Magazine et Edition

Volume 11 (2021): Edition 1 (December 2021)

Volume 10 (2020): Edition 1 (December 2020)

Volume 9 (2019): Edition 1 (December 2019)

Volume 8 (2018): Edition 1 (December 2018)

Volume 7 (2017): Edition 1 (December 2017)
World of Slavs

Volume 6 (2016): Edition 1 (December 2016)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2543-9391
Première publication
15 Dec 2016
Période de publication
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 10 (2020): Edition 1 (December 2020)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2543-9391
Première publication
15 Dec 2016
Période de publication
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

20 Articles
Accès libre

Referendums, democracy and separatism

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 1 - 13

Résumé

Abstract

There have been referendums on separatism for longer than there has been democracy. Allowing areas to vote on independence or on whether to belong to another state or territory is a practice that goes back as far as the 14th century, though it is only in the 20th century that it really took off. While many claim a right to self-determination’, there is no formal legal right to hold referendums on secession, unless there are constitutional provisions for this, a specific agreement between the parties, or if the country is a former colony. Of the referendums on independence that have been held, very few have yielded yes’ votes in developed democratic societies.

Mots clés

  • referendums
  • nationalism
  • secession
  • independence
  • democracy
  • Caledonia
Accès libre

Nationalism and right to secession: New states, identities and global security

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 15 - 26

Résumé

Abstract

This article makes a provocative diagnosis: an unlimited right to secession is incompatible with global peace and progress. In order to overcome such a danger, it offers a practical solution: potential new nations should be subject to a viability test. Should each ethnic, cultural or language group claim their own and independent nation, the globe map would end up divided into 5,000 pieces. It is precisely in times of globalization that stable borders and rationalilty are more than ever necessary, and not only because geostrategic stability is at stake, but because sustainable development and peaceful coexistance are as well.

Mots clés

  • nationalism
  • secession
  • desintegration
  • identity
  • globalization
  • minorities
  • security
Accès libre

Authoritarian populism in the US: context and continuity in a post-truth era

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 27 - 44

Résumé

Abstract

An enduring theme in US politics is tension between people on the right who favour limited government that serves individual and elite interests and people on the left who prefer active government with emphasis on a broader public interest. Recently, the political landscape has shifted from the dominant ideology of neoliberalism toward a far-right authoritarian populism with parallels to mid-20th century fascism. This shift appears in regressive societal characteristics - such as xenophobia, racism, homophobia, and misogyny - that were thought to have diminished in an increasingly progressive 21 st century. An argument can be made that authoritarian populism is a continuation of longstanding patterns of elite influence, in which regressive elements serve as techniques to distract the public from the governing economic agenda. The essay examines this phenomenon and explores potential future effects on US society.

Mots clés

  • authoritarian populism
  • cultural context
  • fascism
  • post-truth
  • elites
  • white nationalism
Accès libre

How does secessionism end? No-win scenarios for contemporary American secessionist movements

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 45 - 55

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to characterize the American secessionist movement in the 21st century. In spite of the fact that all ideas of self-determination in the U.S. are not welcomed by the federal government in Washington and as a consequence are dying on the vine, they have still reborn in subsequent separatist and secessionist initiatives. An analysis of the goals, sizes and motivations of contemporary secessionist groups in the United States will lead to the main goal of the paper, which is to answer the question about the types of strategies chosen by American secessionists in the situation of the obvious failure of their overarching political goal - independence. As it turns out, a significant part of such groups in a situation of collision of their own political dreams with the harsh conditions of American Realpolitik does not give up and continues their activities in a slightly modified form. Understanding the scenarios accompanying this ideological and organizational change, as well as exemplifying the groups that have decided to implement these scenarios in recent years will be the crucial goal of the paper.

Mots clés

  • political secession in United States of America
  • contemporary self-determination movements
Accès libre

The rise of independence feelings in Catalonia and Scotland. A longitudinal study on the profile of independence in the beginning of the 21st century

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 57 - 75

Résumé

Abstract

The following article aims to make headway on the knowledge related to the elements that explain the steep increase of secessionist nationalism during the 21 st century in the peripheral territories of plurinational Western long-established democracies, such as the ones existing in the United Kingdom and Spain. In order to do so, we will be focusing on the quick change observed in the preferences as to the state territorial organization in Catalonia and Scotland. Through the usage of the logistic regression technique, a longitudinal analysis will be carried out to analyze the principal characteristics of the Catalonian and Scottish independence profile throughout the period comprehended between 1999 and 2016.

Mots clés

  • Catalonia
  • Scotland
  • secessionism
  • logistic regression
Accès libre

Spain, La Roja, and the forging of the nation: truth or fiction?

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 77 - 91

Résumé

Abstract

The paper analyzes the role of the national team of Spain denoted by the neologism La Roja in promoting patriotic sentiments and building national unity. In a 2014 study entitled Goles y banderas. Fútbol e identidades nacionales en España, Alejandro Quiroga Fernández de Soto argues that the successes of the team in 2008-2012 (Champions of Europe in Austria and Switzerland, World Champions in South Africa and again Champions of Europe in Poland and Ukraine), brought about a patriotic revival, while La Roja itself became an integrating factor which united the Spanish regardless of political differences and distinct identities. The assertion is highly debatable for two reasons: firstly, the resurgence of the national symbols was temporary and did not occur uniformly across the country, especially in Catalonia and the Basque Country; secondly, it would be more fitting to speak of journalistic patriotism rather than actual patriotic revival within the Spanish society. The paper critically assesses the patriotic discourse rooted in the successes of La Roja in 2008-2012. Their poor performance in the last major tournaments in 2014-2018 and absence of any particular euphoria surrounding the national team confirm that the wave of flags which swept the country in the successful period was not an expression of profound, patriotic renewal of national symbols. At most, it may be argued to have been a forced attempt to boost Spanish (centralist) nationalism in the face of the increasingly active peripheral nationalisms, especially its most radical, Catalan embodiment.

Mots clés

  • football
  • Spanish national team
  • Spain
  • Catalonia
  • Basque Country
  • nationalism
  • patriotism
  • national unity
Accès libre

Hungary’s and Romania’s exogenous influence on separatism processes in Ukraine

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 93 - 104

Résumé

Abstract

The author, on the basis of a preliminary analysis of the problem of the exogenous influence of the countries on the strengthening of separatism processes in Ukraine, expresses the view that separatism conflicts have not only internal causes for escalation, but also the external influence exerted by the main actors of international relations, solving their geopolitical task or countries bordering Ukraine. The author classifies the exogenous factors of influence, which are most often used by the main and influential actors of international relations to strengthen their positions in the region or in any state.

The aim of the article is to analyze such components of the Hungarian and Romanian exogenous influence on Ukraine as cultural, educational, political, and diplomatic ones. These two countries consistently and persistently try to protect the rights and interests of Hungarian and Romanian national minorities in Ukraine, but every year they do so contrary to the interests and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Relations between the countries have worsened due to statements by political and public figures in Hungary and Romania after the adoption of the Law on Education by Ukraine in September 2017. The author comes to the conclusion that the cultural component of exogenous influence increases the factor of identity and can serve as an element of soft power and catalyze the ethnic/separatism conflict in the country.

Mots clés

  • Transcarpathia
  • separatism
  • exogenous factors
  • Ukraine
  • Hungary
  • Romania
Accès libre

The position of the Spanish monarchy and Catalan separatism in the 21st century

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 105 - 125

Résumé

Abstract

The article deals with the position of the Spanish monarchy in the context of Catalan separatism (independentism). The analysis is focused on the search for potential relationships between the weakening position of the Spanish monarchy and Catalan independentism and the consequences associated with this. To this end, the exploration includes both the monarchy in the institutional sense and focuses on the person of Juan Carlos I de Burbon himself and his son and successor Philip VI de Burbon. Furthermore, an important aspect of the research is the reference of the position of the monarchy to the issue of the independence process in Catalonia and a forecast in this light for the further development of Catalan separatism.

Mots clés

  • Catalan separatism
  • Catalan independentism
  • Spanish monarchy
  • Juan Carlos I de Burbon
  • Philippe VI de Burbon
Accès libre

The new Catalan nationalism

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 127 - 139

Résumé

Abstract

In this article, I have shown how Catalan nationalism mutated in the last years. Since 1979 Catalonia enjoyed unprecedented political self-government, however, its polítical autonomy was not enough for the independence movement, With the economic crisis of 2008, they declared that the time of independence has finally arrived, and in 2017 a bizarre independence that lasted a few seconds was proclaimed. Catalan nationalism was traditionally pragmatic, but since then, this is no longer the case. It converted to a new nationalism that in the name of a democracy of the people divided Catalonia by antagonism. As I have shown, the new Catalan nationalism is today a populism of secession.

Mots clés

  • nationalism
  • Catalonia
  • populistm
  • antagonism
  • real democracy
  • secession
  • constitution
Accès libre

Regional identity and its protection on the example of the Valencian Autonomous Community

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 141 - 151

Résumé

Abstract

The article systematizes the knowledge about the Valencian Autonomous Community and the activities of its authorities in the field of language policy. The author has reviewed the legal solutions strengthening the status of a regional language in public space and discussed the main laws that emphasize the importance of the language as a cultural heritage of Valencia. The article also presents statistical data on the situation and ways of using the language by the inhabitants of Valencia. The last part of the article discusses the Valencian-language media market. The regional government financially supports the presence of the language in public space. The position of the Valencian language remains constant, albeit low, both among the population and in the media, Therefore, the subsidies proposed by the government of the Valencian Community should change this situation and strengthen the presence of the Valencian language among the population of the region.

Mots clés

  • regional identity
  • autonomous cormmunity
  • language policy
  • Spain
  • media system
Accès libre

The historical background of Catalan separatism: The case of Occitania

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 153 - 167

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to discuss the originality of the Catalan literature at its beginnings in relation to the poetry of the Occitan troubadours, and to explain why some Catalans today do not feel connected to the Castilian heritage. The paper presents the Occitan-Catalan political and cultural relations in the time between 993 and 1213, with particular emphasis on the 12th century when the Great Occitan War took place. The historical Occitania at that time was divided into numerous principalities affected by constant internal struggles. That unstable political situation encouraged powerful neighbours – as the rulers from the House of Barcelona – to attain their domination over the region. The successful military and diplomatic engagements of the Catalan sovereigns allowed them to create a relatively homogeneoas Occitan-Catalan community based on cultural similarity and feudal dependence.

Mots clés

  • House of Barcelona
  • Catalan Occitan campaign
  • Occitan-Catalan cultural circle
  • Counts of Barcelona
  • Great Occitan War
Accès libre

Atheism and the changing image of Islam in Iraq

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 169 - 180

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present the situation of atheists and apostates in Iraq, as the tendency to abandon religion is increasing in this country. With the fall of the regime of Saddam Hussein and his party, Shiites took power in the country who, guided by religious doctrine, often limit the freedoms and rights of citizens. In addition, the authorities in the country still maintain a policy of ethnic and religious divisions towards citizens, which leads to social conflicts. Another dangerous factor is the emergence of religious terrorist organizations and private militias that persecute dissenters. Although atheism is not punished by state law, many people who deny God’s existence are arrested or killed, The only safe places for them are secret meetings or a virtual space where they can discuss and seek answers to their doubts.

Mots clés

  • Iraq
  • atheisro
  • apostate
  • Islam
  • religion
  • law
Accès libre

When Ukrainian migrant meets a Polish official. Implementing migration policy in the opinions of temporary economic migrants from Ukraine in Poland in a neo-institutional perspective

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 181 - 195

Résumé

Abstract

Migration processes affect the functioning mechanisms of many institutions and public spheres, on which the state create particular public policies. Migration policy is one of them. The success of its implementation depends on many factors, but institutional actors (officials) play a crucial role in this process. The decisions and projections of migrants with respect to extending their stay in Poland depend on the interpretation of legal, institutional and formal regulations. The aim of the article is to analyze the subjective experiences of Ukrainian economic migrants with Polish institutions and the personnel representing them. Our considerations have been located within the neo-institutional theory. We want to answer the question to what extent the official behaviour patterns of officials in migrant cases adopted as part of formal conditions allow thera to overcome to sense of uncertainty and foster adaptation processes. On the other hand, we would like to determine to what extent contacts of migrants with officials and institutions become a barrier that limits the possibilities of making migration decisions. Studying the subjective interpretations of migrants’ experience is an important element of analysis that will allow us to check how the elements of migration policy are implemented in ‘in action’. Considering the findings resulting from the study, it can be assumed that the functioning of efficient administration should not be limited only to compliance with legal rules, but to go beyond them within morally allowed limits, in order to increase the effectiveness of implemented activities ia many dimensions.

Mots clés

  • neo-institutionalism
  • migration policy
  • migration from Ukraine
  • determinants of migration decisions
  • the role of an official in the adaptation process of migrants
Accès libre

Trauma societies and their characteristics: Between evolution and revolution

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 197 - 210

Résumé

Abstract

The development of civilization at the present stage is faced with a phenomenon that is still poorly studied and lítde known, which we call the trauma of’ society. The fact is that significant, special and specific events are taking place in the world that caunot be defined and qualified in the old terms of evolution and revolution, which describe and reflect the changes that are taking place. Currently, there are 53 states that, according to the World Bank, that have been or are ina state of chaotic, unbalanced and turbulent development for a long period. This state allows us to state that along with the main recognized development paths -revolution and evolution - ia the modern worldthere ls such a specific phenomenonas trauma society. Ítis showa how the concept oftrauma acquired a social sound, and how itwas interpreted in the scientific literature, 20d to what extent was reflected ia political vocabulary. The author refers as trauma societies to countries tbat have stagnated for along time io their development orare ioa state of recession andlose their previously achieved milestones. The article reveals the essential characteristics of a trauma society, the reasons for its occurrence, and the consequences of its functioning. Particular attention is paid to Russia, which, according to the author, can be described as trauma aud injured society, since in its development, having rejected the socialist past, it did not reach the Achievements from which it began its way in 1991. At the same time, transformations carried out for more than a quarter of a century forra a raosaic in which it is difficult/impossible to distinguish between evolutionary and revolutionarv treads. In this regard, an analysis of the obstacies that are not overcome for the iniplementationofa truly democratic, eficiently functioning society is given.

Mots clés

  • civilization
  • revolution
  • evolution
  • trauma
  • development
  • social implications
Accès libre

What is the contemporary political myth?

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 211 - 224

Résumé

Abstract

The article attempts to forma a definition of contemporary political myth. This definition is formulated against the background of concepts that have been presented so far in sciences close to the topic of myth, such as religious studies, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy, and cultural studies. The contemporary political myth becomes an independent form which, not contradicting the definitions of myth in other scientific disciplines, is transferred, updated or created from scratch in order to liberate and direct the political energy inherent in society. The contemporary political myth becomes an unverifiable fiction which, through referring to images and symbols, often replaces a discussion or rational arguments. Despite its irrational nature, it has a distinguishable impact on the society and the political activities and behaviour undertaken within it.

Mots clés

  • political myth
  • myth
  • philosophy of symbolic forms
  • reflections on violence
Accès libre

Protection status of the Sami identity in Finland in the first years after accession

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 225 - 243

Résumé

Abstract

The Sami people are the only native people in Europe. Their identity and culture are related to the nature of the northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Due to the difficult natural conditions occurring there, the Saami identity is subject to special protection both in Finland and in the European Union. The activities of external institutions mainly consist in multi-faceted activities aimed at improving the quality of life in those areas and counteracting the depopulation of regions traditionally inhabited by the Sami people.

Mots clés

  • Finland
  • Sami People
  • cultural identity
  • EU funds
Accès libre

Sovereignty of Member States in New European Pact for Migration and Asylum

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 245 - 255

Résumé

Abstract

The author of the article attempts to analyze the consequences for Member States’ sovereignty arising from the European asylum system reform and harmonization proposed in September 2020 by the European Commission. The author believes that so-called solidarity mechanism, however designed with intention of burden sharing and help, de facto has the potential to become migrant relocation mechanism. That argument is already being raised by Member States that are opposing the European Commission’s proposal. According to them, the proposal violates rules guaranteeing Member States’ rights to determine volumes of admissions of the third country nationals, explicitly expressed in the Treaty on the European Union. The author also notices that decision-making power on the relocations is transferred to the Commission, leaving limited flexibility in gesture of Member States. Without being opposed to subsidiarity principle itself, the article questions whether the details of the Commission’s proposal are not actually against the principle and certain elements, like effective return, are not better achieved at the national level. In the research procedure, a method of critical analysis of the content of studies and the available sources was used.

Mots clés

  • CEAS
  • Common European Asylum System
  • immigration
  • return procedures
  • asylum seekers
  • refugees
  • European Union migration policy
  • Dublin Regulation
  • sovereignty
  • migration crisis
Accès libre

The Free State of Bavaria - between Christianization and secularism

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 257 - 266

Résumé

Abstract

The article deals with issues related to the phenomena of secularization and secularism in the Free State of Bavaria. The analysis includes changes in attitudes towards religion in recent years, the perception of church institutions and the transformation of religiousness, and the partial disappearance of religiousness and the effects of multiculturalism in the context of the attachment to tradition and the strong cultivation of the Bavarian cultural identity.

Mots clés

  • secularization
  • secularism
  • religion
  • faith in God
  • individualization of religion
  • institutional church
  • cultural identity
Accès libre

Police in the nation state - an apolitical and independent institution?

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 267 - 278

Résumé

Abstract

Police is one of the most important institution related to security in nation state, which in the era of globalization is subject to constant changes. The police as institution was established to protect peoples safety and to maintain public safety and order. In order to be able to effectively carry out its tasks, the police must have social trust and be perceived as an independent and apolitical institution. Can the institution in which the politicians of the ruling party decide about who will hold the highest positions be independent and apolitical? What can be the social consequences and consequences for national security resulting from the actions of police related to the implementation of political decisions related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and social protests of October 2020? This paper is a voice in the discussion on this topic.

Mots clés

  • Police
  • dispositional group
  • social trust
  • apolitical institution
Accès libre

Election of Bishop Bazyli (Doroszkiewicz) as the Metropolitan of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church as part of the religious policy of the Polish state

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 279 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

The election of superiors in the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church was one of the key elements in the religious policy of the communist authorities. The new superiors were expected to be full of loyalty and closely cooperate and support the social and political changes taking place. The rulers wanted the bishops and the Orthodox clergy to take full control. The way to do this was to influence the selection of a suitable candidate for the position of a metropolitan. The choice of a superior appointed by the authorities was to fully guarantee the realization of tasks important from the point of view of the multilateral activity of the state.

Mots clés

  • Bishop Bazyli (Doroszkiewicz)
  • Orthodox Church
  • religious policy
  • Office for Religious Affairs
20 Articles
Accès libre

Referendums, democracy and separatism

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 1 - 13

Résumé

Abstract

There have been referendums on separatism for longer than there has been democracy. Allowing areas to vote on independence or on whether to belong to another state or territory is a practice that goes back as far as the 14th century, though it is only in the 20th century that it really took off. While many claim a right to self-determination’, there is no formal legal right to hold referendums on secession, unless there are constitutional provisions for this, a specific agreement between the parties, or if the country is a former colony. Of the referendums on independence that have been held, very few have yielded yes’ votes in developed democratic societies.

Mots clés

  • referendums
  • nationalism
  • secession
  • independence
  • democracy
  • Caledonia
Accès libre

Nationalism and right to secession: New states, identities and global security

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 15 - 26

Résumé

Abstract

This article makes a provocative diagnosis: an unlimited right to secession is incompatible with global peace and progress. In order to overcome such a danger, it offers a practical solution: potential new nations should be subject to a viability test. Should each ethnic, cultural or language group claim their own and independent nation, the globe map would end up divided into 5,000 pieces. It is precisely in times of globalization that stable borders and rationalilty are more than ever necessary, and not only because geostrategic stability is at stake, but because sustainable development and peaceful coexistance are as well.

Mots clés

  • nationalism
  • secession
  • desintegration
  • identity
  • globalization
  • minorities
  • security
Accès libre

Authoritarian populism in the US: context and continuity in a post-truth era

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 27 - 44

Résumé

Abstract

An enduring theme in US politics is tension between people on the right who favour limited government that serves individual and elite interests and people on the left who prefer active government with emphasis on a broader public interest. Recently, the political landscape has shifted from the dominant ideology of neoliberalism toward a far-right authoritarian populism with parallels to mid-20th century fascism. This shift appears in regressive societal characteristics - such as xenophobia, racism, homophobia, and misogyny - that were thought to have diminished in an increasingly progressive 21 st century. An argument can be made that authoritarian populism is a continuation of longstanding patterns of elite influence, in which regressive elements serve as techniques to distract the public from the governing economic agenda. The essay examines this phenomenon and explores potential future effects on US society.

Mots clés

  • authoritarian populism
  • cultural context
  • fascism
  • post-truth
  • elites
  • white nationalism
Accès libre

How does secessionism end? No-win scenarios for contemporary American secessionist movements

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 45 - 55

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to characterize the American secessionist movement in the 21st century. In spite of the fact that all ideas of self-determination in the U.S. are not welcomed by the federal government in Washington and as a consequence are dying on the vine, they have still reborn in subsequent separatist and secessionist initiatives. An analysis of the goals, sizes and motivations of contemporary secessionist groups in the United States will lead to the main goal of the paper, which is to answer the question about the types of strategies chosen by American secessionists in the situation of the obvious failure of their overarching political goal - independence. As it turns out, a significant part of such groups in a situation of collision of their own political dreams with the harsh conditions of American Realpolitik does not give up and continues their activities in a slightly modified form. Understanding the scenarios accompanying this ideological and organizational change, as well as exemplifying the groups that have decided to implement these scenarios in recent years will be the crucial goal of the paper.

Mots clés

  • political secession in United States of America
  • contemporary self-determination movements
Accès libre

The rise of independence feelings in Catalonia and Scotland. A longitudinal study on the profile of independence in the beginning of the 21st century

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 57 - 75

Résumé

Abstract

The following article aims to make headway on the knowledge related to the elements that explain the steep increase of secessionist nationalism during the 21 st century in the peripheral territories of plurinational Western long-established democracies, such as the ones existing in the United Kingdom and Spain. In order to do so, we will be focusing on the quick change observed in the preferences as to the state territorial organization in Catalonia and Scotland. Through the usage of the logistic regression technique, a longitudinal analysis will be carried out to analyze the principal characteristics of the Catalonian and Scottish independence profile throughout the period comprehended between 1999 and 2016.

Mots clés

  • Catalonia
  • Scotland
  • secessionism
  • logistic regression
Accès libre

Spain, La Roja, and the forging of the nation: truth or fiction?

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 77 - 91

Résumé

Abstract

The paper analyzes the role of the national team of Spain denoted by the neologism La Roja in promoting patriotic sentiments and building national unity. In a 2014 study entitled Goles y banderas. Fútbol e identidades nacionales en España, Alejandro Quiroga Fernández de Soto argues that the successes of the team in 2008-2012 (Champions of Europe in Austria and Switzerland, World Champions in South Africa and again Champions of Europe in Poland and Ukraine), brought about a patriotic revival, while La Roja itself became an integrating factor which united the Spanish regardless of political differences and distinct identities. The assertion is highly debatable for two reasons: firstly, the resurgence of the national symbols was temporary and did not occur uniformly across the country, especially in Catalonia and the Basque Country; secondly, it would be more fitting to speak of journalistic patriotism rather than actual patriotic revival within the Spanish society. The paper critically assesses the patriotic discourse rooted in the successes of La Roja in 2008-2012. Their poor performance in the last major tournaments in 2014-2018 and absence of any particular euphoria surrounding the national team confirm that the wave of flags which swept the country in the successful period was not an expression of profound, patriotic renewal of national symbols. At most, it may be argued to have been a forced attempt to boost Spanish (centralist) nationalism in the face of the increasingly active peripheral nationalisms, especially its most radical, Catalan embodiment.

Mots clés

  • football
  • Spanish national team
  • Spain
  • Catalonia
  • Basque Country
  • nationalism
  • patriotism
  • national unity
Accès libre

Hungary’s and Romania’s exogenous influence on separatism processes in Ukraine

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 93 - 104

Résumé

Abstract

The author, on the basis of a preliminary analysis of the problem of the exogenous influence of the countries on the strengthening of separatism processes in Ukraine, expresses the view that separatism conflicts have not only internal causes for escalation, but also the external influence exerted by the main actors of international relations, solving their geopolitical task or countries bordering Ukraine. The author classifies the exogenous factors of influence, which are most often used by the main and influential actors of international relations to strengthen their positions in the region or in any state.

The aim of the article is to analyze such components of the Hungarian and Romanian exogenous influence on Ukraine as cultural, educational, political, and diplomatic ones. These two countries consistently and persistently try to protect the rights and interests of Hungarian and Romanian national minorities in Ukraine, but every year they do so contrary to the interests and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Relations between the countries have worsened due to statements by political and public figures in Hungary and Romania after the adoption of the Law on Education by Ukraine in September 2017. The author comes to the conclusion that the cultural component of exogenous influence increases the factor of identity and can serve as an element of soft power and catalyze the ethnic/separatism conflict in the country.

Mots clés

  • Transcarpathia
  • separatism
  • exogenous factors
  • Ukraine
  • Hungary
  • Romania
Accès libre

The position of the Spanish monarchy and Catalan separatism in the 21st century

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 105 - 125

Résumé

Abstract

The article deals with the position of the Spanish monarchy in the context of Catalan separatism (independentism). The analysis is focused on the search for potential relationships between the weakening position of the Spanish monarchy and Catalan independentism and the consequences associated with this. To this end, the exploration includes both the monarchy in the institutional sense and focuses on the person of Juan Carlos I de Burbon himself and his son and successor Philip VI de Burbon. Furthermore, an important aspect of the research is the reference of the position of the monarchy to the issue of the independence process in Catalonia and a forecast in this light for the further development of Catalan separatism.

Mots clés

  • Catalan separatism
  • Catalan independentism
  • Spanish monarchy
  • Juan Carlos I de Burbon
  • Philippe VI de Burbon
Accès libre

The new Catalan nationalism

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 127 - 139

Résumé

Abstract

In this article, I have shown how Catalan nationalism mutated in the last years. Since 1979 Catalonia enjoyed unprecedented political self-government, however, its polítical autonomy was not enough for the independence movement, With the economic crisis of 2008, they declared that the time of independence has finally arrived, and in 2017 a bizarre independence that lasted a few seconds was proclaimed. Catalan nationalism was traditionally pragmatic, but since then, this is no longer the case. It converted to a new nationalism that in the name of a democracy of the people divided Catalonia by antagonism. As I have shown, the new Catalan nationalism is today a populism of secession.

Mots clés

  • nationalism
  • Catalonia
  • populistm
  • antagonism
  • real democracy
  • secession
  • constitution
Accès libre

Regional identity and its protection on the example of the Valencian Autonomous Community

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 141 - 151

Résumé

Abstract

The article systematizes the knowledge about the Valencian Autonomous Community and the activities of its authorities in the field of language policy. The author has reviewed the legal solutions strengthening the status of a regional language in public space and discussed the main laws that emphasize the importance of the language as a cultural heritage of Valencia. The article also presents statistical data on the situation and ways of using the language by the inhabitants of Valencia. The last part of the article discusses the Valencian-language media market. The regional government financially supports the presence of the language in public space. The position of the Valencian language remains constant, albeit low, both among the population and in the media, Therefore, the subsidies proposed by the government of the Valencian Community should change this situation and strengthen the presence of the Valencian language among the population of the region.

Mots clés

  • regional identity
  • autonomous cormmunity
  • language policy
  • Spain
  • media system
Accès libre

The historical background of Catalan separatism: The case of Occitania

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 153 - 167

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to discuss the originality of the Catalan literature at its beginnings in relation to the poetry of the Occitan troubadours, and to explain why some Catalans today do not feel connected to the Castilian heritage. The paper presents the Occitan-Catalan political and cultural relations in the time between 993 and 1213, with particular emphasis on the 12th century when the Great Occitan War took place. The historical Occitania at that time was divided into numerous principalities affected by constant internal struggles. That unstable political situation encouraged powerful neighbours – as the rulers from the House of Barcelona – to attain their domination over the region. The successful military and diplomatic engagements of the Catalan sovereigns allowed them to create a relatively homogeneoas Occitan-Catalan community based on cultural similarity and feudal dependence.

Mots clés

  • House of Barcelona
  • Catalan Occitan campaign
  • Occitan-Catalan cultural circle
  • Counts of Barcelona
  • Great Occitan War
Accès libre

Atheism and the changing image of Islam in Iraq

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 169 - 180

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present the situation of atheists and apostates in Iraq, as the tendency to abandon religion is increasing in this country. With the fall of the regime of Saddam Hussein and his party, Shiites took power in the country who, guided by religious doctrine, often limit the freedoms and rights of citizens. In addition, the authorities in the country still maintain a policy of ethnic and religious divisions towards citizens, which leads to social conflicts. Another dangerous factor is the emergence of religious terrorist organizations and private militias that persecute dissenters. Although atheism is not punished by state law, many people who deny God’s existence are arrested or killed, The only safe places for them are secret meetings or a virtual space where they can discuss and seek answers to their doubts.

Mots clés

  • Iraq
  • atheisro
  • apostate
  • Islam
  • religion
  • law
Accès libre

When Ukrainian migrant meets a Polish official. Implementing migration policy in the opinions of temporary economic migrants from Ukraine in Poland in a neo-institutional perspective

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 181 - 195

Résumé

Abstract

Migration processes affect the functioning mechanisms of many institutions and public spheres, on which the state create particular public policies. Migration policy is one of them. The success of its implementation depends on many factors, but institutional actors (officials) play a crucial role in this process. The decisions and projections of migrants with respect to extending their stay in Poland depend on the interpretation of legal, institutional and formal regulations. The aim of the article is to analyze the subjective experiences of Ukrainian economic migrants with Polish institutions and the personnel representing them. Our considerations have been located within the neo-institutional theory. We want to answer the question to what extent the official behaviour patterns of officials in migrant cases adopted as part of formal conditions allow thera to overcome to sense of uncertainty and foster adaptation processes. On the other hand, we would like to determine to what extent contacts of migrants with officials and institutions become a barrier that limits the possibilities of making migration decisions. Studying the subjective interpretations of migrants’ experience is an important element of analysis that will allow us to check how the elements of migration policy are implemented in ‘in action’. Considering the findings resulting from the study, it can be assumed that the functioning of efficient administration should not be limited only to compliance with legal rules, but to go beyond them within morally allowed limits, in order to increase the effectiveness of implemented activities ia many dimensions.

Mots clés

  • neo-institutionalism
  • migration policy
  • migration from Ukraine
  • determinants of migration decisions
  • the role of an official in the adaptation process of migrants
Accès libre

Trauma societies and their characteristics: Between evolution and revolution

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 197 - 210

Résumé

Abstract

The development of civilization at the present stage is faced with a phenomenon that is still poorly studied and lítde known, which we call the trauma of’ society. The fact is that significant, special and specific events are taking place in the world that caunot be defined and qualified in the old terms of evolution and revolution, which describe and reflect the changes that are taking place. Currently, there are 53 states that, according to the World Bank, that have been or are ina state of chaotic, unbalanced and turbulent development for a long period. This state allows us to state that along with the main recognized development paths -revolution and evolution - ia the modern worldthere ls such a specific phenomenonas trauma society. Ítis showa how the concept oftrauma acquired a social sound, and how itwas interpreted in the scientific literature, 20d to what extent was reflected ia political vocabulary. The author refers as trauma societies to countries tbat have stagnated for along time io their development orare ioa state of recession andlose their previously achieved milestones. The article reveals the essential characteristics of a trauma society, the reasons for its occurrence, and the consequences of its functioning. Particular attention is paid to Russia, which, according to the author, can be described as trauma aud injured society, since in its development, having rejected the socialist past, it did not reach the Achievements from which it began its way in 1991. At the same time, transformations carried out for more than a quarter of a century forra a raosaic in which it is difficult/impossible to distinguish between evolutionary and revolutionarv treads. In this regard, an analysis of the obstacies that are not overcome for the iniplementationofa truly democratic, eficiently functioning society is given.

Mots clés

  • civilization
  • revolution
  • evolution
  • trauma
  • development
  • social implications
Accès libre

What is the contemporary political myth?

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 211 - 224

Résumé

Abstract

The article attempts to forma a definition of contemporary political myth. This definition is formulated against the background of concepts that have been presented so far in sciences close to the topic of myth, such as religious studies, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy, and cultural studies. The contemporary political myth becomes an independent form which, not contradicting the definitions of myth in other scientific disciplines, is transferred, updated or created from scratch in order to liberate and direct the political energy inherent in society. The contemporary political myth becomes an unverifiable fiction which, through referring to images and symbols, often replaces a discussion or rational arguments. Despite its irrational nature, it has a distinguishable impact on the society and the political activities and behaviour undertaken within it.

Mots clés

  • political myth
  • myth
  • philosophy of symbolic forms
  • reflections on violence
Accès libre

Protection status of the Sami identity in Finland in the first years after accession

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 225 - 243

Résumé

Abstract

The Sami people are the only native people in Europe. Their identity and culture are related to the nature of the northern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Due to the difficult natural conditions occurring there, the Saami identity is subject to special protection both in Finland and in the European Union. The activities of external institutions mainly consist in multi-faceted activities aimed at improving the quality of life in those areas and counteracting the depopulation of regions traditionally inhabited by the Sami people.

Mots clés

  • Finland
  • Sami People
  • cultural identity
  • EU funds
Accès libre

Sovereignty of Member States in New European Pact for Migration and Asylum

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 245 - 255

Résumé

Abstract

The author of the article attempts to analyze the consequences for Member States’ sovereignty arising from the European asylum system reform and harmonization proposed in September 2020 by the European Commission. The author believes that so-called solidarity mechanism, however designed with intention of burden sharing and help, de facto has the potential to become migrant relocation mechanism. That argument is already being raised by Member States that are opposing the European Commission’s proposal. According to them, the proposal violates rules guaranteeing Member States’ rights to determine volumes of admissions of the third country nationals, explicitly expressed in the Treaty on the European Union. The author also notices that decision-making power on the relocations is transferred to the Commission, leaving limited flexibility in gesture of Member States. Without being opposed to subsidiarity principle itself, the article questions whether the details of the Commission’s proposal are not actually against the principle and certain elements, like effective return, are not better achieved at the national level. In the research procedure, a method of critical analysis of the content of studies and the available sources was used.

Mots clés

  • CEAS
  • Common European Asylum System
  • immigration
  • return procedures
  • asylum seekers
  • refugees
  • European Union migration policy
  • Dublin Regulation
  • sovereignty
  • migration crisis
Accès libre

The Free State of Bavaria - between Christianization and secularism

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 257 - 266

Résumé

Abstract

The article deals with issues related to the phenomena of secularization and secularism in the Free State of Bavaria. The analysis includes changes in attitudes towards religion in recent years, the perception of church institutions and the transformation of religiousness, and the partial disappearance of religiousness and the effects of multiculturalism in the context of the attachment to tradition and the strong cultivation of the Bavarian cultural identity.

Mots clés

  • secularization
  • secularism
  • religion
  • faith in God
  • individualization of religion
  • institutional church
  • cultural identity
Accès libre

Police in the nation state - an apolitical and independent institution?

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 267 - 278

Résumé

Abstract

Police is one of the most important institution related to security in nation state, which in the era of globalization is subject to constant changes. The police as institution was established to protect peoples safety and to maintain public safety and order. In order to be able to effectively carry out its tasks, the police must have social trust and be perceived as an independent and apolitical institution. Can the institution in which the politicians of the ruling party decide about who will hold the highest positions be independent and apolitical? What can be the social consequences and consequences for national security resulting from the actions of police related to the implementation of political decisions related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and social protests of October 2020? This paper is a voice in the discussion on this topic.

Mots clés

  • Police
  • dispositional group
  • social trust
  • apolitical institution
Accès libre

Election of Bishop Bazyli (Doroszkiewicz) as the Metropolitan of the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church as part of the religious policy of the Polish state

Publié en ligne: 21 May 2021
Pages: 279 - 292

Résumé

Abstract

The election of superiors in the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church was one of the key elements in the religious policy of the communist authorities. The new superiors were expected to be full of loyalty and closely cooperate and support the social and political changes taking place. The rulers wanted the bishops and the Orthodox clergy to take full control. The way to do this was to influence the selection of a suitable candidate for the position of a metropolitan. The choice of a superior appointed by the authorities was to fully guarantee the realization of tasks important from the point of view of the multilateral activity of the state.

Mots clés

  • Bishop Bazyli (Doroszkiewicz)
  • Orthodox Church
  • religious policy
  • Office for Religious Affairs

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