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Volume 33 (2012): Issue 2012 (June 2012)

Volume 32 (2012): Issue 2012 (May 2012)
Aquatic Sports and Activities

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Volume 29A (2011): Issue Special-Issue (September 2011)
Presentation of the 1st International Symposium on Strength & Conditioning (ISSC 2011)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 22 (2009): Issue 2009 (December 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

14 Articles
Open Access

Resolution of the International Scientific Conference

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 5 - 6

Abstract

Resolution of the International Scientific Conference
Open Access

Barriers Restricting the Free Dissemination of Scientific Achievements: Own Experiences in Crossing Walls and Bridges

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 7 - 13

Abstract

Barriers Restricting the Free Dissemination of Scientific Achievements: Own Experiences in Crossing Walls and Bridges

The most important issues in the administration of modern science is "editorial correctness" of scientific articles. Editors of the most prestigious scientific journals know how to build an impact factor. Is an overly rigorous procedure for submitted manuscripts appropriate in every case?

The constant progress of science and the development of researchers is undeniable and remarkable. We dissociate ourselves from the principle of "publish a lot and quickly" recommended during the postdoctoral phase or other periods of a scientist's career. Quality requires time and humility towards that which was discovered and that which is still unknown.

Keywords

  • scientific achievements
  • journals
  • evaluation
Open Access

The Difference in Visual Skills Between Expert Versus Novice Soccer Referees

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 15 - 20

Abstract

The Difference in Visual Skills Between Expert Versus Novice Soccer Referees

The aim of this study was to compare the visual skills of expert and novice soccer referees. Twenty expert soccer referees, twenty two novice soccer referees and twenty non-athletes male students were investigated for facility of accommodation, peripheral vision, eye saccadic movements and speed of recognition. The results showed that the expert soccer referees were superior in all of the visual skills, but there was no significant difference between novice referees and non-athletes. This substantial difference between expert and novice soccer referees implies that these visual skills are important for refereeing soccer. For detecting other visual skills in soccer, referees must use visual skills from other programs. This study suggested that talent identification and development of visual abilities among soccer referees is of fundamental importance to success.

Keywords

  • visual skills
  • soccer referees
  • expert
  • novice
Open Access

Biomechanical Responds of Instep Kick between Different Positions in Professional Soccer Players

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 21 - 27

Abstract

Biomechanical Responds of Instep Kick between Different Positions in Professional Soccer Players

The purpose of this study was to investigate some selected biomechanical characteristics of lower extremity between professional soccer defenders, midfielders and strikers. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from fifteen Olympic professional soccer players; (height: 181.93 ± 7.03 cm; mass: 70.73 ± 10.85 kg; age: 20.8 ± 0.77 years), volunteered to participate in this study, using four digital video cameras. There were significant differences between midfielders and defenders in (1) lower leg angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (2) thigh angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (3) lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001), (4) thigh net moment (p ≤ 0.001), and (5) ball velocity (p ≤ 0.012). There were significant differences between midfielders and strikers in lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001). There were significant differences between strikers and defenders in; (1) lower leg angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (2) thigh angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (3) lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001), (4) thigh net moment (p ≤ 0.001), and (5) ball velocity (p ≤ 0.024). In conclusion, midfielders can perform soccer instep kicking strongly and faster than defenders and there is, however, no significant difference between midfielders and strikers, but midfielders' ball velocity is higher than strikers' ball velocity.

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • instep kick
  • soccer
  • different position
Open Access

Relationship Between Airway Resistance indices and Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Young Adults

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 29 - 34

Abstract

Relationship Between Airway Resistance indices and Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Young Adults

The present study aims at assessing the relationship between airway resistance indexes (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC) and maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) in young adults. Subjects of the study included 50 healthy males (age, 22.1 ± 2.47 years; FEV1, 3.41 ± .66 liter; FVC, 3.96 ± .56 liter; VO2max, 38.83 ± 9.83 ml.kg-1.min-1) studying at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. After determining subjects' volumes of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC by digital spirometer, maximal oxygen uptake was measured. The study protocol measured VO2max levels using the sub-maximal Astrand-Ryming test on the ergometer cycle. The data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed a significant correlation among the three independent variables of FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and projected VO2max values. Based on the results, it can be concluded that these parameters have a close interaction with higher VO2max levels, and therefore, having a lower airway resistance seems beneficial.

Keywords

  • Maximal Oxygen Uptake
  • Airway Resistance
  • FEV1
  • FVC
Open Access

Individualization of Physical Loads and Speed Abilities of Young Soccer Players in a Six-Month Training Macrocycle

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 35 - 41

Abstract

Individualization of Physical Loads and Speed Abilities of Young Soccer Players in a Six-Month Training Macrocycle

The aim of this paper was to address the issue of individualized training loads and its influence on speed development among speed-type and endurance-type players during a six-month training macrocycle.

The research was conducted in a group of 36 young male soccer players from for two sport clubs: Lech Poznań and Warta Poznań. The stages of the study undertaken resulted from the time structure of sport training and were carried out during a six-month macrocycle. The players of Lech Poznań took part in a test which involved applying three series' (six repetitions each) of speed-type exercises, with regard to the player's motor type in each of the three training units comprising the weekly macrocycle. During each stage of data collection, the players were subjected to a stress test for stretches of 10, 20 and 30 m.

The study has shown a significant impact of individualization of training loads on development of speed abilities in the examined players. An increase of speed during the tests of 10 and 20 m was noted in both speed and endurance-type players. This was probably an effect of adapting individual training loads to motor predispositions of the players during the six months of the experiment. It can be also assumed that the increase in speed among the subjects is a result of rising phosphagen potential and enzymatic activity (especially creatine kinase), as well as improved motor units recruitment.

Keywords

  • training loads
  • speed abilities
  • individualization
  • motor type
Open Access

Comparison of Physiological and Metabolic Responses to Playing Nintendo Wii Sports and Brisk Treadmill Walking

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 43 - 49

Abstract

Comparison of Physiological and Metabolic Responses to Playing Nintendo Wii Sports and Brisk Treadmill Walking

Regular moderate-intensity exercise (e.g. brisk walking) provides health benefits. In the present study, we compared the physiological and metabolic responses of playing the Nintendo Wii Sports tennis, baseball and boxing with self-paced brisk treadmill walking. Ten young-adults (21±1 years; 73.9±12.0 kg; 1.76±0.06 m) played each sport for 10 min with a 5 min rest interval or, in a separate session, walked briskly (6.1±0.6 km·h-1) with an equivalent time order wearing the Cosmed K4b2 metabolic system. In a bout of 10 min, the average values during Nintendo Wii boxing for physiological (i.e. minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate) and metabolic (i.e. energy expenditure, fat oxidation, carbohydrate oxidation and respiratory exchange ratio) responses were equal to brisk treadmill walking but lower for Nintendo Wii tennis and baseball (P<0.05). It was concluded that the physiological and metabolic responses of Nintendo Wii boxing would allow this game activity to be a viable part of a programme of structured exercise in young-adults to gain health benefits.

Keywords

  • energy expenditure
  • exercise
  • video games
  • oxygen consumption
  • public health
Open Access

Hematological Profile of Serbian Youth National Soccer Teams

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 51 - 59

Abstract

Hematological Profile of Serbian Youth National Soccer Teams

Soccer is one of the most widely played and complex sports in the world, where players need technical, tactical, and physical skills to succeed. Technical and tactical skills in soccer are highly dependent on the player's physical capacity. The selection, development and professional guidance of young players is a priority for many top soccer clubs in order to maintain their sporting and financial status. The aim of the present study was to determine hematological profile of youth national soccer teams and to compare the values of fifteen hematological parameters between 3 Serbian youth national teams (under 14, 15 and 16 years old), as well as between soccer players and nonathletes. 80 young soccer players and 30 non-athletes participated in the study. 15 hematologic parameters (WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT, PLT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PDW, LYM%, MON%, GRAN%, LYM, MON, GRAN) were measured. In order to determine the significance of differences between the groups on a multivariate level a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was administered, and to test the differences between the groups on an univariate level a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. It was concluded that there is no significant difference in all the variables (WBC, Ly, Mo, Gr, PLT, HGB, HCT, etc), except RBC, probably due to age, androgen affection on erythropoesis, field positoning and diet. From a practical point of view, the clinician has to take into account not only age, but also training status of individuals when evaluating their blood tests.

Keywords

  • blood parameters
  • selection
  • differences
  • youth soccer
Open Access

The Effects of Finish Sauna on Hemodynamics of the Circulatory System in Men and Women

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 61 - 68

Abstract

The Effects of Finish Sauna on Hemodynamics of the Circulatory System in Men and Women

Finnish sauna is one of the most popular among all the saunas types and as a result is the most commonly used. Bath in the Finnish sauna is a combination of heating with a warm and dry air and the short influence of high humidity and cooling with cold water and air. The article aims to identify pulse and blood pressure in the conditions of thermal heating in the sauna among women and men between the age of 20-25. Hypothetically sauna has a great influence on the basic hemodynamic parameters such as pulse and blood pressure. There were 127 healthy, young women and 74 men, students at the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw taking part in the experiment. Average age of the volunteers was 21.5 and 21.7.

The results indicate that a bath in the Finnish sauna leads to a significant increase of the pulse among men and women. Concurrently the results show a considerable decrease in diastolic pressure, with the systolic pressure remaining at almost the same level. It can be concluded that a bath in a Finnish sauna positively influences the hemodynamics of blood pressure and pulse. A series of bathes in the Finnish sauna leads to a considerable decrease of the systolic and diastolic pressure and an increase of the pulse among male and female volunteers.

Keywords

  • hemodynamics
  • pulse
  • systolic pressure
  • diastolic pressure
  • Finnish sauna
Open Access

Factors of Development of Far Eastern Martial Arts in Central Europe

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 69 - 75

Abstract

Factors of Development of Far Eastern Martial Arts in Central Europe

The aim of the research was to indicate the main factors of development declared by the practitioners of the different disciplines of martial arts and combat sports in selected countries of Central Europe. In particular, such variables as training location and type of martial arts/combat sports have been taken into consideration. Five research questions have been established which should be answered in order to find the solution to the posed problem.

The theoretical perspective for analyses presented here consists of sociology of sport and humanist theory of martial arts. This approach results in the need for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the answers to questions about the barriers of development according to the variables of the practiced variety (a martial art, a combat sport) and the place of training.

The method of diagnostic survey has been used. The research was conducted on a group of 500 subjects from south-eastern Poland, Slovakia, Germany and additionally (for comparison) from England, of which 489 were accepted for the study. This number includes 137 representatives of kyokushin karate from Poland, 143 Polish karatekas of non-contact varieties, 18 representatives of jujitsu and karate from Germany, 37 aikidokas from Poland (a martial art without sportive rivalry), 107 judokas from Poland and 24 judokas from Slovakia, with an additional 23 British rugby players. The selection of the group was deliberate and complete, taking into account the representatives of various martial arts and combat sports, with rugby used for comparative purposes.

Practicing martial arts oriented to self-realization, determines the motivation for their practice, which differs from the motivation in sport (combat sports). It influences the dominating choices of values-goals and popularity, thus the development of given varieties. Both martial arts and combat sports of Asian origin (aikido, judo, jujitsu, karate) attract practitioners, mainly due to their usefulness in self-defense. The values connected with training and sportive rivalry (combat sports, rugby) are also noticed. The variable of place (country) is connected with the dominating forms in promoting a given martial art or combat sport.

Keywords

  • martial arts
  • combat sports
  • social factors
  • Central Europe
Open Access

Reliabity and Validity of the Trichotomous and 2×2 Achievement Goal Models in Turkish University Physical Activity Settings

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 77 - 82

Abstract

Reliabity and Validity of the Trichotomous and 2×2 Achievement Goal Models in Turkish University Physical Activity Settings

The present research is designed to continue exploration of the reliability and validity of the 2 × 2 and trichotomous achievement goal frameworks in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) Turkish undergraduate physical activity courses. One hundred and fifty eight Turkish undergraduate students (116 males; 42 females) served as participants. They completed both the trichotomous and 2 × 2 achievement goal scales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to examine and construct the validity of both the 2 × 2 and trichotomous achievement goal models. The results showed that the 2 × 2 achievement goal model represents an adequate fit to the data (X 2/df = 1.66, CFI = 0.91, GFI = 0.93, NNFI = 0.89, and RMSEA = 0.06). Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, and performance-avoidance goals were 0.65, 0.68, 0.72, and 0.60, respectively, indicating acceptable internal consistency. However, CFA analysis pointed out that the trichotomous achievement goal model provided a poor fit to the data (X 2/df = 1.59, CFI = 0.85, GFI = 0.88, NNFI = 0.69, and RMSEA = 0.06), although Cronbach's alpha coefficients in the trichotomous achievement goal model indicated acceptable reliability (mastery goals = 0.70, performance-approach goals = 0.73, and performance-avoidance goals = 0.64). Results from the present study indicate that only the 2 × 2 achievement goal model provides a reliable and valid measure of achievement goals for Turkish undergraduate students.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • validity
  • reliability
  • measurement
Open Access

Recreational Exercise Motives of Adolescents and Young Adults

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 83 - 89

Abstract

Recreational Exercise Motives of Adolescents and Young Adults

This study examined the motives for taking part in recreational exercise/sporting activities based on a sample of Turkish young people. Secondly, gender and age group differences with motivational dimensions were investigated. A total of 298 members of 6 Youth Centers voluntarily participated in this study. The Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure (REMM) was administered to all participants. Two × two MANOVA revealed significant main effect for gender (p < 0.03) and age group (p < 0.01). Univariate follow-up tests revealed that the significant main effect for gender was attributable to health subscale, and age group differences were correlated with health, body/appearance, social/enjoyment, and skill development subscales (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that health motives were more important for females than males, and motives relating to health, appearance, and social/enjoyment were more important for young adults.

Keywords

  • Recreational exercise motives
  • gender
  • adolescents
Open Access

Physical Activity Levels of the Young Adults in an Economically Developing Country: The Turkish Sample

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 91 - 98

Abstract

Physical Activity Levels of the Young Adults in an Economically Developing Country: The Turkish Sample

The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity levels of the young adults in Turkey, selected as an example of an economically developing country.

A total of 1027 university students voluntarily participated in this study. The sport and household activity indexes of the Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ) were administered to the subjects.

Student t-test showed gender differences in the intensity of the sport activities index (p<0.001). The results of 2 (gender) × 2 (intensity of sport activities) univariate ANOVA revealed significant gender, intensity differences and significant gender × intensity interaction on participation duration in the sports activities. This finding showed that males spent more time in both vigorous and non-vigorous sport activities than females. In terms of the type of engagement in sport activity, the majority of males primarily played soccer, while females had primarily walked. The Student t test revealed gender differences in both the duration of housework and sitting in the house.

To conclude, males participated in sport activities with a higher intensity and spent more time on these activities than females. On the other hand, females spent much more time on housework activities and sitting in the house than males.

Keywords

  • physical activity level
  • gender
  • young adult
  • developing country
Open Access

The Influence of Increased Intensity Levels on the Attitude of High School Females toward Aerobic Dance Lessons

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 99 - 105

Abstract

The Influence of Increased Intensity Levels on the Attitude of High School Females toward Aerobic Dance Lessons

Available evidence suggests that interest and participation, especially in vigorous physical activity, declines with age during adolescence. This negative attitude toward vigorous physical activity is especially prevalent among female adolescents. This study investigates how increasing intensity levels of aerobic dance, a popular physical education choice of female students, influence the attitude of female high school students toward the activity.

A total of 313 female high school students from eight schools (age 16.32±1.74; weight-kg 53.73±7.58; height-cm 164.37±5.61; BMI-kg/m2 19.87±2.55) participated in the study. Student intensity levels during the aerobic dance lesson were monitored using heart rate monitors, accelerometers and pedometers, and the influence of intensity level on attitude toward aerobic dance was measured by use of a standardized questionnaire. The results clearly show that increasing intensity levels did not diminish the positive attitude of female students toward aerobic dance.

Keywords

  • physical intensity
  • active energy expenditure
  • monitoring of heart rate
  • accelerometer
  • pedometer
14 Articles
Open Access

Resolution of the International Scientific Conference

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 5 - 6

Abstract

Resolution of the International Scientific Conference
Open Access

Barriers Restricting the Free Dissemination of Scientific Achievements: Own Experiences in Crossing Walls and Bridges

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 7 - 13

Abstract

Barriers Restricting the Free Dissemination of Scientific Achievements: Own Experiences in Crossing Walls and Bridges

The most important issues in the administration of modern science is "editorial correctness" of scientific articles. Editors of the most prestigious scientific journals know how to build an impact factor. Is an overly rigorous procedure for submitted manuscripts appropriate in every case?

The constant progress of science and the development of researchers is undeniable and remarkable. We dissociate ourselves from the principle of "publish a lot and quickly" recommended during the postdoctoral phase or other periods of a scientist's career. Quality requires time and humility towards that which was discovered and that which is still unknown.

Keywords

  • scientific achievements
  • journals
  • evaluation
Open Access

The Difference in Visual Skills Between Expert Versus Novice Soccer Referees

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 15 - 20

Abstract

The Difference in Visual Skills Between Expert Versus Novice Soccer Referees

The aim of this study was to compare the visual skills of expert and novice soccer referees. Twenty expert soccer referees, twenty two novice soccer referees and twenty non-athletes male students were investigated for facility of accommodation, peripheral vision, eye saccadic movements and speed of recognition. The results showed that the expert soccer referees were superior in all of the visual skills, but there was no significant difference between novice referees and non-athletes. This substantial difference between expert and novice soccer referees implies that these visual skills are important for refereeing soccer. For detecting other visual skills in soccer, referees must use visual skills from other programs. This study suggested that talent identification and development of visual abilities among soccer referees is of fundamental importance to success.

Keywords

  • visual skills
  • soccer referees
  • expert
  • novice
Open Access

Biomechanical Responds of Instep Kick between Different Positions in Professional Soccer Players

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 21 - 27

Abstract

Biomechanical Responds of Instep Kick between Different Positions in Professional Soccer Players

The purpose of this study was to investigate some selected biomechanical characteristics of lower extremity between professional soccer defenders, midfielders and strikers. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from fifteen Olympic professional soccer players; (height: 181.93 ± 7.03 cm; mass: 70.73 ± 10.85 kg; age: 20.8 ± 0.77 years), volunteered to participate in this study, using four digital video cameras. There were significant differences between midfielders and defenders in (1) lower leg angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (2) thigh angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (3) lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001), (4) thigh net moment (p ≤ 0.001), and (5) ball velocity (p ≤ 0.012). There were significant differences between midfielders and strikers in lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001). There were significant differences between strikers and defenders in; (1) lower leg angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (2) thigh angular velocity (p ≤ 0.001), (3) lower leg net moment (p ≤ 0.001), (4) thigh net moment (p ≤ 0.001), and (5) ball velocity (p ≤ 0.024). In conclusion, midfielders can perform soccer instep kicking strongly and faster than defenders and there is, however, no significant difference between midfielders and strikers, but midfielders' ball velocity is higher than strikers' ball velocity.

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • instep kick
  • soccer
  • different position
Open Access

Relationship Between Airway Resistance indices and Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Young Adults

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 29 - 34

Abstract

Relationship Between Airway Resistance indices and Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Young Adults

The present study aims at assessing the relationship between airway resistance indexes (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC) and maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) in young adults. Subjects of the study included 50 healthy males (age, 22.1 ± 2.47 years; FEV1, 3.41 ± .66 liter; FVC, 3.96 ± .56 liter; VO2max, 38.83 ± 9.83 ml.kg-1.min-1) studying at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. After determining subjects' volumes of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC by digital spirometer, maximal oxygen uptake was measured. The study protocol measured VO2max levels using the sub-maximal Astrand-Ryming test on the ergometer cycle. The data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed a significant correlation among the three independent variables of FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and projected VO2max values. Based on the results, it can be concluded that these parameters have a close interaction with higher VO2max levels, and therefore, having a lower airway resistance seems beneficial.

Keywords

  • Maximal Oxygen Uptake
  • Airway Resistance
  • FEV1
  • FVC
Open Access

Individualization of Physical Loads and Speed Abilities of Young Soccer Players in a Six-Month Training Macrocycle

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 35 - 41

Abstract

Individualization of Physical Loads and Speed Abilities of Young Soccer Players in a Six-Month Training Macrocycle

The aim of this paper was to address the issue of individualized training loads and its influence on speed development among speed-type and endurance-type players during a six-month training macrocycle.

The research was conducted in a group of 36 young male soccer players from for two sport clubs: Lech Poznań and Warta Poznań. The stages of the study undertaken resulted from the time structure of sport training and were carried out during a six-month macrocycle. The players of Lech Poznań took part in a test which involved applying three series' (six repetitions each) of speed-type exercises, with regard to the player's motor type in each of the three training units comprising the weekly macrocycle. During each stage of data collection, the players were subjected to a stress test for stretches of 10, 20 and 30 m.

The study has shown a significant impact of individualization of training loads on development of speed abilities in the examined players. An increase of speed during the tests of 10 and 20 m was noted in both speed and endurance-type players. This was probably an effect of adapting individual training loads to motor predispositions of the players during the six months of the experiment. It can be also assumed that the increase in speed among the subjects is a result of rising phosphagen potential and enzymatic activity (especially creatine kinase), as well as improved motor units recruitment.

Keywords

  • training loads
  • speed abilities
  • individualization
  • motor type
Open Access

Comparison of Physiological and Metabolic Responses to Playing Nintendo Wii Sports and Brisk Treadmill Walking

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 43 - 49

Abstract

Comparison of Physiological and Metabolic Responses to Playing Nintendo Wii Sports and Brisk Treadmill Walking

Regular moderate-intensity exercise (e.g. brisk walking) provides health benefits. In the present study, we compared the physiological and metabolic responses of playing the Nintendo Wii Sports tennis, baseball and boxing with self-paced brisk treadmill walking. Ten young-adults (21±1 years; 73.9±12.0 kg; 1.76±0.06 m) played each sport for 10 min with a 5 min rest interval or, in a separate session, walked briskly (6.1±0.6 km·h-1) with an equivalent time order wearing the Cosmed K4b2 metabolic system. In a bout of 10 min, the average values during Nintendo Wii boxing for physiological (i.e. minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate) and metabolic (i.e. energy expenditure, fat oxidation, carbohydrate oxidation and respiratory exchange ratio) responses were equal to brisk treadmill walking but lower for Nintendo Wii tennis and baseball (P<0.05). It was concluded that the physiological and metabolic responses of Nintendo Wii boxing would allow this game activity to be a viable part of a programme of structured exercise in young-adults to gain health benefits.

Keywords

  • energy expenditure
  • exercise
  • video games
  • oxygen consumption
  • public health
Open Access

Hematological Profile of Serbian Youth National Soccer Teams

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 51 - 59

Abstract

Hematological Profile of Serbian Youth National Soccer Teams

Soccer is one of the most widely played and complex sports in the world, where players need technical, tactical, and physical skills to succeed. Technical and tactical skills in soccer are highly dependent on the player's physical capacity. The selection, development and professional guidance of young players is a priority for many top soccer clubs in order to maintain their sporting and financial status. The aim of the present study was to determine hematological profile of youth national soccer teams and to compare the values of fifteen hematological parameters between 3 Serbian youth national teams (under 14, 15 and 16 years old), as well as between soccer players and nonathletes. 80 young soccer players and 30 non-athletes participated in the study. 15 hematologic parameters (WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT, PLT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PDW, LYM%, MON%, GRAN%, LYM, MON, GRAN) were measured. In order to determine the significance of differences between the groups on a multivariate level a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was administered, and to test the differences between the groups on an univariate level a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. It was concluded that there is no significant difference in all the variables (WBC, Ly, Mo, Gr, PLT, HGB, HCT, etc), except RBC, probably due to age, androgen affection on erythropoesis, field positoning and diet. From a practical point of view, the clinician has to take into account not only age, but also training status of individuals when evaluating their blood tests.

Keywords

  • blood parameters
  • selection
  • differences
  • youth soccer
Open Access

The Effects of Finish Sauna on Hemodynamics of the Circulatory System in Men and Women

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 61 - 68

Abstract

The Effects of Finish Sauna on Hemodynamics of the Circulatory System in Men and Women

Finnish sauna is one of the most popular among all the saunas types and as a result is the most commonly used. Bath in the Finnish sauna is a combination of heating with a warm and dry air and the short influence of high humidity and cooling with cold water and air. The article aims to identify pulse and blood pressure in the conditions of thermal heating in the sauna among women and men between the age of 20-25. Hypothetically sauna has a great influence on the basic hemodynamic parameters such as pulse and blood pressure. There were 127 healthy, young women and 74 men, students at the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw taking part in the experiment. Average age of the volunteers was 21.5 and 21.7.

The results indicate that a bath in the Finnish sauna leads to a significant increase of the pulse among men and women. Concurrently the results show a considerable decrease in diastolic pressure, with the systolic pressure remaining at almost the same level. It can be concluded that a bath in a Finnish sauna positively influences the hemodynamics of blood pressure and pulse. A series of bathes in the Finnish sauna leads to a considerable decrease of the systolic and diastolic pressure and an increase of the pulse among male and female volunteers.

Keywords

  • hemodynamics
  • pulse
  • systolic pressure
  • diastolic pressure
  • Finnish sauna
Open Access

Factors of Development of Far Eastern Martial Arts in Central Europe

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 69 - 75

Abstract

Factors of Development of Far Eastern Martial Arts in Central Europe

The aim of the research was to indicate the main factors of development declared by the practitioners of the different disciplines of martial arts and combat sports in selected countries of Central Europe. In particular, such variables as training location and type of martial arts/combat sports have been taken into consideration. Five research questions have been established which should be answered in order to find the solution to the posed problem.

The theoretical perspective for analyses presented here consists of sociology of sport and humanist theory of martial arts. This approach results in the need for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the answers to questions about the barriers of development according to the variables of the practiced variety (a martial art, a combat sport) and the place of training.

The method of diagnostic survey has been used. The research was conducted on a group of 500 subjects from south-eastern Poland, Slovakia, Germany and additionally (for comparison) from England, of which 489 were accepted for the study. This number includes 137 representatives of kyokushin karate from Poland, 143 Polish karatekas of non-contact varieties, 18 representatives of jujitsu and karate from Germany, 37 aikidokas from Poland (a martial art without sportive rivalry), 107 judokas from Poland and 24 judokas from Slovakia, with an additional 23 British rugby players. The selection of the group was deliberate and complete, taking into account the representatives of various martial arts and combat sports, with rugby used for comparative purposes.

Practicing martial arts oriented to self-realization, determines the motivation for their practice, which differs from the motivation in sport (combat sports). It influences the dominating choices of values-goals and popularity, thus the development of given varieties. Both martial arts and combat sports of Asian origin (aikido, judo, jujitsu, karate) attract practitioners, mainly due to their usefulness in self-defense. The values connected with training and sportive rivalry (combat sports, rugby) are also noticed. The variable of place (country) is connected with the dominating forms in promoting a given martial art or combat sport.

Keywords

  • martial arts
  • combat sports
  • social factors
  • Central Europe
Open Access

Reliabity and Validity of the Trichotomous and 2×2 Achievement Goal Models in Turkish University Physical Activity Settings

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 77 - 82

Abstract

Reliabity and Validity of the Trichotomous and 2×2 Achievement Goal Models in Turkish University Physical Activity Settings

The present research is designed to continue exploration of the reliability and validity of the 2 × 2 and trichotomous achievement goal frameworks in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) Turkish undergraduate physical activity courses. One hundred and fifty eight Turkish undergraduate students (116 males; 42 females) served as participants. They completed both the trichotomous and 2 × 2 achievement goal scales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to examine and construct the validity of both the 2 × 2 and trichotomous achievement goal models. The results showed that the 2 × 2 achievement goal model represents an adequate fit to the data (X 2/df = 1.66, CFI = 0.91, GFI = 0.93, NNFI = 0.89, and RMSEA = 0.06). Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, and performance-avoidance goals were 0.65, 0.68, 0.72, and 0.60, respectively, indicating acceptable internal consistency. However, CFA analysis pointed out that the trichotomous achievement goal model provided a poor fit to the data (X 2/df = 1.59, CFI = 0.85, GFI = 0.88, NNFI = 0.69, and RMSEA = 0.06), although Cronbach's alpha coefficients in the trichotomous achievement goal model indicated acceptable reliability (mastery goals = 0.70, performance-approach goals = 0.73, and performance-avoidance goals = 0.64). Results from the present study indicate that only the 2 × 2 achievement goal model provides a reliable and valid measure of achievement goals for Turkish undergraduate students.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • validity
  • reliability
  • measurement
Open Access

Recreational Exercise Motives of Adolescents and Young Adults

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 83 - 89

Abstract

Recreational Exercise Motives of Adolescents and Young Adults

This study examined the motives for taking part in recreational exercise/sporting activities based on a sample of Turkish young people. Secondly, gender and age group differences with motivational dimensions were investigated. A total of 298 members of 6 Youth Centers voluntarily participated in this study. The Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure (REMM) was administered to all participants. Two × two MANOVA revealed significant main effect for gender (p < 0.03) and age group (p < 0.01). Univariate follow-up tests revealed that the significant main effect for gender was attributable to health subscale, and age group differences were correlated with health, body/appearance, social/enjoyment, and skill development subscales (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that health motives were more important for females than males, and motives relating to health, appearance, and social/enjoyment were more important for young adults.

Keywords

  • Recreational exercise motives
  • gender
  • adolescents
Open Access

Physical Activity Levels of the Young Adults in an Economically Developing Country: The Turkish Sample

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 91 - 98

Abstract

Physical Activity Levels of the Young Adults in an Economically Developing Country: The Turkish Sample

The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity levels of the young adults in Turkey, selected as an example of an economically developing country.

A total of 1027 university students voluntarily participated in this study. The sport and household activity indexes of the Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ) were administered to the subjects.

Student t-test showed gender differences in the intensity of the sport activities index (p<0.001). The results of 2 (gender) × 2 (intensity of sport activities) univariate ANOVA revealed significant gender, intensity differences and significant gender × intensity interaction on participation duration in the sports activities. This finding showed that males spent more time in both vigorous and non-vigorous sport activities than females. In terms of the type of engagement in sport activity, the majority of males primarily played soccer, while females had primarily walked. The Student t test revealed gender differences in both the duration of housework and sitting in the house.

To conclude, males participated in sport activities with a higher intensity and spent more time on these activities than females. On the other hand, females spent much more time on housework activities and sitting in the house than males.

Keywords

  • physical activity level
  • gender
  • young adult
  • developing country
Open Access

The Influence of Increased Intensity Levels on the Attitude of High School Females toward Aerobic Dance Lessons

Published Online: 13 Jan 2010
Page range: 99 - 105

Abstract

The Influence of Increased Intensity Levels on the Attitude of High School Females toward Aerobic Dance Lessons

Available evidence suggests that interest and participation, especially in vigorous physical activity, declines with age during adolescence. This negative attitude toward vigorous physical activity is especially prevalent among female adolescents. This study investigates how increasing intensity levels of aerobic dance, a popular physical education choice of female students, influence the attitude of female high school students toward the activity.

A total of 313 female high school students from eight schools (age 16.32±1.74; weight-kg 53.73±7.58; height-cm 164.37±5.61; BMI-kg/m2 19.87±2.55) participated in the study. Student intensity levels during the aerobic dance lesson were monitored using heart rate monitors, accelerometers and pedometers, and the influence of intensity level on attitude toward aerobic dance was measured by use of a standardized questionnaire. The results clearly show that increasing intensity levels did not diminish the positive attitude of female students toward aerobic dance.

Keywords

  • physical intensity
  • active energy expenditure
  • monitoring of heart rate
  • accelerometer
  • pedometer

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