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Journal & Issues

Volume 24 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)
CONTACT NETWORKS IN THE EASTERN AND SOUTH-EASTERN PERIPHERIES OF THE FUNNEL BEAKER CULTURE, 3700–3200 BC

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2719-5422
First Published
15 Dec 2013
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2719-5422
First Published
15 Dec 2013
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Święte 11: Cemetery of the Corded Ware Culture

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 7 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

The rescue excavations at site 11 in Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, were conducted prior to the construction of the A4 motorway. Thirteen Corded Ware culture (CWC) features, including eleven graves, were discovered. The Final Eneolithic cemetery was placed in the neighbourhood of FBC graves, possibly at megalithic tombs. Most of the CWC graves have a niche construction – typical of the Lesser Poland funerary rite. The furnishings found in these features are characteristic of Subcarpathia as are inventories from nearby sites in the Lower San Valley and Rzeszów Foothills. Their typo-chronological assessments point to the younger phase of the CWC. Ceramic artefacts include vessels finding analogies in the assemblages of the Middle Dnieper culture and the cultures of the steppe/forest-steppe of the North-Western Black Sea Area. Among the latter is the spectacular find of a round-base pot from Feature 1149B. A series of five dates estimate the origins of the Święte cemetery graves at the interval of 2530-2375 BC.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • Lesser Poland
  • funerary rite
Open Access

Święte 11, Feature 1149: Sequence of Funerary Rites Practiced by Corded Ware Peoples and Early Bronze North Pontic Cultures

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 69 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

A set of sources embodied by features 1149A and 1149B at Święte 11, Jarosław District, Podkarpackie Province, is one of a kind in Lesser Poland as it includes a vessel associated with steppe cultures of the Northwest Black Sea Coast. The vessel has been discovered in a stratigraphic context that is not fully clear. It probably constituted an offering (trizna) connected with the male burial identified in the niche grave underneath. The vessel appears to be linked to the late Yamnaya/early Catacomb horizon. Such chronological attribution is further supported by an absolute date of the 2nd half of the third millennium BC established for bones. The vessel sits alongside other finds that provide corroboration for connections the population of the younger Corded Ware phase in Lesser Poland had with eastern European regions.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • Yamnaya culture
  • Catacomb culture
  • Lesser Poland
Open Access

Święte 15: Cemetery of the Corded Ware Culture

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 93 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

The Corded Ware culture (CWC) cemetery at site 15 in Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, was researched in 2010-2011 in the context of rescue excavations before the construction of the A4 motorway. Nine features were discovered, including six graves with a niche construction. An analysis of funerary rite traits and relics forming the grave inventory indicates that the above is linked with the later stage of the CWC development in Lesser Poland. Analogical materials are found in the neighbouring sites 11 and 20 in Święte and 7 in Skołoszów. On the basis of radiocarbon dating the chronology of the cemetery complex was defined to the period 2525-2380 BC. An interesting element of grave inventories is vessels analogous to finds from the Middle Dnieper and Catacomb cultures. These point to the ties of communities using the cemetery complex in Święte with those to the east of Lesser Poland – confirmed in the analysis conducted of stable isotopes of strontium.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • south-eastern Poland
  • funeral rite
Open Access

Święte 20: Graves of the Corded Ware Culture

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 140 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Archaeological excavations at site 20, Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, were prompted by construction of the A4 motorway. Among the results the site has yielded there are two Corded Ware graves. Both of them are niche constructions datable to the younger Corded Ware phase in Małopolska. Accommodating three interments, grave 43 is particularly interesting for the re-use of its burial chamber and re-deposition of disarticulated older human remains. Grave goods within the graves are typical of the younger Corded Ware phase, with parallels found at closely located sites of the Lower San Valley and Rzeszów Foothills. The absolute date range for both graves has been determined to be ca. 2550-2400 BC.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • south-eastern Poland
  • funeral rite
  • chronology
Open Access

Microscopic Analysis of Pottery Fragments from the Corded Ware Culture at Sites 11, 15 and 20 in Święte, Jarosław District

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 163 - 177

Abstract

Abstract

For microscopic examination, 22 pottery fragments from sites 11, 15 and 20 in Święte, Jarosław District were selected. The pottery types included beakers (N=19) and amphorae (N=3). The goal of the petrographic analysis was to identify mineralogical composition of ceramic fabric, sources of raw materials, and intentional additives to the clay. The analysis yielded data that helped determine ceramic fabrics types and preparation methods, as well as pottery firing conditions and approximate firing temperature.

In all samples analysed, ceramic fabrics were prepared in a similar way, using heavy clay poor in muscovite, with grog deliberately added. Crystalline material present in some of the samples is most likely a natural component of raw materials used in the production process. No sand is added to the clay. No other method for preparing pastes was identified for the amphorae type. Previous observations on amphorae firing are confirmed: amphorae are fired in oxidizing conditions. The ceramic fabrics of two vessels have a deliberate admixture of bones in addition to grog and argillaceous rock intraclasts. Vessels decorated with cord impressions and vessels with herringbone or other incised patterns are more often made from paste type A (inclusion and grog) and paste type B (grog), respectively.

Keywords

  • Corded Ware culture
  • south-eastern Poland
  • petrographic analysis
  • ceramic fabric
Open Access

Chronometry of the Final Eneolithic Cemeteries at Święte, Jarosław District, from the Perspective of Cultural Relations Among Lesser Poland, Podolia and the North-Western Black Sea Region

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 178 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The research on archaeological materials from sites 11, 15, and 20 at Święte produced a series of 13 radiocarbon dates for niche graves of the Corded Ware culture (CWC). The results are coherent and point to a range of 2550-2350 BC. This corresponds well with other results obtained for nearby CWC cemeteries in the Rzeszów Foothills, and is consistent with dates obtained for CWC graves in other regions in Lesser Poland: the Lesser Poland Upland, the Sokal Ridge, and the Lublin Upland. At the same time, the obtained absolute age range corresponds with a wave of influences from the North Pontic circle of steppe cultures and the Middle Dnieper culture. It can be synchronized with the beginning of the development of the classic variants of the Catacomb culture: the Ingul and Doniec variants.

Keywords

  • absolute chronology
  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • south-eastern Poland
  • Yamnaya culture
  • Catacomb culture
Open Access

Anthropological Picture of the Corded Ware Population of the Subcarpathian Region in the Light of Data Obtained from the Sites at Święte, Jarosław District

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 213 - 228

Abstract

Abstract

Twenty Corded Ware graves containing twenty five interments were identified at sites 11, 15 and 20 at Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District. In most of the graves (16), there was only one interment, although there were also three graves with two internments and one grave with three interments. The age and sex structure of buried individuals shows the roughly equal number of females, males, and children at the age of Infans I and II, with the category Maturus (individuals aged 40 to 50) having the highest mortality rate. So far, Rzeszów Foothills and the Lower San River Valley yielded 40 Corded Ware graves containing 51 interments in total. Single burials were predominant. Alike at Święte sites, the highest proportion of burials is recorded for individuals at the age of Maturus irrespective of sex; overall, for the entire region, male graves, however, outnumber female graves. In most cases skeletons are poorly preserved, but scarce anthropometric data are the indication of dolichomorphic crania in both males and females, which phenomenon is already noted for the Małopolska Upland and present Ukraine. The intravital body height for adults varies from 161.3 to 175 cm for males and from 156.7 to 163.1 cm for females.

Keywords

  • Corded Ware culture
  • Święte
  • anthropological analysis
  • Subcarpathian region
Open Access

Light Stable Isotope Analysis of Diet in Corded Ware Culture Communities: Święte, Jarosław District, South-Eastern Poland

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 229 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

The presented study was based on isotopic analysis of δ13C and δ15N in human bone collagen samples from graves of the Corded Ware culture in Święte, south-east Poland. Isotopic values demonstrate a relatively narrow variation, ranging from -20.4‰ to -19.8‰ and 10.6‰ to 12.0‰ for δ13C and δ15N values, respectively. The diet was likely C3 plant-based with a substantial animal protein component, including predominantly terrestrial and possibly riverine resources.

Keywords

  • stable isotope analysis
  • diet
  • Corded Ware culture
Open Access

Human Mobility in the Final Eneolithic Population of Święte, Jarosław District, South-Eastern Poland: Evidence from Strontium Isotope Data

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 246 - 258

Abstract

Abstract

Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) were applied to investigate provenance amongst the Final Eneolithic population at Święte (sites 11, 15 and 20) in the Subcarpathian region, south-eastern Poland. The study used 11 human enamel samples collected from the niche graves of the Corded Ware culture. To obtain base-line information on the local Sr isotope composition seven animal enamel samples were also examined. They were found in the adjacent archaeological sites of the Mierzanowice culture at Mirocin and Dobkowice, which have the same environmental and geological background as the sites at Święte. The investigated individuals from Święte display a wide spectrum of Sr isotope signatures, from 0.7094 to 0.7109. Because a comparison of human 87Sr/86Sr values from Święte with Sr animal signatures from Early Bronze Age sites in the area is not unambiguous the local range of 87Sr/86Sr values were based on published data for the Subcarpathian population of the Corded Ware culture. Strontium isotope ratios indicate that only three males with the most radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values exhibit local signatures. Values below 0.7103 document individuals born outside of the Subcarpathian region. Among these are all women and children, two males and one individual with undetermined sex. The probable homeland of the non-local individuals were areas along the northern and eastern margins of the Carpathian Foredeep in Poland and Ukraine.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • Święte
  • strontium isotopes
  • mobility
Open Access

A Final Eneolithic Research Inspirations: Subcarpathia Borderlands Between Eastern and Western Europe

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 259 - 291

Abstract

Abstract

This study explores a Subcarpathian assemblage of Corded Ware funeral materials as evidence obtained over the last decade, with a focus on their research value for studies of the transmission of civilization models embraced by Final Eneolithic/Early Bronze communities settling the border zone between eastern and western Europe. Results of studies on the correspondence among ceremonial traditions that existed in the area between the Dnieper and the Vistula in the third millennium BC are presented, with two stages of adaptation of Black Sea or ‘barrow’ thanatological belief systems by Corded Ware groups in Lesser Poland being highlighted. Chronometric determinations relating to the development of ceremonial centres of the Rzeszów Foothills (Szczytna) and Lower San Valley (Święte) in the context of ‘western intrusions’ of late Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures are considered significant, providing the date range of ca. 2550-2400 BC.

Keywords

  • Corded Ware culture
  • Yamnaya culture
  • Catacomb culture
  • Małopolska
  • Final Eneolithic
10 Articles
Open Access

Święte 11: Cemetery of the Corded Ware Culture

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 7 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

The rescue excavations at site 11 in Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, were conducted prior to the construction of the A4 motorway. Thirteen Corded Ware culture (CWC) features, including eleven graves, were discovered. The Final Eneolithic cemetery was placed in the neighbourhood of FBC graves, possibly at megalithic tombs. Most of the CWC graves have a niche construction – typical of the Lesser Poland funerary rite. The furnishings found in these features are characteristic of Subcarpathia as are inventories from nearby sites in the Lower San Valley and Rzeszów Foothills. Their typo-chronological assessments point to the younger phase of the CWC. Ceramic artefacts include vessels finding analogies in the assemblages of the Middle Dnieper culture and the cultures of the steppe/forest-steppe of the North-Western Black Sea Area. Among the latter is the spectacular find of a round-base pot from Feature 1149B. A series of five dates estimate the origins of the Święte cemetery graves at the interval of 2530-2375 BC.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • Lesser Poland
  • funerary rite
Open Access

Święte 11, Feature 1149: Sequence of Funerary Rites Practiced by Corded Ware Peoples and Early Bronze North Pontic Cultures

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 69 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

A set of sources embodied by features 1149A and 1149B at Święte 11, Jarosław District, Podkarpackie Province, is one of a kind in Lesser Poland as it includes a vessel associated with steppe cultures of the Northwest Black Sea Coast. The vessel has been discovered in a stratigraphic context that is not fully clear. It probably constituted an offering (trizna) connected with the male burial identified in the niche grave underneath. The vessel appears to be linked to the late Yamnaya/early Catacomb horizon. Such chronological attribution is further supported by an absolute date of the 2nd half of the third millennium BC established for bones. The vessel sits alongside other finds that provide corroboration for connections the population of the younger Corded Ware phase in Lesser Poland had with eastern European regions.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • Yamnaya culture
  • Catacomb culture
  • Lesser Poland
Open Access

Święte 15: Cemetery of the Corded Ware Culture

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 93 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

The Corded Ware culture (CWC) cemetery at site 15 in Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, was researched in 2010-2011 in the context of rescue excavations before the construction of the A4 motorway. Nine features were discovered, including six graves with a niche construction. An analysis of funerary rite traits and relics forming the grave inventory indicates that the above is linked with the later stage of the CWC development in Lesser Poland. Analogical materials are found in the neighbouring sites 11 and 20 in Święte and 7 in Skołoszów. On the basis of radiocarbon dating the chronology of the cemetery complex was defined to the period 2525-2380 BC. An interesting element of grave inventories is vessels analogous to finds from the Middle Dnieper and Catacomb cultures. These point to the ties of communities using the cemetery complex in Święte with those to the east of Lesser Poland – confirmed in the analysis conducted of stable isotopes of strontium.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • south-eastern Poland
  • funeral rite
Open Access

Święte 20: Graves of the Corded Ware Culture

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 140 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Archaeological excavations at site 20, Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, were prompted by construction of the A4 motorway. Among the results the site has yielded there are two Corded Ware graves. Both of them are niche constructions datable to the younger Corded Ware phase in Małopolska. Accommodating three interments, grave 43 is particularly interesting for the re-use of its burial chamber and re-deposition of disarticulated older human remains. Grave goods within the graves are typical of the younger Corded Ware phase, with parallels found at closely located sites of the Lower San Valley and Rzeszów Foothills. The absolute date range for both graves has been determined to be ca. 2550-2400 BC.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • south-eastern Poland
  • funeral rite
  • chronology
Open Access

Microscopic Analysis of Pottery Fragments from the Corded Ware Culture at Sites 11, 15 and 20 in Święte, Jarosław District

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 163 - 177

Abstract

Abstract

For microscopic examination, 22 pottery fragments from sites 11, 15 and 20 in Święte, Jarosław District were selected. The pottery types included beakers (N=19) and amphorae (N=3). The goal of the petrographic analysis was to identify mineralogical composition of ceramic fabric, sources of raw materials, and intentional additives to the clay. The analysis yielded data that helped determine ceramic fabrics types and preparation methods, as well as pottery firing conditions and approximate firing temperature.

In all samples analysed, ceramic fabrics were prepared in a similar way, using heavy clay poor in muscovite, with grog deliberately added. Crystalline material present in some of the samples is most likely a natural component of raw materials used in the production process. No sand is added to the clay. No other method for preparing pastes was identified for the amphorae type. Previous observations on amphorae firing are confirmed: amphorae are fired in oxidizing conditions. The ceramic fabrics of two vessels have a deliberate admixture of bones in addition to grog and argillaceous rock intraclasts. Vessels decorated with cord impressions and vessels with herringbone or other incised patterns are more often made from paste type A (inclusion and grog) and paste type B (grog), respectively.

Keywords

  • Corded Ware culture
  • south-eastern Poland
  • petrographic analysis
  • ceramic fabric
Open Access

Chronometry of the Final Eneolithic Cemeteries at Święte, Jarosław District, from the Perspective of Cultural Relations Among Lesser Poland, Podolia and the North-Western Black Sea Region

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 178 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The research on archaeological materials from sites 11, 15, and 20 at Święte produced a series of 13 radiocarbon dates for niche graves of the Corded Ware culture (CWC). The results are coherent and point to a range of 2550-2350 BC. This corresponds well with other results obtained for nearby CWC cemeteries in the Rzeszów Foothills, and is consistent with dates obtained for CWC graves in other regions in Lesser Poland: the Lesser Poland Upland, the Sokal Ridge, and the Lublin Upland. At the same time, the obtained absolute age range corresponds with a wave of influences from the North Pontic circle of steppe cultures and the Middle Dnieper culture. It can be synchronized with the beginning of the development of the classic variants of the Catacomb culture: the Ingul and Doniec variants.

Keywords

  • absolute chronology
  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • south-eastern Poland
  • Yamnaya culture
  • Catacomb culture
Open Access

Anthropological Picture of the Corded Ware Population of the Subcarpathian Region in the Light of Data Obtained from the Sites at Święte, Jarosław District

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 213 - 228

Abstract

Abstract

Twenty Corded Ware graves containing twenty five interments were identified at sites 11, 15 and 20 at Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District. In most of the graves (16), there was only one interment, although there were also three graves with two internments and one grave with three interments. The age and sex structure of buried individuals shows the roughly equal number of females, males, and children at the age of Infans I and II, with the category Maturus (individuals aged 40 to 50) having the highest mortality rate. So far, Rzeszów Foothills and the Lower San River Valley yielded 40 Corded Ware graves containing 51 interments in total. Single burials were predominant. Alike at Święte sites, the highest proportion of burials is recorded for individuals at the age of Maturus irrespective of sex; overall, for the entire region, male graves, however, outnumber female graves. In most cases skeletons are poorly preserved, but scarce anthropometric data are the indication of dolichomorphic crania in both males and females, which phenomenon is already noted for the Małopolska Upland and present Ukraine. The intravital body height for adults varies from 161.3 to 175 cm for males and from 156.7 to 163.1 cm for females.

Keywords

  • Corded Ware culture
  • Święte
  • anthropological analysis
  • Subcarpathian region
Open Access

Light Stable Isotope Analysis of Diet in Corded Ware Culture Communities: Święte, Jarosław District, South-Eastern Poland

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 229 - 245

Abstract

Abstract

The presented study was based on isotopic analysis of δ13C and δ15N in human bone collagen samples from graves of the Corded Ware culture in Święte, south-east Poland. Isotopic values demonstrate a relatively narrow variation, ranging from -20.4‰ to -19.8‰ and 10.6‰ to 12.0‰ for δ13C and δ15N values, respectively. The diet was likely C3 plant-based with a substantial animal protein component, including predominantly terrestrial and possibly riverine resources.

Keywords

  • stable isotope analysis
  • diet
  • Corded Ware culture
Open Access

Human Mobility in the Final Eneolithic Population of Święte, Jarosław District, South-Eastern Poland: Evidence from Strontium Isotope Data

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 246 - 258

Abstract

Abstract

Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) were applied to investigate provenance amongst the Final Eneolithic population at Święte (sites 11, 15 and 20) in the Subcarpathian region, south-eastern Poland. The study used 11 human enamel samples collected from the niche graves of the Corded Ware culture. To obtain base-line information on the local Sr isotope composition seven animal enamel samples were also examined. They were found in the adjacent archaeological sites of the Mierzanowice culture at Mirocin and Dobkowice, which have the same environmental and geological background as the sites at Święte. The investigated individuals from Święte display a wide spectrum of Sr isotope signatures, from 0.7094 to 0.7109. Because a comparison of human 87Sr/86Sr values from Święte with Sr animal signatures from Early Bronze Age sites in the area is not unambiguous the local range of 87Sr/86Sr values were based on published data for the Subcarpathian population of the Corded Ware culture. Strontium isotope ratios indicate that only three males with the most radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values exhibit local signatures. Values below 0.7103 document individuals born outside of the Subcarpathian region. Among these are all women and children, two males and one individual with undetermined sex. The probable homeland of the non-local individuals were areas along the northern and eastern margins of the Carpathian Foredeep in Poland and Ukraine.

Keywords

  • Final Eneolithic
  • Corded Ware culture
  • Święte
  • strontium isotopes
  • mobility
Open Access

A Final Eneolithic Research Inspirations: Subcarpathia Borderlands Between Eastern and Western Europe

Published Online: 06 Aug 2019
Page range: 259 - 291

Abstract

Abstract

This study explores a Subcarpathian assemblage of Corded Ware funeral materials as evidence obtained over the last decade, with a focus on their research value for studies of the transmission of civilization models embraced by Final Eneolithic/Early Bronze communities settling the border zone between eastern and western Europe. Results of studies on the correspondence among ceremonial traditions that existed in the area between the Dnieper and the Vistula in the third millennium BC are presented, with two stages of adaptation of Black Sea or ‘barrow’ thanatological belief systems by Corded Ware groups in Lesser Poland being highlighted. Chronometric determinations relating to the development of ceremonial centres of the Rzeszów Foothills (Szczytna) and Lower San Valley (Święte) in the context of ‘western intrusions’ of late Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures are considered significant, providing the date range of ca. 2550-2400 BC.

Keywords

  • Corded Ware culture
  • Yamnaya culture
  • Catacomb culture
  • Małopolska
  • Final Eneolithic

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