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AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 3 (September 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 2 (June 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-0929
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-0929
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Airflow in the Condensing Zone of Compact Spinning with Lattice Apron

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 258 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

The airflow field pattern in the condensing zone plays a vital role in the pneumatic compact spinning, which significantly affects the yarn's qualities. This study aimed to analyze the effects of the different negative air pressures on fiber condensing in compact spinning with lattice apron using ANSYS. The results of airflow simulations reveal that by increasing the negative pressure, the flow velocity increases, leading to a more tremendous increase in the transverse condensing effects. Additionally, a better convergence led to reduced fiber width and eliminated the spinning triangle. Experimental results showed that the three yarns spun with the highest negative pressure had better strength, hairiness, and evenness than those spun with lower negative pressure.

Keywords

  • Compact spinning
  • lattice apron
  • airflow
  • negative pressure
  • numerical simulation
Open Access

Experimental and Modelling Studies on Thermal Insulation and Sound Absorption Properties of Cross-Laid Nonwoven Fabrics

Published Online: 06 May 2021
Page range: 264 - 271

Abstract

Abstract

Nonwoven fabrics are widely used for thermal insulation and sound absorption purpose in construction and automobile fields. It is essential to investigate their thermal conductivity and sound absorption coefficient. Five cross-laid nonwoven fabrics are measured on the Alambeta device and Brüel & Kjær impedance tube. Bogaty and Bhattacharyya models are selected to predict the thermal conductivity, and Voronina and Miki models are used to predict the sound absorption coefficient. The predicted thermal conductivity shows a significant difference compared with the measured values. It is concluded that Bogaty and Bhattacharyya models are not suitable for high porous nonwoven fabric. In addition, the results of Voronina and Miki models for sound absorption prediction are acceptable, but Voronina model shows lower mean prediction error compared with Miki model. The results indicate that Voronina model can be used to predict the sound absorption of cross-laid nonwoven fabric.

Keywords

  • Thermal insulation
  • sound absorption
  • nonwoven
  • polyester
Open Access

Comfort-Related Properties of Double-Layered Woven Car Seat Fabrics

Published Online: 03 May 2021
Page range: 272 - 281

Abstract

Abstract

Seat upholstery fabrics for vehicles are crucial products as technical textiles in motor vehicles make up approximately 15% of the total manufactured technical textiles worldwide and more than 50% of the production belongs to the woven fabrics because of their appropriate properties for this application.

The current work presents the comfort-related properties of the woven fabrics designed to be used in automotive seat upholstery. For this aim, double-layered woven fabrics were produced with four different process variables such as bottom layer pattern, number of interlacing warps in a unit report, number of interlacing picks per top warp, and number of weft skips by using Taguchi experimental design. Besides handle related properties, such as circular bending rigidity, surface roughness properties, and thermo physiological comfort related properties that include air permeability, thermal resistance, and moisture management properties were measured and analyzed based on Taguchi experimental analysis.

Keywords

  • Car seat fabric
  • double-layered woven fabric
  • handle
  • thermo physiological comfort
  • moisture management
Open Access

Investigation of Heat Transfer in Seersucker Woven Fabrics using Thermographic Method

Published Online: 18 Jul 2020
Page range: 282 - 289

Abstract

Abstract

Seersucker woven fabrics are characterized by unconventional structure and surface topography. Their crucial feature is a three-dimensional puckered effect created by puckered and flat strips occurring in the warp direction. Such a structure influences the basic mechanical and utility properties of the fabrics. The aim of the presented work is to analyze the heat transfer in seersucker woven fabrics. Measurement of the heat transfer was done using an infrared camera. Thermograms created for different seersucker woven fabrics, as well as for flat and puckered areas of the seersucker woven fabrics, were analyzed from the aspect of heat exchange between a hot plate and the environment through the fabric. The results showed that the linear density of the weft yarn influences the heat transfer through seersucker woven fabrics. The results allowed the comparison of the heat transfer through the seersucker woven fabrics in both flat and puckered areas. The investigations performed confirmed that the thermographic method can be applied to complex analyses of the heat transfer through seersucker woven fabrics.

Keywords

  • Heat transfer
  • infrared camera
  • seersucker woven fabrics
  • thermography
Open Access

Prediction of Standard Time of the Sewing Process using a Support Vector Machine with Particle Swarm Optimization

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 290 - 297

Abstract

Abstract

Standard time is a key indicator to measure the production efficiency of the sewing department, and it plays a vital role in the production forecast for the apparel industry. In this article, the grey correlation analysis was adopted to identify seven sources as the main influencing factors for determination of the standard time in the sewing process, which are sewing length, stitch density, bending stiffness, fabric weight, production quantity, drape coefficient, and length of service. A novel forecasting model based on support-vector machine (SVM) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) is then proposed to predict the standard time of the sewing process. On the ground of real data from a clothing company, the proposed forecasting model is verified by evaluating the performance with the squared correlation coefficient (R2) and mean square error (MSE). Using the PSO-SVM method, the R2 and MSE are found to be 0.917 and 0.0211, respectively. In conclusion, the high accuracy of the PSO-SVM method presented in this experiment states that the proposed model is a reliable forecasting tool for determination of standard time and can achieve good predicted results in the sewing process.

Keywords

  • Standard time
  • support-vector machine
  • particle swarm optimization
  • grey correlation analysis
Open Access

Simulations of Heat Transfer through Multilayer Protective Clothing Exposed to Flame

Published Online: 21 Sep 2020
Page range: 298 - 304

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, the safety and thermal comfort of protective clothing used by firefighters was analyzed. Three-dimensional geometry and morphology models of real multilayer assemblies used in thermal protective clothing were mapped by selected Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. In the designed assembly models, different scales of the resolution were used for the particular layers – a homogenization for nonwoven fabrics model and designing the geometry of the individual yarns in the model of woven fabrics. Then, the finite volume method to simulate heat transfer through the assemblies caused by their exposure to the flame was applied. Finally, the simulation results with experimental measurements conducted according to the EN ISO 9151 were compared. Based on both the experimental and simulation results, parameters describing the tested clothing protective features directly affecting the firefighter’s safety were determined. As a result of the experiment and simulations, comparable values of these parameters were determined, which could show that used methods are an efficient tool in studying the thermal properties of multilayer protective clothing.

Keywords

  • Heat transfer
  • protective clothing
  • modeling
  • simulations
  • the finite volume method
  • flame
  • heat radiation
Open Access

An Integrated Lean Six Sigma Approach to Modeling and Simulation: A Case Study from Clothing SME

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 305 - 311

Abstract

Abstract

To improve quality, production, and service delivery, clothing industries look toward continuous improvement approaches such as lean manufacturing, Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma (LSS). Simulation is one of the effective methods which aim to examine different solution scenarios. This study explores how LSS and simulation can be integrated based on the Sim-Lean approach, using a process improvement effort in clothing small–medium enterprises (SMEs). A structured framework integrating these research methodologies is developed, which might benefit a variety of future clothing process improvement efforts, and could inform quality improvement efforts in other industries. The aim is to allow a successful implementation of the approach in the clothing industry to improve the lead time, the daily output, the average staying times (min) of jobs waiting in queues, and the resource utilization.

Keywords

  • Lean six sigma
  • discrete event simulation
  • modeling
  • sewing process
  • process improvement
Open Access

Application of Plasticized Cellulose Triacetate Membranes for Recovery and Separation of Cerium(III) and Lanthanum(III)

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 312 - 317

Abstract

Abstract

This work explains the application of plasticized cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with Cyanex 272 di(2,4,4-(trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid) and Cyanex 301 (di(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) as the ion carriers of lanthanum(III) and cerium(III). CTA is used as a support for the preparation of polymer inclusion membrane (PIM). This membrane separates the aqueous source phase containing metal ions and the receiving phase. 1M H2SO4 is applied as the receiving phase in this process. The separation properties of the plasticized membranes with Cyanex 272 and Cyanex 301 are compared. The results show that the transport of cerium(III) through PIM with Cyanex 272 is more efficient and selective than lanthanum(III).

Keywords

  • Polymer inclusion membrane (PIM)
  • Cyanex 272
  • Cyanex 301
  • lanthanum(III)
  • cerium(III)
Open Access

Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of Different Needle Tip Shapes During Puncture of Carbon Fiber Fabric

Published Online: 02 Sep 2021
Page range: 318 - 327

Abstract

Abstract

In the present study, the fiber-bending around the needle during the piercing process of the carbon fabric is investigated. In this regard, a mathematical model is established to investigate the bending elongation of the carbon fiber around the needle and the interaction between the carbon fiber and the needle tip. Then the mechanical behavior of the carbon fabric when moving down the tip of the steel needle is analyzed. Based on the performed analysis, a shape curve equation that satisfies the puncture needle tip is established. Furthermore, the influence of different needle tip shapes on the mechanical behavior of the carbon fiber is analyzed. The performance of the needle tip is subjected to different loads, including the puncture template, horizontal tension of the fiber to the needle tip, frictional resistance between the fiber and the needle tip, sliding force, and the bending moment. The performed analysis shows that when the shape of the needle tip assumes the form of curve 10, the downward force, horizontal tension, friction resistance, sliding force, and bending moment are minimized. Accordingly, curve 10 is proposed as the optimal shape for the needle tip. The present study is expected to provide theoretical guidance for selecting overall puncture process parameters.

Keywords

  • Overall puncture
  • fiber elongation
  • needle tip shape
  • force analysis
  • tip curve
Open Access

Determination of State Variables in Textile Composite with Membrane During Complex Heat and Moisture Transport

Published Online: 29 Apr 2020
Page range: 328 - 334

Abstract

Abstract

The cotton-based composite is equipped with a single/double semipermeable membrane made of polyurethane (PU) (100%), which blocks liquid transport to the surrounding environment. The complex problem analyzed involves the coupled transport of water vapor within the textile material, transport of liquid water in capillaries, as well as heat transport with vapor and liquid water. The problem can be described using the mass transport equation for water vapor, heat transport equation, and mass transport equation for liquid moisture, accompanied by the set of corresponding boundary and initial conditions. State variables are determined using a complex multistage solution procedure within the selected points for each layer. The distributions of state variables are determined for different configurations of membranes.

Keywords

  • Textile composite
  • membrane
  • coupled heat and moisture transport
Open Access

A Novel Foam Coating Approach to Produce Abrasive Structures on Textiles

Published Online: 26 Sep 2021
Page range: 335 - 342

Abstract

Abstract

Abrasive materials are classified as paper, nonwoven, or plastic-based multilayer structures, which are used for different kinds of surface finishing. Currently, the production of abrasive structures on textiles is carried out by spraying a slurry of binder and abrasive particles, e.g., Al2O3 or SiC, with subsequent drying and curing of the binder. The drawback of this production method is the poor runnability of the spraying process. Even small variations in the process parameters may lead to an uneven coating. Therefore, a novel coating approach was developed to produce abrasive structures with foam coating on textile substrates. The foam coating method, which is commonly used in the textile industry, has the potential to produce an even coating layer. The runnability and reliability of the foam coating process are good even with high solids. From a workplace safety perspective, another advantage of foam coating is that there are no airborne particles during the coating process. A polyamide woven cloth was foam coated with an aqueous slurry containing abrasive grains (SiC), a water-based UV-curable acrylate binder, and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to adjust the slurry rheology. Stable abrasive-binder foams were generated from the slurries even at high solids of 50% using an anionic foaming agent. The cloth was foam coated and dried, and the resin was cured with a LED-UV lamp on a pilot scale. It was observed that without the addition of CNC the foam did not stay on the surface of the cloth after coating. CNC acts as a rheology modifier and co-binder, which prevent the foam from penetrating deeper into the pores of the cloth. CNC also acted as a dispersing agent: the slurry was effectively stabilized by the CNC to prevent sedimentation of the abrasive grains. An organic solvent-free composition was introduced by combining CNC with a water-based UV-resin.

Keywords

  • Foam
  • foam coating
  • abrasive
  • cellulose nanocrystals
Open Access

Biological Properties of Knitted Fabrics Used in Post-Burn Scar Rehabilitation

Published Online: 01 Jan 2021
Page range: 343 - 349

Abstract

Abstract

Compression therapy along with the use of compression materials is one of the main prevention methods against scars and keloids. Compression knitted fabrics must be characterized by parameters that enabling to reaching class I compression (16–24 mmHg). When constant pressure higher than capillary vessels pressure is applied to scars, it will have a negative influence on formation of keloids and significantly prevents their hypertrophy. Long-term pressure causes tissue hypoxia, slowed-down metabolism, and reduction of the amount of fibroblasts. One of key elements of compression therapy is choosing the required knitted fabric with necessary structure and physicomechanical parameters as well as designing methodology based on Laplace law, which will ensure the application of desired value of single-unit pressure on post-burn scar. Apart from physicomechanical parameters, a medical device, such as compression garment, must be characterized by high level of biocompatibility. An added value in terms of functional parameters is the antibacterial action of the product. It was obtained from the fibers used which contain a compound in their matrix and out of which silver ions are released. Additionally, the antibacterial action was also obtained via impregnation of the knitted fabric in RUCO-BAC AGP which contains silver. In the course of the research presented in the article, compression fabric was designed with a special construction—a knitted fabric comprising two layers. The first layer, which is in direct contact with human skin, is manufactured out of a yarn with conductive-diffusive characteristics. The second layer is made of microfibers which keep the moisture out of skin surface and also diffuse it to the outside. The following article describes the final stage of developing a compression garment aiding the external treatment process; the mentioned stage is related to biological tests such as microbiological contamination, cytotoxicity, sensitization, and irritation. The article closes a series of publications presented by the Authors in bibliography. It also presents the antibacterial activity tests done on the developed double-layer knitted fabric enriched with silver. The obtained results suggest that the fabric may be used not only in compression therapy, but also in the field of cosmetics and aesthetics.

Keywords

  • compression therapy
  • scar rehabilitation
  • compression fabrics
  • biocompatibility of compression garments
  • antibacterial fabrics
Open Access

3D Body Scan as Anthropometric Tool for Individualized Prosthetic Socks

Published Online: 02 Jul 2021
Page range: 350 - 357

Abstract

Abstract

Every year, approximately 3,000 people in Sweden undergo amputation of a body part. The use of a prosthesis can greatly improve the quality of life for these people. To improve the fit and comfort of a prosthesis, a sock is used as an interface between the prosthesis socket and the stump. A three-dimensional (3D) body scanner can be used to take measurements that are used to produce individualized socks that improve fit and comfort. The standardized method for taking measurements with a 3D body scanner often requires a standing position and hence a new scanning method is needed to improve the accessibility for 3D body scanning. This study aimed to create a scanning scenario and an algorithm for scanning amputation stumps for individualizing prosthesis socks for upper-body amputations. Vitronic VITUSSMART LC 3D Body Scanner was used in this study. The results show a seated position with arms slightly away from the body, scanned at 45° as the best. To measure the right upper arm and the left armpit, the best was to scan at a 315° angle. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences compared with the 3D body scanner of traditional manual measurements. The proposed method exhibited good relative reliability and potential to facilitate the customization of prosthetic socks for amputees.

Keywords

  • 3D Body Scanner
  • prosthetic sock
  • upper-body amputation
  • anthropometric measurement
Open Access

Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge in Industrial Textile Wastewater Treatment Plant

Published Online: 24 Oct 2020
Page range: 358 - 364

Abstract

Abstract

The relationship between a quality of activated sludge microbiota and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operational stability has been defined in the past few decades. However, this dependence is not so clear in the case of industrial wastewater treatment. In this article, a very specific example of industrial textile wastewater treatment plant (ITWTP) is analyzed. Textile effluents are well known as highly contaminated wastewater containing many biodegradable compounds. Microscopic analysis included flocs morphology examination, attempts to evaluate the Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), and identification of dominant filamentous microorganisms. Routine operational control of ITWTP covered pH, temperature, redox potential, dissolved oxygen and COD measurements. The average ecosystem existing in the described ITWTP differed significantly compared to municipal WWTPs. The flocs were smaller and irregular. Filamentous bacteria did not cause foaming although filaments index reached 4. Nostocoida limicola I dominated with significant amounts of type 0041 and type 021N. The evaluation of SBI was impossible as the most of protozoan was in the form of cysts. The overall microbiota diversity correlated with COD removal in activated sludge unit of ITWTP.

Keywords

  • Textile wastewater treatment
  • activated sludge
  • microscopic analysis
Open Access

Consumer Adoption of Fast-Fashion, Differences of Perceptions, and the Role of Motivations Across the Adoption Groups

Published Online: 02 Jul 2021
Page range: 365 - 372

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the adoption groups of the fast-fashion consumers, evaluate the consumers’ perceptions of the fast-fashion in different groups, and model the role of “social or status image”, “uniqueness”, and “conformity” on the level of fast-fashion consumer adoption. The consumer adoption groups were determined as “innovators”, “early adopters”, “early majority”, “late majority”, and “laggards” by using a domain-specific innovativeness (DSI) scale. Consumers’ perceptions of fast-fashion were evaluated from cognitive and emotional aspects and the differences across the consumer groups were investigated by using Kruskal-–Wallis test and Mann-–Whitney U test. The roles of “social or status image”, “uniqueness”, and “conformity” on consumer groups were modeled by using ordinal logistic regression analysis. As a result of the research, consumers’ perceptions of fast-fashion were found to vary across different consumer adoption groups in terms of “being in-style products”, “expressing self-image”, “imitating the luxury fashion products”, and “frequent renewal of the collections”. Further, the findings revealed that the probabilistic relationship between different levels of consumer adoption based on innovativeness could be modeled based on the motivations of “social or status image” and “uniqueness”.

Keywords

  • Fast-fashion
  • consumer adoption groups
  • innovativeness
  • fast-fashion perception
  • motivation
  • logistic regression
  • ordinal response
15 Articles
Open Access

Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Airflow in the Condensing Zone of Compact Spinning with Lattice Apron

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 258 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

The airflow field pattern in the condensing zone plays a vital role in the pneumatic compact spinning, which significantly affects the yarn's qualities. This study aimed to analyze the effects of the different negative air pressures on fiber condensing in compact spinning with lattice apron using ANSYS. The results of airflow simulations reveal that by increasing the negative pressure, the flow velocity increases, leading to a more tremendous increase in the transverse condensing effects. Additionally, a better convergence led to reduced fiber width and eliminated the spinning triangle. Experimental results showed that the three yarns spun with the highest negative pressure had better strength, hairiness, and evenness than those spun with lower negative pressure.

Keywords

  • Compact spinning
  • lattice apron
  • airflow
  • negative pressure
  • numerical simulation
Open Access

Experimental and Modelling Studies on Thermal Insulation and Sound Absorption Properties of Cross-Laid Nonwoven Fabrics

Published Online: 06 May 2021
Page range: 264 - 271

Abstract

Abstract

Nonwoven fabrics are widely used for thermal insulation and sound absorption purpose in construction and automobile fields. It is essential to investigate their thermal conductivity and sound absorption coefficient. Five cross-laid nonwoven fabrics are measured on the Alambeta device and Brüel & Kjær impedance tube. Bogaty and Bhattacharyya models are selected to predict the thermal conductivity, and Voronina and Miki models are used to predict the sound absorption coefficient. The predicted thermal conductivity shows a significant difference compared with the measured values. It is concluded that Bogaty and Bhattacharyya models are not suitable for high porous nonwoven fabric. In addition, the results of Voronina and Miki models for sound absorption prediction are acceptable, but Voronina model shows lower mean prediction error compared with Miki model. The results indicate that Voronina model can be used to predict the sound absorption of cross-laid nonwoven fabric.

Keywords

  • Thermal insulation
  • sound absorption
  • nonwoven
  • polyester
Open Access

Comfort-Related Properties of Double-Layered Woven Car Seat Fabrics

Published Online: 03 May 2021
Page range: 272 - 281

Abstract

Abstract

Seat upholstery fabrics for vehicles are crucial products as technical textiles in motor vehicles make up approximately 15% of the total manufactured technical textiles worldwide and more than 50% of the production belongs to the woven fabrics because of their appropriate properties for this application.

The current work presents the comfort-related properties of the woven fabrics designed to be used in automotive seat upholstery. For this aim, double-layered woven fabrics were produced with four different process variables such as bottom layer pattern, number of interlacing warps in a unit report, number of interlacing picks per top warp, and number of weft skips by using Taguchi experimental design. Besides handle related properties, such as circular bending rigidity, surface roughness properties, and thermo physiological comfort related properties that include air permeability, thermal resistance, and moisture management properties were measured and analyzed based on Taguchi experimental analysis.

Keywords

  • Car seat fabric
  • double-layered woven fabric
  • handle
  • thermo physiological comfort
  • moisture management
Open Access

Investigation of Heat Transfer in Seersucker Woven Fabrics using Thermographic Method

Published Online: 18 Jul 2020
Page range: 282 - 289

Abstract

Abstract

Seersucker woven fabrics are characterized by unconventional structure and surface topography. Their crucial feature is a three-dimensional puckered effect created by puckered and flat strips occurring in the warp direction. Such a structure influences the basic mechanical and utility properties of the fabrics. The aim of the presented work is to analyze the heat transfer in seersucker woven fabrics. Measurement of the heat transfer was done using an infrared camera. Thermograms created for different seersucker woven fabrics, as well as for flat and puckered areas of the seersucker woven fabrics, were analyzed from the aspect of heat exchange between a hot plate and the environment through the fabric. The results showed that the linear density of the weft yarn influences the heat transfer through seersucker woven fabrics. The results allowed the comparison of the heat transfer through the seersucker woven fabrics in both flat and puckered areas. The investigations performed confirmed that the thermographic method can be applied to complex analyses of the heat transfer through seersucker woven fabrics.

Keywords

  • Heat transfer
  • infrared camera
  • seersucker woven fabrics
  • thermography
Open Access

Prediction of Standard Time of the Sewing Process using a Support Vector Machine with Particle Swarm Optimization

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 290 - 297

Abstract

Abstract

Standard time is a key indicator to measure the production efficiency of the sewing department, and it plays a vital role in the production forecast for the apparel industry. In this article, the grey correlation analysis was adopted to identify seven sources as the main influencing factors for determination of the standard time in the sewing process, which are sewing length, stitch density, bending stiffness, fabric weight, production quantity, drape coefficient, and length of service. A novel forecasting model based on support-vector machine (SVM) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) is then proposed to predict the standard time of the sewing process. On the ground of real data from a clothing company, the proposed forecasting model is verified by evaluating the performance with the squared correlation coefficient (R2) and mean square error (MSE). Using the PSO-SVM method, the R2 and MSE are found to be 0.917 and 0.0211, respectively. In conclusion, the high accuracy of the PSO-SVM method presented in this experiment states that the proposed model is a reliable forecasting tool for determination of standard time and can achieve good predicted results in the sewing process.

Keywords

  • Standard time
  • support-vector machine
  • particle swarm optimization
  • grey correlation analysis
Open Access

Simulations of Heat Transfer through Multilayer Protective Clothing Exposed to Flame

Published Online: 21 Sep 2020
Page range: 298 - 304

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, the safety and thermal comfort of protective clothing used by firefighters was analyzed. Three-dimensional geometry and morphology models of real multilayer assemblies used in thermal protective clothing were mapped by selected Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. In the designed assembly models, different scales of the resolution were used for the particular layers – a homogenization for nonwoven fabrics model and designing the geometry of the individual yarns in the model of woven fabrics. Then, the finite volume method to simulate heat transfer through the assemblies caused by their exposure to the flame was applied. Finally, the simulation results with experimental measurements conducted according to the EN ISO 9151 were compared. Based on both the experimental and simulation results, parameters describing the tested clothing protective features directly affecting the firefighter’s safety were determined. As a result of the experiment and simulations, comparable values of these parameters were determined, which could show that used methods are an efficient tool in studying the thermal properties of multilayer protective clothing.

Keywords

  • Heat transfer
  • protective clothing
  • modeling
  • simulations
  • the finite volume method
  • flame
  • heat radiation
Open Access

An Integrated Lean Six Sigma Approach to Modeling and Simulation: A Case Study from Clothing SME

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 305 - 311

Abstract

Abstract

To improve quality, production, and service delivery, clothing industries look toward continuous improvement approaches such as lean manufacturing, Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma (LSS). Simulation is one of the effective methods which aim to examine different solution scenarios. This study explores how LSS and simulation can be integrated based on the Sim-Lean approach, using a process improvement effort in clothing small–medium enterprises (SMEs). A structured framework integrating these research methodologies is developed, which might benefit a variety of future clothing process improvement efforts, and could inform quality improvement efforts in other industries. The aim is to allow a successful implementation of the approach in the clothing industry to improve the lead time, the daily output, the average staying times (min) of jobs waiting in queues, and the resource utilization.

Keywords

  • Lean six sigma
  • discrete event simulation
  • modeling
  • sewing process
  • process improvement
Open Access

Application of Plasticized Cellulose Triacetate Membranes for Recovery and Separation of Cerium(III) and Lanthanum(III)

Published Online: 23 Apr 2021
Page range: 312 - 317

Abstract

Abstract

This work explains the application of plasticized cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with Cyanex 272 di(2,4,4-(trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid) and Cyanex 301 (di(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) as the ion carriers of lanthanum(III) and cerium(III). CTA is used as a support for the preparation of polymer inclusion membrane (PIM). This membrane separates the aqueous source phase containing metal ions and the receiving phase. 1M H2SO4 is applied as the receiving phase in this process. The separation properties of the plasticized membranes with Cyanex 272 and Cyanex 301 are compared. The results show that the transport of cerium(III) through PIM with Cyanex 272 is more efficient and selective than lanthanum(III).

Keywords

  • Polymer inclusion membrane (PIM)
  • Cyanex 272
  • Cyanex 301
  • lanthanum(III)
  • cerium(III)
Open Access

Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of Different Needle Tip Shapes During Puncture of Carbon Fiber Fabric

Published Online: 02 Sep 2021
Page range: 318 - 327

Abstract

Abstract

In the present study, the fiber-bending around the needle during the piercing process of the carbon fabric is investigated. In this regard, a mathematical model is established to investigate the bending elongation of the carbon fiber around the needle and the interaction between the carbon fiber and the needle tip. Then the mechanical behavior of the carbon fabric when moving down the tip of the steel needle is analyzed. Based on the performed analysis, a shape curve equation that satisfies the puncture needle tip is established. Furthermore, the influence of different needle tip shapes on the mechanical behavior of the carbon fiber is analyzed. The performance of the needle tip is subjected to different loads, including the puncture template, horizontal tension of the fiber to the needle tip, frictional resistance between the fiber and the needle tip, sliding force, and the bending moment. The performed analysis shows that when the shape of the needle tip assumes the form of curve 10, the downward force, horizontal tension, friction resistance, sliding force, and bending moment are minimized. Accordingly, curve 10 is proposed as the optimal shape for the needle tip. The present study is expected to provide theoretical guidance for selecting overall puncture process parameters.

Keywords

  • Overall puncture
  • fiber elongation
  • needle tip shape
  • force analysis
  • tip curve
Open Access

Determination of State Variables in Textile Composite with Membrane During Complex Heat and Moisture Transport

Published Online: 29 Apr 2020
Page range: 328 - 334

Abstract

Abstract

The cotton-based composite is equipped with a single/double semipermeable membrane made of polyurethane (PU) (100%), which blocks liquid transport to the surrounding environment. The complex problem analyzed involves the coupled transport of water vapor within the textile material, transport of liquid water in capillaries, as well as heat transport with vapor and liquid water. The problem can be described using the mass transport equation for water vapor, heat transport equation, and mass transport equation for liquid moisture, accompanied by the set of corresponding boundary and initial conditions. State variables are determined using a complex multistage solution procedure within the selected points for each layer. The distributions of state variables are determined for different configurations of membranes.

Keywords

  • Textile composite
  • membrane
  • coupled heat and moisture transport
Open Access

A Novel Foam Coating Approach to Produce Abrasive Structures on Textiles

Published Online: 26 Sep 2021
Page range: 335 - 342

Abstract

Abstract

Abrasive materials are classified as paper, nonwoven, or plastic-based multilayer structures, which are used for different kinds of surface finishing. Currently, the production of abrasive structures on textiles is carried out by spraying a slurry of binder and abrasive particles, e.g., Al2O3 or SiC, with subsequent drying and curing of the binder. The drawback of this production method is the poor runnability of the spraying process. Even small variations in the process parameters may lead to an uneven coating. Therefore, a novel coating approach was developed to produce abrasive structures with foam coating on textile substrates. The foam coating method, which is commonly used in the textile industry, has the potential to produce an even coating layer. The runnability and reliability of the foam coating process are good even with high solids. From a workplace safety perspective, another advantage of foam coating is that there are no airborne particles during the coating process. A polyamide woven cloth was foam coated with an aqueous slurry containing abrasive grains (SiC), a water-based UV-curable acrylate binder, and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) to adjust the slurry rheology. Stable abrasive-binder foams were generated from the slurries even at high solids of 50% using an anionic foaming agent. The cloth was foam coated and dried, and the resin was cured with a LED-UV lamp on a pilot scale. It was observed that without the addition of CNC the foam did not stay on the surface of the cloth after coating. CNC acts as a rheology modifier and co-binder, which prevent the foam from penetrating deeper into the pores of the cloth. CNC also acted as a dispersing agent: the slurry was effectively stabilized by the CNC to prevent sedimentation of the abrasive grains. An organic solvent-free composition was introduced by combining CNC with a water-based UV-resin.

Keywords

  • Foam
  • foam coating
  • abrasive
  • cellulose nanocrystals
Open Access

Biological Properties of Knitted Fabrics Used in Post-Burn Scar Rehabilitation

Published Online: 01 Jan 2021
Page range: 343 - 349

Abstract

Abstract

Compression therapy along with the use of compression materials is one of the main prevention methods against scars and keloids. Compression knitted fabrics must be characterized by parameters that enabling to reaching class I compression (16–24 mmHg). When constant pressure higher than capillary vessels pressure is applied to scars, it will have a negative influence on formation of keloids and significantly prevents their hypertrophy. Long-term pressure causes tissue hypoxia, slowed-down metabolism, and reduction of the amount of fibroblasts. One of key elements of compression therapy is choosing the required knitted fabric with necessary structure and physicomechanical parameters as well as designing methodology based on Laplace law, which will ensure the application of desired value of single-unit pressure on post-burn scar. Apart from physicomechanical parameters, a medical device, such as compression garment, must be characterized by high level of biocompatibility. An added value in terms of functional parameters is the antibacterial action of the product. It was obtained from the fibers used which contain a compound in their matrix and out of which silver ions are released. Additionally, the antibacterial action was also obtained via impregnation of the knitted fabric in RUCO-BAC AGP which contains silver. In the course of the research presented in the article, compression fabric was designed with a special construction—a knitted fabric comprising two layers. The first layer, which is in direct contact with human skin, is manufactured out of a yarn with conductive-diffusive characteristics. The second layer is made of microfibers which keep the moisture out of skin surface and also diffuse it to the outside. The following article describes the final stage of developing a compression garment aiding the external treatment process; the mentioned stage is related to biological tests such as microbiological contamination, cytotoxicity, sensitization, and irritation. The article closes a series of publications presented by the Authors in bibliography. It also presents the antibacterial activity tests done on the developed double-layer knitted fabric enriched with silver. The obtained results suggest that the fabric may be used not only in compression therapy, but also in the field of cosmetics and aesthetics.

Keywords

  • compression therapy
  • scar rehabilitation
  • compression fabrics
  • biocompatibility of compression garments
  • antibacterial fabrics
Open Access

3D Body Scan as Anthropometric Tool for Individualized Prosthetic Socks

Published Online: 02 Jul 2021
Page range: 350 - 357

Abstract

Abstract

Every year, approximately 3,000 people in Sweden undergo amputation of a body part. The use of a prosthesis can greatly improve the quality of life for these people. To improve the fit and comfort of a prosthesis, a sock is used as an interface between the prosthesis socket and the stump. A three-dimensional (3D) body scanner can be used to take measurements that are used to produce individualized socks that improve fit and comfort. The standardized method for taking measurements with a 3D body scanner often requires a standing position and hence a new scanning method is needed to improve the accessibility for 3D body scanning. This study aimed to create a scanning scenario and an algorithm for scanning amputation stumps for individualizing prosthesis socks for upper-body amputations. Vitronic VITUSSMART LC 3D Body Scanner was used in this study. The results show a seated position with arms slightly away from the body, scanned at 45° as the best. To measure the right upper arm and the left armpit, the best was to scan at a 315° angle. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences compared with the 3D body scanner of traditional manual measurements. The proposed method exhibited good relative reliability and potential to facilitate the customization of prosthetic socks for amputees.

Keywords

  • 3D Body Scanner
  • prosthetic sock
  • upper-body amputation
  • anthropometric measurement
Open Access

Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge in Industrial Textile Wastewater Treatment Plant

Published Online: 24 Oct 2020
Page range: 358 - 364

Abstract

Abstract

The relationship between a quality of activated sludge microbiota and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operational stability has been defined in the past few decades. However, this dependence is not so clear in the case of industrial wastewater treatment. In this article, a very specific example of industrial textile wastewater treatment plant (ITWTP) is analyzed. Textile effluents are well known as highly contaminated wastewater containing many biodegradable compounds. Microscopic analysis included flocs morphology examination, attempts to evaluate the Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), and identification of dominant filamentous microorganisms. Routine operational control of ITWTP covered pH, temperature, redox potential, dissolved oxygen and COD measurements. The average ecosystem existing in the described ITWTP differed significantly compared to municipal WWTPs. The flocs were smaller and irregular. Filamentous bacteria did not cause foaming although filaments index reached 4. Nostocoida limicola I dominated with significant amounts of type 0041 and type 021N. The evaluation of SBI was impossible as the most of protozoan was in the form of cysts. The overall microbiota diversity correlated with COD removal in activated sludge unit of ITWTP.

Keywords

  • Textile wastewater treatment
  • activated sludge
  • microscopic analysis
Open Access

Consumer Adoption of Fast-Fashion, Differences of Perceptions, and the Role of Motivations Across the Adoption Groups

Published Online: 02 Jul 2021
Page range: 365 - 372

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the adoption groups of the fast-fashion consumers, evaluate the consumers’ perceptions of the fast-fashion in different groups, and model the role of “social or status image”, “uniqueness”, and “conformity” on the level of fast-fashion consumer adoption. The consumer adoption groups were determined as “innovators”, “early adopters”, “early majority”, “late majority”, and “laggards” by using a domain-specific innovativeness (DSI) scale. Consumers’ perceptions of fast-fashion were evaluated from cognitive and emotional aspects and the differences across the consumer groups were investigated by using Kruskal-–Wallis test and Mann-–Whitney U test. The roles of “social or status image”, “uniqueness”, and “conformity” on consumer groups were modeled by using ordinal logistic regression analysis. As a result of the research, consumers’ perceptions of fast-fashion were found to vary across different consumer adoption groups in terms of “being in-style products”, “expressing self-image”, “imitating the luxury fashion products”, and “frequent renewal of the collections”. Further, the findings revealed that the probabilistic relationship between different levels of consumer adoption based on innovativeness could be modeled based on the motivations of “social or status image” and “uniqueness”.

Keywords

  • Fast-fashion
  • consumer adoption groups
  • innovativeness
  • fast-fashion perception
  • motivation
  • logistic regression
  • ordinal response

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