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Volume 17 (2022): Edition 1 (April 2022)

Volume 16 (2021): Edition 3 (December 2021)

Volume 16 (2021): Edition 2 (August 2021)

Volume 16 (2021): Edition 1 (April 2021)

Volume 15 (2020): Edition 3 (December 2020)

Volume 15 (2020): Edition 2 (August 2020)

Volume 15 (2020): Edition 1 (April 2020)

Volume 14 (2019): Edition 3 (December 2019)

Volume 14 (2019): Edition 2 (August 2019)

Volume 14 (2019): Edition 1 (April 2019)

Volume 13 (2018): Edition 3 (December 2018)

Volume 13 (2018): Edition 2 (August 2018)

Volume 13 (2018): Edition 1 (April 2018)

Volume 12 (2017): Edition 3 (December 2017)

Volume 12 (2017): Edition 2 (August 2017)

Volume 12 (2017): Edition 1 (April 2017)

Volume 11 (2016): Edition 3 (December 2016)

Volume 11 (2016): Edition 2 (August 2016)

Volume 11 (2016): Edition 1 (April 2016)

Volume 10 (2015): Edition 3 (December 2015)

Volume 10 (2015): Edition 2 (August 2015)

Volume 10 (2015): Edition 1 (April 2015)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2344-5416
Première publication
06 Mar 2015
Période de publication
3 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 10 (2015): Edition 3 (December 2015)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2344-5416
Première publication
06 Mar 2015
Période de publication
3 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

15 Articles
Accès libre

The Impact of European Union’s Newly-Adopted Environmental Standards on its Trading Partners

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 5 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

The adoption by the European Union of environmental and social standards seems to affect trade relations with countries from outside the Union. Most seriously hurt are a great number of developing countries that are highly dependent on the European market for their exports. Complying with the said regulations means higher production costs, which eat into the respective countries’ international competitiveness. However, for all the widespread discontent, many developing countries are taking steps in order to adjust their production and export systems to the new rules. Unfortunately it will probably take a long time until full compliance is achieved. Meanwhile, in the short run, the frequent clashes between developing countries and their partners in the West in respect of environmental and social issues are disrupting the smooth functioning of international trade.

Mots clés

  • environmental standards
  • environmental policy
  • climate change
  • non-tariff barriers
Accès libre

Taxation in Cesee Countries – Similarities and Differences

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 16 - 31

Résumé

Abstract

The characteristics of fiscal revenues are the ones that demonstrate their importance for the formation of public financial resources, being considered as a product of historical development of the state. Numerous studies and researches on the taxes action in financial, economic and social level emphasized the link between fiscal policy, growth and level of development of a country. In this context, through this article, by presenting some general coordinates of taxation in countries of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE countries) we will identify the similarities and differences concerning the taxation system and the impact of taxation on the socio-economic development. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, we consider that issues outlined highlight in which country taxation is a stimulating factor for economic growth and development, so that good practice be elements worthy of consideration.

Mots clés

  • tax burden
  • fiscal freedom
  • direct taxation
  • indirect taxation
Accès libre

Challenges for Business Competitiveness from Managerial and Knowledge Economy Perspectives

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 32 - 40

Résumé

Abstract

The complex and networked economy arises a series of challenges for business competitiveness in order to develop or redefine business models and theories. This paper tries to capture a relevant part of our previous studies by emphasizing the challenges that business competitiveness has to cope and integrate, such as: behavioral model of management, firm competitiveness (leveraging tangible and intangible assets), new models of business (Panarchy Corporation and ambidexterity) and management functions.

Mots clés

  • business competitiveness
  • challenges
  • managerial perspectives
  • management functions
Accès libre

Employment Dynamics in Romania After the Crisis. A Global Value Chains Perspective

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 41 - 51

Résumé

Abstract

After the 2008-2009 crisis, the challenge of understanding the mechanisms and structure of the world economy has begun to generate different approaches of economic globalization. This article uses Global Value Chain framework to examine the impact of the crisis on sectorial employment for six selected industries from Romania (Basic Metals and Fabricated Metal, Electrical and Optical Equipment, Transport Equipment, Machinery, Textiles and Textile Products, Chemicals and Chemical Products). With more than 70% of Romanian exports, and almost 14% of the employees these were the main real transmission channels for the crisis, other than financial markets. The study found that dynamic of the employment in these sectors has a different pattern than the national one. Employment in the sectors which are parts of Global Value Chains was very sensitive to global crisis: the average number of employees dropped by 15% in 2009 (comparing to 10% - the percentage for the whole economy) but they didn’t follow the national recovery trend (in 2013 the total number of employees increased by more than 11% in Romania but the numbers stayed almost the same in the six selected industries). These findings suggest that Romania need to understand the specificity of these trends and to use the right policy tools in order to achieve economic growth and development through participation in Global Value Chains.

Mots clés

  • Global Value Chain
  • Employment
  • Economic Crisis
  • Globalization
  • Romania
Accès libre

Aspects of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Education in Romania

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 52 - 61

Résumé

Abstract

In any economy, entrepreneurs have a major role in ensuring economic, financial and social equilibrium and this effort must be accompanied by effective public policies. In this respect it is important to assess the entrepreneurs’ perception on the factors that support or impede their priorities and interests. These priorities refer to financing facilities, consistency of the legal system, society's perception of private initiative, bureaucracy, rigor, predictability and transparency of fiscal measures etc.

The public authorities and entrepreneurs (by the own organization) must harmonize their interests. The difference is that the authorities are obliged by law to harmonize their interests and entrepreneurs are forced to do it, if not - they disappear. For example, the interest of entrepreneurs to pay smaller taxes is justified to some extent, but public authorities must ensure balance on the one hand, between those who pay and consumers of public financial resources on the other.

Public authorities are not a given, they have the purpose to provide public services to ensure a balance between the needs of all parties in society: entrepreneurs, employees, socially assisted etc. In relation to entrepreneurs, they must follow the other parties (e.g. employees) to be less affected as the interests of entrepreneurs, if they conflict.

Mots clés

  • entrepreneurship
  • entrepreneurs
  • entrepreneurial culture
  • predictability
  • financial risks
Accès libre

Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 62 - 70

Résumé

Abstract

The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1). to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2). to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3). to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

Mots clés

  • green economic development
  • environmental challenges
  • corporate initiatives and strategies
Accès libre

The Official Use of International Currencies – Assessments and Implications

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 71 - 80

Résumé

Abstract

The paper analyses the official use of international currencies as reserve currency (store of value) and anchor currency (unit of account). Examining the role as a reserve currency we note that the US dollar is the main reserve currency even if it recorded a decline given the decrease of the value of the US dollar reserve holdings and the gradual diversification of the currencies used. Since 2010, the euro's share decreased continuously may be due to the Eurozone crisis and the euro's depreciation against the US dollar. Then we show that the US dollar dominates as an anchor currency, though it was temporary abandoned during crisis time, having more than a regional dimension. At the same time, the use of the euro in exchange rate arrangements appears mainly in the regions that have close links with the euro area. Over the last few years, we have witnessed a gentle orientation towards a multimonetary world, especially regarding the use of the international currencies as reserve currency given the diversification of the currencies in which central banks understand to hold international reserves and the increasing share of the nontraditional currencies in total foreign exchange reserves.

Mots clés

  • reserve currency
  • anchor currency
  • international currencies
Accès libre

The Determinants of Worker Remittance in Terms of Foreign Factors: The Case of Bangladesh

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 81 - 93

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of worker remittance of Bangladesh. Instead of traditional approach of estimating the remittance determinants, here we propose to use foreign macroeconomic indicators as a proxy determinant to avoid endogeneity. We also used panel estimation technique in our study to incorporate country specific heterogeneity of remittance inflow of Bangladesh. According our study any changes in the number of labor force, consumer price index, export, import, government expenditure and devaluation or appreciation of host countries (origin of the remittance income) currency can significantly influence the inward remittance income of Bangladesh.

Mots clés

  • Remittance
  • Panel study
  • Endogeneity Bangladesh
Accès libre

Accounting and Tax Issues Concerning Commercial Discounts

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 94 - 99

Résumé

Abstract

Commercial discounts accounting presents a particular importance because, on the one hand, of their widely spread on a large scale in the commercial activity and on the second hand, due to the influence of the accounting and reporting method over the value added tax. The paper theoretically addresses commercial reductions and also their reflection in the accounting according with the latest regulations in force.

Mots clés

  • accounting
  • tax
  • commercial discounts
Accès libre

The Assesment of Intellectual Capital in Romanian Universities

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 100 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this article is to systematize the types of intellectual capital indicators that can be assessed in order to understand and further use the information for strategic development. Also, the study underlines the importance of intellectual capital in the new modern, knowledge-based economy. Different research methods are used in the article, such as scientific literature analysis, synthesis and comparison.

Mots clés

  • intellectual capital
  • universities
  • assessment
  • indicators
Accès libre

Leaders – Their Impact on Others

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 111 - 118

Résumé

Abstract

Nowadays, the increased interest and attention that leadership receives from organizations worldwide, is obvious. Perhaps one of the reasons is that people search for models to be followed and this thing means that the leaders have to assume risks. They have to take a step forward, thus guiding their followers and upholders. And, above all, leaders make their upholders to want the accomplishment of the targets, rather than using authority and persuading their upholders through coercive measures in order to obtain such results.

Mots clés

  • leadership
  • followers
  • influence
Accès libre

Analyzing the Composition of HDI in European Countries

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 119 - 127

Résumé

Abstract

Human Development Index (HDI) measures development in a country by combining indicators of life expectancy, education level and income. In 2013, 187 countries were included in this index, which aims to expand the coverage area as additional statistics become more available. HDI, which is published by UNDP, may be the most comprehensive indicator, but it is not fully compatible enough to measure the human development level in a global perspective. Human Development Index explicitly explains the development of a country as being more than an economic growth tool or material wealth. In this way, this index is distinguished from many other performance indicators. This article aims to analyze the proportion of the three indicators on 37 European countries.

Mots clés

  • human development index
  • education
  • gross domestic product
  • life expectancy
Accès libre

Foreign Direct Investments in the Economic Development of Romania

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 128 - 136

Résumé

Abstract

The economic theories consider the investments as one of the major factors of economic growth. Economic growth represents a complex process of increasing the dimensions of the national economy, based on the collective use of increasingly efficient production factors, dimensions expressed by the size of gross domestic product and national income per capita.

Mots clés

  • economic growth
  • production factors
  • investments
  • gross domestic product
  • region
  • direct foreign investments
Accès libre

Study Regarding the Evolution of the Financial Balance in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 137 - 146

Résumé

Abstract

This article aims at analysing the financial balance within the global pharmaceutical industry, starting from the assumption that „In the pharmaceutical industry there is sufficient liquidity to cover payment obligations”. The analysed companies are part of the exclusive group comprising the top 20 global companies, e.g. GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co., Sanofi-Aventis and Bayer. The research conducted is based on an analysis over time of the relationship between floating assets, floating assets requirement and net cash from 2006 to 2013, and highlights the main developments of the indicators before the onset of the financial and economic crisis and after its outbreak.

Mots clés

  • pharmaceutical industry
  • liquidity
  • floating assets
  • floating assets requirement
  • net cash
Accès libre

How Sanctions on Russia Impact the Economy of the European Union

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 147 - 157

Résumé

Abstract

Although new sanctions have been imposed, to varying degrees, on Russia since the debut of the Crimean crisis, few experts are taking the chance of publishing an assessment of the impact these sanctions will have on Russia or the European Union. On one hand, the complexity of the variables involved makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome of said sanctions; on the other hand, an accurate assessment would make an invaluable tool in the hands of decision makers, no matter if their decisions are made with regards to foreign policy, public policy or the daily business of private companies. This article sets out to examine the context, some of the variables involved and some of the forecasts that have been put forward by various experts, while trying to provide a simplified model for assessing the impact of sanctions enacted by the EU on its own economy.

Mots clés

  • Russia
  • European Union
  • Ukraine
  • Sanctions
  • Foreign Policy
15 Articles
Accès libre

The Impact of European Union’s Newly-Adopted Environmental Standards on its Trading Partners

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 5 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

The adoption by the European Union of environmental and social standards seems to affect trade relations with countries from outside the Union. Most seriously hurt are a great number of developing countries that are highly dependent on the European market for their exports. Complying with the said regulations means higher production costs, which eat into the respective countries’ international competitiveness. However, for all the widespread discontent, many developing countries are taking steps in order to adjust their production and export systems to the new rules. Unfortunately it will probably take a long time until full compliance is achieved. Meanwhile, in the short run, the frequent clashes between developing countries and their partners in the West in respect of environmental and social issues are disrupting the smooth functioning of international trade.

Mots clés

  • environmental standards
  • environmental policy
  • climate change
  • non-tariff barriers
Accès libre

Taxation in Cesee Countries – Similarities and Differences

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 16 - 31

Résumé

Abstract

The characteristics of fiscal revenues are the ones that demonstrate their importance for the formation of public financial resources, being considered as a product of historical development of the state. Numerous studies and researches on the taxes action in financial, economic and social level emphasized the link between fiscal policy, growth and level of development of a country. In this context, through this article, by presenting some general coordinates of taxation in countries of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE countries) we will identify the similarities and differences concerning the taxation system and the impact of taxation on the socio-economic development. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, we consider that issues outlined highlight in which country taxation is a stimulating factor for economic growth and development, so that good practice be elements worthy of consideration.

Mots clés

  • tax burden
  • fiscal freedom
  • direct taxation
  • indirect taxation
Accès libre

Challenges for Business Competitiveness from Managerial and Knowledge Economy Perspectives

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 32 - 40

Résumé

Abstract

The complex and networked economy arises a series of challenges for business competitiveness in order to develop or redefine business models and theories. This paper tries to capture a relevant part of our previous studies by emphasizing the challenges that business competitiveness has to cope and integrate, such as: behavioral model of management, firm competitiveness (leveraging tangible and intangible assets), new models of business (Panarchy Corporation and ambidexterity) and management functions.

Mots clés

  • business competitiveness
  • challenges
  • managerial perspectives
  • management functions
Accès libre

Employment Dynamics in Romania After the Crisis. A Global Value Chains Perspective

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 41 - 51

Résumé

Abstract

After the 2008-2009 crisis, the challenge of understanding the mechanisms and structure of the world economy has begun to generate different approaches of economic globalization. This article uses Global Value Chain framework to examine the impact of the crisis on sectorial employment for six selected industries from Romania (Basic Metals and Fabricated Metal, Electrical and Optical Equipment, Transport Equipment, Machinery, Textiles and Textile Products, Chemicals and Chemical Products). With more than 70% of Romanian exports, and almost 14% of the employees these were the main real transmission channels for the crisis, other than financial markets. The study found that dynamic of the employment in these sectors has a different pattern than the national one. Employment in the sectors which are parts of Global Value Chains was very sensitive to global crisis: the average number of employees dropped by 15% in 2009 (comparing to 10% - the percentage for the whole economy) but they didn’t follow the national recovery trend (in 2013 the total number of employees increased by more than 11% in Romania but the numbers stayed almost the same in the six selected industries). These findings suggest that Romania need to understand the specificity of these trends and to use the right policy tools in order to achieve economic growth and development through participation in Global Value Chains.

Mots clés

  • Global Value Chain
  • Employment
  • Economic Crisis
  • Globalization
  • Romania
Accès libre

Aspects of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Education in Romania

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 52 - 61

Résumé

Abstract

In any economy, entrepreneurs have a major role in ensuring economic, financial and social equilibrium and this effort must be accompanied by effective public policies. In this respect it is important to assess the entrepreneurs’ perception on the factors that support or impede their priorities and interests. These priorities refer to financing facilities, consistency of the legal system, society's perception of private initiative, bureaucracy, rigor, predictability and transparency of fiscal measures etc.

The public authorities and entrepreneurs (by the own organization) must harmonize their interests. The difference is that the authorities are obliged by law to harmonize their interests and entrepreneurs are forced to do it, if not - they disappear. For example, the interest of entrepreneurs to pay smaller taxes is justified to some extent, but public authorities must ensure balance on the one hand, between those who pay and consumers of public financial resources on the other.

Public authorities are not a given, they have the purpose to provide public services to ensure a balance between the needs of all parties in society: entrepreneurs, employees, socially assisted etc. In relation to entrepreneurs, they must follow the other parties (e.g. employees) to be less affected as the interests of entrepreneurs, if they conflict.

Mots clés

  • entrepreneurship
  • entrepreneurs
  • entrepreneurial culture
  • predictability
  • financial risks
Accès libre

Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 62 - 70

Résumé

Abstract

The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1). to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2). to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3). to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

Mots clés

  • green economic development
  • environmental challenges
  • corporate initiatives and strategies
Accès libre

The Official Use of International Currencies – Assessments and Implications

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 71 - 80

Résumé

Abstract

The paper analyses the official use of international currencies as reserve currency (store of value) and anchor currency (unit of account). Examining the role as a reserve currency we note that the US dollar is the main reserve currency even if it recorded a decline given the decrease of the value of the US dollar reserve holdings and the gradual diversification of the currencies used. Since 2010, the euro's share decreased continuously may be due to the Eurozone crisis and the euro's depreciation against the US dollar. Then we show that the US dollar dominates as an anchor currency, though it was temporary abandoned during crisis time, having more than a regional dimension. At the same time, the use of the euro in exchange rate arrangements appears mainly in the regions that have close links with the euro area. Over the last few years, we have witnessed a gentle orientation towards a multimonetary world, especially regarding the use of the international currencies as reserve currency given the diversification of the currencies in which central banks understand to hold international reserves and the increasing share of the nontraditional currencies in total foreign exchange reserves.

Mots clés

  • reserve currency
  • anchor currency
  • international currencies
Accès libre

The Determinants of Worker Remittance in Terms of Foreign Factors: The Case of Bangladesh

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 81 - 93

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of worker remittance of Bangladesh. Instead of traditional approach of estimating the remittance determinants, here we propose to use foreign macroeconomic indicators as a proxy determinant to avoid endogeneity. We also used panel estimation technique in our study to incorporate country specific heterogeneity of remittance inflow of Bangladesh. According our study any changes in the number of labor force, consumer price index, export, import, government expenditure and devaluation or appreciation of host countries (origin of the remittance income) currency can significantly influence the inward remittance income of Bangladesh.

Mots clés

  • Remittance
  • Panel study
  • Endogeneity Bangladesh
Accès libre

Accounting and Tax Issues Concerning Commercial Discounts

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 94 - 99

Résumé

Abstract

Commercial discounts accounting presents a particular importance because, on the one hand, of their widely spread on a large scale in the commercial activity and on the second hand, due to the influence of the accounting and reporting method over the value added tax. The paper theoretically addresses commercial reductions and also their reflection in the accounting according with the latest regulations in force.

Mots clés

  • accounting
  • tax
  • commercial discounts
Accès libre

The Assesment of Intellectual Capital in Romanian Universities

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 100 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this article is to systematize the types of intellectual capital indicators that can be assessed in order to understand and further use the information for strategic development. Also, the study underlines the importance of intellectual capital in the new modern, knowledge-based economy. Different research methods are used in the article, such as scientific literature analysis, synthesis and comparison.

Mots clés

  • intellectual capital
  • universities
  • assessment
  • indicators
Accès libre

Leaders – Their Impact on Others

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 111 - 118

Résumé

Abstract

Nowadays, the increased interest and attention that leadership receives from organizations worldwide, is obvious. Perhaps one of the reasons is that people search for models to be followed and this thing means that the leaders have to assume risks. They have to take a step forward, thus guiding their followers and upholders. And, above all, leaders make their upholders to want the accomplishment of the targets, rather than using authority and persuading their upholders through coercive measures in order to obtain such results.

Mots clés

  • leadership
  • followers
  • influence
Accès libre

Analyzing the Composition of HDI in European Countries

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 119 - 127

Résumé

Abstract

Human Development Index (HDI) measures development in a country by combining indicators of life expectancy, education level and income. In 2013, 187 countries were included in this index, which aims to expand the coverage area as additional statistics become more available. HDI, which is published by UNDP, may be the most comprehensive indicator, but it is not fully compatible enough to measure the human development level in a global perspective. Human Development Index explicitly explains the development of a country as being more than an economic growth tool or material wealth. In this way, this index is distinguished from many other performance indicators. This article aims to analyze the proportion of the three indicators on 37 European countries.

Mots clés

  • human development index
  • education
  • gross domestic product
  • life expectancy
Accès libre

Foreign Direct Investments in the Economic Development of Romania

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 128 - 136

Résumé

Abstract

The economic theories consider the investments as one of the major factors of economic growth. Economic growth represents a complex process of increasing the dimensions of the national economy, based on the collective use of increasingly efficient production factors, dimensions expressed by the size of gross domestic product and national income per capita.

Mots clés

  • economic growth
  • production factors
  • investments
  • gross domestic product
  • region
  • direct foreign investments
Accès libre

Study Regarding the Evolution of the Financial Balance in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 137 - 146

Résumé

Abstract

This article aims at analysing the financial balance within the global pharmaceutical industry, starting from the assumption that „In the pharmaceutical industry there is sufficient liquidity to cover payment obligations”. The analysed companies are part of the exclusive group comprising the top 20 global companies, e.g. GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co., Sanofi-Aventis and Bayer. The research conducted is based on an analysis over time of the relationship between floating assets, floating assets requirement and net cash from 2006 to 2013, and highlights the main developments of the indicators before the onset of the financial and economic crisis and after its outbreak.

Mots clés

  • pharmaceutical industry
  • liquidity
  • floating assets
  • floating assets requirement
  • net cash
Accès libre

How Sanctions on Russia Impact the Economy of the European Union

Publié en ligne: 02 Mar 2016
Pages: 147 - 157

Résumé

Abstract

Although new sanctions have been imposed, to varying degrees, on Russia since the debut of the Crimean crisis, few experts are taking the chance of publishing an assessment of the impact these sanctions will have on Russia or the European Union. On one hand, the complexity of the variables involved makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome of said sanctions; on the other hand, an accurate assessment would make an invaluable tool in the hands of decision makers, no matter if their decisions are made with regards to foreign policy, public policy or the daily business of private companies. This article sets out to examine the context, some of the variables involved and some of the forecasts that have been put forward by various experts, while trying to provide a simplified model for assessing the impact of sanctions enacted by the EU on its own economy.

Mots clés

  • Russia
  • European Union
  • Ukraine
  • Sanctions
  • Foreign Policy

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