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Aquatic Sports and Activities

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 21 (2009): Issue 2009 (June 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Sensation Seeking and Spatial Ability in Athletes: an Evolutionary Account

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 5 - 13

Abstract

Sensation Seeking and Spatial Ability in Athletes: an Evolutionary Account

The aim of this study was threefold: (a) to examine sex differences in sensation seeking and spatial abilities in a sample of athlete students, (b) to explore whether measures of sensation seeking and spatial ability can be used to distinguish between athletes engaging in sports of different levels of risk, and (c) to explore the relationship between sensation seeking and spatial abilities in a sample of athlete students. A total of 201 students athletes engaged in sports of different levels of risk completed the Spatial relations test, Mental rotation test, and Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale-V. Men scored higher than women in both measures of spatial abilities and on DIS, while women scored higher than men on ES. High-risk group had higher SSS and TAS scores than low- and medium- risk groups, and low-risk group had lower DIS scores than medium- and high-risk group, but there were no differences in spatial ability among athletes engaged in sports of different levels of risk. Spatial ability correlated with sensation seeking measures in men only. The results are discussed in terms of possible common biological background of these two sex-dimorphic traits.

Keywords

  • sensation seeking
  • spatial abilities
  • sex differences
  • sports
  • evolutionary account
Open Access

Evaluation of Tennis Match Data - New Acquisition Model

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 15 - 21

Abstract

Evaluation of Tennis Match Data - New Acquisition Model

The purpose of this research was to analyze and interpret the latent (factor) area of a tennis match. The entities in this research make 128 tennis matches played at the 2007 and 2008 Grand Slams hard court surfaces. The variables were created by use of the official statistics kept by the IBM Software - IBM DB2 Universal Database. The original variables were standardized to the number of sets in a match. A factor analysis under a component model was conducted. The number of factors retained, which was determined by the G-K criterion, explained 83.38 % of the total variance. Five significant factors substantiated the hypothesis established in this paper. The first factor named Match Successfulness is determined by the total number of break points; break points won and received points. The second factor named First Serve Significance is determined by the total number of first serves and winning points after the first serve. The third factor named Serve Speed is determined by the average speed of the serve and the fastest serve. The fourth factor named Net Play is determined by the total net approaches as well as the winning points after net approaches which are directly dependent on the total number of serves. The fifth factor named Play Errors is determined by unforced and double-fault errors. Winning matches differentiate from the lost matches by a smaller number of unforced and double-fault errors; considerably better results of the first serve, maximum serve speed and the number of aces scored, high score of total break points and break points won. The facts that do not differentiate winning matches from the lost ones are: first serves total, first serve throw-in, winning points after the first serve, number of net approaches and winning points after net approaches. The classification results show that with a system of 15 variables it is possible to recognize 96.0% of lost and 96.9% of winning matches. The achieved results indicate that the official match statistics with a modified system of 15 selected variables can properly interpret and predict match successfulness. This enables creators of a match observation system to valorize and enhance it with new indices.

Keywords

  • directoblimin rotation
  • match successfulness
  • grand slam tournaments
  • tennis latent dimensions
Open Access

Does Pelvic Asymmetry always Mean Pathology? Analysis of Mechanical Factors Leading to the Asymmetry

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 23 - 32

Abstract

Does Pelvic Asymmetry always Mean Pathology? Analysis of Mechanical Factors Leading to the Asymmetry

Pelvic asymmetry is a phenomenon of dual character. Some describe it in terms of pathology, whereas others report that pelvic asymmetry also occurs in healthy subjects.

A group of 321 subjects showing symmetrical alignment of the pelvis were involved in the study. Different forms of mechanical loads (jumps, resistance exercises of selected muscle groups) were tested for their ability to alter the configuration of the lower girdle. A hand inclinometer was used to measure pelvic asymmetry in standing. Asymmetrical configuration of the pelvis appears frequently as a consequence of mechanical loading of the lower girdle. It was registered in 25.08% of our study group. The greatest capacity to introduce pelvic asymmetry appeared in cases of asymmetrical loads that were applied in a form of so-called ‘mechanical shock’ (i.e., a force with great impulse). From this viewpoint, pelvic asymmetry should be regarded as a physiologic adaptative alteration of the locomotory system to transmission of asymmetrical mechanical loads.

Keywords

  • pelvic asymmetry
  • functional asymmetry
  • lumbo-pelvo-hip complex
Open Access

Validity of Mechanical Power Output Measurement at Bench Press Exercise

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 33 - 40

Abstract

Validity of Mechanical Power Output Measurement at Bench Press Exercise

In sport training and rehabilitation practice, it is usual to use methods of mechanical muscle power output measurement, which are based mainly on indirect force measurement. The aim of this study was to verify the validity of indirect measurement for mechanical muscle power output with bench press exercise. As a criterion of validity, we selected a combination of kinematic and dynamic analyses. Ten men participated in this study. Average age of tested subjects was 28.0 ± 3.4 years. At mechanical power output measurement, these subjects lifted at maximum possible speed loads of 18, 26.5, 39.2 and 47.7 kg. Validity of mechanical power output measurement by means of a method using indirect force measurement was estimated using Spearmen's Correlation Coefficient. Factual significance of differences in average values of power output, force and velocity, measured by a method using indirect force measurement, in comparison to the selected criterion, was evaluated by means of effect of size. Power output measurement method using indirect force measurement showed lower values of force in relation to the criterion in the whole scope of selected loads. Velocity values in the whole scope of selected loads did not show any significant difference between the criterion and the verified method. The mechanical muscle power output measured by the method using indirect force measurement is lower in relation to the criterion, especially in the low scope of loads, where also validity rate was low (R = 0.5).

Keywords

  • bench press
  • fitrodyne premium
  • kinematic analysis
  • dynamic analysis
Open Access

Effect of Wearing the Cosmed K4b2 Metabolic System on 1 Mile Walking Performance in Older Adults

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 41 - 48

Abstract

Effect of Wearing the Cosmed K4b<sup>2</sup> Metabolic System on 1 Mile Walking Performance in Older Adults

This study examined in older adults the effects of wearing the Cosmed K4b2 metabolic system with face mask during the 1-mile Rockport Fitness Walking Test (RFWT). A randomised cross-over design was used (13 males, 12 females, age: 67±4 (yrs). Walking time, walking speed and final heart rate were recorded and predicted VO2max calculated. Participants had a constant walking speed during the RFWT (P = 0.24) not influenced by wearing the Cosmed K4b2. Using Bland-Altman analysis, bias for walking time, heart rate and predicted VO2max was not significant. The predicted VO2max wearing the Cosmed K4b2 was within 0.05±0.36 L·min-1. Wearing the Cosmed K4b2 metabolic system with face mask did not influence 1-mile walking performance in older adults. This observation allows the Cosmed K4b2 metabolic system to be used during walking tests in older adults to examine metabolic and physiologic adaptations by controlled exercise interventions.

Keywords

  • Rockport Fitness Walking Test
  • portable metabolic system
  • predicted maximal oxygen uptake
  • aging
Open Access

Lactate Threshold (D-Max Method) and Maximal Lactate Steady State in Cyclists

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 49 - 56

Abstract

Lactate Threshold (D-Max Method) and Maximal Lactate Steady State in Cyclists

The Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS) is defined as the highest workload that can be maintained over time where there is a balance between lactate production and lactate clearance. Therefore, determination of this workload is very importance for diagnosis of aerobic capacity and training program design.

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of lactate threshold values determined by the D-max method as related to MLSS in cyclists. The research material included 10 female (body height 167±5.7 cm; body mass 56±4.8 kg; percent body fat 12.3±2.1) and 10 male well-trained cyclists (body height 183.5±4.4 cm; body mass 73.2±4.1 kg; percent body fat 7.9±2.6). The research had two distinct phases, separated by one day of active recovery. During the first phase, progressive tests were carried out to determine lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake in each subject. During the second phase, each athlete performed a series of 30-min ergocycle tests, with a fixed workload to establish maximal lactate steady state.

Results showed no significant differences between lactate threshold workload (WRLT), determined by the D-max method, and maximal lactate steady state workload (WRMLSS) in female and male cyclists, expressed in absolute and relative values. Differences between male and female cyclists in absolute and relative values of WRLT, WRMLSS, and WRmax were significant (p<0.05), but in relative values there was a tendency for decreased differences between groups. The oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold and MLSS were significantly (p<0.05) different. Also, a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed in values of heart rate and lactate concentration at the lactate threshold and MLSS. The analysis of changes in lactate concentration, heart rate and oxygen uptake between the 10th and 30th minutes of MLSS, indicates that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in these values in male and female cyclists. The strong correlation (r=0.97; p<0.05) between WRLT and WRMLSS was found. Also, a significant correlation between (r=0.96; p<0.05) WRMLSS and peak workload during the incremental test (WRmax) (r=0.96; p<0.05) was also observed.

Keywords

  • cyclists
  • lactate threshold
  • maximal lactate steady state
Open Access

Relationships Between Systolic Time Intervals and Heart Rate During Initial Response to Orthostatic Manoeuvre in Men of Different Age

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 57 - 64

Abstract

Relationships Between Systolic Time Intervals and Heart Rate During Initial Response to Orthostatic Manoeuvre in Men of Different Age

An analysis of transient changes in physiological parameters in response to the standardized tests could be used to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory processes. Relationships between systolic time intervals and heart rate following the action of standing up from the supine position were investigated in 41 healthy men, aged 20 to 59 years, classified into three groups: (22 to 26 yrs, n=14), (33 to 49, yrs, n=13) and (51 to 59 yrs, n=14). The protocol consisted of the following sequence: laying down (20 minutes) - standing up (8 minutes). Ejection time, pre-ejection period, electromechanical systole, heart rate and the length of R-R intervals were continuously calculated using automatized impedance cardiography and electrocardiogram. The ratio of ejection time to pre-ejection period in young men was significantly higher in comparison with the other groups. The ratio of ejection time to the length of R-R interval increased with age in supine position and after standing up when R-R interval was maximal. It was suggested that changes of ejection time to pre-ejection period during the orthostatic manoeuvre are rather the result of balance between heart rate and hemodynamic factors, than solely related to heart rate.

Keywords

  • systolic function
  • orthostatic test
  • cardiovascular response
  • aging
  • transient response
Open Access

The Recovery Phase Following a Triple Iron Triathlon

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 65 - 74

Abstract

The Recovery Phase Following a Triple Iron Triathlon

The purpose of this case study was to investigate the recovery phase in a single athlete after a Triple Iron Triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running. Total body mass, body fat and skeletal muscle mass using the anthropometric method as well as total body water using bioelectrical impedance analysis were determined pre race, after the race and every 24 hours until complete recovery. Parameters of hydration status (urinary specific gravity, hematocrit and plasma sodium) and skeletal muscle damage (plasma urea) were measured at the same time. After finishing the race within 42 hours, total body mass was decreased and total body water was increased. Over the following 6 days, prior to returning to pre race values for plasma volume and total body water, body mass reached a peak value on day 3, plasma volume on day 2 and total body water on day 1. Clinically visible edemas of the feet persisted until day 4. Six days after the race, body mass was reduced by 2.1 kg, skeletal muscle mass by 0.6 kg and fat mass by 0.7 kg. An increase in both blood urea and urinary output post race between days 3 and 6 suggested an impairment of renal function immediately post race due to skeletal muscle damage and manifesting clinically observed edemas. For practical application, athletes, coaches and physicians should anticipate that performing such an ultra-endurance race can lead to considerable edemas of the lower limbs during the recovery phase.

Keywords

  • total body water
  • fluids
  • edemas
  • body mass
  • ultra-endurance racing
Open Access

Comparison of Division II College Offensive and Defensive Football Players' Upper Body Strength Across One Repetition Maximum Test and The NFL-225 Test

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 75 - 82

Abstract

Comparison of Division II College Offensive and Defensive Football Players' Upper Body Strength Across One Repetition Maximum Test and The NFL-225 Test

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of predicting actual one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press strength from the National Football League (NFL) 225-test in college football players. Forty-one Division II college football players participated in this study. Participants' upper body strength scores were expressed relative to body weight and results were compared across both tests. Mayhew et al. equation was used to predict 1RM. A repeated measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA was used to compare the groups. The present study found that the Mayhew equation overestimated relative upper body strength of college football players, while high degree of reliability was found between the actual 1RM and the NFL-225 tests [Wilks λ = 0.43, F (1,40) = 53.07, p = 0.000, Eta-squared = 0.57] and the correlation between these two tests was very high (r = 0.94, p<0.001). The present study also found that defensive players were stronger than offensive players when scores were expressed relative to body weight. The finding of this study indicates that the NFL-225 test's applicability may not be identical for all college players. This study elucidates some of the difficulties associated with predicting 1RM. However, while it is difficult to predict 1RM, testing using sub-maximal loads are far less time consuming especially when they involve a large number of athletes. The results of this study should facilitate coaches in choosing the most appropriate strength testing procedure for their programs.

Keywords

  • bench press
  • college football
  • one repetition maximum test
  • NFL test
Open Access

Characteristics of Physical Loads of Young Footballers During a Championship Match

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 83 - 88

Abstract

Characteristics of Physical Loads of Young Footballers During a Championship Match

The aim of the work was to characterize physical loads present during a champion match among young footballers. The research was conducted on a group of 10 football players at the age of 13.5 ± 0.4, with training experience of 4 years. The average body height of the players was 162.32 ± 7.73 cm and the average body mass was 51.12 ± 7.72 kg. In effort to analyze the selected motor performances of the players during the match, a kinematic method by Erdmann (2000) was applied. The analysis of motor activeness was conducted during the first and the second half of the game. The results are shown as arithmetic means and standard deviation. To compare the values, Student's t-test for the linked samples was applied. The significance level was p ≤ 0.05. The results of the study show that the total distance covered by the young football players averaged 4,252 metres. The longest, statistically relevant mean distance (p ≤ 0.05) was covered by the midfielders (4, 486 m). The analysis of the mean distance covered by the players with an established speed below the anaerobic threshold was 3,596 ± 207 metres, which makes up 84.57% of the total distance covered during the game. A thorough analysis of the number of sprints revealed that a player performs 18 of them on average throughout the game. The highest maximum running speed (7.0 m/s) was achieved by the midfielders. The defenders proved to be slowest (6.5 m/s), while the forwards had the second fastest average maximum running speed (6.8 m/s).

Keywords

  • physical loads
  • motor performance
  • match distance covered
  • sprint
Open Access

Aerobic Capacity of Students with Different Levels of Physical Activity as Assessed by IPAQ

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 89 - 96

Abstract

Aerobic Capacity of Students with Different Levels of Physical Activity as Assessed by IPAQ

International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) has become one of the world's most valuable tools for measuring physical activity in different groups or populations.

The relationship between regular, moderate-intensity physical activity and health parameters including physical fitness and aerobic capacity has been clearly proven by numerous investigations throughout the world.

The aim of the present study was to determine the magnitude of differences in absolute & relative (lxmin-1, mlxkg-1xmin-1) VO2 max, by using the Astrand-Ryhming normogram in students aged 19 to 24 years, depending on their weekly energy expenditure (METminxweek-1), as diagnosed with IPAQ.

The significance of differences in aerobic capacity between highly and moderately active students was evaluated. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated as a measure of the strength of the correlation between the above parameters in female and male groups.

VO2 max was significantly higher in male and female participants, with a high level of physical activity, as determined through IPAQ criteria.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • aerobic capacity
  • students
  • questionnaire
Open Access

Knowledge Areas Necessary for Successful NCAA Division III Certified Athletic Trainers: NCAA Division III Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 97 - 103

Abstract

Knowledge Areas Necessary for Successful NCAA Division III Certified Athletic Trainers: NCAA Division III Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions

NCAA Division III head certified athletic trainers (ATCs) (n=185) were surveyed to determine knowledge areas needed by ATCs to be successful as Division III ATCs. A Likert-like scale survey consisted of 12 athletic training related knowledge areas and included the following five point scale: essential, very important, important, not very important, and irrelevant. Findings indicated that it is important that Division III ATCs have all 12 knowledge areas to be successful. Although injury-related knowledge areas were considered essential, all of the knowledge areas were at least considered important to the success of ATCs, and none were considered irrelevant. Those involved in athletic training curricular issues should place or continue to place the most emphasis on areas related to injuries.

Keywords

  • sport injuries
  • athletic trainers
  • education programs
  • survey
Open Access

The Effects of Water Exercises and Swimming on Physical Fitness of Children with Mental Retardation

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 105 - 111

Abstract

The Effects of Water Exercises and Swimming on Physical Fitness of Children with Mental Retardation

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of water exercises and swimming on physical fitness of children with mental retardation. Nine trainable and 7 educable male children (n = 16) were recruited from a rehabilitation center. The mean ages of the groups were 12.22±0.49 and 14.71±0.52 years, respectively. Training program was applied for 10-week, two times a week for 40 minute each session. Pre- and post-tests measurements were taken for cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, speed, static balance, and agility. Results showed that both groups improved significantly (p<0.05) in all dependent variables. Water exercises and swimming appear to be a viable and effective way to improve physical fitness capacity of the children with mental retardation.

Keywords

  • mental retardation
  • physical fitness
  • water and swimming exercises
Open Access

Sports Media in Turkey: A Sample on the University Students

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 113 - 118

Abstract

Sports Media in Turkey: A Sample on the University Students

Sport has an important place among the basic factors of "modern life" in the 21st century. The governments and sources of power, which shape and direct the society, produce and promote all kinds of goods and politics by using sports as a medium in a mechanism that embraces the whole life. This both creates a large area of movement for these power sources and also makes it possible to give the target audiences an unlimited area of freedom. Sport, as a social institution, has close and intense interactions with other social institutions like family, education, economy and media. Media has become an irreplaceable part of our social lives, especially with the effect of technological developments. Many social scientists have, in their researches, questioned the effects of mass communication vehicles on personal and social life, and tried to explain the individual and social behavior models by using sociological and socio-psychological approaches. Media and sport are indeed structures, which influence and nurture each other. However, in Turkey, one cannot claim that the broadcasting policy of the sport media has developed by consciously following the sports agenda. Objective: In this study it was aimed to show the degree of interest in, and consumption of, the sports media in Turkey. Material and Method: 400 students who study at Istanbul Technical University (ITU) and Marmara University (MU) have participated in our study. The study comprised of students who are active and inactive in sports. The survey included 46 questions on all sports branches (e.g. volleyball, basketball, winter sports, summer sports). The results have been reached by evaluating the survey on students' interest in sports, and their consumption of sports media.

Keywords

  • sport
  • modern life
  • society
  • sport media
Open Access

Influence of Patricipation in Leisure Time Physical Activity on Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption among Former Athletes and Non Athletes

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 119 - 126

Abstract

Influence of Patricipation in Leisure Time Physical Activity on Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption among Former Athletes and Non Athletes

The purpose of the study was to recognise relationships between participation in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and smoking and alcohol consumption among former athletes (FA) and individuals with no sports experience (NA). In Spring-Summer periods in the years 1997-2002 within the purposively sampled groups of FA (n=312) and people NA (n=417) - an anonymous survey was conducted concerning their socioeconomic status, participation in LTPA, smoking and alcohol consumption. The age of examined FA and NA ranged from 18 to 51 years. Respondents' participation in LTPA was measured as follows: frequency, time and forms of LTPA. For evaluation of respondents' smoking status in the last six months the following categories were used: I do not smoke, I smoked occasionally, I smoked 1 to 10 cigarettes/day, and I smoked more than 10 cigarettes/day. Variables describing alcohol consumption involve frequency of drinking alcohol beverages and type of consumed alcohol beverages. It has shown that among male FA was a significantly lower rate of non-smokers, as compared to male NA. No correlation was found between LTPA and smoking and alcohol consumption among women FA and NA. Negative correlation between participation in LTPA and smoking and alcohol consumption was found in both male groups. The results obtained allow us to draw a conclusion that promoting participation in competitive sports or LTPA is a valuable means to complement intervention programmes focused on the reduction and elimination of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption addressed to men.

Keywords

  • former athletes
  • non athletes
  • lifestyle risk factors
  • public health recommendations
15 Articles
Open Access

Sensation Seeking and Spatial Ability in Athletes: an Evolutionary Account

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 5 - 13

Abstract

Sensation Seeking and Spatial Ability in Athletes: an Evolutionary Account

The aim of this study was threefold: (a) to examine sex differences in sensation seeking and spatial abilities in a sample of athlete students, (b) to explore whether measures of sensation seeking and spatial ability can be used to distinguish between athletes engaging in sports of different levels of risk, and (c) to explore the relationship between sensation seeking and spatial abilities in a sample of athlete students. A total of 201 students athletes engaged in sports of different levels of risk completed the Spatial relations test, Mental rotation test, and Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale-V. Men scored higher than women in both measures of spatial abilities and on DIS, while women scored higher than men on ES. High-risk group had higher SSS and TAS scores than low- and medium- risk groups, and low-risk group had lower DIS scores than medium- and high-risk group, but there were no differences in spatial ability among athletes engaged in sports of different levels of risk. Spatial ability correlated with sensation seeking measures in men only. The results are discussed in terms of possible common biological background of these two sex-dimorphic traits.

Keywords

  • sensation seeking
  • spatial abilities
  • sex differences
  • sports
  • evolutionary account
Open Access

Evaluation of Tennis Match Data - New Acquisition Model

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 15 - 21

Abstract

Evaluation of Tennis Match Data - New Acquisition Model

The purpose of this research was to analyze and interpret the latent (factor) area of a tennis match. The entities in this research make 128 tennis matches played at the 2007 and 2008 Grand Slams hard court surfaces. The variables were created by use of the official statistics kept by the IBM Software - IBM DB2 Universal Database. The original variables were standardized to the number of sets in a match. A factor analysis under a component model was conducted. The number of factors retained, which was determined by the G-K criterion, explained 83.38 % of the total variance. Five significant factors substantiated the hypothesis established in this paper. The first factor named Match Successfulness is determined by the total number of break points; break points won and received points. The second factor named First Serve Significance is determined by the total number of first serves and winning points after the first serve. The third factor named Serve Speed is determined by the average speed of the serve and the fastest serve. The fourth factor named Net Play is determined by the total net approaches as well as the winning points after net approaches which are directly dependent on the total number of serves. The fifth factor named Play Errors is determined by unforced and double-fault errors. Winning matches differentiate from the lost matches by a smaller number of unforced and double-fault errors; considerably better results of the first serve, maximum serve speed and the number of aces scored, high score of total break points and break points won. The facts that do not differentiate winning matches from the lost ones are: first serves total, first serve throw-in, winning points after the first serve, number of net approaches and winning points after net approaches. The classification results show that with a system of 15 variables it is possible to recognize 96.0% of lost and 96.9% of winning matches. The achieved results indicate that the official match statistics with a modified system of 15 selected variables can properly interpret and predict match successfulness. This enables creators of a match observation system to valorize and enhance it with new indices.

Keywords

  • directoblimin rotation
  • match successfulness
  • grand slam tournaments
  • tennis latent dimensions
Open Access

Does Pelvic Asymmetry always Mean Pathology? Analysis of Mechanical Factors Leading to the Asymmetry

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 23 - 32

Abstract

Does Pelvic Asymmetry always Mean Pathology? Analysis of Mechanical Factors Leading to the Asymmetry

Pelvic asymmetry is a phenomenon of dual character. Some describe it in terms of pathology, whereas others report that pelvic asymmetry also occurs in healthy subjects.

A group of 321 subjects showing symmetrical alignment of the pelvis were involved in the study. Different forms of mechanical loads (jumps, resistance exercises of selected muscle groups) were tested for their ability to alter the configuration of the lower girdle. A hand inclinometer was used to measure pelvic asymmetry in standing. Asymmetrical configuration of the pelvis appears frequently as a consequence of mechanical loading of the lower girdle. It was registered in 25.08% of our study group. The greatest capacity to introduce pelvic asymmetry appeared in cases of asymmetrical loads that were applied in a form of so-called ‘mechanical shock’ (i.e., a force with great impulse). From this viewpoint, pelvic asymmetry should be regarded as a physiologic adaptative alteration of the locomotory system to transmission of asymmetrical mechanical loads.

Keywords

  • pelvic asymmetry
  • functional asymmetry
  • lumbo-pelvo-hip complex
Open Access

Validity of Mechanical Power Output Measurement at Bench Press Exercise

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 33 - 40

Abstract

Validity of Mechanical Power Output Measurement at Bench Press Exercise

In sport training and rehabilitation practice, it is usual to use methods of mechanical muscle power output measurement, which are based mainly on indirect force measurement. The aim of this study was to verify the validity of indirect measurement for mechanical muscle power output with bench press exercise. As a criterion of validity, we selected a combination of kinematic and dynamic analyses. Ten men participated in this study. Average age of tested subjects was 28.0 ± 3.4 years. At mechanical power output measurement, these subjects lifted at maximum possible speed loads of 18, 26.5, 39.2 and 47.7 kg. Validity of mechanical power output measurement by means of a method using indirect force measurement was estimated using Spearmen's Correlation Coefficient. Factual significance of differences in average values of power output, force and velocity, measured by a method using indirect force measurement, in comparison to the selected criterion, was evaluated by means of effect of size. Power output measurement method using indirect force measurement showed lower values of force in relation to the criterion in the whole scope of selected loads. Velocity values in the whole scope of selected loads did not show any significant difference between the criterion and the verified method. The mechanical muscle power output measured by the method using indirect force measurement is lower in relation to the criterion, especially in the low scope of loads, where also validity rate was low (R = 0.5).

Keywords

  • bench press
  • fitrodyne premium
  • kinematic analysis
  • dynamic analysis
Open Access

Effect of Wearing the Cosmed K4b2 Metabolic System on 1 Mile Walking Performance in Older Adults

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 41 - 48

Abstract

Effect of Wearing the Cosmed K4b<sup>2</sup> Metabolic System on 1 Mile Walking Performance in Older Adults

This study examined in older adults the effects of wearing the Cosmed K4b2 metabolic system with face mask during the 1-mile Rockport Fitness Walking Test (RFWT). A randomised cross-over design was used (13 males, 12 females, age: 67±4 (yrs). Walking time, walking speed and final heart rate were recorded and predicted VO2max calculated. Participants had a constant walking speed during the RFWT (P = 0.24) not influenced by wearing the Cosmed K4b2. Using Bland-Altman analysis, bias for walking time, heart rate and predicted VO2max was not significant. The predicted VO2max wearing the Cosmed K4b2 was within 0.05±0.36 L·min-1. Wearing the Cosmed K4b2 metabolic system with face mask did not influence 1-mile walking performance in older adults. This observation allows the Cosmed K4b2 metabolic system to be used during walking tests in older adults to examine metabolic and physiologic adaptations by controlled exercise interventions.

Keywords

  • Rockport Fitness Walking Test
  • portable metabolic system
  • predicted maximal oxygen uptake
  • aging
Open Access

Lactate Threshold (D-Max Method) and Maximal Lactate Steady State in Cyclists

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 49 - 56

Abstract

Lactate Threshold (D-Max Method) and Maximal Lactate Steady State in Cyclists

The Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS) is defined as the highest workload that can be maintained over time where there is a balance between lactate production and lactate clearance. Therefore, determination of this workload is very importance for diagnosis of aerobic capacity and training program design.

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of lactate threshold values determined by the D-max method as related to MLSS in cyclists. The research material included 10 female (body height 167±5.7 cm; body mass 56±4.8 kg; percent body fat 12.3±2.1) and 10 male well-trained cyclists (body height 183.5±4.4 cm; body mass 73.2±4.1 kg; percent body fat 7.9±2.6). The research had two distinct phases, separated by one day of active recovery. During the first phase, progressive tests were carried out to determine lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake in each subject. During the second phase, each athlete performed a series of 30-min ergocycle tests, with a fixed workload to establish maximal lactate steady state.

Results showed no significant differences between lactate threshold workload (WRLT), determined by the D-max method, and maximal lactate steady state workload (WRMLSS) in female and male cyclists, expressed in absolute and relative values. Differences between male and female cyclists in absolute and relative values of WRLT, WRMLSS, and WRmax were significant (p<0.05), but in relative values there was a tendency for decreased differences between groups. The oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold and MLSS were significantly (p<0.05) different. Also, a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed in values of heart rate and lactate concentration at the lactate threshold and MLSS. The analysis of changes in lactate concentration, heart rate and oxygen uptake between the 10th and 30th minutes of MLSS, indicates that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in these values in male and female cyclists. The strong correlation (r=0.97; p<0.05) between WRLT and WRMLSS was found. Also, a significant correlation between (r=0.96; p<0.05) WRMLSS and peak workload during the incremental test (WRmax) (r=0.96; p<0.05) was also observed.

Keywords

  • cyclists
  • lactate threshold
  • maximal lactate steady state
Open Access

Relationships Between Systolic Time Intervals and Heart Rate During Initial Response to Orthostatic Manoeuvre in Men of Different Age

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 57 - 64

Abstract

Relationships Between Systolic Time Intervals and Heart Rate During Initial Response to Orthostatic Manoeuvre in Men of Different Age

An analysis of transient changes in physiological parameters in response to the standardized tests could be used to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory processes. Relationships between systolic time intervals and heart rate following the action of standing up from the supine position were investigated in 41 healthy men, aged 20 to 59 years, classified into three groups: (22 to 26 yrs, n=14), (33 to 49, yrs, n=13) and (51 to 59 yrs, n=14). The protocol consisted of the following sequence: laying down (20 minutes) - standing up (8 minutes). Ejection time, pre-ejection period, electromechanical systole, heart rate and the length of R-R intervals were continuously calculated using automatized impedance cardiography and electrocardiogram. The ratio of ejection time to pre-ejection period in young men was significantly higher in comparison with the other groups. The ratio of ejection time to the length of R-R interval increased with age in supine position and after standing up when R-R interval was maximal. It was suggested that changes of ejection time to pre-ejection period during the orthostatic manoeuvre are rather the result of balance between heart rate and hemodynamic factors, than solely related to heart rate.

Keywords

  • systolic function
  • orthostatic test
  • cardiovascular response
  • aging
  • transient response
Open Access

The Recovery Phase Following a Triple Iron Triathlon

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 65 - 74

Abstract

The Recovery Phase Following a Triple Iron Triathlon

The purpose of this case study was to investigate the recovery phase in a single athlete after a Triple Iron Triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running. Total body mass, body fat and skeletal muscle mass using the anthropometric method as well as total body water using bioelectrical impedance analysis were determined pre race, after the race and every 24 hours until complete recovery. Parameters of hydration status (urinary specific gravity, hematocrit and plasma sodium) and skeletal muscle damage (plasma urea) were measured at the same time. After finishing the race within 42 hours, total body mass was decreased and total body water was increased. Over the following 6 days, prior to returning to pre race values for plasma volume and total body water, body mass reached a peak value on day 3, plasma volume on day 2 and total body water on day 1. Clinically visible edemas of the feet persisted until day 4. Six days after the race, body mass was reduced by 2.1 kg, skeletal muscle mass by 0.6 kg and fat mass by 0.7 kg. An increase in both blood urea and urinary output post race between days 3 and 6 suggested an impairment of renal function immediately post race due to skeletal muscle damage and manifesting clinically observed edemas. For practical application, athletes, coaches and physicians should anticipate that performing such an ultra-endurance race can lead to considerable edemas of the lower limbs during the recovery phase.

Keywords

  • total body water
  • fluids
  • edemas
  • body mass
  • ultra-endurance racing
Open Access

Comparison of Division II College Offensive and Defensive Football Players' Upper Body Strength Across One Repetition Maximum Test and The NFL-225 Test

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 75 - 82

Abstract

Comparison of Division II College Offensive and Defensive Football Players' Upper Body Strength Across One Repetition Maximum Test and The NFL-225 Test

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of predicting actual one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press strength from the National Football League (NFL) 225-test in college football players. Forty-one Division II college football players participated in this study. Participants' upper body strength scores were expressed relative to body weight and results were compared across both tests. Mayhew et al. equation was used to predict 1RM. A repeated measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA was used to compare the groups. The present study found that the Mayhew equation overestimated relative upper body strength of college football players, while high degree of reliability was found between the actual 1RM and the NFL-225 tests [Wilks λ = 0.43, F (1,40) = 53.07, p = 0.000, Eta-squared = 0.57] and the correlation between these two tests was very high (r = 0.94, p<0.001). The present study also found that defensive players were stronger than offensive players when scores were expressed relative to body weight. The finding of this study indicates that the NFL-225 test's applicability may not be identical for all college players. This study elucidates some of the difficulties associated with predicting 1RM. However, while it is difficult to predict 1RM, testing using sub-maximal loads are far less time consuming especially when they involve a large number of athletes. The results of this study should facilitate coaches in choosing the most appropriate strength testing procedure for their programs.

Keywords

  • bench press
  • college football
  • one repetition maximum test
  • NFL test
Open Access

Characteristics of Physical Loads of Young Footballers During a Championship Match

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 83 - 88

Abstract

Characteristics of Physical Loads of Young Footballers During a Championship Match

The aim of the work was to characterize physical loads present during a champion match among young footballers. The research was conducted on a group of 10 football players at the age of 13.5 ± 0.4, with training experience of 4 years. The average body height of the players was 162.32 ± 7.73 cm and the average body mass was 51.12 ± 7.72 kg. In effort to analyze the selected motor performances of the players during the match, a kinematic method by Erdmann (2000) was applied. The analysis of motor activeness was conducted during the first and the second half of the game. The results are shown as arithmetic means and standard deviation. To compare the values, Student's t-test for the linked samples was applied. The significance level was p ≤ 0.05. The results of the study show that the total distance covered by the young football players averaged 4,252 metres. The longest, statistically relevant mean distance (p ≤ 0.05) was covered by the midfielders (4, 486 m). The analysis of the mean distance covered by the players with an established speed below the anaerobic threshold was 3,596 ± 207 metres, which makes up 84.57% of the total distance covered during the game. A thorough analysis of the number of sprints revealed that a player performs 18 of them on average throughout the game. The highest maximum running speed (7.0 m/s) was achieved by the midfielders. The defenders proved to be slowest (6.5 m/s), while the forwards had the second fastest average maximum running speed (6.8 m/s).

Keywords

  • physical loads
  • motor performance
  • match distance covered
  • sprint
Open Access

Aerobic Capacity of Students with Different Levels of Physical Activity as Assessed by IPAQ

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 89 - 96

Abstract

Aerobic Capacity of Students with Different Levels of Physical Activity as Assessed by IPAQ

International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) has become one of the world's most valuable tools for measuring physical activity in different groups or populations.

The relationship between regular, moderate-intensity physical activity and health parameters including physical fitness and aerobic capacity has been clearly proven by numerous investigations throughout the world.

The aim of the present study was to determine the magnitude of differences in absolute & relative (lxmin-1, mlxkg-1xmin-1) VO2 max, by using the Astrand-Ryhming normogram in students aged 19 to 24 years, depending on their weekly energy expenditure (METminxweek-1), as diagnosed with IPAQ.

The significance of differences in aerobic capacity between highly and moderately active students was evaluated. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated as a measure of the strength of the correlation between the above parameters in female and male groups.

VO2 max was significantly higher in male and female participants, with a high level of physical activity, as determined through IPAQ criteria.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • aerobic capacity
  • students
  • questionnaire
Open Access

Knowledge Areas Necessary for Successful NCAA Division III Certified Athletic Trainers: NCAA Division III Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 97 - 103

Abstract

Knowledge Areas Necessary for Successful NCAA Division III Certified Athletic Trainers: NCAA Division III Certified Athletic Trainers' Perceptions

NCAA Division III head certified athletic trainers (ATCs) (n=185) were surveyed to determine knowledge areas needed by ATCs to be successful as Division III ATCs. A Likert-like scale survey consisted of 12 athletic training related knowledge areas and included the following five point scale: essential, very important, important, not very important, and irrelevant. Findings indicated that it is important that Division III ATCs have all 12 knowledge areas to be successful. Although injury-related knowledge areas were considered essential, all of the knowledge areas were at least considered important to the success of ATCs, and none were considered irrelevant. Those involved in athletic training curricular issues should place or continue to place the most emphasis on areas related to injuries.

Keywords

  • sport injuries
  • athletic trainers
  • education programs
  • survey
Open Access

The Effects of Water Exercises and Swimming on Physical Fitness of Children with Mental Retardation

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 105 - 111

Abstract

The Effects of Water Exercises and Swimming on Physical Fitness of Children with Mental Retardation

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of water exercises and swimming on physical fitness of children with mental retardation. Nine trainable and 7 educable male children (n = 16) were recruited from a rehabilitation center. The mean ages of the groups were 12.22±0.49 and 14.71±0.52 years, respectively. Training program was applied for 10-week, two times a week for 40 minute each session. Pre- and post-tests measurements were taken for cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, speed, static balance, and agility. Results showed that both groups improved significantly (p<0.05) in all dependent variables. Water exercises and swimming appear to be a viable and effective way to improve physical fitness capacity of the children with mental retardation.

Keywords

  • mental retardation
  • physical fitness
  • water and swimming exercises
Open Access

Sports Media in Turkey: A Sample on the University Students

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 113 - 118

Abstract

Sports Media in Turkey: A Sample on the University Students

Sport has an important place among the basic factors of "modern life" in the 21st century. The governments and sources of power, which shape and direct the society, produce and promote all kinds of goods and politics by using sports as a medium in a mechanism that embraces the whole life. This both creates a large area of movement for these power sources and also makes it possible to give the target audiences an unlimited area of freedom. Sport, as a social institution, has close and intense interactions with other social institutions like family, education, economy and media. Media has become an irreplaceable part of our social lives, especially with the effect of technological developments. Many social scientists have, in their researches, questioned the effects of mass communication vehicles on personal and social life, and tried to explain the individual and social behavior models by using sociological and socio-psychological approaches. Media and sport are indeed structures, which influence and nurture each other. However, in Turkey, one cannot claim that the broadcasting policy of the sport media has developed by consciously following the sports agenda. Objective: In this study it was aimed to show the degree of interest in, and consumption of, the sports media in Turkey. Material and Method: 400 students who study at Istanbul Technical University (ITU) and Marmara University (MU) have participated in our study. The study comprised of students who are active and inactive in sports. The survey included 46 questions on all sports branches (e.g. volleyball, basketball, winter sports, summer sports). The results have been reached by evaluating the survey on students' interest in sports, and their consumption of sports media.

Keywords

  • sport
  • modern life
  • society
  • sport media
Open Access

Influence of Patricipation in Leisure Time Physical Activity on Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption among Former Athletes and Non Athletes

Published Online: 17 Jul 2009
Page range: 119 - 126

Abstract

Influence of Patricipation in Leisure Time Physical Activity on Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption among Former Athletes and Non Athletes

The purpose of the study was to recognise relationships between participation in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and smoking and alcohol consumption among former athletes (FA) and individuals with no sports experience (NA). In Spring-Summer periods in the years 1997-2002 within the purposively sampled groups of FA (n=312) and people NA (n=417) - an anonymous survey was conducted concerning their socioeconomic status, participation in LTPA, smoking and alcohol consumption. The age of examined FA and NA ranged from 18 to 51 years. Respondents' participation in LTPA was measured as follows: frequency, time and forms of LTPA. For evaluation of respondents' smoking status in the last six months the following categories were used: I do not smoke, I smoked occasionally, I smoked 1 to 10 cigarettes/day, and I smoked more than 10 cigarettes/day. Variables describing alcohol consumption involve frequency of drinking alcohol beverages and type of consumed alcohol beverages. It has shown that among male FA was a significantly lower rate of non-smokers, as compared to male NA. No correlation was found between LTPA and smoking and alcohol consumption among women FA and NA. Negative correlation between participation in LTPA and smoking and alcohol consumption was found in both male groups. The results obtained allow us to draw a conclusion that promoting participation in competitive sports or LTPA is a valuable means to complement intervention programmes focused on the reduction and elimination of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption addressed to men.

Keywords

  • former athletes
  • non athletes
  • lifestyle risk factors
  • public health recommendations

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