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Volume 16 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 16 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 14 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 3 (September 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 2 (June 2012)

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-0929
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 15 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-0929
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Effect of Weave Structure on Thermo-Physiological Properties of Cotton Fabrics

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 30 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between fabric weave structure and its comfort properties. The two basic weave structures and four derivatives for each selected weave structure were studied. Comfort properties, porosity, air permeability and thermal resistance of all the fabric samples were determined. In our research the 1/1 plain weave structure showed the highest thermal resistance making it suitable for cold climatic conditions. The 2/2 matt weave depicted the lowest thermal resistance which makes it appropriate for hot climatic conditions.

Keywords

  • cotton
  • response surface regression
  • thermo-physiological comfort
  • weave
Open Access

Analysis of Moisture Evaporation from Underwear Designed for Fire-Fighters

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 35 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

In this study we analysed the effect of moisture on the thermal protective performance of fire-fighter clothing in case of routine fire-fighting conditions. In the first stage of this research we investigated simultaneous heat and moisture transfer through a single-layer fabric, used as underwear for fire-fighters, at different moisture conditions. In the second stage of the study, the underwear in dry and wet state was tested together with protective clothing systems for fire-fighter consisting of three or four layers. It was found that during the evaporation of the moisture, a temperature plateau appeared during which temperatures hardly rose. The energy consumption used for the phase change of moisture located in the assembly dominated the heat transfer process as long as there was moisture present. As soon as all water had evaporated, the temperatures approached the temperatures measured for dry samples. The moisture within the clothing assembly did not lead to increased temperatures compared with the measurements with dry samples. This research has confirmed that moisture can positively affect the thermal protection of a clothing system.

Keywords

  • heat transfer
  • moisture transport
  • protective clothing
  • thermal comfort
Open Access

Evaluation of Illumination Intensity of Plastic Optical Fibres with Tio2 Particles by Laser Treatment

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 13 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

CO2 laser treatment can increase the surface roughness of plastic optical fibres (POFs) with the diameter of 0.5 mm and enhance the input intensity and attenuation coefficient accordingly, which is supposed to weaken the side emission of POFs in long distance above 375 mm. TiO2 particles were applied to improve the increasing optical loss of POFs by laser treatment. POFs were first modified with fine TiO2 particles and then treated by CO2 laser with the pixel time from 30 to 120 ìs. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the changes of micro-structure before and after laser treatment and the distribution of TiO2 particles. The illumination intensity and attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared in two methods. It is visible that the evaluation by model LLF2 with two parts is more suitable for the fitting of experimental data and shows higher input intensity and lower attenuation than that by standard power function. Both the evaluation methods exhibit that the utilization of TiO2 particles could play an active role in the enhancement of side emission of POFs treated by CO2 laser.

Keywords

  • plastic optical fibres
  • illumination intensity
  • attenuation
  • TiO particles
  • surface roughness
  • laser treatment
Open Access

Air permeability of polyester nonwoven fabrics

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 8 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

Air permeability is one of the most important properties of non-woven fabrics in many applications. This paper aims to investigate the effects of thickness, porosity and density on the air permeability of needle-punched non-woven fabrics and compare the experimental values with two models which are based on hydraulic radius theory and drag theory, respectively. The air permeability of the samples was measured by an air permeability tester FX3300. The results showed that the air permeability of non-woven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness and density of samples, increased with the increase of porosity, and the air permeability was not directly proportional to the pressure gradient. Meanwhile, the prediction model based on hydraulic radius theory had a better agreement with experimental values than the model based on drag theory, but the values were much higher than the experimental results, especially for higher porosity and higher pressure gradient.

Keywords

  • air permeability
  • non-woven fabric
  • porosity
  • thickness
Open Access

Human-Friendly Design of Virtual System “female Body-dress”

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 19 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Recently, the development efforts focused on the computer simulation of garments, which depend on the material's physico-mechanical properties. It intends to achieve the best possible and realistic simulations of garments, which are available for pressure prediction. In this manner, 3D garment virtual technology improvements allow the visualization of pressure areas with values where the fabric might be too tight against the body. Although the purposes of simulation graphics were acceptable, the accuracy for apparel shaping is not enough to meet the needs of Virtual Prototyping and CAD utilization especially while the fabric properties system design was inadequate. Moreover, the existing pressure simulation is intended to simply predict the pressure index or how the textile deformation extend, which are deficient in real human's perception. In this research, the 3D shapes belonging to typical female bodies and dresses made of different fabrics were obtained by 3D body scanners (ScanWorX and TELMAT). Through reconstruction for the 3D torso shapes, the volumetric eases between body and dress were calculated by means of a software Rhinoceros. A new approach for the selection of textile properties based on the Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was proposed to investigate its relations with dress shaping and pressure comfort. Finally, fabric properties tested by the KES-F system were compared with volumetric eases, objective pressure indexes and subjective comfort scores to reveal the relations how the fabric properties have impacts on dress outside shaping and inside pressure comfort of a female body. In this manner, the human-friendly CAD instead of mechanical approach existing before has been presented as a new approach to promote the construction of a realistic system for the 3D simulation optimization.

Keywords

  • female dress
  • fabric properties
  • KES indicators
  • volumetric ease
  • human-friendly design
  • pressure comfort
  • scale
  • 3D virtual try-on
Open Access

Finite Element Modelling for Tensile Behaviour of Thermally Bonded Nonwoven Fabric

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 48 - 53

Abstract

Abstract

A nonwoven fabric has been widely used in geotextile engineering in recent years; its tensile strength is an important behaviour. Since the fibre distributions in nonwoven fabrics are random and discontinuous, the unit-cell model of a nonwoven fabric cannot be developed to simulate its tensile behaviour. This article presents our research on using finite element method (FEM) to study the tensile behaviour of a nonwoven fabric in macro-scale based on the classical laminate composite theory. The laminate orientation was considered with orientation distribution function of fibres, which has been obtained by analysing the data acquired from scanning electron microscopy with Hough Transform. The FE model of a nonwoven fabric was developed using ABAQUS software; the required engineering constants of a nonwoven fabric were obtained from experimental data. Finally, the nonwoven specimens were stretched along with machine direction and cross direction. The experimental stress-strain curves were compared with the results of FE simulations. The approximate agreement proves the validity of an FE model, which could be used to precisely simulate the stress relaxation, strain creep, bending and shear property of a nonwoven fabric.

Keywords

  • Tensile Behaviour
  • Finite Element Analysis
  • Nonwoven Fabric
  • Classic Laminate Composite Theory
Open Access

Mathematical Model of the Heald with Damping Element

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Abstract

This study focuses on the analysis of the existing design solution of shedding mechanism. It is characterised by a heald attachment into the heald shaft with a necessary design allowance. The preparation of a mathematical model for the new concept of the heald attaching to the heald shaft frame is explained in this study. A damping element for dissipating the energy created during the heald impact on the carrying wire of the heald shaft is currently used for the high-speed weaving loom. This system makes use of a damping element, fitted in the profile of the rod at an optimum distance from heald eye. This element provides for reduction of the heald velocity before its drop upon the supporting wire because the opposite section of the heald is pressed into the rubber element. The calculated results of the new concept of the heald attaching to the heald shaft frame are compared with the existing solution without application of the damping element.

Keywords

  • weaving loom
  • heald
  • mathematical model
  • analysis
Open Access

Moisture Comfort and Antibacterial Properties of Elastic Warp-Knitted Fabrics

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 60 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Multifunction elastic warp-knitted fabrics were fabricated on a crochet machine with the use of metal composite yarns/viscose yarn and bamboo polyester/ crisscross-section polyester hybrid yarns as the front face and back face of the knitted fabric structure, respectively. We investigated the effect of the blend ratio of bamboo charcoal/ crisscross-section polyester multiply yarns on the fabric's moisture comfort properties, such as water vapour transmission (WVT), water evaporation rate (WER), and water absorbency. The results showed that blending ratio significantly influenced WVT and WER. Moreover, antibacterial activity of the elastic warp- knitted fabric was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in accordance with AATCC 90-2011. Finally, the extension- stress value curves were used to analyse the elastic stretching property, and the fabric exhibited greater breaking elongation and lower stress value in the walewise than in the weft direction.

Keywords

  • Elastic warp-knitted fabric
  • heat-moisture comfort property
  • antibacterial activity
  • stress value
  • extension
Open Access

Comparison of Japanese and Chinese Clothing Evaluations by Experts Taking into Account Marketability

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 67 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

To better understand the reasons for the marketability of clothing now designed and sold in China and Japan, we asked Japanese and Chinese experts to evaluate Chinese and Japanese brands of clothing currently for sale in the Japanese market. The marketability of the Chinese apparel items in the Japanese market was evaluated by the Japanese experts. Five Japanese jackets were purchased from a department store in Tokyo, and ten items of Chinese clothing were purchased from a department store in Beijing. Five of the Chinese clothing samples were judged as impossible to sell in Japanese department stores primarily because the sewing quality was incompatible with Japanese requirements, the designs were outdated, and the materials were of low quality. However, the other five Chinese clothing samples received high evaluations of marketability in Japan. We found that Japanese experts focused on general design and sewing finish, while Chinese experts considered more general design points. Thus, our results indicate that clothing is evaluated differently in Japan and China. We conclude that it is necessary to consider the respective evaluation points used in each country as we pursue globalisation.

Keywords

  • Chinese Apparel
  • Japanese Apparel
  • Clothing Evaluation
  • Apparel Expert
Open Access

Pcl/Chitosan Blended Nanofibrous Tubes Made by Dual Syringe Electrospinning

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 54 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

3D tubular scaffolds made from Poly-(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)/chitosan (CS) nanofibres are very promising candidate as vascular grafts in the field of tissue engineering. In this work, the fabrication of PCL/CS-blended nanofibrous tubes with small diameters by electrospinning from separate PCL and CS solutions is studied. The influence of different CS solutions (CS/polyethylene glycol (PEO)/glacial acetic acid (AcOH), CS/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), CS/ AcOH) on fibre formation and producibility of nanofibrous tubes is investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is used to verify the presence of CS in the blended samples. Tensile testing and pore size measurements are done to underline the good prerequisites of the fabricated blended PCL/ CS nanofibrous tubes as potential scaffolds for vascular grafts. Tubes fabricated from the combination of PCL and CS dissolved in AcOH possesses properties, which are favourable for future cell culture studies.

Keywords

  • Poly-(£-caprolactone)
  • PCL
  • Chitosan
  • Electrospinning
  • Nanofibrous Tubes
  • Polymer blend
10 Articles
Open Access

Effect of Weave Structure on Thermo-Physiological Properties of Cotton Fabrics

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 30 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between fabric weave structure and its comfort properties. The two basic weave structures and four derivatives for each selected weave structure were studied. Comfort properties, porosity, air permeability and thermal resistance of all the fabric samples were determined. In our research the 1/1 plain weave structure showed the highest thermal resistance making it suitable for cold climatic conditions. The 2/2 matt weave depicted the lowest thermal resistance which makes it appropriate for hot climatic conditions.

Keywords

  • cotton
  • response surface regression
  • thermo-physiological comfort
  • weave
Open Access

Analysis of Moisture Evaporation from Underwear Designed for Fire-Fighters

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 35 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

In this study we analysed the effect of moisture on the thermal protective performance of fire-fighter clothing in case of routine fire-fighting conditions. In the first stage of this research we investigated simultaneous heat and moisture transfer through a single-layer fabric, used as underwear for fire-fighters, at different moisture conditions. In the second stage of the study, the underwear in dry and wet state was tested together with protective clothing systems for fire-fighter consisting of three or four layers. It was found that during the evaporation of the moisture, a temperature plateau appeared during which temperatures hardly rose. The energy consumption used for the phase change of moisture located in the assembly dominated the heat transfer process as long as there was moisture present. As soon as all water had evaporated, the temperatures approached the temperatures measured for dry samples. The moisture within the clothing assembly did not lead to increased temperatures compared with the measurements with dry samples. This research has confirmed that moisture can positively affect the thermal protection of a clothing system.

Keywords

  • heat transfer
  • moisture transport
  • protective clothing
  • thermal comfort
Open Access

Evaluation of Illumination Intensity of Plastic Optical Fibres with Tio2 Particles by Laser Treatment

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 13 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

CO2 laser treatment can increase the surface roughness of plastic optical fibres (POFs) with the diameter of 0.5 mm and enhance the input intensity and attenuation coefficient accordingly, which is supposed to weaken the side emission of POFs in long distance above 375 mm. TiO2 particles were applied to improve the increasing optical loss of POFs by laser treatment. POFs were first modified with fine TiO2 particles and then treated by CO2 laser with the pixel time from 30 to 120 ìs. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the changes of micro-structure before and after laser treatment and the distribution of TiO2 particles. The illumination intensity and attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared in two methods. It is visible that the evaluation by model LLF2 with two parts is more suitable for the fitting of experimental data and shows higher input intensity and lower attenuation than that by standard power function. Both the evaluation methods exhibit that the utilization of TiO2 particles could play an active role in the enhancement of side emission of POFs treated by CO2 laser.

Keywords

  • plastic optical fibres
  • illumination intensity
  • attenuation
  • TiO particles
  • surface roughness
  • laser treatment
Open Access

Air permeability of polyester nonwoven fabrics

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 8 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

Air permeability is one of the most important properties of non-woven fabrics in many applications. This paper aims to investigate the effects of thickness, porosity and density on the air permeability of needle-punched non-woven fabrics and compare the experimental values with two models which are based on hydraulic radius theory and drag theory, respectively. The air permeability of the samples was measured by an air permeability tester FX3300. The results showed that the air permeability of non-woven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness and density of samples, increased with the increase of porosity, and the air permeability was not directly proportional to the pressure gradient. Meanwhile, the prediction model based on hydraulic radius theory had a better agreement with experimental values than the model based on drag theory, but the values were much higher than the experimental results, especially for higher porosity and higher pressure gradient.

Keywords

  • air permeability
  • non-woven fabric
  • porosity
  • thickness
Open Access

Human-Friendly Design of Virtual System “female Body-dress”

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 19 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Recently, the development efforts focused on the computer simulation of garments, which depend on the material's physico-mechanical properties. It intends to achieve the best possible and realistic simulations of garments, which are available for pressure prediction. In this manner, 3D garment virtual technology improvements allow the visualization of pressure areas with values where the fabric might be too tight against the body. Although the purposes of simulation graphics were acceptable, the accuracy for apparel shaping is not enough to meet the needs of Virtual Prototyping and CAD utilization especially while the fabric properties system design was inadequate. Moreover, the existing pressure simulation is intended to simply predict the pressure index or how the textile deformation extend, which are deficient in real human's perception. In this research, the 3D shapes belonging to typical female bodies and dresses made of different fabrics were obtained by 3D body scanners (ScanWorX and TELMAT). Through reconstruction for the 3D torso shapes, the volumetric eases between body and dress were calculated by means of a software Rhinoceros. A new approach for the selection of textile properties based on the Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was proposed to investigate its relations with dress shaping and pressure comfort. Finally, fabric properties tested by the KES-F system were compared with volumetric eases, objective pressure indexes and subjective comfort scores to reveal the relations how the fabric properties have impacts on dress outside shaping and inside pressure comfort of a female body. In this manner, the human-friendly CAD instead of mechanical approach existing before has been presented as a new approach to promote the construction of a realistic system for the 3D simulation optimization.

Keywords

  • female dress
  • fabric properties
  • KES indicators
  • volumetric ease
  • human-friendly design
  • pressure comfort
  • scale
  • 3D virtual try-on
Open Access

Finite Element Modelling for Tensile Behaviour of Thermally Bonded Nonwoven Fabric

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 48 - 53

Abstract

Abstract

A nonwoven fabric has been widely used in geotextile engineering in recent years; its tensile strength is an important behaviour. Since the fibre distributions in nonwoven fabrics are random and discontinuous, the unit-cell model of a nonwoven fabric cannot be developed to simulate its tensile behaviour. This article presents our research on using finite element method (FEM) to study the tensile behaviour of a nonwoven fabric in macro-scale based on the classical laminate composite theory. The laminate orientation was considered with orientation distribution function of fibres, which has been obtained by analysing the data acquired from scanning electron microscopy with Hough Transform. The FE model of a nonwoven fabric was developed using ABAQUS software; the required engineering constants of a nonwoven fabric were obtained from experimental data. Finally, the nonwoven specimens were stretched along with machine direction and cross direction. The experimental stress-strain curves were compared with the results of FE simulations. The approximate agreement proves the validity of an FE model, which could be used to precisely simulate the stress relaxation, strain creep, bending and shear property of a nonwoven fabric.

Keywords

  • Tensile Behaviour
  • Finite Element Analysis
  • Nonwoven Fabric
  • Classic Laminate Composite Theory
Open Access

Mathematical Model of the Heald with Damping Element

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Abstract

This study focuses on the analysis of the existing design solution of shedding mechanism. It is characterised by a heald attachment into the heald shaft with a necessary design allowance. The preparation of a mathematical model for the new concept of the heald attaching to the heald shaft frame is explained in this study. A damping element for dissipating the energy created during the heald impact on the carrying wire of the heald shaft is currently used for the high-speed weaving loom. This system makes use of a damping element, fitted in the profile of the rod at an optimum distance from heald eye. This element provides for reduction of the heald velocity before its drop upon the supporting wire because the opposite section of the heald is pressed into the rubber element. The calculated results of the new concept of the heald attaching to the heald shaft frame are compared with the existing solution without application of the damping element.

Keywords

  • weaving loom
  • heald
  • mathematical model
  • analysis
Open Access

Moisture Comfort and Antibacterial Properties of Elastic Warp-Knitted Fabrics

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 60 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Multifunction elastic warp-knitted fabrics were fabricated on a crochet machine with the use of metal composite yarns/viscose yarn and bamboo polyester/ crisscross-section polyester hybrid yarns as the front face and back face of the knitted fabric structure, respectively. We investigated the effect of the blend ratio of bamboo charcoal/ crisscross-section polyester multiply yarns on the fabric's moisture comfort properties, such as water vapour transmission (WVT), water evaporation rate (WER), and water absorbency. The results showed that blending ratio significantly influenced WVT and WER. Moreover, antibacterial activity of the elastic warp- knitted fabric was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in accordance with AATCC 90-2011. Finally, the extension- stress value curves were used to analyse the elastic stretching property, and the fabric exhibited greater breaking elongation and lower stress value in the walewise than in the weft direction.

Keywords

  • Elastic warp-knitted fabric
  • heat-moisture comfort property
  • antibacterial activity
  • stress value
  • extension
Open Access

Comparison of Japanese and Chinese Clothing Evaluations by Experts Taking into Account Marketability

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 67 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

To better understand the reasons for the marketability of clothing now designed and sold in China and Japan, we asked Japanese and Chinese experts to evaluate Chinese and Japanese brands of clothing currently for sale in the Japanese market. The marketability of the Chinese apparel items in the Japanese market was evaluated by the Japanese experts. Five Japanese jackets were purchased from a department store in Tokyo, and ten items of Chinese clothing were purchased from a department store in Beijing. Five of the Chinese clothing samples were judged as impossible to sell in Japanese department stores primarily because the sewing quality was incompatible with Japanese requirements, the designs were outdated, and the materials were of low quality. However, the other five Chinese clothing samples received high evaluations of marketability in Japan. We found that Japanese experts focused on general design and sewing finish, while Chinese experts considered more general design points. Thus, our results indicate that clothing is evaluated differently in Japan and China. We conclude that it is necessary to consider the respective evaluation points used in each country as we pursue globalisation.

Keywords

  • Chinese Apparel
  • Japanese Apparel
  • Clothing Evaluation
  • Apparel Expert
Open Access

Pcl/Chitosan Blended Nanofibrous Tubes Made by Dual Syringe Electrospinning

Published Online: 01 Mar 2015
Page range: 54 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

3D tubular scaffolds made from Poly-(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)/chitosan (CS) nanofibres are very promising candidate as vascular grafts in the field of tissue engineering. In this work, the fabrication of PCL/CS-blended nanofibrous tubes with small diameters by electrospinning from separate PCL and CS solutions is studied. The influence of different CS solutions (CS/polyethylene glycol (PEO)/glacial acetic acid (AcOH), CS/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), CS/ AcOH) on fibre formation and producibility of nanofibrous tubes is investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is used to verify the presence of CS in the blended samples. Tensile testing and pore size measurements are done to underline the good prerequisites of the fabricated blended PCL/ CS nanofibrous tubes as potential scaffolds for vascular grafts. Tubes fabricated from the combination of PCL and CS dissolved in AcOH possesses properties, which are favourable for future cell culture studies.

Keywords

  • Poly-(£-caprolactone)
  • PCL
  • Chitosan
  • Electrospinning
  • Nanofibrous Tubes
  • Polymer blend

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