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Volume 60 (2023): Issue 2 (June 2023)

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Special Issue: This issue is dedicated to the memory of Milan Ryboš, DVM, D.Sc.

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
First Published
22 Apr 2006
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 53 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1336-9083
ISSN
0440-6605
First Published
22 Apr 2006
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

0 Articles

Research Article

Open Access

Morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema species from Shenzhen, China

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 62 - 75

Abstract

Summary

During a nematode biodiversity survey from 2012 to 2014 in Shenzhen, China, ten nematode populations (SZX1301–SZX1310) of Xiphinema were recovered from rhizosphere of different plants, namely Acacia mangium (SZX1306), A. confuse (SZX1309), Blechnum orientale (SZX1301, SZX1302, SZX1307, SZX1308), Litchi chinensis (SZX1304, SZX1310) in Tianxinshan and Gleichenia linearis (SZX1303, SZX1305) in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites. Morphological and molecular profiles of these populations were determined. Three species of Xiphinema, i.e., X. hunanienseWang & Wu, 1992, X. brasilienseLordello, 1951 and X. americanum Cobb, 1913 sensu lato were identified using morphological characters and molecular data of partial 18S and 28S D2–D3 rDNA expansion segments. Four populations (SZX1301–SZX1304) were X. hunaniense, one population (SZX1305) X. brasiliense, and five populations (SZX1306–SZX1310) X. americanum s.l.. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the 28S rDNA D2–D3 expansion segment revealed these three species are all distinct species and supported a close relationship with their corresponding species. This is the first report of X. hunaniense, X. brasiliense and X. americanum s.l. in their hosts except for L. chinensis.

Keywords

  • spp.
  • 28S rDNA
  • dagger nematode
Open Access

Preference for microhabitat by Monogenea on the gills of the south american catfish Rhamdia quelen at different stocking densities under laboratory conditions

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 55 - 61

Abstract

Summary

This study aimed to verify preferences for microhabitat by the monogeneans on the gills of the south american catfish, Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824), at different stocking densities under controlled laboratory conditions. Three stocking densities were used: 14, 28 and 42 fish per tank (50 L) and the fish were sampled initially, at day 5 and 10 of the experiment. Aphanoblastella mastigatus (Suriano, 1986) was noted as the most abundant species at all stocking densities, except for the initial collection day. The gill arches I and II were the most parasitized, showing the highest mean abundance in the dorsal region, at the highest density. The pattern of microhabitat preference of A. mastigatus for outer regions of the gills of the host was independent of the stocking density and collection day. Higher prevalence and abundance of Scleroductus sp. at the initial collection reflected the parasitic infection of the fish at the farm from where the fish were taken. The abundance of Scleroductus sp. decreased along the experiment, and no preference for gill arches was recorded for the species, probably due to the low abundance of this parasite on the gills.

Keywords

  • fish
  • parasitology
  • monogenean
  • ectoparasites
  • ecology
Open Access

Taxonomic status of Cyathostoma nematodes (Nematoda: Syngaminae) parasitizing respiratory tracts of birds of prey and owls in Europe and North America: how many species are there?

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 47 - 54

Abstract

Summary

So far, the identity of Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) nematodes collected from respiratory tracts of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Europe and North America is extremely inconsistent. Our results, based on analyses of ITS-2 sequences suggest that the Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) nematodes found in the birds of prey and owls from Central Europe and North America probably belong to the same species, C. (Hovorkonema) americanaChapin, 1925. We are convinced, that described in recent literature high ITS-2 divergence among C. (Hovorkonema) nematodes collected from Europe, has occurred as a result of invalid synonimisation of some C. (Hovorkonema) species. In our opinion C. (Hovorkonema) americana (typically parasites of tracheae and air sacs of raptors) and C. (Hovorkonema) variegatum (Creplin, 1849) (typically parasites of tracheae of cranes and storks) are valid molecular and morphologically distinct species.

Keywords

  • Nematoda
  • Syngamidae
  • birds of prey
  • owls
  • ITS-2
Open Access

Gastrointestinal parasites of the Polish primitive horses from the Biebrza National Park

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 39 - 46

Abstract

Summary

Thirty-one Polish primitive horses (Equus caballus) from three herds (two from the reserve and onefrom the stable) were dewormed with ivermectin+praziquantel and examined for the gastrointestinalparasite fauna. A total of 21.231 parasites were collected from the faeces at 24, 36 and 48 hoursposttreatment. There were 35 nematode species, one cestode and one botfl y larva. Strongyloideswesteri infection was confirmed pretreatment by faecal sample examination and no threadwormspecimens were found after deworming. Large and small strongyle prevalence was 90 % – 100 % and represented by 31 species. Among a total of 25 cyathostome species recovered (from 19 to 24in each group), five species (C. catinatum, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, C. nassatus and C. ashworthi)had a prevalence of 100 % in three groups of horses. Meanwhile 14 species were 100 % prevalent in one herd. A total of six large strongyle species were found in adult horses. Oxyuris equiwas recorded in 60 – 100 % of the horses while Parascaris equorum was detected in 100 % of foalsand 16.7 % – 30 % of adult mares. Habronema muscae was found in 30 % of the horses from onefree-ranging herd. Tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata) were found in 90 % of the horses from onefree-ranging group, whereas botfl y larvae (Gasterophilus intestinalis) were found in 50 – 80 % of allsurveyed horses. The present results are compared with earlier studies of Polish primitive wild horsesfrom similar reserves in Poland. A total of 36 gastrointestinal parasite species were recorded fromwild and stabled horses from the Biebrza National Park. This is in comparison with 35 such speciesin free-ranging and stabled horses from the Roztocze National Park and with 28 such species offree-ranginghorses from the Popielno forest reserve.

Among parasites recovered, the highly prevalent S. vulgaris, tapeworms and botfl y larvae pose aserious risk of serious abdominal disorders in horses.

Keywords

  • horse
  • parasite community
  • biodiversity
  • Strongylidae
  • Poland
Open Access

Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in north-west Italy

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 31 - 38

Abstract

Summary

A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

No fox was found completely negative for intestinal helminths. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (70.0 %), Molineus legerae (27.2 %), Toxocara canis (26.7 %), Toxascaris leonina (25.6 %), Trichuris vulpis (21.1 %), Aonchotheca putorii (8.9 %), Pterygodermatites affinis (5.6 %). Genus Mesocestoides (81.7 %), family Dilepididae (29.4 %) and Taenia spp. (8.3 %) were the most prevalent cestodes. All foxes were negative for E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. In two foxes trematodes belonging to the family Plagiorchidae were found.

The study highlighted that foxes are hosts of intestinal helminths of veterinary and medical importance which may be transmitted to dogs and humans.

Keywords

  • intestinal helminths
  • fox
  • Liguria
  • Italy
Open Access

Worm-control practices and prevalence of anthelmintic resistance using in vivo FECRTs on smallholder sheep farms in Lithuania

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 24 - 30

Abstract

Summary

This study determined the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in parasitic nematodes on smallholder sheep farms in Lithuania from April to November 2014. Faecal samples were collected from two groups of 10-15 sheep treated with fenbendazole (FBZ) or ivermectin (IVM) on 18 sheep farms. Two samples were collected from each group: on day zero (T1) and 10-14 days after treatment. Faecal egg counts (eggs per gramme, EPG) were determined using a modified McMaster technique. Animals with < 140 EPG on day zero were removed from the analysis. The prevalence of AR was estimated using the in vivo faecal egg count reduction test. AR to FBZ was detected on three of 15 farms where FBZ was used (20 %) and was suspected on one farm (6.7 %). AR to IVM was detected on two of 16 farms where IVM was used (12.5 %). The main species of resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) identified after treatment were Teladorsagia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. A questionnaire surveying 71 sheep farmers estimated that 71.8 % of sheep farmers used anthelmintics against GINs. IVM was the most frequently (68.6 %) applied anthelmintic, and 62.7 % of the respondents reported treating their animals twice a year. This study confirmed the presence of AR to GIN infections on sheep farms in Lithuania. Future studies should assess the prevalence of AR to GIN infection using in vitro methods.

Keywords

  • sheep nematodes
  • anthelmintic resistance
  • questionnaire survey
  • FECRT
  • Lithuania
Open Access

Heavy metal intoxication compromises the host cytokine response in Ascaris Suum model infection

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 14 - 23

Abstract

Summary

Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) are recognized for their deleterious effect on the environment and immunity where subsequently compromised immune response affects the susceptibility to the potential parasitic infections. This study examined the host cytokine response after heavy metal intoxication (Pb, Cd, and Hg) and subsequent Ascaris suum infection in BALB/c mice. Pb modulated murine immune response towards the Th2 type of response (delineated by IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine production) what was also dominant for the outcome of A. suum infection. Chronic intoxication with Pb caused a more intensive development of the parasite infection. Cd stimulated the Th1 immune response what was associated with increase in IFN-γ production and reduction of larvae present in the liver of intoxicated mice. The larval burden was also low in mice intoxicated with Hg. This was probably not related to the biased Th1/Th2 type of immune response, but rather to the bad host conditions caused by mercury toxicity and high level of pro-cachectic cytokine TNF-α.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • cytokines
  • Th1/Th2 immune response
  • mice
Open Access

Phagocytosis in Mesocestoides vogae-induced peritoneal monocytes/macrophages via opsonin-dependent or independent pathways

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 3 - 13

Abstract

Summary

Intraperitoneal infection with larvae of cestode Mesocestoides vogae offers the opportunity to study dynamic changes in the proportion and functions of individual cell types under a direct influence of parasites. The phagocytic activity is one of the basic effector functions of professional phagocytes and receptor-mediated uptake is a central in implementation of inflammatory responses. Present study extends information on this issue by exploring several phagocytosis pathways in M. vogae-induced myelo-monocytic cells. In addition, we analyzed proportions of morphologically distinct phenotypes within macrophage compartments after oral inoculation of larvae to mice. In gradually elevated population of peritoneal exudate cells, monocytes/ macrophages and giant cell were dominant cell types from day 21 p.i. Phagocytic activity of these cells had biphasic behaviour for both opsonin-dependent and independent pathways, whereas uptake by multinucleated macrophages was profoundly reduced. Highly elevated proportions of activated phagocytic cells were found from day 7 to 14 p.i., regardless particle type (latex beads, HEMA, liposomes) and opsonisation. Source of opsonins used for coating of liposomes suggested higher expression of complement receptors than Fc receptors on these cells, although the uptake of non-opsonized liposomes had different kinetics and was very high by activated cells early p.i. Present data indicate that early recruited macrophages/monocytes attain pro-inflammatory functions as indicated by highly elevated phagocytosis of immunologically inert particles as well as opsonized liposomes what is down-regulated once larvae start to proliferate in the peritoneal cavity, suggesting the role of parasite-derived molecules in modulation of this key phagocytes function.

Keywords

  • phagocytosis
  • mice
  • latex beads
  • HEMA particles
  • liposomes
  • opsonization

Research Note

Open Access

Nematodes from Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Argentina

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 109 - 112

Abstract

Summary

The aim of this study is to describe the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, in the northeast of Argentina. A total of 373 snails were collected from the cities of Puerto Iguazú and Corrientes. Cysts (N= 2958) containing nematodes identified as L3 Strongyluris sp. were found in the mantle cavity of 87 snails from Puerto Iguazú City (Prevalence 23 %; Mean Intensity= 34; Mean Abundance= 8). The shell size correlated with prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance (p < 0.05) indicating that there is an exposure-infection constant rather than an accidental one. In other hand, the absence of infection in the smallest shell size suggests a threshold of size to be infected. Taking into account that there exist records of A. fulica infected by nematodes of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus and Aelurostrongylus in some Brazilian states near Puerto Iguazú, we emphasize the need for snail surveillance.

Keywords

  • intermediate host
  • sp.
  • parasite surveillance
Open Access

Seasonal population dynamics of the monogeneans Quadriacanthus kobinensis parasitising Clarias fuscus in Pearl River, China

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 105 - 108

Abstract

Summary

This paper describes the population dynamics of Quadriacanthus kobinensis on the gills of Clarias fuscus following a field investigation from June 2012 to May 2013 in Pearl River, China. The results showed that in Q. kobinensis prevalence was highest (70.13 %) in the summer and Mean intensity reached a peak in the autumn. The maximum number of Q. kobinensis in a fish was 474. The maximum abundance occurred during summer (25.8) and the minimum values during spring. Q. Kobinensis exhibited an aggregated distribution in all seasons. The highest prevalence was in hosts of 28 cm<L and the infection intensity was also the highest in this group. In terms of infection intensity, host of 28 cm<L differed significantly from those of 24<L≤26 cm, but no significant differences existed in other body length groups.

Keywords

  • population dynamics
  • Monogenea
  • Pearl River
  • China
Open Access

Chordatortilis crassicauda Mendonça et Rodriguez, 1965 (Spirurida, Acuariidae) in wren Troglodytes troglodytes (Passeriformes) in Europe: a new host and geographical record

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 99 - 104

Abstract

Summary

IThe nematode Chordatortilis crassicauda Mendonҫa et Rodriguez, 1965 (Nematoda, Acuariidae)had previously been recorded only one time, in Brazil, as a parasite of T. musculus musculus Naumann.Thus the record of this species in Poland, in Europe, on another continent and in a different species of the genus Troglodytes, is worthy of presentation. The aim of the study is to document the resence of Chordatortilis crassicauda (Nematoda, Acuariidae) in the Wren Troglodytes troglodytes. Four Chordatortilis crassicauda individuals (three female and one male) were found between the proventriculus and muscular stomach of one T. troglodytes individual (adult female) collected in the village of Wicie on the Baltic Coast (north-western Poland) on 28 April 2013. The Wren is a new hostrecord for C. crassicauda. The fact that C. crassicauda had not previously been recorded in Europe may indicate that it is a rare species, specific to birds of the genus Troglodytes, which seldom undergo necropsy.

Keywords

  • Europe
  • parasites
  • Troglodytidae
Open Access

Report ofNeospirorchis schistosomatoides Price 1934 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infecting a Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae), from Brazil

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 94 - 98

Abstract

Summary

We report the occurrence of Neospirorchis schistosomatoidesPrice 1934 in a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.1758) from the Brazilian coast. This species has been reported only in green turtles from the USA, Bermuda and Australia. Only two entire specimens and parts of six worms were found in the host’s heart. The collection, identification and morphometric data of intact specimens of N. schistosomatoides are rare and restricted to the original description. This paper presents the first report of N. schistosomatoides in green turtles from the western South Atlantic Ocean.

Keywords

  • Brazil
  • Digenea
  • Green turtle
  • Spirorchiidae
Open Access

Calicophoron daubneyi in sheep and cattle of Sardinia, Italy

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 87 - 93

Abstract

Summary

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of paramphistomosis and confirm the species identity of rumen flukes from sheep and cattle of Sardinia (Italy), by molecular methods. From 2011 to 2014, 381 sheep and 59 cattle farms were selected and individual faecal samples were run on 15 sheep and 5 cattle for each farm, respectively. The prevalence at the slaughterhouse was calculated by examination of 356 sheep and 505 cattle. 13adult flukes collected from sheep and cattle and 5 belonging to the historical collection of Laboratory of Parasitology at the Department of Veterinary Medicine of Sassari, previously classified as Paramphistomum spp., were used for PCR amplification and sequencing of the ITS2+ rDNA. Previously classified Paramphistomum leydeni from South America were used as controls.

The EPG prevalence was 13.9 % and 55.9 % for sheep and cattle farms respectively. At slaughterhouses, paramphistomes were found in 2 % of the sheep and 10.9 % of the examined cows. Conversely to the latest reports, the sequences comparison showed that all the Sardinian rumen flukes belong to Calicophoron daubneyi.

Keywords

  • rumen fluke
  • paramphistomosis
  • sheep
  • cattle
Open Access

New host and distribution expansion for Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) affinis

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 81 - 86

Abstract

Summary

The present study reports the first case of infection by Pterygodermatites affinis in Lycalopex gymnocercus, and the first report of this nematode in Argentina. Examining 80 foxes from Buenos Aires province, specimens of this species were recovered from 21.25 % of the small intestines and eggs were found in 7.5 % of the fecal samples.

Keywords

  • Argentina
  • South America
  • wild mammals
  • Pampas fox
Open Access

New insights of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in an urban area in Malaysia

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 76 - 80

Abstract

Summary

Enterobiasis is a common intestinal parasitic infection caused by the nematode, Enterobius vermicularis. To assess the prevalence and to identify the underlying risk factors associated with enterobiasis among preschool children aged 1 – 6 years in Malaysia, 136 children from four nurseries and four kindergartens residing in the urban area were examined for Enterobius vermicularis. The cellotape anal swab technique was used for the detection of pinworm eggs. The parents/guardians of the investigated children were asked to complete the questionnaire so as to ascertain the potential risk factors for enterobiasis. The overall egg positive rate for Enterobius vermicularis infection was 12.5 %. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among older children, aged 5 – 6 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that finger sucking and belonging to a large family were significant risk factors of enterobiasis in the population studied. Recent pre-medication with anthelminthics was also found to have a significant impact on decreasing the egg positive rate for pinworm. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention in order to better control the infection.

Keywords

  • enterobiasis
  • children
  • urban
  • Malaysia
0 Articles

Research Article

Open Access

Morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema species from Shenzhen, China

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 62 - 75

Abstract

Summary

During a nematode biodiversity survey from 2012 to 2014 in Shenzhen, China, ten nematode populations (SZX1301–SZX1310) of Xiphinema were recovered from rhizosphere of different plants, namely Acacia mangium (SZX1306), A. confuse (SZX1309), Blechnum orientale (SZX1301, SZX1302, SZX1307, SZX1308), Litchi chinensis (SZX1304, SZX1310) in Tianxinshan and Gleichenia linearis (SZX1303, SZX1305) in Yangmeikeng environmental monitoring sites. Morphological and molecular profiles of these populations were determined. Three species of Xiphinema, i.e., X. hunanienseWang & Wu, 1992, X. brasilienseLordello, 1951 and X. americanum Cobb, 1913 sensu lato were identified using morphological characters and molecular data of partial 18S and 28S D2–D3 rDNA expansion segments. Four populations (SZX1301–SZX1304) were X. hunaniense, one population (SZX1305) X. brasiliense, and five populations (SZX1306–SZX1310) X. americanum s.l.. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the 28S rDNA D2–D3 expansion segment revealed these three species are all distinct species and supported a close relationship with their corresponding species. This is the first report of X. hunaniense, X. brasiliense and X. americanum s.l. in their hosts except for L. chinensis.

Keywords

  • spp.
  • 28S rDNA
  • dagger nematode
Open Access

Preference for microhabitat by Monogenea on the gills of the south american catfish Rhamdia quelen at different stocking densities under laboratory conditions

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 55 - 61

Abstract

Summary

This study aimed to verify preferences for microhabitat by the monogeneans on the gills of the south american catfish, Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824), at different stocking densities under controlled laboratory conditions. Three stocking densities were used: 14, 28 and 42 fish per tank (50 L) and the fish were sampled initially, at day 5 and 10 of the experiment. Aphanoblastella mastigatus (Suriano, 1986) was noted as the most abundant species at all stocking densities, except for the initial collection day. The gill arches I and II were the most parasitized, showing the highest mean abundance in the dorsal region, at the highest density. The pattern of microhabitat preference of A. mastigatus for outer regions of the gills of the host was independent of the stocking density and collection day. Higher prevalence and abundance of Scleroductus sp. at the initial collection reflected the parasitic infection of the fish at the farm from where the fish were taken. The abundance of Scleroductus sp. decreased along the experiment, and no preference for gill arches was recorded for the species, probably due to the low abundance of this parasite on the gills.

Keywords

  • fish
  • parasitology
  • monogenean
  • ectoparasites
  • ecology
Open Access

Taxonomic status of Cyathostoma nematodes (Nematoda: Syngaminae) parasitizing respiratory tracts of birds of prey and owls in Europe and North America: how many species are there?

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 47 - 54

Abstract

Summary

So far, the identity of Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) nematodes collected from respiratory tracts of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Europe and North America is extremely inconsistent. Our results, based on analyses of ITS-2 sequences suggest that the Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) nematodes found in the birds of prey and owls from Central Europe and North America probably belong to the same species, C. (Hovorkonema) americanaChapin, 1925. We are convinced, that described in recent literature high ITS-2 divergence among C. (Hovorkonema) nematodes collected from Europe, has occurred as a result of invalid synonimisation of some C. (Hovorkonema) species. In our opinion C. (Hovorkonema) americana (typically parasites of tracheae and air sacs of raptors) and C. (Hovorkonema) variegatum (Creplin, 1849) (typically parasites of tracheae of cranes and storks) are valid molecular and morphologically distinct species.

Keywords

  • Nematoda
  • Syngamidae
  • birds of prey
  • owls
  • ITS-2
Open Access

Gastrointestinal parasites of the Polish primitive horses from the Biebrza National Park

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 39 - 46

Abstract

Summary

Thirty-one Polish primitive horses (Equus caballus) from three herds (two from the reserve and onefrom the stable) were dewormed with ivermectin+praziquantel and examined for the gastrointestinalparasite fauna. A total of 21.231 parasites were collected from the faeces at 24, 36 and 48 hoursposttreatment. There were 35 nematode species, one cestode and one botfl y larva. Strongyloideswesteri infection was confirmed pretreatment by faecal sample examination and no threadwormspecimens were found after deworming. Large and small strongyle prevalence was 90 % – 100 % and represented by 31 species. Among a total of 25 cyathostome species recovered (from 19 to 24in each group), five species (C. catinatum, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, C. nassatus and C. ashworthi)had a prevalence of 100 % in three groups of horses. Meanwhile 14 species were 100 % prevalent in one herd. A total of six large strongyle species were found in adult horses. Oxyuris equiwas recorded in 60 – 100 % of the horses while Parascaris equorum was detected in 100 % of foalsand 16.7 % – 30 % of adult mares. Habronema muscae was found in 30 % of the horses from onefree-ranging herd. Tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata) were found in 90 % of the horses from onefree-ranging group, whereas botfl y larvae (Gasterophilus intestinalis) were found in 50 – 80 % of allsurveyed horses. The present results are compared with earlier studies of Polish primitive wild horsesfrom similar reserves in Poland. A total of 36 gastrointestinal parasite species were recorded fromwild and stabled horses from the Biebrza National Park. This is in comparison with 35 such speciesin free-ranging and stabled horses from the Roztocze National Park and with 28 such species offree-ranginghorses from the Popielno forest reserve.

Among parasites recovered, the highly prevalent S. vulgaris, tapeworms and botfl y larvae pose aserious risk of serious abdominal disorders in horses.

Keywords

  • horse
  • parasite community
  • biodiversity
  • Strongylidae
  • Poland
Open Access

Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in north-west Italy

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 31 - 38

Abstract

Summary

A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

No fox was found completely negative for intestinal helminths. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (70.0 %), Molineus legerae (27.2 %), Toxocara canis (26.7 %), Toxascaris leonina (25.6 %), Trichuris vulpis (21.1 %), Aonchotheca putorii (8.9 %), Pterygodermatites affinis (5.6 %). Genus Mesocestoides (81.7 %), family Dilepididae (29.4 %) and Taenia spp. (8.3 %) were the most prevalent cestodes. All foxes were negative for E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. In two foxes trematodes belonging to the family Plagiorchidae were found.

The study highlighted that foxes are hosts of intestinal helminths of veterinary and medical importance which may be transmitted to dogs and humans.

Keywords

  • intestinal helminths
  • fox
  • Liguria
  • Italy
Open Access

Worm-control practices and prevalence of anthelmintic resistance using in vivo FECRTs on smallholder sheep farms in Lithuania

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 24 - 30

Abstract

Summary

This study determined the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in parasitic nematodes on smallholder sheep farms in Lithuania from April to November 2014. Faecal samples were collected from two groups of 10-15 sheep treated with fenbendazole (FBZ) or ivermectin (IVM) on 18 sheep farms. Two samples were collected from each group: on day zero (T1) and 10-14 days after treatment. Faecal egg counts (eggs per gramme, EPG) were determined using a modified McMaster technique. Animals with < 140 EPG on day zero were removed from the analysis. The prevalence of AR was estimated using the in vivo faecal egg count reduction test. AR to FBZ was detected on three of 15 farms where FBZ was used (20 %) and was suspected on one farm (6.7 %). AR to IVM was detected on two of 16 farms where IVM was used (12.5 %). The main species of resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) identified after treatment were Teladorsagia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. A questionnaire surveying 71 sheep farmers estimated that 71.8 % of sheep farmers used anthelmintics against GINs. IVM was the most frequently (68.6 %) applied anthelmintic, and 62.7 % of the respondents reported treating their animals twice a year. This study confirmed the presence of AR to GIN infections on sheep farms in Lithuania. Future studies should assess the prevalence of AR to GIN infection using in vitro methods.

Keywords

  • sheep nematodes
  • anthelmintic resistance
  • questionnaire survey
  • FECRT
  • Lithuania
Open Access

Heavy metal intoxication compromises the host cytokine response in Ascaris Suum model infection

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 14 - 23

Abstract

Summary

Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) are recognized for their deleterious effect on the environment and immunity where subsequently compromised immune response affects the susceptibility to the potential parasitic infections. This study examined the host cytokine response after heavy metal intoxication (Pb, Cd, and Hg) and subsequent Ascaris suum infection in BALB/c mice. Pb modulated murine immune response towards the Th2 type of response (delineated by IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine production) what was also dominant for the outcome of A. suum infection. Chronic intoxication with Pb caused a more intensive development of the parasite infection. Cd stimulated the Th1 immune response what was associated with increase in IFN-γ production and reduction of larvae present in the liver of intoxicated mice. The larval burden was also low in mice intoxicated with Hg. This was probably not related to the biased Th1/Th2 type of immune response, but rather to the bad host conditions caused by mercury toxicity and high level of pro-cachectic cytokine TNF-α.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • cytokines
  • Th1/Th2 immune response
  • mice
Open Access

Phagocytosis in Mesocestoides vogae-induced peritoneal monocytes/macrophages via opsonin-dependent or independent pathways

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 3 - 13

Abstract

Summary

Intraperitoneal infection with larvae of cestode Mesocestoides vogae offers the opportunity to study dynamic changes in the proportion and functions of individual cell types under a direct influence of parasites. The phagocytic activity is one of the basic effector functions of professional phagocytes and receptor-mediated uptake is a central in implementation of inflammatory responses. Present study extends information on this issue by exploring several phagocytosis pathways in M. vogae-induced myelo-monocytic cells. In addition, we analyzed proportions of morphologically distinct phenotypes within macrophage compartments after oral inoculation of larvae to mice. In gradually elevated population of peritoneal exudate cells, monocytes/ macrophages and giant cell were dominant cell types from day 21 p.i. Phagocytic activity of these cells had biphasic behaviour for both opsonin-dependent and independent pathways, whereas uptake by multinucleated macrophages was profoundly reduced. Highly elevated proportions of activated phagocytic cells were found from day 7 to 14 p.i., regardless particle type (latex beads, HEMA, liposomes) and opsonisation. Source of opsonins used for coating of liposomes suggested higher expression of complement receptors than Fc receptors on these cells, although the uptake of non-opsonized liposomes had different kinetics and was very high by activated cells early p.i. Present data indicate that early recruited macrophages/monocytes attain pro-inflammatory functions as indicated by highly elevated phagocytosis of immunologically inert particles as well as opsonized liposomes what is down-regulated once larvae start to proliferate in the peritoneal cavity, suggesting the role of parasite-derived molecules in modulation of this key phagocytes function.

Keywords

  • phagocytosis
  • mice
  • latex beads
  • HEMA particles
  • liposomes
  • opsonization

Research Note

Open Access

Nematodes from Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Argentina

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 109 - 112

Abstract

Summary

The aim of this study is to describe the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, in the northeast of Argentina. A total of 373 snails were collected from the cities of Puerto Iguazú and Corrientes. Cysts (N= 2958) containing nematodes identified as L3 Strongyluris sp. were found in the mantle cavity of 87 snails from Puerto Iguazú City (Prevalence 23 %; Mean Intensity= 34; Mean Abundance= 8). The shell size correlated with prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance (p < 0.05) indicating that there is an exposure-infection constant rather than an accidental one. In other hand, the absence of infection in the smallest shell size suggests a threshold of size to be infected. Taking into account that there exist records of A. fulica infected by nematodes of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus and Aelurostrongylus in some Brazilian states near Puerto Iguazú, we emphasize the need for snail surveillance.

Keywords

  • intermediate host
  • sp.
  • parasite surveillance
Open Access

Seasonal population dynamics of the monogeneans Quadriacanthus kobinensis parasitising Clarias fuscus in Pearl River, China

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 105 - 108

Abstract

Summary

This paper describes the population dynamics of Quadriacanthus kobinensis on the gills of Clarias fuscus following a field investigation from June 2012 to May 2013 in Pearl River, China. The results showed that in Q. kobinensis prevalence was highest (70.13 %) in the summer and Mean intensity reached a peak in the autumn. The maximum number of Q. kobinensis in a fish was 474. The maximum abundance occurred during summer (25.8) and the minimum values during spring. Q. Kobinensis exhibited an aggregated distribution in all seasons. The highest prevalence was in hosts of 28 cm<L and the infection intensity was also the highest in this group. In terms of infection intensity, host of 28 cm<L differed significantly from those of 24<L≤26 cm, but no significant differences existed in other body length groups.

Keywords

  • population dynamics
  • Monogenea
  • Pearl River
  • China
Open Access

Chordatortilis crassicauda Mendonça et Rodriguez, 1965 (Spirurida, Acuariidae) in wren Troglodytes troglodytes (Passeriformes) in Europe: a new host and geographical record

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 99 - 104

Abstract

Summary

IThe nematode Chordatortilis crassicauda Mendonҫa et Rodriguez, 1965 (Nematoda, Acuariidae)had previously been recorded only one time, in Brazil, as a parasite of T. musculus musculus Naumann.Thus the record of this species in Poland, in Europe, on another continent and in a different species of the genus Troglodytes, is worthy of presentation. The aim of the study is to document the resence of Chordatortilis crassicauda (Nematoda, Acuariidae) in the Wren Troglodytes troglodytes. Four Chordatortilis crassicauda individuals (three female and one male) were found between the proventriculus and muscular stomach of one T. troglodytes individual (adult female) collected in the village of Wicie on the Baltic Coast (north-western Poland) on 28 April 2013. The Wren is a new hostrecord for C. crassicauda. The fact that C. crassicauda had not previously been recorded in Europe may indicate that it is a rare species, specific to birds of the genus Troglodytes, which seldom undergo necropsy.

Keywords

  • Europe
  • parasites
  • Troglodytidae
Open Access

Report ofNeospirorchis schistosomatoides Price 1934 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infecting a Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae), from Brazil

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 94 - 98

Abstract

Summary

We report the occurrence of Neospirorchis schistosomatoidesPrice 1934 in a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.1758) from the Brazilian coast. This species has been reported only in green turtles from the USA, Bermuda and Australia. Only two entire specimens and parts of six worms were found in the host’s heart. The collection, identification and morphometric data of intact specimens of N. schistosomatoides are rare and restricted to the original description. This paper presents the first report of N. schistosomatoides in green turtles from the western South Atlantic Ocean.

Keywords

  • Brazil
  • Digenea
  • Green turtle
  • Spirorchiidae
Open Access

Calicophoron daubneyi in sheep and cattle of Sardinia, Italy

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 87 - 93

Abstract

Summary

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of paramphistomosis and confirm the species identity of rumen flukes from sheep and cattle of Sardinia (Italy), by molecular methods. From 2011 to 2014, 381 sheep and 59 cattle farms were selected and individual faecal samples were run on 15 sheep and 5 cattle for each farm, respectively. The prevalence at the slaughterhouse was calculated by examination of 356 sheep and 505 cattle. 13adult flukes collected from sheep and cattle and 5 belonging to the historical collection of Laboratory of Parasitology at the Department of Veterinary Medicine of Sassari, previously classified as Paramphistomum spp., were used for PCR amplification and sequencing of the ITS2+ rDNA. Previously classified Paramphistomum leydeni from South America were used as controls.

The EPG prevalence was 13.9 % and 55.9 % for sheep and cattle farms respectively. At slaughterhouses, paramphistomes were found in 2 % of the sheep and 10.9 % of the examined cows. Conversely to the latest reports, the sequences comparison showed that all the Sardinian rumen flukes belong to Calicophoron daubneyi.

Keywords

  • rumen fluke
  • paramphistomosis
  • sheep
  • cattle
Open Access

New host and distribution expansion for Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) affinis

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 81 - 86

Abstract

Summary

The present study reports the first case of infection by Pterygodermatites affinis in Lycalopex gymnocercus, and the first report of this nematode in Argentina. Examining 80 foxes from Buenos Aires province, specimens of this species were recovered from 21.25 % of the small intestines and eggs were found in 7.5 % of the fecal samples.

Keywords

  • Argentina
  • South America
  • wild mammals
  • Pampas fox
Open Access

New insights of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in an urban area in Malaysia

Published Online: 10 Mar 2016
Page range: 76 - 80

Abstract

Summary

Enterobiasis is a common intestinal parasitic infection caused by the nematode, Enterobius vermicularis. To assess the prevalence and to identify the underlying risk factors associated with enterobiasis among preschool children aged 1 – 6 years in Malaysia, 136 children from four nurseries and four kindergartens residing in the urban area were examined for Enterobius vermicularis. The cellotape anal swab technique was used for the detection of pinworm eggs. The parents/guardians of the investigated children were asked to complete the questionnaire so as to ascertain the potential risk factors for enterobiasis. The overall egg positive rate for Enterobius vermicularis infection was 12.5 %. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among older children, aged 5 – 6 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that finger sucking and belonging to a large family were significant risk factors of enterobiasis in the population studied. Recent pre-medication with anthelminthics was also found to have a significant impact on decreasing the egg positive rate for pinworm. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention in order to better control the infection.

Keywords

  • enterobiasis
  • children
  • urban
  • Malaysia