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Volume 21 (2021): Edition 4 (December 2021)

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2300-7575
Première publication
17 Mar 2011
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 21 (2021): Edition 4 (December 2021)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2300-7575
Première publication
17 Mar 2011
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

4 Articles
Accès libre

Water quality for triathlon and open water swimming competitions in Brazilian freshwaters

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2021
Pages: 169 - 179

Résumé

Abstract

In high-performance competitive activities, there can be intense and prolonged exposure to water during swimming components of the competition. Therefore, water quality assessments with reference to standards are desirable to ensure athletes’ health. We evaluated whether the official criteria established for primary contact recreation in Brazilian freshwaters (CONAMA Directive 274/2000), and an integrated index of bathing conditions in Brazil (ICB), are consistent with the water quality standards stipulated by the International Triathlon Union (ITU). The water quality of Lake of Ingleses, an important venue for triathlon and open water swimming near Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was assessed between 2003 and 2019. Results for E. coli, cyanobacteria density, and pH were favorable for contact recreation and competitions at the lake. Of the variables considered, only turbidity, used as a proxy indicator of visual water clarity, was unsuitable during part of the monitoring period. The ICB agreed with the ITU standards for Very Good and Excellent quality classes and is recommended as a tool for screening sites considered for competitions in Brazilian freshwaters. However, the Brazilian national criteria for contact recreation only present standards for E. coli and pH, which is insufficient coverage of attributes affecting primary contact suitability of water in high-performance sports activities.

Mots clés

  • water quality
  • contact recreation
  • triathlon
  • open water swimming
  • health risk
Accès libre

Transformation of the morphometry of Lake Osieckie – largest lake in the Holy Cross region

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2021
Pages: 181 - 187

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents the analysis of the transformation of Lake Osieckie, the largest lake in the Holy Cross region until 2016. It is a valley lake that according to cartographic materials had undergone no changes in the shoreline since ca. 1938. The nearby activity of a sulphur mine required building three dikes on the lake, dividing it into four independent water bodies. The paper presents the analysis of their morphometric properties in comparison to those of the original lake. Although the basins of the new lakes are of natural origin, the currently existing four lakes can be described as quasi-natural.

Mots clés

  • fluvial lakes
  • Holy Cross region
  • morphometric properties
  • lake basin
Accès libre

Seasonal variation of algal diversity with reference to water quality in Jagadishpur Reservoir, Nepal

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2021
Pages: 189 - 199

Résumé

Abstract

The study of the importance of physicochemical parameters of water for algal growth and development in Jagdishpur Reservoir was carried out in the present research. Occurrence of algal species and values of water quality parameters also indicate the ecological nature and the present status of the reservoir. Water samples were collected from Jagdishpur Reservoir in Kapilvastu District (Nepal), in two seasons (wet and dry). The following physicochemical parameters of water were analyzed: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, concentration of nitrates and phosphates, free CO2, hardness, conductivity, total dissolved solids. The values of free CO2, hardness, phosphate, temperature, and dissolved oxygen were high in wet season while alkalinity, nitrate, conductivity and total dissolved solid were high in dry season. Altogether 81 algal species belonging to 53 genera and 6 classes were recorded. Higher number of algal species was recorded in the dry season rather than in the wet season. The highest number of species was noted among Chlorophyceae, followed by Cyanobacteria > Bacillariophyceae > Euglenophyceae > Crysophyceae and Dinophyceae. Cosmarium had the highest number of species (13) among all genera. During the wet season, Cosmarium, Calothrix and Phormidium were the genera with the highest number of species while Bulbochaete, Trachelomonas and Gomphonema were genera with the lowest number of species. During the dry season, Cymbella, Cosmarium and Rhopalodia were genera with highest number of species while Euglena, Gloeotrichia and Trachelomonas were genera with lowest number of species. Algal diversity was positively correlated with the increase of alkalinity, conductivity and TDS, while negatively correlated with free CO2, hardness, concerntration of phosphates and nitrates, DO, pH and temperature. Shannon–Weiner diversity index value was higher during the dry season than in the wet season.

Mots clés

  • cyanobacteria
  • dry season
  • freshwater algae
  • physic-chemical parameters
  • wet season
Accès libre

Predation of Glossiphonia weberi (Blanchard, 1897) on the invasive snail Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) in the presence of an alternative prey

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2021
Pages: 201 - 208

Résumé

Abstract

The North American freshwater snail Physella acuta has invaded and colonized a wide range of freshwater habitats, globally. Resembling other invasive species, P. acuta has several negative impacts on the invaded freshwater ecosystems, which calls for its regulation, preferably through biological control. The malacophagous leech Glossiphonia weberi, native to West Bengal, India, had been previously reported as a potential biocontrol agent of P. acuta. In this experiment, we observed the predation potential and prey preference of G. weberi on P. acuta in the presence of a native snail, Gyraulus convexiusculus. The results suggest that in all instances, G. weberi consumed less G. convexiusculus compared to P. acuta. In complex habitats, G. weberi showed significant prey preference to P. acuta except in the habitat characterized by the presence of pebbles. The complex habitats bear a significant (p < 0.05) negative impact only in the case of predation on P. acuta when present with conspecific but not in heterospecific prey conditions. Therefore, G. weberi qualifies as a useful biological control agent that can affect the colonization and expansion of the invasive snail P. acuta, even in the presence of alternative prey.

Mots clés

  • biological control
  • invasive species
  • habitat complexity
  • native predator
  • prey preference
4 Articles
Accès libre

Water quality for triathlon and open water swimming competitions in Brazilian freshwaters

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2021
Pages: 169 - 179

Résumé

Abstract

In high-performance competitive activities, there can be intense and prolonged exposure to water during swimming components of the competition. Therefore, water quality assessments with reference to standards are desirable to ensure athletes’ health. We evaluated whether the official criteria established for primary contact recreation in Brazilian freshwaters (CONAMA Directive 274/2000), and an integrated index of bathing conditions in Brazil (ICB), are consistent with the water quality standards stipulated by the International Triathlon Union (ITU). The water quality of Lake of Ingleses, an important venue for triathlon and open water swimming near Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was assessed between 2003 and 2019. Results for E. coli, cyanobacteria density, and pH were favorable for contact recreation and competitions at the lake. Of the variables considered, only turbidity, used as a proxy indicator of visual water clarity, was unsuitable during part of the monitoring period. The ICB agreed with the ITU standards for Very Good and Excellent quality classes and is recommended as a tool for screening sites considered for competitions in Brazilian freshwaters. However, the Brazilian national criteria for contact recreation only present standards for E. coli and pH, which is insufficient coverage of attributes affecting primary contact suitability of water in high-performance sports activities.

Mots clés

  • water quality
  • contact recreation
  • triathlon
  • open water swimming
  • health risk
Accès libre

Transformation of the morphometry of Lake Osieckie – largest lake in the Holy Cross region

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2021
Pages: 181 - 187

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents the analysis of the transformation of Lake Osieckie, the largest lake in the Holy Cross region until 2016. It is a valley lake that according to cartographic materials had undergone no changes in the shoreline since ca. 1938. The nearby activity of a sulphur mine required building three dikes on the lake, dividing it into four independent water bodies. The paper presents the analysis of their morphometric properties in comparison to those of the original lake. Although the basins of the new lakes are of natural origin, the currently existing four lakes can be described as quasi-natural.

Mots clés

  • fluvial lakes
  • Holy Cross region
  • morphometric properties
  • lake basin
Accès libre

Seasonal variation of algal diversity with reference to water quality in Jagadishpur Reservoir, Nepal

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2021
Pages: 189 - 199

Résumé

Abstract

The study of the importance of physicochemical parameters of water for algal growth and development in Jagdishpur Reservoir was carried out in the present research. Occurrence of algal species and values of water quality parameters also indicate the ecological nature and the present status of the reservoir. Water samples were collected from Jagdishpur Reservoir in Kapilvastu District (Nepal), in two seasons (wet and dry). The following physicochemical parameters of water were analyzed: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, concentration of nitrates and phosphates, free CO2, hardness, conductivity, total dissolved solids. The values of free CO2, hardness, phosphate, temperature, and dissolved oxygen were high in wet season while alkalinity, nitrate, conductivity and total dissolved solid were high in dry season. Altogether 81 algal species belonging to 53 genera and 6 classes were recorded. Higher number of algal species was recorded in the dry season rather than in the wet season. The highest number of species was noted among Chlorophyceae, followed by Cyanobacteria > Bacillariophyceae > Euglenophyceae > Crysophyceae and Dinophyceae. Cosmarium had the highest number of species (13) among all genera. During the wet season, Cosmarium, Calothrix and Phormidium were the genera with the highest number of species while Bulbochaete, Trachelomonas and Gomphonema were genera with the lowest number of species. During the dry season, Cymbella, Cosmarium and Rhopalodia were genera with highest number of species while Euglena, Gloeotrichia and Trachelomonas were genera with lowest number of species. Algal diversity was positively correlated with the increase of alkalinity, conductivity and TDS, while negatively correlated with free CO2, hardness, concerntration of phosphates and nitrates, DO, pH and temperature. Shannon–Weiner diversity index value was higher during the dry season than in the wet season.

Mots clés

  • cyanobacteria
  • dry season
  • freshwater algae
  • physic-chemical parameters
  • wet season
Accès libre

Predation of Glossiphonia weberi (Blanchard, 1897) on the invasive snail Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) in the presence of an alternative prey

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2021
Pages: 201 - 208

Résumé

Abstract

The North American freshwater snail Physella acuta has invaded and colonized a wide range of freshwater habitats, globally. Resembling other invasive species, P. acuta has several negative impacts on the invaded freshwater ecosystems, which calls for its regulation, preferably through biological control. The malacophagous leech Glossiphonia weberi, native to West Bengal, India, had been previously reported as a potential biocontrol agent of P. acuta. In this experiment, we observed the predation potential and prey preference of G. weberi on P. acuta in the presence of a native snail, Gyraulus convexiusculus. The results suggest that in all instances, G. weberi consumed less G. convexiusculus compared to P. acuta. In complex habitats, G. weberi showed significant prey preference to P. acuta except in the habitat characterized by the presence of pebbles. The complex habitats bear a significant (p < 0.05) negative impact only in the case of predation on P. acuta when present with conspecific but not in heterospecific prey conditions. Therefore, G. weberi qualifies as a useful biological control agent that can affect the colonization and expansion of the invasive snail P. acuta, even in the presence of alternative prey.

Mots clés

  • biological control
  • invasive species
  • habitat complexity
  • native predator
  • prey preference

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