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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Pentacyclic triterpenoids and polyphenols accumulation in cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. ex Spach

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 1 - 11

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Callus and cell suspension cultures are widely applied in investigation of production of high-value secondary metabolites, which may be used as cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Plant cell cultures are promising alternative to intact plant sources for the production of plant-derived drugs of industrial importance.

Objective: The aim of the study was to (i) initiate the cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica from homogenous and uniform callus, (ii) stabilize the selected line and (iii) verify its ability to produce the desired groups of secondary metabolites – pentacyclic triterpenoids and polyphenols.

Methods: To establish a cell suspension culture, stabilized and homogeneous callus was selected. Cell cultures were systematically passaged every 2 weeks to fresh liquid medium with the same composition. Biomass from cultures at the growth phase and stationary phase was designated for phytochemical research. UHPLC-DAD-MS analyzes were performed. At the same time, their macroscopic and microscopic observations were carried out.

Results: Cells of suspension culture line A2 were characterized by the intense divisions. Cell culture extracts (both from the growth phase and stationary phase) contained pentacyclic triterpenoids. In addition, phe-nolic compounds (chlorogenic acid and proanthocyanidins type B) and in a small amount also epicatechin are present in the extract of the cells harvested from the growth phase. In the present studies, three pentacyclic triterpenoids were detected and quantified in the extracts of cell suspensions and callus line A2. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were the main triterpenoids in the studied extracts. The cell suspension culture from the growth phase exhibited the highest content of ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acid (separately and together).

Conclusion: The cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica is a promising source of pentacyclic triterpenoids.

Keywords

  • Japanese quince
  • callus
  • cell suspension culture
  • chlorogenic acid
  • ursolic acid
  • oleanolic acid
Open Access

The optimization of extraction process of white mulberry leaves and the characteristic bioactive properties its powder extract

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 12 - 19

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Powder extracts from white mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) are desirable due to their simplicity of use. Powders intended for use in food and dietary supplements can be obtained by various methods, including water extraction and spray drying.

Objective: The aim of the work was to optimize the aqueous process of extraction of white mulberry leaves and characterization of bioactive properties of the obtained extract powder.

Methods: The DNJ and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol) contents and were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH assays.

Results: The mulberry leaf extraction process has been optimized. The obtained powdered mulberry leaf extract proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. Characteristic phenolic compounds detected in mulberry leaves and their powder extract were quercetin and kaempferol. The sum of polyphenols was 10.9 mg GAE/g dry matter in the raw material, whereas in the powder extract 42.6 mg GAE/g dry matter. In addition, it was found that the obtained powdered extract is characterized by a five-fold higher, in comparison to the raw material, the content of antioxidant activity measured by ABTS and DPPH tests. The content of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in the powder extract was nearly four times higher than in dry mulberry leaves.

Conclusion: The optimized process of water extraction of white mulberry leaves allows to keep valuable bioactive components and to obtain their high concentration.

Keywords

  • Mulberry leaves extract
  • 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)
  • antioxidant activity
  • flavonoids
Open Access

Litogenolitic and solubility properties of products obtained from common ivy extract (Hederae helicis e folium) and medium of diversified polarity (εM)

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 20 - 31

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Common ivy (Hedera helix) is a plant used successfully in the treatment of various ailments. This is possible owing to the unique set of substances contained in it such as large amount of saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and phytosterols as well as polyacetylenes and coumarins. All these substances have been used in the production of cosmetic and medicinal preparations. Clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of dry ivy leaf extract have shown its high efficacy, comparable to synthetic medications, and better tolerance of herbal drugs.

Objective: Investigations were performed on model ivy leaf (Hedera helix) extracts which were created using a medium of diversified polarity ( εM). Measurements of viscosity and surface activity on phase boundary were performed. During preformulation studies attention was drawn to the possibility of micellar solubilization of cholesterol and selected structures of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – ketoprofen.

Methods: Viscosity measurements of Extractum Hederae helicis e folium aqueous solutions and in 0.1 mol HCl were performed according to the Polish Standard with Ubbelohde dilution viscometer. The surface tension of aqueous solutions -Δγsol25$- \Delta \gamma _{{\rm{sol}}}^{25}$ of Hederae helicis e folium extracts was determined according to the Polish Standard with stalagmometric method. Critical micellar concentration (cmc) was calculated. This enabled to evaluate the dependence ΔGm0=2.303$\Delta {\rm{G}}_{\rm{m}}^0 = 2.303$ RT×log cmc of the thermodynamic potential of micelle formation (ΔGm0$\Delta {\rm{G}}_{\rm{m}}^0$ ). Results: It has been confirmed in the conducted comparative studies that aqueous solutions of Extr. Hederae helicis e folium created with maltodextrin as well as with SiO2 – maltodextrin result in micellar solubilization. The increase of granulometric size of cholesterol particle to Ø 1.60 mm decreased the amount of solubilized cholesterol but solubility preferences of the extracts were maintained.

Conclusions: Model extracts produced from Hederae helicis e folium with diversified polarity of the extraction medium (water – ethanol) are characterized by appropriate solubility of the components which results not only from the presence of chlorophyll and its derivatives in the extract but also from the technique used for spray drying of the extract.

Keywords

  • Hedera helix
  • dry extract
  • cholesterol
  • hederasaponin C
Open Access

Impact of Curcuma longa extract on the expression level of brain transporters in in vivo model

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 32 - 39

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Blood brain barrier and multidrug resistance phenomenon are subjects of many investigations. Mainly, because of their functions in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) by blocking the delivery of toxic substances to the brain. This special function has some disadvantages, like drug delivery to the brain in neurodegenerative diseases

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how natural and synthetic substances affect the expression levels of genes (Mdr1a, Mdr1b, Mrp1, Mrp2, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1c1) that encode transporters in the blood-brain barrier.

Methods: cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from rat hippocampus. The expression level of genes was determined using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method.

Results: Our findings showed that verapamil, as a synthetic substance, caused the greatest reduction of mRNA level of genes studied. The standardized extract of Curcuma longa reduced the expression level for Mrp1 and Mrp2, whereas the increase of mRNA level was observed for Mdr1b, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1c1.

Conclusions: These results suggests that herbal extracts may play an important role in overcoming the blood brain barrier during pharmacotherapy.

Keywords

  • blood brain barrier
  • Curcuma longa
  • expression level
  • natural and synthetic substances
Open Access

Ethnobotanical study of traditional herbal plants used by local people of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve in Eastern Ghats, India

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 40 - 54

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Ethnobotany is the study of medicinal plants used by local people, with particular importance of old-styled tribal beliefs and information. Ethnobotanical studies focus on ethnic knowledge of Adivasi people and development of data bases on ethnic knowledge but also focuses on preservation and regeneration of traditional beliefs and maintenance of traditional knowledge.

Objective: The aim of present study is to highlight the traditional actions of herbal plants used by inborn Yanadi community of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Methods: The ethnobotanical field survey was conducted according to the methods adopted by some authors. In-depth interviews, interactions were conducted with tribal physicians of Yanadi, Nakkala and Irula as well as other tribes practicing and experiencing the use of plant-based medicine. A normal inquiry form was used to gather the appropriate data on herbal plants and their usage of inborn people’s lifestyle. Extensive consultations among local people and detailed documentation of the usage of plants were carried out

Results: A total of 266 medicinally used plant species belonging to 216 genera and 88 families were recognized with help of inborn herbal healers. The study also chronicled the mode of herbal arrangements, mode of the use of herbal plants in various disorders. The study exposed that native people of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve have good medicinal information and also have preserved plant-based medicinal system of their ascendants used all their diseases. Most of medicinal plants are used in the treatment of indigestion, snake bite and skin diseases. The authors feel that this type of study certainly helps identify ethnic leads for drug development in future.

Conclusions: The ethnobotanical investigation of Seshalam Biosphere area has revealed that the tribes possess good knowledge on plant-based medicine but as they are towards in advanced exposure to transformation, their information on traditional uses of plants is slowly getting eroded. The authors plead for intensive crosscultural studies involving all ethnic tribes in the country for prioritizing or short listing of ethnic leads for various disorders for ultimately developing global level drugs for human welfare and economy development.

Keywords

  • ethnomedicine
  • Yanadis
  • Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve
  • Eastern Ghats
  • herbal plants
  • drug development
Open Access

In vitro and in vivo activities of flavonoids – apigenin, baicalin, chrysin, scutellarin – in regulation of hypertension – a review for their possible effects in pregnancy-induced hypertension

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 55 - 70

Abstract

Summary

Flavonoids and their conjugates are the most important group of natural chemical compounds in drug discovery and development. The search for pharmacological activity and new mechanisms of activity of these chemical compounds, which may inhibit mediators of inflammation and influence the structure and function of endothelial cells, can be an interesting pharmacological strategy for the prevention and adjunctive treatments of hypertension, especially induced by pregnancy. Because cardiovascular diseases have multi-factorial pathogenesis these natural chemical compounds with wide spectrum of biological activities are the most interesting source of new drugs. Extracts from one of the most popular plant used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi could be a very interesting source of flavonoids because of its exact content in quercetin, apigenin, chrysin and scutellarin as well as in baicalin. These flavonoids exert vasoprotective properties and many activities such as: anti-oxidative via several pathways, anti-in-flammatory, anti-ischaemic, cardioprotective and anti-hypertensive. However, there is lack of summaries of results of studies in context of potential and future application of flavonoids with determined composition and activity. Our review aims to provide a literature survey of in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo pharmacological studies of selected flavonoids (apigenin, chrysin and scutellarin, baicalin) in various models of hypertension carried out in 2008–2018.

Keywords

  • flavonoids
  • pharmacological activity
  • in vitro models
  • animal models
  • hypertension
  • pregnancy-induced hypertension
Open Access

Professor Wanda Kisiel (1946–2018) in memoriam

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 71 - 72

Abstract

7 Articles
Open Access

Pentacyclic triterpenoids and polyphenols accumulation in cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. ex Spach

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 1 - 11

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Callus and cell suspension cultures are widely applied in investigation of production of high-value secondary metabolites, which may be used as cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Plant cell cultures are promising alternative to intact plant sources for the production of plant-derived drugs of industrial importance.

Objective: The aim of the study was to (i) initiate the cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica from homogenous and uniform callus, (ii) stabilize the selected line and (iii) verify its ability to produce the desired groups of secondary metabolites – pentacyclic triterpenoids and polyphenols.

Methods: To establish a cell suspension culture, stabilized and homogeneous callus was selected. Cell cultures were systematically passaged every 2 weeks to fresh liquid medium with the same composition. Biomass from cultures at the growth phase and stationary phase was designated for phytochemical research. UHPLC-DAD-MS analyzes were performed. At the same time, their macroscopic and microscopic observations were carried out.

Results: Cells of suspension culture line A2 were characterized by the intense divisions. Cell culture extracts (both from the growth phase and stationary phase) contained pentacyclic triterpenoids. In addition, phe-nolic compounds (chlorogenic acid and proanthocyanidins type B) and in a small amount also epicatechin are present in the extract of the cells harvested from the growth phase. In the present studies, three pentacyclic triterpenoids were detected and quantified in the extracts of cell suspensions and callus line A2. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were the main triterpenoids in the studied extracts. The cell suspension culture from the growth phase exhibited the highest content of ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acid (separately and together).

Conclusion: The cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica is a promising source of pentacyclic triterpenoids.

Keywords

  • Japanese quince
  • callus
  • cell suspension culture
  • chlorogenic acid
  • ursolic acid
  • oleanolic acid
Open Access

The optimization of extraction process of white mulberry leaves and the characteristic bioactive properties its powder extract

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 12 - 19

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Powder extracts from white mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) are desirable due to their simplicity of use. Powders intended for use in food and dietary supplements can be obtained by various methods, including water extraction and spray drying.

Objective: The aim of the work was to optimize the aqueous process of extraction of white mulberry leaves and characterization of bioactive properties of the obtained extract powder.

Methods: The DNJ and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol) contents and were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH assays.

Results: The mulberry leaf extraction process has been optimized. The obtained powdered mulberry leaf extract proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. Characteristic phenolic compounds detected in mulberry leaves and their powder extract were quercetin and kaempferol. The sum of polyphenols was 10.9 mg GAE/g dry matter in the raw material, whereas in the powder extract 42.6 mg GAE/g dry matter. In addition, it was found that the obtained powdered extract is characterized by a five-fold higher, in comparison to the raw material, the content of antioxidant activity measured by ABTS and DPPH tests. The content of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in the powder extract was nearly four times higher than in dry mulberry leaves.

Conclusion: The optimized process of water extraction of white mulberry leaves allows to keep valuable bioactive components and to obtain their high concentration.

Keywords

  • Mulberry leaves extract
  • 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)
  • antioxidant activity
  • flavonoids
Open Access

Litogenolitic and solubility properties of products obtained from common ivy extract (Hederae helicis e folium) and medium of diversified polarity (εM)

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 20 - 31

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Common ivy (Hedera helix) is a plant used successfully in the treatment of various ailments. This is possible owing to the unique set of substances contained in it such as large amount of saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and phytosterols as well as polyacetylenes and coumarins. All these substances have been used in the production of cosmetic and medicinal preparations. Clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of dry ivy leaf extract have shown its high efficacy, comparable to synthetic medications, and better tolerance of herbal drugs.

Objective: Investigations were performed on model ivy leaf (Hedera helix) extracts which were created using a medium of diversified polarity ( εM). Measurements of viscosity and surface activity on phase boundary were performed. During preformulation studies attention was drawn to the possibility of micellar solubilization of cholesterol and selected structures of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – ketoprofen.

Methods: Viscosity measurements of Extractum Hederae helicis e folium aqueous solutions and in 0.1 mol HCl were performed according to the Polish Standard with Ubbelohde dilution viscometer. The surface tension of aqueous solutions -Δγsol25$- \Delta \gamma _{{\rm{sol}}}^{25}$ of Hederae helicis e folium extracts was determined according to the Polish Standard with stalagmometric method. Critical micellar concentration (cmc) was calculated. This enabled to evaluate the dependence ΔGm0=2.303$\Delta {\rm{G}}_{\rm{m}}^0 = 2.303$ RT×log cmc of the thermodynamic potential of micelle formation (ΔGm0$\Delta {\rm{G}}_{\rm{m}}^0$ ). Results: It has been confirmed in the conducted comparative studies that aqueous solutions of Extr. Hederae helicis e folium created with maltodextrin as well as with SiO2 – maltodextrin result in micellar solubilization. The increase of granulometric size of cholesterol particle to Ø 1.60 mm decreased the amount of solubilized cholesterol but solubility preferences of the extracts were maintained.

Conclusions: Model extracts produced from Hederae helicis e folium with diversified polarity of the extraction medium (water – ethanol) are characterized by appropriate solubility of the components which results not only from the presence of chlorophyll and its derivatives in the extract but also from the technique used for spray drying of the extract.

Keywords

  • Hedera helix
  • dry extract
  • cholesterol
  • hederasaponin C
Open Access

Impact of Curcuma longa extract on the expression level of brain transporters in in vivo model

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 32 - 39

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Blood brain barrier and multidrug resistance phenomenon are subjects of many investigations. Mainly, because of their functions in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) by blocking the delivery of toxic substances to the brain. This special function has some disadvantages, like drug delivery to the brain in neurodegenerative diseases

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how natural and synthetic substances affect the expression levels of genes (Mdr1a, Mdr1b, Mrp1, Mrp2, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1c1) that encode transporters in the blood-brain barrier.

Methods: cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from rat hippocampus. The expression level of genes was determined using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method.

Results: Our findings showed that verapamil, as a synthetic substance, caused the greatest reduction of mRNA level of genes studied. The standardized extract of Curcuma longa reduced the expression level for Mrp1 and Mrp2, whereas the increase of mRNA level was observed for Mdr1b, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1c1.

Conclusions: These results suggests that herbal extracts may play an important role in overcoming the blood brain barrier during pharmacotherapy.

Keywords

  • blood brain barrier
  • Curcuma longa
  • expression level
  • natural and synthetic substances
Open Access

Ethnobotanical study of traditional herbal plants used by local people of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve in Eastern Ghats, India

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 40 - 54

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Ethnobotany is the study of medicinal plants used by local people, with particular importance of old-styled tribal beliefs and information. Ethnobotanical studies focus on ethnic knowledge of Adivasi people and development of data bases on ethnic knowledge but also focuses on preservation and regeneration of traditional beliefs and maintenance of traditional knowledge.

Objective: The aim of present study is to highlight the traditional actions of herbal plants used by inborn Yanadi community of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve, Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Methods: The ethnobotanical field survey was conducted according to the methods adopted by some authors. In-depth interviews, interactions were conducted with tribal physicians of Yanadi, Nakkala and Irula as well as other tribes practicing and experiencing the use of plant-based medicine. A normal inquiry form was used to gather the appropriate data on herbal plants and their usage of inborn people’s lifestyle. Extensive consultations among local people and detailed documentation of the usage of plants were carried out

Results: A total of 266 medicinally used plant species belonging to 216 genera and 88 families were recognized with help of inborn herbal healers. The study also chronicled the mode of herbal arrangements, mode of the use of herbal plants in various disorders. The study exposed that native people of Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve have good medicinal information and also have preserved plant-based medicinal system of their ascendants used all their diseases. Most of medicinal plants are used in the treatment of indigestion, snake bite and skin diseases. The authors feel that this type of study certainly helps identify ethnic leads for drug development in future.

Conclusions: The ethnobotanical investigation of Seshalam Biosphere area has revealed that the tribes possess good knowledge on plant-based medicine but as they are towards in advanced exposure to transformation, their information on traditional uses of plants is slowly getting eroded. The authors plead for intensive crosscultural studies involving all ethnic tribes in the country for prioritizing or short listing of ethnic leads for various disorders for ultimately developing global level drugs for human welfare and economy development.

Keywords

  • ethnomedicine
  • Yanadis
  • Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve
  • Eastern Ghats
  • herbal plants
  • drug development
Open Access

In vitro and in vivo activities of flavonoids – apigenin, baicalin, chrysin, scutellarin – in regulation of hypertension – a review for their possible effects in pregnancy-induced hypertension

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 55 - 70

Abstract

Summary

Flavonoids and their conjugates are the most important group of natural chemical compounds in drug discovery and development. The search for pharmacological activity and new mechanisms of activity of these chemical compounds, which may inhibit mediators of inflammation and influence the structure and function of endothelial cells, can be an interesting pharmacological strategy for the prevention and adjunctive treatments of hypertension, especially induced by pregnancy. Because cardiovascular diseases have multi-factorial pathogenesis these natural chemical compounds with wide spectrum of biological activities are the most interesting source of new drugs. Extracts from one of the most popular plant used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi could be a very interesting source of flavonoids because of its exact content in quercetin, apigenin, chrysin and scutellarin as well as in baicalin. These flavonoids exert vasoprotective properties and many activities such as: anti-oxidative via several pathways, anti-in-flammatory, anti-ischaemic, cardioprotective and anti-hypertensive. However, there is lack of summaries of results of studies in context of potential and future application of flavonoids with determined composition and activity. Our review aims to provide a literature survey of in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo pharmacological studies of selected flavonoids (apigenin, chrysin and scutellarin, baicalin) in various models of hypertension carried out in 2008–2018.

Keywords

  • flavonoids
  • pharmacological activity
  • in vitro models
  • animal models
  • hypertension
  • pregnancy-induced hypertension
Open Access

Professor Wanda Kisiel (1946–2018) in memoriam

Published Online: 02 May 2019
Page range: 71 - 72

Abstract

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