CRT the main differences between the groups appeared in pre-motor reaction times. Volleyball players had shorter VEPs P100 wave latencies (p<0.05) than the non-athlete group. The results indicate faster signal transmission in visual pathways in athletes than in non-athletes. This fact can be attributed to the effect of rapid visual-activity-demanding sports on the central nervous system.

Keywords

  • reaction time
  • visual evoked potentials
  • volleyball
Open Access

Relationship between Jump Test Results and Acceleration Phase of Sprint Performance in National and Regional 100m Sprinters

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 29 - 35

Abstract

Relationship between Jump Test Results and Acceleration Phase of Sprint Performance in National and Regional 100m Sprinters

The purpose of this research was to identify the relationship between jump test results and acceleration phase of sprint performance in national and regional 100m sprinters. Fifteen male (age 21.89 ± 3.26 years; body height 1.72.66 ± 3.20 m; body mass 61.35 ± 11.40 kg; 100 m personal best: 11.67 + 0.46 s {11.00 - 12.19}) track sprinters at a national and regional competitive level performed 10 m sprints from a block start. Anthropometric dimensions, along with squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), continuous straight legged jump (SLJ), single leg hop for distance, and single leg triple hop for distance measures of power were also tested. Pearson correlation analysis revealed the single leg hop for distance with front and back leg (respectively, r = -0.74 and r = -0.76; p = 0.021 and p = 0.017), and the single leg triple hop for distance with front and/or back leg (respectively, r = -0.84 and r = -0.89; p = 0.004 and p = 0.001), generated capabilities to be strongly related to sprint performance. Further linear regression analysis predicted an increase in the single leg hop for distance with front and back leg of 10 cm, to both resulted in a decrease of 0.07 s in 10 m sprint performance. Further, an increase in the single leg triple hop for distance with front and/or back leg of 10 cm was predicted to result in a 0.08 s reduction in 10 m sprint time. The results of this study seem to suggest that the ability to gain more distance with the single leg hop and the single leg triple hop for distance to be good indicators for predicting sprint performance over 10 m from a block start.

Keywords

  • Anthropometry
  • horizontal jumps
  • sprint performance
  • vertical jumps
Open Access

The Factor Structure of Chosen Kinematic Characteristics of Take-Off in Ski Jumping

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

The Factor Structure of Chosen Kinematic Characteristics of Take-Off in Ski Jumping

With a sample of 29 of the best Slovenian ski jumpers, a research project was carried out with the purpose of determining the structure relation of chosen dynamic and kinematic variables during the take-off of ski jumpers. The experiment was performed in August 2008 on the jumping hill in Hinterzarten, Germany (K=95m). The subjects jumped seven times without breaks between rounds. The analysis was done on variables that determine the technique of take-off in ski jumping (in-run velocity - km/h, vertical take-off velocity - m/s, precision of take-off - cm). The criteria variable was the length of the jump (m). The variability of the long distance of the jumps was significantly strong. The reliability of all used multi-item variables was high and satisfactory in most variables (in-run velocity - 0.98, vertical take-off velocity - 0.98, precision of take-off - 0.85, length of the jump - 0.95). The factor analysis produced an independent latent structure (explanation of variance = 93.3%) of five specific factors (1. in-run velocity connected to distance jumped (39.8 % of VAR.), 2. vertical take-off velocity strongly connected to distance jumped (26.0 % of VAR.), 3. precision of take-off partly connected to distance jumped (14.9 % of VAR.), 4. precision of take-off in the 7th round (6.7 % of VAR.), 5. precision at take-off in the 4th round (5.7 % of VAR.). The present factor structure confirms the hypothetical model of three independent motor tasks to be optimally realized in the take-off of the ski jumper. Criteria variables influencing the length of jumps were mainly associated with the first two factors, which confirm the basic hypothesis that the length of the jump reflects the overall output quality of the first two factors. The accurancy factor of take-off affects the length of the jumps indirectly and latently through these two fundamental factors.

Keywords

  • ski jumping
  • factor structure
  • kinematics of take-off
Open Access

Similar Results in Force-Velocity Test in Disabled Weight Lifters and Able-Bodied Physically Fit Students

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 47 - 53

Abstract

Similar Results in Force-Velocity Test in Disabled Weight Lifters and Able-Bodied Physically Fit Students

The aim of the study was (1) to evaluate the maximal power using a short-term force-velocity test in disabled weight lifters and able-bodied non-athletes subjects, and (2) to find if the parameters of the force-velocity test are related to results of the weight lifted on a bench, which is a specific sport test among disable weight lifters. The force-velocity (F-V) test was used to evaluate the maximal power (Pmax), predicted maximal resistance force (F0) and velocity (V0). The test was applied to 18 disable weight lifters and 16 physical education students. The mean values of Pmax, V0 and F0 did not differ significantly between groups. In weight lifters, the weight lifted on a bench correlated significantly with Pmax and F0.

It was concluded that (1) in the same F-V test condition (without lower limb support), the results obtained by the able-bodied, non-trained, but physically fit students, do not differ from that of the wheelchair weight lifters; (2) the F-V test is useful for wheelchair weight lifters, as it effectively evaluates their anaerobic power and speed-strength abilities, which is very similar to the able-bodied subjects.

Keywords

  • maximal anaerobic power
  • disabled weightlifters
  • non-trained men
Open Access

Physiological Background of Muscular Pain During Skiing and Delayed Muscle Soreness after Skiing

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 55 - 61

Abstract

Physiological Background of Muscular Pain During Skiing and Delayed Muscle Soreness after Skiing

During intensive skiing, at each turn, in particular towards the end of the turning steering phase, eccentric work of the lower limb muscles occurs (predominantly of the quadriceps femoris), which is the direct cause of damage within muscle cells. A few or more than ten hours after intensive physical effort the symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness may appear, which is mainly a result of the micro-damage within the myocytes.

The following procedure can be proposed for prevention of muscle soreness for skiers: around a week before first day of skiing in the season, skiers should perform a series of intensive physical exercises involving eccentric contractions, thus inducing delayed muscular soreness. The exercises may involve for example: downhill running, preferably down a steep slope, running down stairs, deep knee bend jumps, deep knee bend jumps over an obstacle, jumping to the ground from a certain height, sit-ups on one or both feet, etc. The exercises should lead considerable local fatigue, in particular of the lower limb muscles, so that muscle soreness occurs on the second day, in particular in the frontal part of the thighs. After approximately two days the pain will alleviate, while after a week the strength of the muscles will return to its pre-exercise condition. This should considerably reduce, or even remove, delayed muscle soreness after skiing, which will not only help skiers use their time more effectively but will also be crucial to the skiers' safety.

Keywords

  • DOMS
  • eccentric contractions
  • exercise physiology
  • skiing
  • pain prevention
Open Access

Aerobic Capacity of Elderly Women Engaged in Controlled Physical Activity

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 63 - 69

Abstract

Aerobic Capacity of Elderly Women Engaged in Controlled Physical Activity

The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic capacity of elderly participants in the family health program at Health Municipal Secretary, who were submitted to a regular program of physical exercise. This experimental study had a sample size of 98 hypertensive elderly women. The sample was divided randomly into an experimental group (EG; n=58, age: 67±6 years) and a control group (CG; n=40; age: 70±6 years). Aerobic capacity was evaluated by a six-minute walking test (WT6). The intervention program was conducted three times a week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday), between 17:00 and 17:45 hours, with an intensity that varied from 55% to 75% of the theoretical maximum heart rate. Student's paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests were utilised in the intra-group analysis (for homogenous or heterogeneous distributions of the data, respectively). An ANOVA two-way parametric test was used to evaluate the inter-group data followed by the Scheffe post hoc test. A value of p<0.05 was adopted for statistical significance. The results revealed an increase in distance travelled in the EG in the post-test relative to the pretest (Δ= 70.58 m; p<0.0001) and relative to the CG post-test (Δ= 116.58 m; p<0.0001). Furthermore, the CG travelled less distance in the post-test than in the pre-test (Δ= -0.78 m; p=0.003). Therefore, we infer that a walking regimen of controlled intensity improves the distance travelled by elderly women in the WT6 by increasing their aerobic capacity.

Keywords

  • physical exercise
  • aerobic capacity
  • six-minute walking test (WT6)
  • elderly women
Open Access

The Effects of a Yoga Intervention on Balance, Speed and Endurance of Walking, Fatigue and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 71 - 78

Abstract

The Effects of a Yoga Intervention on Balance, Speed and Endurance of Walking, Fatigue and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that results in many symptoms including mobility limitation, fatigue and redacted quality of life.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a yoga intervention on balance, speed and endurance of walking, fatigue and quality of life in MS patients.

21women with MS (34.38±5,68) with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores 1.0 to 4.0, have been randomly assigned to a yoga group or control group. Yoga group subjects participated in a thrice weekly 60-70 minute sessions of Hatha yoga intervention for 8-weeks. Balance, speed and endurance of walking, fatigue and quality of life were measured by Berg Balance scores; 10-m time and 2-minute distance walking, Fatigue Severity Scale (FFS) and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQOL-54) respectively.

Comparison of results of pre and post intervention revealed significant improvement on balance score, walking endurance, FFS and some of MSQOL-54 scale scores in the yoga group (p≤0.05 respectively). There were no clear changes in10-m times (p= 0.132), related to yoga group. No changes were observed for control group.

These results suggest that yoga intervention can be beneficial for patients with MS

Keywords

  • multiple sclerosis
  • yoga
  • balance
  • fatigue
  • ambulatory function
  • quality of life
Open Access

Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire as an additional Tool in Clinical Assessment of Patients undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 79 - 87

Abstract

Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire as an additional Tool in Clinical Assessment of Patients undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

The aim was to analyze the usability of Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPAQ) in assessment of physical activity in patients before and 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The study group consisted of 211 patients aged between 34-79 years (x = 59,5±7,89 yeras), with history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) with or without previous incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). The MLTPAQ was administered to all patients at the time of PCI and then 6 months later, as was the treadmill stress test (TST) and echocardiography (ECHO). Total energy expenditure calculated with the MLTPAQ remained at the same level and was of low intensity (<4 MET, <2000kcal/week) 6 months after the PCI. There was an increased physical capacity noted 6 months after initial PCI: increased metabolic cost (MET); maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); maximal heart rate (HRmax) obtained during the TST and decreased resting heart rate (HRrest). ECHO examination showed improved LVEF%. Despite increased physical capacity and improved heart hemodynamics, resulting most likely from PCI procedure, the patients showed a similar level of leisure time physical activity 6 months after the PCI.

Keywords

  • ischemic heart disease
  • percutaneous coronary intervention
  • physical activity questionnaire
  • treadmill stress test
Open Access

Anthropometric, Physiological and Performance Characteristics of Elite and Sub-elite Fencers

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Anthropometric, Physiological and Performance Characteristics of Elite and Sub-elite Fencers

The present study aimed at investigating the differences in selected anthropometric, strength-power parameters and functional characteristics of fencing performance between elite and sub-elite fencers. Thirty-three fencers (18 females and 15 males) from the Greek National Team, (age 19 ± 3.5 yr, body height 175.6 ± 7.6 cm, body mass 66.1 ± 9.1 kg, systematic training 8.4 ± 2.9 yr) were classified as elite and sub-elite, according to their international experience. Subjects underwent a detailed anthropometric assessment and performed selected leg power and fencing-specific tests. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in sitting height, triceps, subscapular, and quadriceps dominant skinfold thickness, absolute and body mass-dependent expressions of leg functional power characteristics of fencing performance: "time of lunge" and time of the "shuttle test". Anthropometric traits, such as height, body mass, percent fat and limb length were not different among elite and sub-elite fencers. Although technical and tactical factors are good indicators of fencing success, the observed differences in functional fencing performance tests among different levels of fencers are useful for the design of effective talent development and training-conditioning programs for competitive fencers.

Keywords

  • fencing
  • physiology
  • anthropometry
Open Access

Anthropometric Profile of Male Amateur vs Professional Formula Windsurfs Competing at the 2007 European Championship

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 97 - 101

Abstract

Anthropometric Profile of Male Amateur vs Professional Formula Windsurfs Competing at the 2007 European Championship

This study aimed to describe the current anthropometric profile of Formula Windsurf competitors during the 2007 European Championships and establish a set of reference values useful for future investigations on player selection, talent identification, and training programme development. Fourty-five male participants (mean age 30±9.77 years; body height 182.04±6.3 cm; body mass 81.67±7.35 kg) were selected for the anthropometric profile, including 15 which the International Windsurf Association had defined as professionals. The anthropometric profiles included measurements of skinfolds, segment lengths, breadths, and girths. Somatotype measurements were also calculated into the equation. The male professional windsurfers had larger length, breadth, and girth measurements than their amateur counterparts. The three somatotype components showed that both groups were predominantly mesomorphic, but the professionals were more ectomorphic than endomorphic, whereas the amateurs were slightly more endomorphic than ectomorphic. The descriptive analysis of the anthropometric data provide relevant information concerning the morphological indicators of competitive success in this sporting discipline.

Keywords

  • anthropometry
  • somatotype
  • windsurfers
  • males
  • championships
Open Access

Title IX Compliance in NCAA Athletic Departments: Perceptions of Senior Woman Administrators

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 103 - 113

Abstract

Title IX Compliance in NCAA Athletic Departments: Perceptions of Senior Woman Administrators

Perceptions of Senior Woman Administrators (SWAs) were sought regarding the equal provision of 13 Title IX compliance areas in women's athletic programs as compared to men's. A five point agree/disagree Likert-scale survey was electronically mailed to all SWAs at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) membership institutions throughout the United States. Of the 841 surveys mailed, 406 were returned for a 48.3% return rate. The SWAs disagreed or strongly disagreed at the highest rates that the following five Title IX compliance areas were being provided for equally in the women's programs when compared to the men's: publicity (31.0%), locker room facilities (27.1%), coaching (20.0%), recruitment of student-athletes (15.4%), and equipment and supplies (14.7%). Significant differences between Likert-scale items of agreement/disagreement were found among the following SWA demographics: marital status, NCAA Division, years of experience, and reporting structure. The SWAs agreed or strongly agreed that the 13 Title IX compliance areas were being provided for equally in the women's programs when compared to the men's at the following rates: housing & dining facilities (84.4%), medical & training facilities (84.3%), scheduling of games (81.1%), travel & per diem allowances (80.5%), practice facilities (78.7%), competitive facilities (78.4%), equipment and supplies (77.7%), support services (76.0%), tutoring (74.3%), recruitment of student-athletes (73.2%), coaching (70.3%), locker room facilities (63.2%), and publicity (55.3%).

Keywords

  • sex discrimination
  • equality
  • sport
  • survey
Open Access

A Unique Case of Supraspinatus Tendonitis after Tennis Forehand Repetitive Motions

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 115 - 119

Abstract

A Unique Case of Supraspinatus Tendonitis after Tennis Forehand Repetitive Motions

A unique case of a professional tennis player who sustained a traumatic supraspinatus tendonitis while playing Forehand was presented. This case shows how science fields could and should cooperate in the future since this appears to be the first report of high inflammatory of supraspinatus tendon during Forehand motions. Instead of aggressive treatment in the form of surgery, a team of experts decided for new treatment that brought exceptional results.

Keywords

  • 3D biomechanical analysis
  • chiropractics
  • massage
  • video simulation
  • tennis
14 Articles
Open Access

Application of Novel Inertial Technique to Compare the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Legs in the Soccer Instep Kick

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 5 - 13

Abstract

Application of Novel Inertial Technique to Compare the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Legs in the Soccer Instep Kick

The kinematic and kinetic parameters of dominant and non-dominant legs examined with a new technology on 15 male, university soccer players in the field. A sensor module with special configuration of accelerometers placement, connected to a data logger, which attached to the shank and thigh, was applied to execute four instep kicks in the field. The angular velocity, linear velocity, angular acceleration and Z-axis linear acceleration (p<0.005) of the shank in dominant and non-dominant leg before impact were: 1970 ± 210, 1648 ± 300 °/s; 14.9 ± 3.0, 12.4 ± 2.6 m/s; 586.4 ± 121.9, 498.2 ± 160.4 rad/s2; 5.7 ± 1.7 and 4.0 ± 0.9 gravity, respectively. The leg swing time, force (X) (p<0.001), torque, angular momentum, angular power and angular impulse (p<0.05) of the shank, for dominant and non-dominant leg, before impact were: 271 ± 48 vs. 263 ± 62 msec; 172.4 ± 46.6 vs. 68.7 ± 47.1 N; 133.2 ± 29.8 vs. 111.8 ± 34.9 N.m.; 5.3 ± 1.1 vs. 4.1 ± 1.0 kg.m2/s; 2443 ± 666 vs. 1660 ± 790.1 W; 4.0 ± 0.9 vs. 3.3 ± 1.2 N.s., respectively. Even though there was lower shank angular velocity of the dominant leg compared with reported professional players, similar shape and gradient of the kicking pattern were found in the curves.

Keywords

  • Accelerometer
  • Data Logger
  • Kinematic Analysis
  • Kinetic Analysis
Open Access

Kinematics Analysis: Number of Trials Necessary to Achieve Performance Stability during Soccer Instep Kicking

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 15 - 19

Abstract

Kinematics Analysis: Number of Trials Necessary to Achieve Performance Stability during Soccer Instep Kicking

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of kinematics responses related to stretch shortening cycle (SSC) during 10 consecutive soccer instep kicks. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from five experienced adult male soccer players (body height: 184.60 ± 4.49 cm; body mass: 80 ± 4.24 kg; age: 25.60 ± 1.14 years) using a three-dimensional infra-red high speed camera at 200 Hz. Some important kinematic parameters include eccentric angular velocity (AVe), concentric angular velocity (AVc), duration of eccentric (Te), and duration of concentric (Tc) at forward and impact phases selected to analyses. The AVe result of the sixth kick, relative to the first kick, was significantly lower when compared to the other kicks (with p ≤ 0.001). The AVc result of the fifth kick, relative to the first kick, was significantly lower when compared to the other kicks (with p ≤ 0.001). The Te result of the fourth kick, relative to the first kick, was significantly lower when compared to the other kicks (with p ≤ 0.011). The Tc result of the fifth kick, relative to the first kick, was significantly lower when compared to the other kicks (p ≤ 0.029). We concluded that 5 consecutive kicks are adequate to achieve high kinematic responses related to SSC.

Keywords

  • Angular velocity
  • Concentric
  • Eccentric
  • Soccer instep Kicking
Open Access

Speed of Visual Sensorimotor Processes and Conductivity of Visual Pathway in Volleyball Players

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 21 - 27

Abstract

Speed of Visual Sensorimotor Processes and Conductivity of Visual Pathway in Volleyball Players

Volleyball is a dynamic game which requires a high level of visual skills. The first aim of this study was to investigate the several aspects of reaction times (RT) to visual stimuli in volleyball players (12) compared to non-athletic subjects (12). By using the tests included in the Vienna Test System (Schuhfried, Austria), simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and peripheral reaction time (PRT) were examined. The second aim of this study was to assess the neurophysiological basis of early visual sensory processing in both examined groups. We measured two sets of pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during monocular central field stimulation (Reti Scan, Roland Consult, Germany). The latencies of waves N75, P100 and N135 were determined. We observed significantly shorter (p<0.05) total reaction time to stimuli appearing in the central and peripheral field of vision in the volleyball players compared to non-athletes. With regard to SRT and CRT the main differences between the groups appeared in pre-motor reaction times. Volleyball players had shorter VEPs P100 wave latencies (p<0.05) than the non-athlete group. The results indicate faster signal transmission in visual pathways in athletes than in non-athletes. This fact can be attributed to the effect of rapid visual-activity-demanding sports on the central nervous system.

Keywords

  • reaction time
  • visual evoked potentials
  • volleyball
Open Access

Relationship between Jump Test Results and Acceleration Phase of Sprint Performance in National and Regional 100m Sprinters

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 29 - 35

Abstract

Relationship between Jump Test Results and Acceleration Phase of Sprint Performance in National and Regional 100m Sprinters

The purpose of this research was to identify the relationship between jump test results and acceleration phase of sprint performance in national and regional 100m sprinters. Fifteen male (age 21.89 ± 3.26 years; body height 1.72.66 ± 3.20 m; body mass 61.35 ± 11.40 kg; 100 m personal best: 11.67 + 0.46 s {11.00 - 12.19}) track sprinters at a national and regional competitive level performed 10 m sprints from a block start. Anthropometric dimensions, along with squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), continuous straight legged jump (SLJ), single leg hop for distance, and single leg triple hop for distance measures of power were also tested. Pearson correlation analysis revealed the single leg hop for distance with front and back leg (respectively, r = -0.74 and r = -0.76; p = 0.021 and p = 0.017), and the single leg triple hop for distance with front and/or back leg (respectively, r = -0.84 and r = -0.89; p = 0.004 and p = 0.001), generated capabilities to be strongly related to sprint performance. Further linear regression analysis predicted an increase in the single leg hop for distance with front and back leg of 10 cm, to both resulted in a decrease of 0.07 s in 10 m sprint performance. Further, an increase in the single leg triple hop for distance with front and/or back leg of 10 cm was predicted to result in a 0.08 s reduction in 10 m sprint time. The results of this study seem to suggest that the ability to gain more distance with the single leg hop and the single leg triple hop for distance to be good indicators for predicting sprint performance over 10 m from a block start.

Keywords

  • Anthropometry
  • horizontal jumps
  • sprint performance
  • vertical jumps
Open Access

The Factor Structure of Chosen Kinematic Characteristics of Take-Off in Ski Jumping

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

The Factor Structure of Chosen Kinematic Characteristics of Take-Off in Ski Jumping

With a sample of 29 of the best Slovenian ski jumpers, a research project was carried out with the purpose of determining the structure relation of chosen dynamic and kinematic variables during the take-off of ski jumpers. The experiment was performed in August 2008 on the jumping hill in Hinterzarten, Germany (K=95m). The subjects jumped seven times without breaks between rounds. The analysis was done on variables that determine the technique of take-off in ski jumping (in-run velocity - km/h, vertical take-off velocity - m/s, precision of take-off - cm). The criteria variable was the length of the jump (m). The variability of the long distance of the jumps was significantly strong. The reliability of all used multi-item variables was high and satisfactory in most variables (in-run velocity - 0.98, vertical take-off velocity - 0.98, precision of take-off - 0.85, length of the jump - 0.95). The factor analysis produced an independent latent structure (explanation of variance = 93.3%) of five specific factors (1. in-run velocity connected to distance jumped (39.8 % of VAR.), 2. vertical take-off velocity strongly connected to distance jumped (26.0 % of VAR.), 3. precision of take-off partly connected to distance jumped (14.9 % of VAR.), 4. precision of take-off in the 7th round (6.7 % of VAR.), 5. precision at take-off in the 4th round (5.7 % of VAR.). The present factor structure confirms the hypothetical model of three independent motor tasks to be optimally realized in the take-off of the ski jumper. Criteria variables influencing the length of jumps were mainly associated with the first two factors, which confirm the basic hypothesis that the length of the jump reflects the overall output quality of the first two factors. The accurancy factor of take-off affects the length of the jumps indirectly and latently through these two fundamental factors.

Keywords

  • ski jumping
  • factor structure
  • kinematics of take-off
Open Access

Similar Results in Force-Velocity Test in Disabled Weight Lifters and Able-Bodied Physically Fit Students

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 47 - 53

Abstract

Similar Results in Force-Velocity Test in Disabled Weight Lifters and Able-Bodied Physically Fit Students

The aim of the study was (1) to evaluate the maximal power using a short-term force-velocity test in disabled weight lifters and able-bodied non-athletes subjects, and (2) to find if the parameters of the force-velocity test are related to results of the weight lifted on a bench, which is a specific sport test among disable weight lifters. The force-velocity (F-V) test was used to evaluate the maximal power (Pmax), predicted maximal resistance force (F0) and velocity (V0). The test was applied to 18 disable weight lifters and 16 physical education students. The mean values of Pmax, V0 and F0 did not differ significantly between groups. In weight lifters, the weight lifted on a bench correlated significantly with Pmax and F0.

It was concluded that (1) in the same F-V test condition (without lower limb support), the results obtained by the able-bodied, non-trained, but physically fit students, do not differ from that of the wheelchair weight lifters; (2) the F-V test is useful for wheelchair weight lifters, as it effectively evaluates their anaerobic power and speed-strength abilities, which is very similar to the able-bodied subjects.

Keywords

  • maximal anaerobic power
  • disabled weightlifters
  • non-trained men
Open Access

Physiological Background of Muscular Pain During Skiing and Delayed Muscle Soreness after Skiing

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 55 - 61

Abstract

Physiological Background of Muscular Pain During Skiing and Delayed Muscle Soreness after Skiing

During intensive skiing, at each turn, in particular towards the end of the turning steering phase, eccentric work of the lower limb muscles occurs (predominantly of the quadriceps femoris), which is the direct cause of damage within muscle cells. A few or more than ten hours after intensive physical effort the symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness may appear, which is mainly a result of the micro-damage within the myocytes.

The following procedure can be proposed for prevention of muscle soreness for skiers: around a week before first day of skiing in the season, skiers should perform a series of intensive physical exercises involving eccentric contractions, thus inducing delayed muscular soreness. The exercises may involve for example: downhill running, preferably down a steep slope, running down stairs, deep knee bend jumps, deep knee bend jumps over an obstacle, jumping to the ground from a certain height, sit-ups on one or both feet, etc. The exercises should lead considerable local fatigue, in particular of the lower limb muscles, so that muscle soreness occurs on the second day, in particular in the frontal part of the thighs. After approximately two days the pain will alleviate, while after a week the strength of the muscles will return to its pre-exercise condition. This should considerably reduce, or even remove, delayed muscle soreness after skiing, which will not only help skiers use their time more effectively but will also be crucial to the skiers' safety.

Keywords

  • DOMS
  • eccentric contractions
  • exercise physiology
  • skiing
  • pain prevention
Open Access

Aerobic Capacity of Elderly Women Engaged in Controlled Physical Activity

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 63 - 69

Abstract

Aerobic Capacity of Elderly Women Engaged in Controlled Physical Activity

The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic capacity of elderly participants in the family health program at Health Municipal Secretary, who were submitted to a regular program of physical exercise. This experimental study had a sample size of 98 hypertensive elderly women. The sample was divided randomly into an experimental group (EG; n=58, age: 67±6 years) and a control group (CG; n=40; age: 70±6 years). Aerobic capacity was evaluated by a six-minute walking test (WT6). The intervention program was conducted three times a week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday), between 17:00 and 17:45 hours, with an intensity that varied from 55% to 75% of the theoretical maximum heart rate. Student's paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests were utilised in the intra-group analysis (for homogenous or heterogeneous distributions of the data, respectively). An ANOVA two-way parametric test was used to evaluate the inter-group data followed by the Scheffe post hoc test. A value of p<0.05 was adopted for statistical significance. The results revealed an increase in distance travelled in the EG in the post-test relative to the pretest (Δ= 70.58 m; p<0.0001) and relative to the CG post-test (Δ= 116.58 m; p<0.0001). Furthermore, the CG travelled less distance in the post-test than in the pre-test (Δ= -0.78 m; p=0.003). Therefore, we infer that a walking regimen of controlled intensity improves the distance travelled by elderly women in the WT6 by increasing their aerobic capacity.

Keywords

  • physical exercise
  • aerobic capacity
  • six-minute walking test (WT6)
  • elderly women
Open Access

The Effects of a Yoga Intervention on Balance, Speed and Endurance of Walking, Fatigue and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 71 - 78

Abstract

The Effects of a Yoga Intervention on Balance, Speed and Endurance of Walking, Fatigue and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that results in many symptoms including mobility limitation, fatigue and redacted quality of life.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a yoga intervention on balance, speed and endurance of walking, fatigue and quality of life in MS patients.

21women with MS (34.38±5,68) with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores 1.0 to 4.0, have been randomly assigned to a yoga group or control group. Yoga group subjects participated in a thrice weekly 60-70 minute sessions of Hatha yoga intervention for 8-weeks. Balance, speed and endurance of walking, fatigue and quality of life were measured by Berg Balance scores; 10-m time and 2-minute distance walking, Fatigue Severity Scale (FFS) and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQOL-54) respectively.

Comparison of results of pre and post intervention revealed significant improvement on balance score, walking endurance, FFS and some of MSQOL-54 scale scores in the yoga group (p≤0.05 respectively). There were no clear changes in10-m times (p= 0.132), related to yoga group. No changes were observed for control group.

These results suggest that yoga intervention can be beneficial for patients with MS

Keywords

  • multiple sclerosis
  • yoga
  • balance
  • fatigue
  • ambulatory function
  • quality of life
Open Access

Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire as an additional Tool in Clinical Assessment of Patients undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 79 - 87

Abstract

Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire as an additional Tool in Clinical Assessment of Patients undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

The aim was to analyze the usability of Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPAQ) in assessment of physical activity in patients before and 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The study group consisted of 211 patients aged between 34-79 years (x = 59,5±7,89 yeras), with history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) with or without previous incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). The MLTPAQ was administered to all patients at the time of PCI and then 6 months later, as was the treadmill stress test (TST) and echocardiography (ECHO). Total energy expenditure calculated with the MLTPAQ remained at the same level and was of low intensity (<4 MET, <2000kcal/week) 6 months after the PCI. There was an increased physical capacity noted 6 months after initial PCI: increased metabolic cost (MET); maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); maximal heart rate (HRmax) obtained during the TST and decreased resting heart rate (HRrest). ECHO examination showed improved LVEF%. Despite increased physical capacity and improved heart hemodynamics, resulting most likely from PCI procedure, the patients showed a similar level of leisure time physical activity 6 months after the PCI.

Keywords

  • ischemic heart disease
  • percutaneous coronary intervention
  • physical activity questionnaire
  • treadmill stress test
Open Access

Anthropometric, Physiological and Performance Characteristics of Elite and Sub-elite Fencers

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Anthropometric, Physiological and Performance Characteristics of Elite and Sub-elite Fencers

The present study aimed at investigating the differences in selected anthropometric, strength-power parameters and functional characteristics of fencing performance between elite and sub-elite fencers. Thirty-three fencers (18 females and 15 males) from the Greek National Team, (age 19 ± 3.5 yr, body height 175.6 ± 7.6 cm, body mass 66.1 ± 9.1 kg, systematic training 8.4 ± 2.9 yr) were classified as elite and sub-elite, according to their international experience. Subjects underwent a detailed anthropometric assessment and performed selected leg power and fencing-specific tests. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in sitting height, triceps, subscapular, and quadriceps dominant skinfold thickness, absolute and body mass-dependent expressions of leg functional power characteristics of fencing performance: "time of lunge" and time of the "shuttle test". Anthropometric traits, such as height, body mass, percent fat and limb length were not different among elite and sub-elite fencers. Although technical and tactical factors are good indicators of fencing success, the observed differences in functional fencing performance tests among different levels of fencers are useful for the design of effective talent development and training-conditioning programs for competitive fencers.

Keywords

  • fencing
  • physiology
  • anthropometry
Open Access

Anthropometric Profile of Male Amateur vs Professional Formula Windsurfs Competing at the 2007 European Championship

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 97 - 101

Abstract

Anthropometric Profile of Male Amateur vs Professional Formula Windsurfs Competing at the 2007 European Championship

This study aimed to describe the current anthropometric profile of Formula Windsurf competitors during the 2007 European Championships and establish a set of reference values useful for future investigations on player selection, talent identification, and training programme development. Fourty-five male participants (mean age 30±9.77 years; body height 182.04±6.3 cm; body mass 81.67±7.35 kg) were selected for the anthropometric profile, including 15 which the International Windsurf Association had defined as professionals. The anthropometric profiles included measurements of skinfolds, segment lengths, breadths, and girths. Somatotype measurements were also calculated into the equation. The male professional windsurfers had larger length, breadth, and girth measurements than their amateur counterparts. The three somatotype components showed that both groups were predominantly mesomorphic, but the professionals were more ectomorphic than endomorphic, whereas the amateurs were slightly more endomorphic than ectomorphic. The descriptive analysis of the anthropometric data provide relevant information concerning the morphological indicators of competitive success in this sporting discipline.

Keywords

  • anthropometry
  • somatotype
  • windsurfers
  • males
  • championships
Open Access

Title IX Compliance in NCAA Athletic Departments: Perceptions of Senior Woman Administrators

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 103 - 113

Abstract

Title IX Compliance in NCAA Athletic Departments: Perceptions of Senior Woman Administrators

Perceptions of Senior Woman Administrators (SWAs) were sought regarding the equal provision of 13 Title IX compliance areas in women's athletic programs as compared to men's. A five point agree/disagree Likert-scale survey was electronically mailed to all SWAs at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) membership institutions throughout the United States. Of the 841 surveys mailed, 406 were returned for a 48.3% return rate. The SWAs disagreed or strongly disagreed at the highest rates that the following five Title IX compliance areas were being provided for equally in the women's programs when compared to the men's: publicity (31.0%), locker room facilities (27.1%), coaching (20.0%), recruitment of student-athletes (15.4%), and equipment and supplies (14.7%). Significant differences between Likert-scale items of agreement/disagreement were found among the following SWA demographics: marital status, NCAA Division, years of experience, and reporting structure. The SWAs agreed or strongly agreed that the 13 Title IX compliance areas were being provided for equally in the women's programs when compared to the men's at the following rates: housing & dining facilities (84.4%), medical & training facilities (84.3%), scheduling of games (81.1%), travel & per diem allowances (80.5%), practice facilities (78.7%), competitive facilities (78.4%), equipment and supplies (77.7%), support services (76.0%), tutoring (74.3%), recruitment of student-athletes (73.2%), coaching (70.3%), locker room facilities (63.2%), and publicity (55.3%).

Keywords

  • sex discrimination
  • equality
  • sport
  • survey
Open Access

A Unique Case of Supraspinatus Tendonitis after Tennis Forehand Repetitive Motions

Published Online: 24 May 2010
Page range: 115 - 119

Abstract

A Unique Case of Supraspinatus Tendonitis after Tennis Forehand Repetitive Motions

A unique case of a professional tennis player who sustained a traumatic supraspinatus tendonitis while playing Forehand was presented. This case shows how science fields could and should cooperate in the future since this appears to be the first report of high inflammatory of supraspinatus tendon during Forehand motions. Instead of aggressive treatment in the form of surgery, a team of experts decided for new treatment that brought exceptional results.

Keywords

  • 3D biomechanical analysis
  • chiropractics
  • massage
  • video simulation
  • tennis

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