Issues

Journal & Issues

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 21 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 20 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 19 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 18 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 17 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 3 (September 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 2 (June 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-0929
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 22 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-0929
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Design and Performance Evaluation of Protective Clothing for Emergency Rescue

Published Online: 19 Nov 2020
Page range: 1 - 10

Abstract

Abstract

Protective clothing is very important to guarantee the safety of emergency rescuers. And proper construction design of clothing will improve the rescue efficacy. This study developed a new set of emergency rescue protective clothing (NC) and evaluated its performance. Clothing fit test, freedom of movement, and rationality of pocket tests were conducted. The results showed that the amount of slippage at the hem, waist of pants, and leg opening of NC has been greatly reduced. The NC had provided better cloth fit and dynamic comfort. The storage capacity of the pockets had been increased, the position and angle design of the pocket made it easier to take and keep the rescue tools.

Keywords

  • Emergency rescue clothing
  • Structure design
  • Wearing comfort
  • Performance evaluation
Open Access

Research into the Textile-Based Signal Lines Made Using Ultrasonic Welding Technology

Published Online: 10 Jul 2020
Page range: 11 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes research into the transmission properties of textile signal lines (TSLs) made using ultrasonic welding technology. The presented TSLs are made from electroconductive, nickel coated, fabric strips welded between non-conducting textile layers. The article presents an analysis of the usability of the ultrasonic welding method for creating TSLs. This analysis shows that direct welding of an electroconductive path with the substrate increases its linear resistance, making it impossible to create a properly functioning line. This article presents an alternative method of creating the line using ultrasound welding technology.

Keywords

  • Textile signal line
  • textile transmission line
  • smart clothing
  • textronics
  • E-textiles
  • ultrasonic welding
  • wearable
Open Access

Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Thermal Resistance for Compression Bandages

Published Online: 10 Mar 2022
Page range: 18 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to report a study on the prediction of the steady-state thermal resistance of woven compression bandage (WCB) by using three different mathematical models. The experimental samples of WCB were 100% cotton, cotton–polyamide–polyurethane, and viscose–polyurethane. The bandage samples were evaluated at extensions ranging at 10–100%, with two- and three-layer bandaging techniques. Experimental thermal resistance was measured by thermal foot manikin (TFM) and ALAMBETA testing devices. The obtained results by TFM and ALAMBETA were validated and compared with the theoretical models (Maxwell–Eucken2, Schuhmeister, and Militky), and a reasonable correlation of approximately 78%, 92%, and 93% for ALAMBETA and 75%, 82%, and 83% for TFM, respectively, was observed.

Keywords

  • Mathematical models for thermal resistance
  • thermal foot manikin
  • ALAMBETA
  • woven bandage properties
Open Access

Evaluation of Functional Insoles for Protective Footwear Under Simulated Use Conditions

Published Online: 02 Oct 2020
Page range: 26 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the work was to study the properties of functional insoles for protective footwear using an original methodology by simulating the dynamic real-life conditions. Two insole variants were examined; both are made from a three-layer composite with the middle layer being a polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven. The variants differed in terms of the presence or absence of a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a biocide in the middle layer. Insole samples were subjected to pressure and examined in terms of the adsorption and desorption of acidic and alkaline liquids, followed by tear strength experiments. In addition, the insoles were placed in protective footwear and the microclimate existing inside the resulting system was determined using T/RH sensors by means of three complementary methods: under controlled climatic conditions, on a thermal foot model, and on human subjects. The results clearly indicate that insoles containing SAP are more effective than those without SAP in terms of both hygienic and mechanical properties.

Keywords

  • Protective footwear
  • insoles
  • hygienic properties
  • mechanical properties
  • textile structures
Open Access

Numerical Simulation of Fiber Motion in the Condensing Zone of Lateral Compact Spinning with Pneumatic Groove

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 35 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Lateral compact spinning with pneumatic groove is a spinning process to gather fibers by common actions of airflow and mechanical forces. Compared with ring spinning, it can more effectively reduce yarn hairiness and enhance yarn strength. However, fiber motion in the agglomeration area is complex. And, it is important to establish a new fiber model to accurately describing the fiber motion. The objectives of this research were to create a new fiber model to simulate the agglomeration process, to analyze yarn properties of the lateral compact spinning with pneumatic groove, and to compare with other spinning yarns through a series of tests. The new fiber model was based on the finite element method implemented in MATLAB and was to show the fiber motion during the agglomeration area. The simulation generated results were close to the real motion of fibers in spinning. In the lateral compact spinning with pneumatic groove, fiber bundle through the agglomeration area can be gathered, and the output of the fiber bundle was nearly to cylinder before yarn twisted. The experiments demonstrated that the lateral compact spinning with pneumatic groove can improve the yarn properties: increase the yarn twist, enhance the yarn strength, and reduce the yarn hairiness.

Keywords

  • Compact spinning
  • fiber motion
  • agglomeration process
  • yarn properties
Open Access

Application of Physical Vapor Deposition in Textile Industry

Published Online: 10 Mar 2022
Page range: 42 - 54

Abstract

Abstract

Currently, scientists are striving to produce innovative textile materials characterized by special properties. Therefore, attempts have been made to use physical and chemical vapor deposition techniques to modify the surface of textile materials, i.e., nonwovens, fabrics, and knitted fabrics. By using these techniques for modifying the basic materials, researchers have obtained textiles with novel properties, which are used in shielding materials, textronics, or clothing, as well as in specialized accessories. The PVD process can be applied for almost all materials. The physical vapor deposition process allows for obtaining layers of different thicknesses and with various physical and chemical properties. This article is a review of the latest state of the art on the use of various methods of physical vapor deposition in textiles destined for different purposes.

Keywords

  • Textiles
  • physical vapor deposition
  • material engineering
  • modification of textile materials
Open Access

Ag Coated Pa-Based Electro-Conductive Knitted Fabrics for Heat Generation in Compression Supports

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 55 - 63

Abstract

Abstract

This work deals with the electrically conductive textiles for heat generation in orthopedic compression supports. This study aimed to develop compression knitted structures with integrated electro-conductive yarns and investigate their heat generation characteristics and temperature changes during the time and under stretch which is required to generate compression. Combined half-Milano rib structured knitted fabrics were made by using silver (Ag) coated PA yarn of linear density of 66 tex and 235 tex, respectively. Six variants of specimens were developed by using different amount of electro-conductive yarns in a pattern repeat. It was found that stretch negatively influences temperature values as well as time in which the required temperature is reached. Therefore, the final wearing conditions have to be summed up during the designing of compression orthopedic heated supports.

Keywords

  • Conductive textiles
  • heat generation
  • knitted structure
  • compression
Open Access

Sensitivity of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Paraglider Wing to Properties of Covering Material

Published Online: 29 Apr 2020
Page range: 64 - 72

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is theoretically oriented. The main goal is to analyze the sensitivity of aerodynamic characteristics to the properties of the material used for paraglider wing. The paraglider of considerable dimensions is designed without stiffening elements. Thus, the covering material yields adequate pressure distribution between the external and internal parts of the wing. The problem is solved using a geometrical model approximated by the dimensionless coordinates of crucial points and smoothed by spline curves. The finite volume mesh is defined using the Ansys Meshing program. Numerical analysis uses five different covering materials, ranging from the air-impermeable covering to the covering subjected to hydrolytic—mechanical degradation. Optimization of properties of the covering material improves the lift force and the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing. Moreover, numerical modeling is more beneficial and efficient than prototype tests. The obtained pressure distributions and other parameters explain the aerodynamic safety of the paraglider during dynamic conditions of flight.

Keywords

  • Sensitivity of aerodynamic characteristics
  • textile covering material
  • paraglider wing
Open Access

Effects of Flocks Doping on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Shear Thickening Gel

Published Online: 06 Nov 2020
Page range: 73 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as the dispersed phase and mold silicone was used as the continuous phase to prepare the shear thickening gel (STG) doped with a certain amount of flocks by rotary stirring. STG doped with flocks by a rotary rheometer was tested and observed through a scanning electron microscope. Results revealed that both the rotary stirring sample preparation and the rheological test method of the rotary rheometer could lead to the regular arrangement of flocks and could not reflect shear thickening performance accurately. The flocks showed a random arrangement in STG after the mixing process, and the dynamic mechanical properties were able to be measured with a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). Flocks with a fineness of 3 Denier, 1 mm in length, and a mass ratio of 5% had significant effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of STG. Due to long continuous shearing time, flocks were arranged regularly when the sweeping frequency was higher than 125 Hz, then the shear thickening performance of the doped STG was declined.

Keywords

  • Shear thickening gel (STG)
  • flocks
  • arrangement
  • dynamic mechanical properties
Open Access

Computer-Assisted Modeling and Design of Compression Garments with Graded Unit Compression

Published Online: 10 Oct 2020
Page range: 80 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents a useful algorithm for designing compression products with intended and graded unit pressure along the part of the body covered with the mentioned garments. The algorithm was developed using Laplace's law and a designated experimental function describing the relationship between strength and relative elongation of knitted fabric, and the results of 3D scanning of different body parts. On this basis, two examples of products in the form of a leg sleeve and arm sleeve were designed for the treatment of lymphoedema in compression classes II and III. The presented compression product design procedure facilitates the process of designing compression garments and eliminates some errors related to this procedure.

Keywords

  • Design algorithm
  • compression products
  • unit pressure
  • Laplace's law
  • compression classes
Open Access

Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in Garment Air Gap

Published Online: 06 Nov 2020
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

This article aimed to study the characteristics and mechanisms of 3D heat transfer through clothing involving the air gap. A three-dimensional finite volume method is used to obtain the coupled conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer in a body-air-cloth microclimate system. The flow contours and characteristics of temperature, heat flux, and velocity have been obtained. The reason for the high flux and temperature regions was analyzed. Computational results show that the coupled effect of the air gap and the airflow between the skin and garment strongly influences the temperature and heat flux distribution. There are several high-temperature regions on the clothing and high heat flux regions on the body skin because the conductive heat flux can cross through the narrow air gap and reach the cloth surface easily. The high-speed cooling airflow brings about high forced convective heat flux, which will result in the temperature increase on the upper cloth surface. The radiative heat flux has a strong correlation with the temperature gradient between the body and clothing. But its proportion in the total heat flux is relatively small.

Keywords

  • Garment
  • air gap
  • heat transfer
  • conduction and convection
  • numerical simulation
Open Access

A Review on the Performance and Comfort of Stab Protection Armor

Published Online: 06 Apr 2021
Page range: 96 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Stab-protective clothing is the most important component of safety equipment and it helps to save the lives of its wearers; therefore, it is designed to resist knife, nail, or needle attacks, especially to the upper body. In this paper, the essential requirements for stab-resistant armor are investigated based on an in-depth review of previous research and prototype test results. The combination of protection and comfort in armor vests is a particularly challenging task. Review of the state of the art technology responsible for the manufacture of stab-resistant clothes has revealed that their design and development should encompass the elements of comfort, freedom of movement, permeability, absorption, evaporation, and weight reductions to ensure excellent ergonomics and high wear comfort. The design as well as the production, weight, thickness, material types and properties, and the arrangement of scales determine the level of protection and comfort offered by stab-resistant vests. Currently, the production of stab-proof gear-based 3D printing technology is evaluated, using lightweight materials (aramid) in the form of segmented scales inspired by nature. As the protection performance and wear comfort of stab-proof gear is enhanced, the willingness of security, control, transport, custom, and correction officers to wear them can be significantly increased in an endeavor to ensure that fatal injuries will decrease significantly.

Keywords

  • Stab-protection and comfort
  • bio-inspired
  • lightweight
  • concealment
  • weapons
Open Access

A Novel Theoretical Modeling for Predicting the Sound Absorption of Woven Fabrics Using Modification of Sound Wave Equation and Genetic Algorithm

Published Online: 29 Jan 2021
Page range: 108 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

Woven fabric in Indonesia is generally known as a material for making clothes and it has been applied as an interior finishing material in buildings, such as sound absorbent material. This study presents a new method for predicting the sound absorption of woven fabrics using a modification of the wave equations and using genetic algorithms. The main aim of this research is to study the sound absorption properties of woven fabric by modeling using a modification of the sound wave equations and using genetic algorithms. A new model for predicting the sound absorption coefficient of woven fabric (plain, twill 2/1, rips and satin fabric) as a function of porosity, the weight of the fabric, the thickness of the fabric, and frequency of the sound wave, was determined in this paper. In this research, the sound absorption coefficient equation was obtained using the modification of the sound wave equation as well as using genetic algorithms. This new model included the influence of the sound absorption coefficient phenomenon caused by porosity, the weight of the fabric, the thickness of fabric as well as the frequency of the sound wave. In this study, experimental data showed a good agreement with the model

Keywords

  • Acoustic
  • Sound absorption Coefficient
  • woven fabric
Open Access

Modeling Supply Chain Sustainability-Related Risks and Vulnerability: Insights from the Textile Sector of Pakistan

Published Online: 06 May 2021
Page range: 123 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

Sustainability-related risk and vulnerability management have attained significant attention from academia and industry. Manufacturing industries in developing countries such as Pakistan are under severe economic pressure and striving to boost sustainable supply chain practices for achieving business excellence. In this context, the objectives of the present research are to examine the critical supply chain risks associated with sustainable development goals, namely social, economic, and environmental factors. The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique is employed for categorizing the risk factors and Pareto analysis for highlighting the more crucial and risky factors. For this purpose, a large-scale survey was carried out in the textile industries of Pakistan to develop a risk mitigation model for sustainability-related risks and vulnerability in a textile supply chain (TSC). It captures the input expressions of experts for risk factors, namely severity (s), occurrence (o), and detection (d) for calculating the risk priority numbers (RPNs) of identified alternatives. The results depict that endogenous environmental risks categorize as the most significant for the textile manufacturing industries, and the interfaces between the various risks associated with sustainability-related are also found very high. This study would be a toolkit for the industrial managers and policy-makers for creating sustainable manufacturing culture on organizational premises.

Keywords

  • Risk mitigation
  • FMEA
  • Pareto analysis
  • cause and effect analysis
Open Access

Evaluation of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cotton Warps Under a Cyclic Load of Stretch-Abrasion

Published Online: 06 Nov 2020
Page range: 135 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

The fatigue behavior of cotton warps was studied by a newly weaving load simulator (WLS) developed in our laboratory. Reborn hairiness, strength retention, and elongation retention of sized warps were adopted to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of sized warps under stretch-abrasion cyclic loading. The influences of different fatigue cycles on the above three indicators were also discussed. The results indicated that the fatigue behavior of the cotton warps accompanied by abrasion yields a three-parameter Weibull distribution. All the fitting plots show acceptable linearity. Moreover, there is a strong relationship of quadratic polynomial between the tensile properties and the fatigue cycle of the sized warps according to the scatter fitting (R2 > 91.08%). Similarly, there is also a good relationship of quadratic polynomial between the reborn hairiness index and the fatigue cycle of the sized warps (R2 > 94.51%). Finally, regardless of the strength retention, elongation retention, and reborn hairiness, the physical and mechanical properties of the cotton warps still change with the continuous increase of the fatigue cycle after 40% of the fatigue cycle, but it is not significant. The research was helpful to estimate the capacity of the warps to sustain failure.

Keywords

  • Fatigue cycle
  • three-parameter Weibull distribution
  • physical and mechanical properties
15 Articles
Open Access

Design and Performance Evaluation of Protective Clothing for Emergency Rescue

Published Online: 19 Nov 2020
Page range: 1 - 10

Abstract

Abstract

Protective clothing is very important to guarantee the safety of emergency rescuers. And proper construction design of clothing will improve the rescue efficacy. This study developed a new set of emergency rescue protective clothing (NC) and evaluated its performance. Clothing fit test, freedom of movement, and rationality of pocket tests were conducted. The results showed that the amount of slippage at the hem, waist of pants, and leg opening of NC has been greatly reduced. The NC had provided better cloth fit and dynamic comfort. The storage capacity of the pockets had been increased, the position and angle design of the pocket made it easier to take and keep the rescue tools.

Keywords

  • Emergency rescue clothing
  • Structure design
  • Wearing comfort
  • Performance evaluation
Open Access

Research into the Textile-Based Signal Lines Made Using Ultrasonic Welding Technology

Published Online: 10 Jul 2020
Page range: 11 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes research into the transmission properties of textile signal lines (TSLs) made using ultrasonic welding technology. The presented TSLs are made from electroconductive, nickel coated, fabric strips welded between non-conducting textile layers. The article presents an analysis of the usability of the ultrasonic welding method for creating TSLs. This analysis shows that direct welding of an electroconductive path with the substrate increases its linear resistance, making it impossible to create a properly functioning line. This article presents an alternative method of creating the line using ultrasound welding technology.

Keywords

  • Textile signal line
  • textile transmission line
  • smart clothing
  • textronics
  • E-textiles
  • ultrasonic welding
  • wearable
Open Access

Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Thermal Resistance for Compression Bandages

Published Online: 10 Mar 2022
Page range: 18 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to report a study on the prediction of the steady-state thermal resistance of woven compression bandage (WCB) by using three different mathematical models. The experimental samples of WCB were 100% cotton, cotton–polyamide–polyurethane, and viscose–polyurethane. The bandage samples were evaluated at extensions ranging at 10–100%, with two- and three-layer bandaging techniques. Experimental thermal resistance was measured by thermal foot manikin (TFM) and ALAMBETA testing devices. The obtained results by TFM and ALAMBETA were validated and compared with the theoretical models (Maxwell–Eucken2, Schuhmeister, and Militky), and a reasonable correlation of approximately 78%, 92%, and 93% for ALAMBETA and 75%, 82%, and 83% for TFM, respectively, was observed.

Keywords

  • Mathematical models for thermal resistance
  • thermal foot manikin
  • ALAMBETA
  • woven bandage properties
Open Access

Evaluation of Functional Insoles for Protective Footwear Under Simulated Use Conditions

Published Online: 02 Oct 2020
Page range: 26 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the work was to study the properties of functional insoles for protective footwear using an original methodology by simulating the dynamic real-life conditions. Two insole variants were examined; both are made from a three-layer composite with the middle layer being a polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven. The variants differed in terms of the presence or absence of a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a biocide in the middle layer. Insole samples were subjected to pressure and examined in terms of the adsorption and desorption of acidic and alkaline liquids, followed by tear strength experiments. In addition, the insoles were placed in protective footwear and the microclimate existing inside the resulting system was determined using T/RH sensors by means of three complementary methods: under controlled climatic conditions, on a thermal foot model, and on human subjects. The results clearly indicate that insoles containing SAP are more effective than those without SAP in terms of both hygienic and mechanical properties.

Keywords

  • Protective footwear
  • insoles
  • hygienic properties
  • mechanical properties
  • textile structures
Open Access

Numerical Simulation of Fiber Motion in the Condensing Zone of Lateral Compact Spinning with Pneumatic Groove

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 35 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Lateral compact spinning with pneumatic groove is a spinning process to gather fibers by common actions of airflow and mechanical forces. Compared with ring spinning, it can more effectively reduce yarn hairiness and enhance yarn strength. However, fiber motion in the agglomeration area is complex. And, it is important to establish a new fiber model to accurately describing the fiber motion. The objectives of this research were to create a new fiber model to simulate the agglomeration process, to analyze yarn properties of the lateral compact spinning with pneumatic groove, and to compare with other spinning yarns through a series of tests. The new fiber model was based on the finite element method implemented in MATLAB and was to show the fiber motion during the agglomeration area. The simulation generated results were close to the real motion of fibers in spinning. In the lateral compact spinning with pneumatic groove, fiber bundle through the agglomeration area can be gathered, and the output of the fiber bundle was nearly to cylinder before yarn twisted. The experiments demonstrated that the lateral compact spinning with pneumatic groove can improve the yarn properties: increase the yarn twist, enhance the yarn strength, and reduce the yarn hairiness.

Keywords

  • Compact spinning
  • fiber motion
  • agglomeration process
  • yarn properties
Open Access

Application of Physical Vapor Deposition in Textile Industry

Published Online: 10 Mar 2022
Page range: 42 - 54

Abstract

Abstract

Currently, scientists are striving to produce innovative textile materials characterized by special properties. Therefore, attempts have been made to use physical and chemical vapor deposition techniques to modify the surface of textile materials, i.e., nonwovens, fabrics, and knitted fabrics. By using these techniques for modifying the basic materials, researchers have obtained textiles with novel properties, which are used in shielding materials, textronics, or clothing, as well as in specialized accessories. The PVD process can be applied for almost all materials. The physical vapor deposition process allows for obtaining layers of different thicknesses and with various physical and chemical properties. This article is a review of the latest state of the art on the use of various methods of physical vapor deposition in textiles destined for different purposes.

Keywords

  • Textiles
  • physical vapor deposition
  • material engineering
  • modification of textile materials
Open Access

Ag Coated Pa-Based Electro-Conductive Knitted Fabrics for Heat Generation in Compression Supports

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 55 - 63

Abstract

Abstract

This work deals with the electrically conductive textiles for heat generation in orthopedic compression supports. This study aimed to develop compression knitted structures with integrated electro-conductive yarns and investigate their heat generation characteristics and temperature changes during the time and under stretch which is required to generate compression. Combined half-Milano rib structured knitted fabrics were made by using silver (Ag) coated PA yarn of linear density of 66 tex and 235 tex, respectively. Six variants of specimens were developed by using different amount of electro-conductive yarns in a pattern repeat. It was found that stretch negatively influences temperature values as well as time in which the required temperature is reached. Therefore, the final wearing conditions have to be summed up during the designing of compression orthopedic heated supports.

Keywords

  • Conductive textiles
  • heat generation
  • knitted structure
  • compression
Open Access

Sensitivity of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Paraglider Wing to Properties of Covering Material

Published Online: 29 Apr 2020
Page range: 64 - 72

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is theoretically oriented. The main goal is to analyze the sensitivity of aerodynamic characteristics to the properties of the material used for paraglider wing. The paraglider of considerable dimensions is designed without stiffening elements. Thus, the covering material yields adequate pressure distribution between the external and internal parts of the wing. The problem is solved using a geometrical model approximated by the dimensionless coordinates of crucial points and smoothed by spline curves. The finite volume mesh is defined using the Ansys Meshing program. Numerical analysis uses five different covering materials, ranging from the air-impermeable covering to the covering subjected to hydrolytic—mechanical degradation. Optimization of properties of the covering material improves the lift force and the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing. Moreover, numerical modeling is more beneficial and efficient than prototype tests. The obtained pressure distributions and other parameters explain the aerodynamic safety of the paraglider during dynamic conditions of flight.

Keywords

  • Sensitivity of aerodynamic characteristics
  • textile covering material
  • paraglider wing
Open Access

Effects of Flocks Doping on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Shear Thickening Gel

Published Online: 06 Nov 2020
Page range: 73 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as the dispersed phase and mold silicone was used as the continuous phase to prepare the shear thickening gel (STG) doped with a certain amount of flocks by rotary stirring. STG doped with flocks by a rotary rheometer was tested and observed through a scanning electron microscope. Results revealed that both the rotary stirring sample preparation and the rheological test method of the rotary rheometer could lead to the regular arrangement of flocks and could not reflect shear thickening performance accurately. The flocks showed a random arrangement in STG after the mixing process, and the dynamic mechanical properties were able to be measured with a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). Flocks with a fineness of 3 Denier, 1 mm in length, and a mass ratio of 5% had significant effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of STG. Due to long continuous shearing time, flocks were arranged regularly when the sweeping frequency was higher than 125 Hz, then the shear thickening performance of the doped STG was declined.

Keywords

  • Shear thickening gel (STG)
  • flocks
  • arrangement
  • dynamic mechanical properties
Open Access

Computer-Assisted Modeling and Design of Compression Garments with Graded Unit Compression

Published Online: 10 Oct 2020
Page range: 80 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents a useful algorithm for designing compression products with intended and graded unit pressure along the part of the body covered with the mentioned garments. The algorithm was developed using Laplace's law and a designated experimental function describing the relationship between strength and relative elongation of knitted fabric, and the results of 3D scanning of different body parts. On this basis, two examples of products in the form of a leg sleeve and arm sleeve were designed for the treatment of lymphoedema in compression classes II and III. The presented compression product design procedure facilitates the process of designing compression garments and eliminates some errors related to this procedure.

Keywords

  • Design algorithm
  • compression products
  • unit pressure
  • Laplace's law
  • compression classes
Open Access

Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in Garment Air Gap

Published Online: 06 Nov 2020
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

This article aimed to study the characteristics and mechanisms of 3D heat transfer through clothing involving the air gap. A three-dimensional finite volume method is used to obtain the coupled conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer in a body-air-cloth microclimate system. The flow contours and characteristics of temperature, heat flux, and velocity have been obtained. The reason for the high flux and temperature regions was analyzed. Computational results show that the coupled effect of the air gap and the airflow between the skin and garment strongly influences the temperature and heat flux distribution. There are several high-temperature regions on the clothing and high heat flux regions on the body skin because the conductive heat flux can cross through the narrow air gap and reach the cloth surface easily. The high-speed cooling airflow brings about high forced convective heat flux, which will result in the temperature increase on the upper cloth surface. The radiative heat flux has a strong correlation with the temperature gradient between the body and clothing. But its proportion in the total heat flux is relatively small.

Keywords

  • Garment
  • air gap
  • heat transfer
  • conduction and convection
  • numerical simulation
Open Access

A Review on the Performance and Comfort of Stab Protection Armor

Published Online: 06 Apr 2021
Page range: 96 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Stab-protective clothing is the most important component of safety equipment and it helps to save the lives of its wearers; therefore, it is designed to resist knife, nail, or needle attacks, especially to the upper body. In this paper, the essential requirements for stab-resistant armor are investigated based on an in-depth review of previous research and prototype test results. The combination of protection and comfort in armor vests is a particularly challenging task. Review of the state of the art technology responsible for the manufacture of stab-resistant clothes has revealed that their design and development should encompass the elements of comfort, freedom of movement, permeability, absorption, evaporation, and weight reductions to ensure excellent ergonomics and high wear comfort. The design as well as the production, weight, thickness, material types and properties, and the arrangement of scales determine the level of protection and comfort offered by stab-resistant vests. Currently, the production of stab-proof gear-based 3D printing technology is evaluated, using lightweight materials (aramid) in the form of segmented scales inspired by nature. As the protection performance and wear comfort of stab-proof gear is enhanced, the willingness of security, control, transport, custom, and correction officers to wear them can be significantly increased in an endeavor to ensure that fatal injuries will decrease significantly.

Keywords

  • Stab-protection and comfort
  • bio-inspired
  • lightweight
  • concealment
  • weapons
Open Access

A Novel Theoretical Modeling for Predicting the Sound Absorption of Woven Fabrics Using Modification of Sound Wave Equation and Genetic Algorithm

Published Online: 29 Jan 2021
Page range: 108 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

Woven fabric in Indonesia is generally known as a material for making clothes and it has been applied as an interior finishing material in buildings, such as sound absorbent material. This study presents a new method for predicting the sound absorption of woven fabrics using a modification of the wave equations and using genetic algorithms. The main aim of this research is to study the sound absorption properties of woven fabric by modeling using a modification of the sound wave equations and using genetic algorithms. A new model for predicting the sound absorption coefficient of woven fabric (plain, twill 2/1, rips and satin fabric) as a function of porosity, the weight of the fabric, the thickness of the fabric, and frequency of the sound wave, was determined in this paper. In this research, the sound absorption coefficient equation was obtained using the modification of the sound wave equation as well as using genetic algorithms. This new model included the influence of the sound absorption coefficient phenomenon caused by porosity, the weight of the fabric, the thickness of fabric as well as the frequency of the sound wave. In this study, experimental data showed a good agreement with the model

Keywords

  • Acoustic
  • Sound absorption Coefficient
  • woven fabric
Open Access

Modeling Supply Chain Sustainability-Related Risks and Vulnerability: Insights from the Textile Sector of Pakistan

Published Online: 06 May 2021
Page range: 123 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

Sustainability-related risk and vulnerability management have attained significant attention from academia and industry. Manufacturing industries in developing countries such as Pakistan are under severe economic pressure and striving to boost sustainable supply chain practices for achieving business excellence. In this context, the objectives of the present research are to examine the critical supply chain risks associated with sustainable development goals, namely social, economic, and environmental factors. The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique is employed for categorizing the risk factors and Pareto analysis for highlighting the more crucial and risky factors. For this purpose, a large-scale survey was carried out in the textile industries of Pakistan to develop a risk mitigation model for sustainability-related risks and vulnerability in a textile supply chain (TSC). It captures the input expressions of experts for risk factors, namely severity (s), occurrence (o), and detection (d) for calculating the risk priority numbers (RPNs) of identified alternatives. The results depict that endogenous environmental risks categorize as the most significant for the textile manufacturing industries, and the interfaces between the various risks associated with sustainability-related are also found very high. This study would be a toolkit for the industrial managers and policy-makers for creating sustainable manufacturing culture on organizational premises.

Keywords

  • Risk mitigation
  • FMEA
  • Pareto analysis
  • cause and effect analysis
Open Access

Evaluation of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cotton Warps Under a Cyclic Load of Stretch-Abrasion

Published Online: 06 Nov 2020
Page range: 135 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

The fatigue behavior of cotton warps was studied by a newly weaving load simulator (WLS) developed in our laboratory. Reborn hairiness, strength retention, and elongation retention of sized warps were adopted to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of sized warps under stretch-abrasion cyclic loading. The influences of different fatigue cycles on the above three indicators were also discussed. The results indicated that the fatigue behavior of the cotton warps accompanied by abrasion yields a three-parameter Weibull distribution. All the fitting plots show acceptable linearity. Moreover, there is a strong relationship of quadratic polynomial between the tensile properties and the fatigue cycle of the sized warps according to the scatter fitting (R2 > 91.08%). Similarly, there is also a good relationship of quadratic polynomial between the reborn hairiness index and the fatigue cycle of the sized warps (R2 > 94.51%). Finally, regardless of the strength retention, elongation retention, and reborn hairiness, the physical and mechanical properties of the cotton warps still change with the continuous increase of the fatigue cycle after 40% of the fatigue cycle, but it is not significant. The research was helpful to estimate the capacity of the warps to sustain failure.

Keywords

  • Fatigue cycle
  • three-parameter Weibull distribution
  • physical and mechanical properties

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