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Volume 14 (2022): Edition 2 (June 2022)

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Special Edition: Sparsely populated rural areas

Volume 13 (2021): Edition 1 (March 2021)

Volume 12 (2020): Edition 4 (December 2020)

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Special Edition: Cultural Tourism and Rural Development

Volume 12 (2020): Edition 2 (June 2020)

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Volume 11 (2019): Edition 4 (December 2019)
Special Edition: Smart European Village

Volume 11 (2019): Edition 3 (September 2019)

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Special issue to the Centennial of the Mendel University in Brno

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Volume 10 (2018): Edition 4 (December 2018)

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Special Edition: Planning in the Rural Space Edition Editors: Antonín Vaishar, Hana Vavrouchová

Volume 9 (2017): Edition 2 (June 2017)

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Special Edition: Role of Water in the Rural Landscape. Special issue editors: Milada Šťastná, Andreas Panagopoulos, Zbyněk Kulhavý.

Volume 8 (2016): Edition 4 (December 2016)
Special Edition: Small towns as centres of rural areas, Editors: Annett Steinführer, Antonín Vaishar, Jana Zapletalová

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Special issue title: Sustainability of Rural Areas in Practice, Special editors: doc. Ing. Dr. Milada Šťastná, doc. RNDr. Antonín Vaishar, CSc.

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Demographic change, Edition Editors: Černič-Mali Barbara, Koch Andreas

Volume 5 (2013): Edition 4 (December 2013)
Farm Tourism across Europe, Edition Editors: Irma Potočnik-Slavič, Serge Schmitz

Volume 5 (2013): Edition 3 (September 2013)

Volume 5 (2013): Edition 2 (June 2013)
Borders and borderlands in Central Europe, Edition Editors: Šťastná Milada, Vaishar Antonín

Volume 5 (2013): Edition 1 (March 2013)

Volume 4 (2012): Edition 4 (October 2012)

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Editors: Alexandra Kruse, Michael Roth and Anu Printsman

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Editors: John McDonagh and Michael Woods

Volume 3 (2011): Edition 4 (December 2011)

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Editors: John McDonagh and Michael Woods

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1803-8417
Première publication
24 Feb 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 10 (2018): Edition 4 (December 2018)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1803-8417
Première publication
24 Feb 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

11 Articles
access type Accès libre

From Family to Domestic and Global Labour? A Decade of Proletarisation of Labour in the Norwegian Horticulture Industry

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 528 - 542

Résumé

Abstract

This paper analyses the profound structural transformations that took place in Norway's horticulture industry between 1999 and 2010. The aggregate industrial outputs from the industry remained stable in this period. However, the number of horticulture farms dropped by 40.5% and the remaining farms became accordingly larger. We analyse how this development was related to changing labour strategies on Norwegian farms during this period, in part affected by labour market deregulation following the EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007. The analysis utilises Agricultural Census data covering the full population of horticulture farms in Norway in 1999 (N=5,105) and all farms in the country in 2010 (N=46,624, of which 3036 now were horticulture farms). Results suggest that the enhanced availability of inexpensive and flexible global labour is strongly associated with a stepwise proletarisation of Norwegian horticulture. Family labour is being systematically replaced by wage labour and domestic workers are being replaced by lowwage migrant workers.

Mots clés

  • agriculture
  • family labour
  • horticulture
  • labour market
  • migrant work
  • proletarization
access type Accès libre

Is the Partnership Governance Able to Promote Endogenous Rural Development? A Preliminary Assessment Under the Adaptive Co-Management Approach

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 543 - 565

Résumé

Abstract

Ever increasingly more, all the actors directly or indirectly involved in the planning processes express the need to know the effects deriving from the implementation of rural development policy. In this direction, evaluation can make an important contribution, fostering the development of a ‘good policy’ as underlined by EU regulations. Among the specific evaluation questions developed by the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, one of them relates to the improvement of governance. Considering the Adaptive Co-Management (ACM) approach’s capacity as a proxy of the quality of network governance, the study aims to propose the ACM theoretical framework as a suitable model with which to study the social interactions between actors in the smallest unit of the LEADER process (i.e., the local action group’s (LAG’s) partnership governance). The proposed methodology is subsequently tested on a specific case study through the evaluation of the partnership governance of two case studies in the South of Italy. The empirical evidence supports the idea that ACM approach may represent a new model to assess the quality of the implementation process of the LEADER Programme. In addition, the ACM approach can lead to a new organizational and self-evaluation model of LAGs which places an emphasis on the importance of the relational process among its members.

Mots clés

  • Community-Led Local Development
  • LEADER
  • governance
  • Social Network Analysis
  • Local Action Groups
access type Accès libre

Rural Small and Medium Enterprises Development in Molise (Italy)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 566 - 589

Résumé

Abstract

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are a key economic sector in Molise, a region in central Italy, characterized by a high level of rurality. This paper uses descriptive survey research to discuss the findings of a study of the innovation process in a sample of SMEs located in rural areas of Molise. It explores the aims of the innovation and any barriers encountered. Data were collected from 30 respondents with the aid of an on-line questionnaire. The sample was drawn from a database made available by the Chambers of Commerce in Molise. The database includes 165 firms that, in recent years, have introduced innovative technologies. The findings of the study revealed that there is a high level of awareness of the importance of technology among the managing bodies of SMEs. Most rural firms prefer to use new production technologies and new processes, rather than invest in research and development activities. Furthermore, there is a low propensity to set up partnerships with other enterprises along the supply chain and to participate in collaborative networks designed to stimulate innovation. Most owners and/or managers interviewed lamented the lack of financial resources necessary to make technological innovations. They also highlighted the considerable difficulty in accessing public and private funding. The paper concludes with some brief prospects by recommending a few implications for policy. The results of this study are important for both researchers as well as those involved in small business (including government, agencies and owner/managers).

Mots clés

  • barriers
  • benefits
  • innovation
  • Molise
  • new technologies
  • rural SMEs
  • SME networks
access type Accès libre

Land Withdrawal Vs. Regional Development: Does Withdrawal of Agricultural Land Lead to Increase in Entrepreneurial Activity and Generate Positive Spatial Spillovers? (Slovak Republic)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 590 - 613

Résumé

Abstract

In an increasingly urbanized world, the scarcity of space is a growing problem along with land consumption and soil sealing. To achieve sustainable development and sustainable land use, society has to resolve conflicts between residential, industrial, transport, commercial and green areas while creating a balance between social, economic and ecological targets. However, coordination of sustainable land use is a challenge for policymakers. The paper examines whether the withdrawal of land from the agricultural land fund leads to development, measured both by the increase in domestic entrepreneurial activity, as well as by the increase in foreign direct investments. The results are based on the analysis of panel data on the amount of land withdrawal, newly established firms and inward flow of FDI covering 41 administrative districts of Slovak Republic over 9 years (6 years in case of the FDI, due to the availability of data). Additionally, the spatial Durbin panel model was used to examine, whether land withdrawal and its non-agricultural use generate positive spillover effects on surrounding regions in terms of increased entrepreneurial activity and flow of FDI.

Mots clés

  • withdrawal of agricultural land
  • regional development
  • entrepreneurial activity
  • spatial Durbin panel model
  • foreign direct investment
access type Accès libre

Status Quo and Potential of Remigration Among Transylvanian Saxons to Rural Romania

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 614 - 633

Résumé

Abstract

Return migration recently became of scientific interest on an intra-European scale. As remigrants bring along various forms of capital, this form of migration is frequently considered as an opportunity to revitalize rural communities. Since Romania entered the EU in 2007, a certain number of Transylvanian Saxons, i.e., ethnic Germans, who emigrated to Germany in the 1980s and 1990s, temporarily or permanently returned to rural Romania. By means of qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey among returnees and potential re-emigrants, this study provides empirical insights to the status quo and the potential of this phenomenon. A particular emphasis is given to their everyday practices and implications on the Transylvanian community, mostly aiming at preservation of the cultural heritage.

Mots clés

  • return migration
  • lifestyle migration
  • rural areas
  • regional development
  • Romania
access type Accès libre

The Eastern Austrian Alps – Their Exceptional Demographic Status in the Alpine Region

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 634 - 651

Résumé

Abstract

In most Alpine regions with current negative migratory balance, new in-migration from urban areas has meanwhile become a relevant factor. However, this phenomenon is insignificant in Austria’s Eastern Alps. The aim of this thesis-led work is to empirically demonstrate the main reasons for this demographically exceptional position. The Styrian-Lower Austrian Limestone Alps, representing the peripheral core area of Austria's Eastern Alps, were chosen as the study area, as in this region the population decline and above all, migratory losses are particularly high. Through various qualitative and quantitative data acquisition techniques it was shown that new inmigration is still insignificant. The main reasons for this are the perseverance of large estates and the dominance of forestry.

Mots clés

  • Eastern Austrian Alps
  • peripheral areas
  • newcomers
  • large estates
access type Accès libre

Cultural Heritage and Wind Turbines – A Method to Reduce Conflicts in Landscape Planning and Management: Studies in the German Ore Mountains

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 652 - 672

Résumé

Abstract

Landscape policy, management and planning can be interpreted as involving a dualism of conservation and transformation goals. Serious conflicts can emerge when conservation and development goals are contradictory. This paper reflects on the goal conflict between the establishment of a world heritage destination with 39 individual elements and the development of wind power facilities in the German Ore Mountains. In order to meet these challenges, the authors created a GIS-based so-called “Multiple-Visual-Link Method”. By calculating viewsheds with a tailor-made GIS application and defining distance zones (short, middle, long), the user is able to estimate the visual relations between the two types of subjects in a bigger area with a favorable cost-benefit relation. The compact algorithmic approach leads to solid results which can be translated into planning recommendations. There is also potential for it to be applied to similar goal conflicts.

Mots clés

  • landscape policy
  • goal conflict
  • UNESCO World Heritage
  • GIS
  • regional planning
  • Germany
access type Accès libre

Terra Incognita of the Russian Near North: Counter-Urbanization in Today’S Russia and the Formation of Dacha Communities

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 673 - 692

Résumé

Abstract

This article considers the salient features of counter-urbanization, which take place when urban residents, during the summer months, move to live in their second homes or their dachas [country homes or summer cottages]. Due to the social forces that are the result of incomplete urbanization, class polarization, and the rapid growth of major city centers, there are two powerful oppositional flows of migration taking place today in Russia. The first is centripetal migration or the movement of rural populations to large cities. The second form of migration is centrifugal migration or counterurbanization, which is the relocation of urban populations to rural areas. The article gives a theoretical overview of a new vision of migration as a part of modern flexible ‘liquid’ mobility, which enables urban residents to be constantly ‘on the move’, migrating between their urban apartments and suburban or distant dachas. A theoretical sociological background provides the field research, presented in the article, with an understanding of the realm of meanings of de-urbanization in a short and long historical run and in perspective. Russian men and women, who work in various professions due to advances in telecommunication technologies, are able to spend some extended periods at their dachas where they simultaneously work and enjoy the natural beauty and countryside. The different types of dachas in Russia that are either close to cities or in remote regions are examined. The case study of dacha counter-urbanization in the periphery region of Kostroma oblast' considers: 1) various features of the return counter-urbanization to remote dacha and 2) the social, economic and cultural effects that these dacha settlements have had on both the urban and rural residents.

Mots clés

  • urbanization
  • migration
  • recurrent spatial mobility
  • downshifting
  • seasonal counterurbanization
  • dachas
  • rural-urban communities
access type Accès libre

Ecovillage as an Alternative Way of Rural Life: Evidence From Hungary and Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 693 - 710

Résumé

Abstract

This paper offers a case study of three selected ecovillages (two in Hungary and one in Slovakia). The main objective is to characterize, analyse and eventually compare types, trends and problems in the development of ecovillages and to discuss the possible impacts and effects of ecovillage movement on sustainable rural development. The authors used interviews, observation and inquiry for data collection and methods of document analysis, content analysis of different sources, and analysis of foot marks. They attempt to bring the worldview closer by introducing the basic ecovillage concept and framework, and by describing the ecovillage types, recent trends, problems and challenges. The analytical part begins with a short characteristic of the ecovillage movement in Hungary and Slovakia and follows with six thematic subchapters that investigate and compare the observed ecovillages according to the purposes and motivation for their founding, the communication models and public relations, local economic systems and self-sufficiency phenomenon, the employment structure and the existing infrastructure. Finally, the last part is devoted to assess the main research findings.

Mots clés

  • ecovillage
  • eco-philosophy
  • self-sufficient community
  • alternative way of life
  • rural sustainability
access type Accès libre

Greenhouse Agriculture in the Icelandic Food System

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 711 - 724

Résumé

Abstract

Greenhouses are a frequent feature on the Icelandic rural landscape and an integral part of Iceland’s food system. Iceland’s reserves of geothermal energy present an opportunity to extend an otherwise short growing season. This promotes sustainability, increases food security, and benefits consumers. This article examines the relative strengths of Iceland’s greenhouse sector - using a combination of statistics, observations, and interviews to understand the resource demands of greenhouse agriculture, how well greenhouses can allay some food insecurity and provide local foods. It ends with an examination of how the reduction of subsidies used to keep greenhouse agriculture going, has had an effect and forces the question of whether losing much of Iceland’s agricultural sector and locally sourced food is worth the social and political costs.

Mots clés

  • agricultural geography
  • sustainable agriculture
  • food security
  • Iceland
  • food sovereignty
access type Accès libre

Efficiency of the Dairy Farms: A Study from Azores (Portugal)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 725 - 734

Résumé

Abstract

Azores dairy represents 30% of Portuguese production. The farms are dominated by family nature and a relevant part of them are an exclusive source of the producer’s income. Nowadays, the milk production has some problems due to the falling prices of milk on the producer and the European milk quotes abolishment. This situation requires the assessment of the Azorean dairy farms efficiency as a way to rationalize the use of the factors of production for the milk production. The aim of this research is to estimate the Technical Efficiency (TE) in two different groups of farms, of which the used criteria were to earn incomes exclusively from farm (Full-Time Farmer, FTF) or to have another complementary source of income (Partial-Time Farmer, PTF). The farms database was provided by a farmers’ association and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was chosen for modelling TE estimation. The main findings show the inexistence of substantial differences in the farms performance with or without complementary sources of income (0.679 for PTF and 0.689 for FTF). However, the most efficient farms are related with the main source of income.

Mots clés

  • Azores
  • efficiency
  • milk
  • productivity
11 Articles
access type Accès libre

From Family to Domestic and Global Labour? A Decade of Proletarisation of Labour in the Norwegian Horticulture Industry

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 528 - 542

Résumé

Abstract

This paper analyses the profound structural transformations that took place in Norway's horticulture industry between 1999 and 2010. The aggregate industrial outputs from the industry remained stable in this period. However, the number of horticulture farms dropped by 40.5% and the remaining farms became accordingly larger. We analyse how this development was related to changing labour strategies on Norwegian farms during this period, in part affected by labour market deregulation following the EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007. The analysis utilises Agricultural Census data covering the full population of horticulture farms in Norway in 1999 (N=5,105) and all farms in the country in 2010 (N=46,624, of which 3036 now were horticulture farms). Results suggest that the enhanced availability of inexpensive and flexible global labour is strongly associated with a stepwise proletarisation of Norwegian horticulture. Family labour is being systematically replaced by wage labour and domestic workers are being replaced by lowwage migrant workers.

Mots clés

  • agriculture
  • family labour
  • horticulture
  • labour market
  • migrant work
  • proletarization
access type Accès libre

Is the Partnership Governance Able to Promote Endogenous Rural Development? A Preliminary Assessment Under the Adaptive Co-Management Approach

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 543 - 565

Résumé

Abstract

Ever increasingly more, all the actors directly or indirectly involved in the planning processes express the need to know the effects deriving from the implementation of rural development policy. In this direction, evaluation can make an important contribution, fostering the development of a ‘good policy’ as underlined by EU regulations. Among the specific evaluation questions developed by the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, one of them relates to the improvement of governance. Considering the Adaptive Co-Management (ACM) approach’s capacity as a proxy of the quality of network governance, the study aims to propose the ACM theoretical framework as a suitable model with which to study the social interactions between actors in the smallest unit of the LEADER process (i.e., the local action group’s (LAG’s) partnership governance). The proposed methodology is subsequently tested on a specific case study through the evaluation of the partnership governance of two case studies in the South of Italy. The empirical evidence supports the idea that ACM approach may represent a new model to assess the quality of the implementation process of the LEADER Programme. In addition, the ACM approach can lead to a new organizational and self-evaluation model of LAGs which places an emphasis on the importance of the relational process among its members.

Mots clés

  • Community-Led Local Development
  • LEADER
  • governance
  • Social Network Analysis
  • Local Action Groups
access type Accès libre

Rural Small and Medium Enterprises Development in Molise (Italy)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 566 - 589

Résumé

Abstract

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are a key economic sector in Molise, a region in central Italy, characterized by a high level of rurality. This paper uses descriptive survey research to discuss the findings of a study of the innovation process in a sample of SMEs located in rural areas of Molise. It explores the aims of the innovation and any barriers encountered. Data were collected from 30 respondents with the aid of an on-line questionnaire. The sample was drawn from a database made available by the Chambers of Commerce in Molise. The database includes 165 firms that, in recent years, have introduced innovative technologies. The findings of the study revealed that there is a high level of awareness of the importance of technology among the managing bodies of SMEs. Most rural firms prefer to use new production technologies and new processes, rather than invest in research and development activities. Furthermore, there is a low propensity to set up partnerships with other enterprises along the supply chain and to participate in collaborative networks designed to stimulate innovation. Most owners and/or managers interviewed lamented the lack of financial resources necessary to make technological innovations. They also highlighted the considerable difficulty in accessing public and private funding. The paper concludes with some brief prospects by recommending a few implications for policy. The results of this study are important for both researchers as well as those involved in small business (including government, agencies and owner/managers).

Mots clés

  • barriers
  • benefits
  • innovation
  • Molise
  • new technologies
  • rural SMEs
  • SME networks
access type Accès libre

Land Withdrawal Vs. Regional Development: Does Withdrawal of Agricultural Land Lead to Increase in Entrepreneurial Activity and Generate Positive Spatial Spillovers? (Slovak Republic)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 590 - 613

Résumé

Abstract

In an increasingly urbanized world, the scarcity of space is a growing problem along with land consumption and soil sealing. To achieve sustainable development and sustainable land use, society has to resolve conflicts between residential, industrial, transport, commercial and green areas while creating a balance between social, economic and ecological targets. However, coordination of sustainable land use is a challenge for policymakers. The paper examines whether the withdrawal of land from the agricultural land fund leads to development, measured both by the increase in domestic entrepreneurial activity, as well as by the increase in foreign direct investments. The results are based on the analysis of panel data on the amount of land withdrawal, newly established firms and inward flow of FDI covering 41 administrative districts of Slovak Republic over 9 years (6 years in case of the FDI, due to the availability of data). Additionally, the spatial Durbin panel model was used to examine, whether land withdrawal and its non-agricultural use generate positive spillover effects on surrounding regions in terms of increased entrepreneurial activity and flow of FDI.

Mots clés

  • withdrawal of agricultural land
  • regional development
  • entrepreneurial activity
  • spatial Durbin panel model
  • foreign direct investment
access type Accès libre

Status Quo and Potential of Remigration Among Transylvanian Saxons to Rural Romania

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 614 - 633

Résumé

Abstract

Return migration recently became of scientific interest on an intra-European scale. As remigrants bring along various forms of capital, this form of migration is frequently considered as an opportunity to revitalize rural communities. Since Romania entered the EU in 2007, a certain number of Transylvanian Saxons, i.e., ethnic Germans, who emigrated to Germany in the 1980s and 1990s, temporarily or permanently returned to rural Romania. By means of qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey among returnees and potential re-emigrants, this study provides empirical insights to the status quo and the potential of this phenomenon. A particular emphasis is given to their everyday practices and implications on the Transylvanian community, mostly aiming at preservation of the cultural heritage.

Mots clés

  • return migration
  • lifestyle migration
  • rural areas
  • regional development
  • Romania
access type Accès libre

The Eastern Austrian Alps – Their Exceptional Demographic Status in the Alpine Region

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 634 - 651

Résumé

Abstract

In most Alpine regions with current negative migratory balance, new in-migration from urban areas has meanwhile become a relevant factor. However, this phenomenon is insignificant in Austria’s Eastern Alps. The aim of this thesis-led work is to empirically demonstrate the main reasons for this demographically exceptional position. The Styrian-Lower Austrian Limestone Alps, representing the peripheral core area of Austria's Eastern Alps, were chosen as the study area, as in this region the population decline and above all, migratory losses are particularly high. Through various qualitative and quantitative data acquisition techniques it was shown that new inmigration is still insignificant. The main reasons for this are the perseverance of large estates and the dominance of forestry.

Mots clés

  • Eastern Austrian Alps
  • peripheral areas
  • newcomers
  • large estates
access type Accès libre

Cultural Heritage and Wind Turbines – A Method to Reduce Conflicts in Landscape Planning and Management: Studies in the German Ore Mountains

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 652 - 672

Résumé

Abstract

Landscape policy, management and planning can be interpreted as involving a dualism of conservation and transformation goals. Serious conflicts can emerge when conservation and development goals are contradictory. This paper reflects on the goal conflict between the establishment of a world heritage destination with 39 individual elements and the development of wind power facilities in the German Ore Mountains. In order to meet these challenges, the authors created a GIS-based so-called “Multiple-Visual-Link Method”. By calculating viewsheds with a tailor-made GIS application and defining distance zones (short, middle, long), the user is able to estimate the visual relations between the two types of subjects in a bigger area with a favorable cost-benefit relation. The compact algorithmic approach leads to solid results which can be translated into planning recommendations. There is also potential for it to be applied to similar goal conflicts.

Mots clés

  • landscape policy
  • goal conflict
  • UNESCO World Heritage
  • GIS
  • regional planning
  • Germany
access type Accès libre

Terra Incognita of the Russian Near North: Counter-Urbanization in Today’S Russia and the Formation of Dacha Communities

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 673 - 692

Résumé

Abstract

This article considers the salient features of counter-urbanization, which take place when urban residents, during the summer months, move to live in their second homes or their dachas [country homes or summer cottages]. Due to the social forces that are the result of incomplete urbanization, class polarization, and the rapid growth of major city centers, there are two powerful oppositional flows of migration taking place today in Russia. The first is centripetal migration or the movement of rural populations to large cities. The second form of migration is centrifugal migration or counterurbanization, which is the relocation of urban populations to rural areas. The article gives a theoretical overview of a new vision of migration as a part of modern flexible ‘liquid’ mobility, which enables urban residents to be constantly ‘on the move’, migrating between their urban apartments and suburban or distant dachas. A theoretical sociological background provides the field research, presented in the article, with an understanding of the realm of meanings of de-urbanization in a short and long historical run and in perspective. Russian men and women, who work in various professions due to advances in telecommunication technologies, are able to spend some extended periods at their dachas where they simultaneously work and enjoy the natural beauty and countryside. The different types of dachas in Russia that are either close to cities or in remote regions are examined. The case study of dacha counter-urbanization in the periphery region of Kostroma oblast' considers: 1) various features of the return counter-urbanization to remote dacha and 2) the social, economic and cultural effects that these dacha settlements have had on both the urban and rural residents.

Mots clés

  • urbanization
  • migration
  • recurrent spatial mobility
  • downshifting
  • seasonal counterurbanization
  • dachas
  • rural-urban communities
access type Accès libre

Ecovillage as an Alternative Way of Rural Life: Evidence From Hungary and Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 693 - 710

Résumé

Abstract

This paper offers a case study of three selected ecovillages (two in Hungary and one in Slovakia). The main objective is to characterize, analyse and eventually compare types, trends and problems in the development of ecovillages and to discuss the possible impacts and effects of ecovillage movement on sustainable rural development. The authors used interviews, observation and inquiry for data collection and methods of document analysis, content analysis of different sources, and analysis of foot marks. They attempt to bring the worldview closer by introducing the basic ecovillage concept and framework, and by describing the ecovillage types, recent trends, problems and challenges. The analytical part begins with a short characteristic of the ecovillage movement in Hungary and Slovakia and follows with six thematic subchapters that investigate and compare the observed ecovillages according to the purposes and motivation for their founding, the communication models and public relations, local economic systems and self-sufficiency phenomenon, the employment structure and the existing infrastructure. Finally, the last part is devoted to assess the main research findings.

Mots clés

  • ecovillage
  • eco-philosophy
  • self-sufficient community
  • alternative way of life
  • rural sustainability
access type Accès libre

Greenhouse Agriculture in the Icelandic Food System

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 711 - 724

Résumé

Abstract

Greenhouses are a frequent feature on the Icelandic rural landscape and an integral part of Iceland’s food system. Iceland’s reserves of geothermal energy present an opportunity to extend an otherwise short growing season. This promotes sustainability, increases food security, and benefits consumers. This article examines the relative strengths of Iceland’s greenhouse sector - using a combination of statistics, observations, and interviews to understand the resource demands of greenhouse agriculture, how well greenhouses can allay some food insecurity and provide local foods. It ends with an examination of how the reduction of subsidies used to keep greenhouse agriculture going, has had an effect and forces the question of whether losing much of Iceland’s agricultural sector and locally sourced food is worth the social and political costs.

Mots clés

  • agricultural geography
  • sustainable agriculture
  • food security
  • Iceland
  • food sovereignty
access type Accès libre

Efficiency of the Dairy Farms: A Study from Azores (Portugal)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jan 2019
Pages: 725 - 734

Résumé

Abstract

Azores dairy represents 30% of Portuguese production. The farms are dominated by family nature and a relevant part of them are an exclusive source of the producer’s income. Nowadays, the milk production has some problems due to the falling prices of milk on the producer and the European milk quotes abolishment. This situation requires the assessment of the Azorean dairy farms efficiency as a way to rationalize the use of the factors of production for the milk production. The aim of this research is to estimate the Technical Efficiency (TE) in two different groups of farms, of which the used criteria were to earn incomes exclusively from farm (Full-Time Farmer, FTF) or to have another complementary source of income (Partial-Time Farmer, PTF). The farms database was provided by a farmers’ association and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was chosen for modelling TE estimation. The main findings show the inexistence of substantial differences in the farms performance with or without complementary sources of income (0.679 for PTF and 0.689 for FTF). However, the most efficient farms are related with the main source of income.

Mots clés

  • Azores
  • efficiency
  • milk
  • productivity

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