Magazine et Edition

Volume 13 (2022): Edition 1 (January 2022)

Volume 12 (2021): Edition 1 (January 2021)

Volume 11 (2020): Edition 1 (January 2020)

Volume 10 (2019): Edition 2 (August 2019)
Migration and Those Left Behind

Volume 10 (2019): Edition 1 (June 2019)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2520-1786
Première publication
30 Apr 2019
Période de publication
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 12 (2021): Edition 1 (January 2021)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2520-1786
Première publication
30 Apr 2019
Période de publication
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

16 Articles
access type Accès libre

Gender gaps in education: The long view1

Publié en ligne: 29 Jan 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Many countries remain far from achieving gender equality in the classroom. Using data from 126 countries, we characterize the evolution of gender gaps in low- and middle-income countries between 1960 and 2010. We document five facts. First, women are more educated today than 50 years ago in every country in the world. Second, they remain less educated than men in the vast majority of countries. Third, in many countries with low levels of education for both men and women in 1960, gender gaps widened as more boys went to school, then narrowed as girls enrolled; thus, gender gaps got worse before they got better. Fourth, gender gaps rarely persist in countries where boys attain high levels of education. Most countries with large, current gender gaps in educational attainment have low levels of male educational attainment, and many also perform poorly on other measures of development such as life expectancy and GDP per capita. Fifth, in the youngest cohorts, women have more education than men in some regions of the world. Although gender gaps in educational attainment are diminishing in most countries, the empirical evidence does not support the hypothesis that reducing the gender gap in schooling consistently leads to smaller gender gaps in labor force participation.

Mots clés

  • education
  • inequality
  • gender
  • economic development

JEL Classification

  • I21
  • I24
  • J16
  • O1
access type Accès libre

Gender Imbalances and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Large-Scale Mexican Migration

Publié en ligne: 29 Jan 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

We study the consequences of international migration on labor market outcomes in a developing country. Specifically, we look at the case of Mexico, where large-scale international migration has led to significant declines in the male/female ratio. We explore whether this results in Mexican women entering high-skilled and better paying jobs over time. This question is relevant since there has been an increase in women's education and labor force participation across the developing world, but less evidence of improvements in the gender wage gap. Using an instrumental variables strategy that relies on historical migration patterns, we find that when there are relatively fewer men, women are more likely to work, have high-skilled jobs, and some earn higher wages. These results are robust to the inclusion of state, age group, and year fixed effects, and to different measures of migration and data sources. We explore investments in human capital as a key mechanism. We find that the gains in schooling are concentrated among women with the same average level of education of the men who migrate. From an aggregate perspective, these improvements in job type and wages are important given that higher female income may benefit the status, education, and health of both women and children, which in turn increases a country's development and growth. Our findings are among the few that show some movement toward improvements in the gender wage gap in a developing country setting.

Mots clés

  • gender wage gap
  • female labor force participation
  • sex ratio
  • Mexico
  • migration

JEL Classification

  • J21
  • J16
  • J31
  • O15
access type Accès libre

Migrating out of mega-cities: Evidence from Brazil

Publié en ligne: 26 Mar 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Traditional economic models predict rural to urban migration during the structural transformation of an economy. In middle-income countries, it is less clear which direction of migration to expect. In this article, the author shows that in Brazil as many people move out as into metropolitan cities and they mostly move to mid-sized towns. The author estimates the determinants of out-migrants’ destination choice accounting for differences in earnings, living costs, and amenities and tested whether the migrants gain economically by accepting lower wages but enjoying lower living costs. The findings suggest that in their destination choice, out-migrants aim to minimize costs of moving. On average, city-leavers realize higher real wages, including low-skilled migrants who would lose in nominal terms. The article thus provides new evidence on economic incentives to leave big cities in a middle-income country.

Mots clés

  • internal migration
  • secondary towns
  • living costs
  • Brazil

JEL Classification

  • J61
  • R23
  • C35
access type Accès libre

Supply of immigrant entrepreneurs and native entrepreneurship

Publié en ligne: 29 Apr 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Using nationally representative data from the United States, the author estimates the causal impact of immigrant entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial propensities of natives. The author draws data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey and uses within-state variation in supply of immigrant entrepreneurs for identification. To address concerns of endogeneity in the supply of immigrant entrepreneurs, the author takes advantage of a quasi-experiment provided by the State Children's Health Insurance Program. While the Ordinary Least Squares estimates indicate a positive effect, the Two Stage Least Squares estimates suggest that, on average, there is no significant effect of immigrant entrepreneurs on native entrepreneurship. Moreover, there is no net effect on subgroups of natives separated by skill level. There is also some evidence that immigrant entrepreneurs may “crowd-in” Blacks into certain types of self-employment. These results are in contrast to the significant negative impact suggested by the previous literature.

Mots clés

  • entrepreneurship
  • immigration
  • self-employment
  • incorporated and unincorporated businesses
  • State Children's Health Insurance Program

JEL Classification

  • J61
  • F22
  • L26
access type Accès libre

Working beyond the normal retirement age in urban China and urban Russia

Publié en ligne: 31 May 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The incidence of working for earnings beyond the normal pension age of 55 for females and 60 for males in urban China and Russia is investigated using micro-data for 2002, 2013, and 2018. Estimated logit models indicate that, in both countries, the probability of working after normal retirement age is positively related to living with a spouse only, being healthy, and having a higher education level. It is negatively associated with age, the scale of pension, and, in urban China, being female.

We find that seniors in urban Russia are more likely to work for earnings than their counterparts in China. Two possible reasons that are attributable to this difference are ruled out, namely cross-country differences in health status and the age distribution among elderly people. We also demonstrate that working beyond the normal retirement age has a much stronger negative association with earnings in urban China than in urban Russia. This is consistent with the facts that the normal retirement age is strictly enforced in urban China and seniors attempting to work face intensive competition from younger migrant workers. We conclude that China can learn from Russia that it has a substantial potential for increasing employment among healthy people under 70.

Mots clés

  • retirement
  • older people
  • employment
  • China
  • Russia
  • labor market

JEL Classification

  • J14
  • J26
  • J31
  • J7
  • P23
access type Accès libre

Spaniards in the wider world: the role of education in the choice of destination country

Publié en ligne: 14 Jun 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between the education level of Spanish emigrants and their destination country. Since Spanish emigrants were born under the same laws and institutions, the differences in their destination countries can be due to dissimilarities in their level of education. To explore this, we use census microdata, covering the period from 2000 to 2007, of 21 countries with Spanish emigrants. Results suggest that with low unemployment rates, English- and Spanish-speaking countries are the most likely to become the host countries for more educated individuals, regardless of their location.

Mots clés

  • education
  • migration
  • Spain

JEL Classification

  • I20
  • F22
access type Accès libre

Queuing to leave: A new approach to immigration

Publié en ligne: 12 Jul 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper uses queuing theory to examine the linkages between legal and illegal immigration. This approach is particularly appropriate for periods of mass migration and can be used to look at how the magnitude of people trying to migrate affects the choice between legal and illegal channels. An empirical illustration shows how origin-country conflict and past migration differently affect current legal and illegal flows. With data for Schengen countries from Eurostat for documented immigration and the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex) for illegal border crossings (IBCs), I implement a generalized method of moments (GMM) strategy using different estimates of conflict-related deaths and lagged flows of immigration as external and internal instruments, respectively. Violent conflict has a positive and significant effect on IBCs but not on documented migration flows. I find evidence of positive spillovers from the legal channel of immigration into the illegal channel but not vice versa.

Mots clés

  • immigration
  • queuing theory
  • conflict

JEL Classification

  • F22
  • F51
  • C6
access type Accès libre

Introducing the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey 2016

Publié en ligne: 25 Jul 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper introduces the 2016 wave of the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey (JLMPS). It is an essential reference for users of this innovative and valuable dataset, which adds to the growing series of labor market panel surveys (LMPSs) produced by the Economic Research Forum (ERF). The 2016 wave is a follow-up on the initial 2010 wave. There has been substantial turmoil in the region since 2010, including the onset of the Syrian conflict and the influx of refugees into Jordan. The 2016 wave over-sampled areas with a high proportion of non-Jordanians to be able to represent and examine this important population. The paper describes this sampling strategy, attrition from 2010 to 2016, and weighting that corrects for attrition and accounts for the sampling strategy. We compare key demographic measures and labor market statistics with other sources of data on Jordan to demonstrate the sample's representativeness. The data provide an important opportunity for a detailed analysis of Jordan's changing labor market and society.

Mots clés

  • survey data
  • public use data
  • sample weights
  • labor
  • refugees
  • Jordan

JEL Classification

  • J00
  • C81
  • C83
access type Accès libre

Better together: Active and passive labor market policies in developed and developing economies

Publié en ligne: 25 Jul 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

We investigate the macroeconomic impact of public expenditure in active labor market policies (ALMPs) and passive labor market policies (PLMPs) on main employment indicators (i.e., unemployment, employment, and labor force participation) for a large and novel panel database of 121 countries (36 developed, 64 emerging and 21 developing economies). Compared to previous studies, we include for the first time evidence from developing and emerging economies and explicitly examine the possible presence of complementarities between active and passive policies. We find that the interaction between interventions is crucial, as the effect of spending in either of the two policies is more favorable the more is spent on the other. Even the detrimental labor market effects of passive policies disappear on the condition that sufficient amounts are spent on active interventions. This complementarity seems even more important for emerging and developing economies.

Mots clés

  • developing countries
  • evaluation
  • labor economics
  • public policy
  • welfare state

JEL Classification

  • Labor Economics Policies
  • Employment
  • Unemployment
  • Wages
  • Intergenerational Income Distribution
  • Aggregate Human Capital
  • Aggregate Labor Productivity
  • Economic Development
access type Accès libre

Conflict and the composition of economic activity in Afghanistan

Publié en ligne: 07 Sep 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Despite informality being the norm in conflict-affected countries, most estimates of the impact of conflict on economic activity rely on formal sector data. Using high-frequency data from Afghanistan, this paper assesses how surges in conflict intensity affect not only the formal sector, but also informal and illicit activities. Nighttime light provides a proxy for aggregate economic activity, mobile phone traffic by registered firms captures fluctuations in formal sector output, and the land surface devoted to poppy cultivation gives a measure of illicit production. The unit of observation is the district and the period of reference is 2012–2016. The results show that an increase in conflict-related casualties has a strong negative impact on formal economic activity in the following quarter and a positive effect on illicit activity after two quarters. The impact on aggregate economic activity is negative, but more muted.

Mots clés

  • Afghanistan
  • conflict
  • economic activity

JEL Classification

  • D74
  • E21
  • F35
  • I32
  • O17
access type Accès libre

Bilateral labor agreements and the migration of Filipinos: An instrumental variable approach

Publié en ligne: 24 Sep 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Bilateral labor agreements (BLAs) are preferred policy models for regulating migration by many governments around the world. The Philippines has been a leader in both agreement conclusion and exporting labor. A recent Congressional evocation is pushing bureaucrats and academics alike to investigate this policy strategy for outcomes and effectiveness. The following analysis answers the question “Do BLAs affect the migration outflows of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs)?” using a plausibly exogenous variation to isolate a causal effect. I test for effects of BLAs using two instrumental variables (IVs), such as Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and Formal Alliances, and an original dataset of land-based and sea-based Filipino BLAs and migrant stock in 213 unique areas from 1960 to 2018. I do not find any empirical evidence that these treaties drive migration. However, BLAs have statistically significant effects on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and exports, suggesting other important channels through which these agreements affect economic outcomes. These null results are critically important for policymakers and diplomats because the resources spent on negotiation are wasted if the primary goal is to increase migration.

Mots clés

  • bilateral labor agreement
  • migration
  • Overseas Filipino Workers
  • labor export
  • labor policy
  • Philippines

JEL Classification

  • F220
  • J610
access type Accès libre

Introducing the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2018

Publié en ligne: 24 Sep 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper introduces the 2018 wave of the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS), previously fielded in 1998, 2006, and 2012. The ELMPS has already become the primary source of data for a large number of scholarly and policy studies on the labor market and human development issues in Egypt, and this new wave will further enhance its value as a critical data public good. This longitudinal survey is nationally representative, tracking both households and individuals over two decades. In this paper, we describe the key characteristics of the 2018 wave, including sampling, fielding, and questionnaire design. Changes in the collection of retrospective data starting in 2018 are discussed, and we demonstrate that they improved the data quality. We examine the patterns of attrition and present the construction of weights designed to correct for attrition, as well as to ensure that the sample remains nationally representative. We compare the ELMPS data with other Egyptian data sources, namely, the 2017 Census and various rounds of the Labor Force Survey (LFS). The data provide important new insights into Egypt's labor market, economy, and society.

Mots clés

  • survey
  • panel data
  • public use data
  • sample weights
  • labor market
  • Egypt

JEL Classification

  • J00
  • C81
  • C83
access type Accès libre

Women’s economic rights in developing countries and the gender gap in migration to Germany

Publié en ligne: 13 Oct 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

There is a large variation across countries of origin in the gender composition of migrants coming to Germany. We argue that women’s economic rights in developing countries of origin have three effects on their migration prospects to a place like Germany that is far away and difficult to reach. First, the lower are women’s economic rights the fewer women have access to and control over the resources needed to migrate to Germany. Second, the lower are the rights the lower is women’s agency to make or otherwise influence migration decisions. These two constraining effects on the female share in migrant populations dominate the opposing third effect that stems from low levels of women’s economic rights generating a potentially powerful push factor. We find corroborating evidence in our analysis of the gender composition of migration to Germany over the period 2009–2017.

Mots clés

  • migration
  • economic rights
  • gender
  • resources
  • agency

JEL Classification

  • F22
  • K37
  • O15
access type Accès libre

Gender wage gap across the distribution: What is the role of within- and between-firm effects?

Publié en ligne: 18 Oct 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper studies the role of within- and between-firm effects on the gender wage gap (GWG). Using linked employer–employee data for Turkey for 2006 and 2014, we show that the wage gap among comparable men and women is much wider within establishments than between establishments. Our distributional analysis shows a more pronounced gap among highly paid workers, consistent with the presence of a glass-ceiling effect. This effect, however, is more apparent within establishments than between establishments, and it is the former that drives the economy-wide glass ceiling that women face. We also find that between 2006 and 2014, the GWG in Turkey widened at all points in the wage distribution, and that this widening was more pronounced within establishments than between establishments.

Mots clés

  • gender wage gap
  • within- and between-establishments
  • wage distribution

JEL Classification

  • J16
  • J31
  • J71
access type Accès libre

Informal work in sub-Saharan Africa: Dead end or stepping-stone?

Publié en ligne: 20 Nov 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Despite rapid economic growth in recent decades, informality remains a persistent phenomenon in the labor markets of many low- and middle-income countries. A key issue in this regard concerns the extent to which informality itself is a persistent state. Using panel data from Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda, this paper presents one of the very few analyses providing evidence on this question in the context of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results reveal an important extent of heterogeneity in the transition patterns observed for workers in upper-tier versus lower-tier informality. Given the limited alternative job opportunities available, particularly to those in lower-tier informal self-employment who often remain locked in a situation of inferior pay and conditions, specific policies that seek to enhance the livelihoods of workers in this most disadvantaged segment may be more relevant in the sub-Saharan context than policies that aim to reduce the regulatory barriers to formalization.

Mots clés

  • informality
  • segmentation
  • labor market dynamics
  • sub-Saharan Africa

JEL Classification

  • D31
  • J46
  • J62
  • O12
access type Accès libre

Temporary migration as a mechanism for lasting cultural change: evidence from Nepal

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

When a husband migrates, his wife may control more household resources and therefore change how the household spends income. Given the prevalence of seasonal migration in developing countries, even these temporary changes could affect economic development. The extent to which these changes persist after migration spells will magnify these consequences. Using panel data on rural households in Nepal, we examine how a husband's migration interacts with intrahousehold decision-making and consumption patterns both during and after migration spells. We find that a husband's absence is associated with a 10 percentage point increase in the expenditure decisions over which the wife has full control. This coincides with a shift away from expenditures on alcohol and tobacco in favor of children's clothing and education. Importantly, we find that migrant husbands resume their role in decisions following their return, but decisions are more likely to be made jointly. These persistent effects are consistent with a model in which households are pushed to a new, more-equitable equilibrium and then are driven to form habits, which, in turn, cause the new equilibrium to stick, thus facilitating long-term cultural change in gender norms.

Mots clés

  • migration
  • decision-making
  • bargaining power
  • household economics
  • gender

JEL Classification

  • O150
  • D130
  • F220
  • J160
16 Articles
access type Accès libre

Gender gaps in education: The long view1

Publié en ligne: 29 Jan 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Many countries remain far from achieving gender equality in the classroom. Using data from 126 countries, we characterize the evolution of gender gaps in low- and middle-income countries between 1960 and 2010. We document five facts. First, women are more educated today than 50 years ago in every country in the world. Second, they remain less educated than men in the vast majority of countries. Third, in many countries with low levels of education for both men and women in 1960, gender gaps widened as more boys went to school, then narrowed as girls enrolled; thus, gender gaps got worse before they got better. Fourth, gender gaps rarely persist in countries where boys attain high levels of education. Most countries with large, current gender gaps in educational attainment have low levels of male educational attainment, and many also perform poorly on other measures of development such as life expectancy and GDP per capita. Fifth, in the youngest cohorts, women have more education than men in some regions of the world. Although gender gaps in educational attainment are diminishing in most countries, the empirical evidence does not support the hypothesis that reducing the gender gap in schooling consistently leads to smaller gender gaps in labor force participation.

Mots clés

  • education
  • inequality
  • gender
  • economic development

JEL Classification

  • I21
  • I24
  • J16
  • O1
access type Accès libre

Gender Imbalances and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Large-Scale Mexican Migration

Publié en ligne: 29 Jan 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

We study the consequences of international migration on labor market outcomes in a developing country. Specifically, we look at the case of Mexico, where large-scale international migration has led to significant declines in the male/female ratio. We explore whether this results in Mexican women entering high-skilled and better paying jobs over time. This question is relevant since there has been an increase in women's education and labor force participation across the developing world, but less evidence of improvements in the gender wage gap. Using an instrumental variables strategy that relies on historical migration patterns, we find that when there are relatively fewer men, women are more likely to work, have high-skilled jobs, and some earn higher wages. These results are robust to the inclusion of state, age group, and year fixed effects, and to different measures of migration and data sources. We explore investments in human capital as a key mechanism. We find that the gains in schooling are concentrated among women with the same average level of education of the men who migrate. From an aggregate perspective, these improvements in job type and wages are important given that higher female income may benefit the status, education, and health of both women and children, which in turn increases a country's development and growth. Our findings are among the few that show some movement toward improvements in the gender wage gap in a developing country setting.

Mots clés

  • gender wage gap
  • female labor force participation
  • sex ratio
  • Mexico
  • migration

JEL Classification

  • J21
  • J16
  • J31
  • O15
access type Accès libre

Migrating out of mega-cities: Evidence from Brazil

Publié en ligne: 26 Mar 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Traditional economic models predict rural to urban migration during the structural transformation of an economy. In middle-income countries, it is less clear which direction of migration to expect. In this article, the author shows that in Brazil as many people move out as into metropolitan cities and they mostly move to mid-sized towns. The author estimates the determinants of out-migrants’ destination choice accounting for differences in earnings, living costs, and amenities and tested whether the migrants gain economically by accepting lower wages but enjoying lower living costs. The findings suggest that in their destination choice, out-migrants aim to minimize costs of moving. On average, city-leavers realize higher real wages, including low-skilled migrants who would lose in nominal terms. The article thus provides new evidence on economic incentives to leave big cities in a middle-income country.

Mots clés

  • internal migration
  • secondary towns
  • living costs
  • Brazil

JEL Classification

  • J61
  • R23
  • C35
access type Accès libre

Supply of immigrant entrepreneurs and native entrepreneurship

Publié en ligne: 29 Apr 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Using nationally representative data from the United States, the author estimates the causal impact of immigrant entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial propensities of natives. The author draws data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey and uses within-state variation in supply of immigrant entrepreneurs for identification. To address concerns of endogeneity in the supply of immigrant entrepreneurs, the author takes advantage of a quasi-experiment provided by the State Children's Health Insurance Program. While the Ordinary Least Squares estimates indicate a positive effect, the Two Stage Least Squares estimates suggest that, on average, there is no significant effect of immigrant entrepreneurs on native entrepreneurship. Moreover, there is no net effect on subgroups of natives separated by skill level. There is also some evidence that immigrant entrepreneurs may “crowd-in” Blacks into certain types of self-employment. These results are in contrast to the significant negative impact suggested by the previous literature.

Mots clés

  • entrepreneurship
  • immigration
  • self-employment
  • incorporated and unincorporated businesses
  • State Children's Health Insurance Program

JEL Classification

  • J61
  • F22
  • L26
access type Accès libre

Working beyond the normal retirement age in urban China and urban Russia

Publié en ligne: 31 May 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The incidence of working for earnings beyond the normal pension age of 55 for females and 60 for males in urban China and Russia is investigated using micro-data for 2002, 2013, and 2018. Estimated logit models indicate that, in both countries, the probability of working after normal retirement age is positively related to living with a spouse only, being healthy, and having a higher education level. It is negatively associated with age, the scale of pension, and, in urban China, being female.

We find that seniors in urban Russia are more likely to work for earnings than their counterparts in China. Two possible reasons that are attributable to this difference are ruled out, namely cross-country differences in health status and the age distribution among elderly people. We also demonstrate that working beyond the normal retirement age has a much stronger negative association with earnings in urban China than in urban Russia. This is consistent with the facts that the normal retirement age is strictly enforced in urban China and seniors attempting to work face intensive competition from younger migrant workers. We conclude that China can learn from Russia that it has a substantial potential for increasing employment among healthy people under 70.

Mots clés

  • retirement
  • older people
  • employment
  • China
  • Russia
  • labor market

JEL Classification

  • J14
  • J26
  • J31
  • J7
  • P23
access type Accès libre

Spaniards in the wider world: the role of education in the choice of destination country

Publié en ligne: 14 Jun 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between the education level of Spanish emigrants and their destination country. Since Spanish emigrants were born under the same laws and institutions, the differences in their destination countries can be due to dissimilarities in their level of education. To explore this, we use census microdata, covering the period from 2000 to 2007, of 21 countries with Spanish emigrants. Results suggest that with low unemployment rates, English- and Spanish-speaking countries are the most likely to become the host countries for more educated individuals, regardless of their location.

Mots clés

  • education
  • migration
  • Spain

JEL Classification

  • I20
  • F22
access type Accès libre

Queuing to leave: A new approach to immigration

Publié en ligne: 12 Jul 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper uses queuing theory to examine the linkages between legal and illegal immigration. This approach is particularly appropriate for periods of mass migration and can be used to look at how the magnitude of people trying to migrate affects the choice between legal and illegal channels. An empirical illustration shows how origin-country conflict and past migration differently affect current legal and illegal flows. With data for Schengen countries from Eurostat for documented immigration and the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex) for illegal border crossings (IBCs), I implement a generalized method of moments (GMM) strategy using different estimates of conflict-related deaths and lagged flows of immigration as external and internal instruments, respectively. Violent conflict has a positive and significant effect on IBCs but not on documented migration flows. I find evidence of positive spillovers from the legal channel of immigration into the illegal channel but not vice versa.

Mots clés

  • immigration
  • queuing theory
  • conflict

JEL Classification

  • F22
  • F51
  • C6
access type Accès libre

Introducing the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey 2016

Publié en ligne: 25 Jul 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper introduces the 2016 wave of the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey (JLMPS). It is an essential reference for users of this innovative and valuable dataset, which adds to the growing series of labor market panel surveys (LMPSs) produced by the Economic Research Forum (ERF). The 2016 wave is a follow-up on the initial 2010 wave. There has been substantial turmoil in the region since 2010, including the onset of the Syrian conflict and the influx of refugees into Jordan. The 2016 wave over-sampled areas with a high proportion of non-Jordanians to be able to represent and examine this important population. The paper describes this sampling strategy, attrition from 2010 to 2016, and weighting that corrects for attrition and accounts for the sampling strategy. We compare key demographic measures and labor market statistics with other sources of data on Jordan to demonstrate the sample's representativeness. The data provide an important opportunity for a detailed analysis of Jordan's changing labor market and society.

Mots clés

  • survey data
  • public use data
  • sample weights
  • labor
  • refugees
  • Jordan

JEL Classification

  • J00
  • C81
  • C83
access type Accès libre

Better together: Active and passive labor market policies in developed and developing economies

Publié en ligne: 25 Jul 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

We investigate the macroeconomic impact of public expenditure in active labor market policies (ALMPs) and passive labor market policies (PLMPs) on main employment indicators (i.e., unemployment, employment, and labor force participation) for a large and novel panel database of 121 countries (36 developed, 64 emerging and 21 developing economies). Compared to previous studies, we include for the first time evidence from developing and emerging economies and explicitly examine the possible presence of complementarities between active and passive policies. We find that the interaction between interventions is crucial, as the effect of spending in either of the two policies is more favorable the more is spent on the other. Even the detrimental labor market effects of passive policies disappear on the condition that sufficient amounts are spent on active interventions. This complementarity seems even more important for emerging and developing economies.

Mots clés

  • developing countries
  • evaluation
  • labor economics
  • public policy
  • welfare state

JEL Classification

  • Labor Economics Policies
  • Employment
  • Unemployment
  • Wages
  • Intergenerational Income Distribution
  • Aggregate Human Capital
  • Aggregate Labor Productivity
  • Economic Development
access type Accès libre

Conflict and the composition of economic activity in Afghanistan

Publié en ligne: 07 Sep 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Despite informality being the norm in conflict-affected countries, most estimates of the impact of conflict on economic activity rely on formal sector data. Using high-frequency data from Afghanistan, this paper assesses how surges in conflict intensity affect not only the formal sector, but also informal and illicit activities. Nighttime light provides a proxy for aggregate economic activity, mobile phone traffic by registered firms captures fluctuations in formal sector output, and the land surface devoted to poppy cultivation gives a measure of illicit production. The unit of observation is the district and the period of reference is 2012–2016. The results show that an increase in conflict-related casualties has a strong negative impact on formal economic activity in the following quarter and a positive effect on illicit activity after two quarters. The impact on aggregate economic activity is negative, but more muted.

Mots clés

  • Afghanistan
  • conflict
  • economic activity

JEL Classification

  • D74
  • E21
  • F35
  • I32
  • O17
access type Accès libre

Bilateral labor agreements and the migration of Filipinos: An instrumental variable approach

Publié en ligne: 24 Sep 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Bilateral labor agreements (BLAs) are preferred policy models for regulating migration by many governments around the world. The Philippines has been a leader in both agreement conclusion and exporting labor. A recent Congressional evocation is pushing bureaucrats and academics alike to investigate this policy strategy for outcomes and effectiveness. The following analysis answers the question “Do BLAs affect the migration outflows of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs)?” using a plausibly exogenous variation to isolate a causal effect. I test for effects of BLAs using two instrumental variables (IVs), such as Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and Formal Alliances, and an original dataset of land-based and sea-based Filipino BLAs and migrant stock in 213 unique areas from 1960 to 2018. I do not find any empirical evidence that these treaties drive migration. However, BLAs have statistically significant effects on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and exports, suggesting other important channels through which these agreements affect economic outcomes. These null results are critically important for policymakers and diplomats because the resources spent on negotiation are wasted if the primary goal is to increase migration.

Mots clés

  • bilateral labor agreement
  • migration
  • Overseas Filipino Workers
  • labor export
  • labor policy
  • Philippines

JEL Classification

  • F220
  • J610
access type Accès libre

Introducing the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2018

Publié en ligne: 24 Sep 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper introduces the 2018 wave of the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS), previously fielded in 1998, 2006, and 2012. The ELMPS has already become the primary source of data for a large number of scholarly and policy studies on the labor market and human development issues in Egypt, and this new wave will further enhance its value as a critical data public good. This longitudinal survey is nationally representative, tracking both households and individuals over two decades. In this paper, we describe the key characteristics of the 2018 wave, including sampling, fielding, and questionnaire design. Changes in the collection of retrospective data starting in 2018 are discussed, and we demonstrate that they improved the data quality. We examine the patterns of attrition and present the construction of weights designed to correct for attrition, as well as to ensure that the sample remains nationally representative. We compare the ELMPS data with other Egyptian data sources, namely, the 2017 Census and various rounds of the Labor Force Survey (LFS). The data provide important new insights into Egypt's labor market, economy, and society.

Mots clés

  • survey
  • panel data
  • public use data
  • sample weights
  • labor market
  • Egypt

JEL Classification

  • J00
  • C81
  • C83
access type Accès libre

Women’s economic rights in developing countries and the gender gap in migration to Germany

Publié en ligne: 13 Oct 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

There is a large variation across countries of origin in the gender composition of migrants coming to Germany. We argue that women’s economic rights in developing countries of origin have three effects on their migration prospects to a place like Germany that is far away and difficult to reach. First, the lower are women’s economic rights the fewer women have access to and control over the resources needed to migrate to Germany. Second, the lower are the rights the lower is women’s agency to make or otherwise influence migration decisions. These two constraining effects on the female share in migrant populations dominate the opposing third effect that stems from low levels of women’s economic rights generating a potentially powerful push factor. We find corroborating evidence in our analysis of the gender composition of migration to Germany over the period 2009–2017.

Mots clés

  • migration
  • economic rights
  • gender
  • resources
  • agency

JEL Classification

  • F22
  • K37
  • O15
access type Accès libre

Gender wage gap across the distribution: What is the role of within- and between-firm effects?

Publié en ligne: 18 Oct 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This paper studies the role of within- and between-firm effects on the gender wage gap (GWG). Using linked employer–employee data for Turkey for 2006 and 2014, we show that the wage gap among comparable men and women is much wider within establishments than between establishments. Our distributional analysis shows a more pronounced gap among highly paid workers, consistent with the presence of a glass-ceiling effect. This effect, however, is more apparent within establishments than between establishments, and it is the former that drives the economy-wide glass ceiling that women face. We also find that between 2006 and 2014, the GWG in Turkey widened at all points in the wage distribution, and that this widening was more pronounced within establishments than between establishments.

Mots clés

  • gender wage gap
  • within- and between-establishments
  • wage distribution

JEL Classification

  • J16
  • J31
  • J71
access type Accès libre

Informal work in sub-Saharan Africa: Dead end or stepping-stone?

Publié en ligne: 20 Nov 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Despite rapid economic growth in recent decades, informality remains a persistent phenomenon in the labor markets of many low- and middle-income countries. A key issue in this regard concerns the extent to which informality itself is a persistent state. Using panel data from Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda, this paper presents one of the very few analyses providing evidence on this question in the context of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results reveal an important extent of heterogeneity in the transition patterns observed for workers in upper-tier versus lower-tier informality. Given the limited alternative job opportunities available, particularly to those in lower-tier informal self-employment who often remain locked in a situation of inferior pay and conditions, specific policies that seek to enhance the livelihoods of workers in this most disadvantaged segment may be more relevant in the sub-Saharan context than policies that aim to reduce the regulatory barriers to formalization.

Mots clés

  • informality
  • segmentation
  • labor market dynamics
  • sub-Saharan Africa

JEL Classification

  • D31
  • J46
  • J62
  • O12
access type Accès libre

Temporary migration as a mechanism for lasting cultural change: evidence from Nepal

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2021
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

When a husband migrates, his wife may control more household resources and therefore change how the household spends income. Given the prevalence of seasonal migration in developing countries, even these temporary changes could affect economic development. The extent to which these changes persist after migration spells will magnify these consequences. Using panel data on rural households in Nepal, we examine how a husband's migration interacts with intrahousehold decision-making and consumption patterns both during and after migration spells. We find that a husband's absence is associated with a 10 percentage point increase in the expenditure decisions over which the wife has full control. This coincides with a shift away from expenditures on alcohol and tobacco in favor of children's clothing and education. Importantly, we find that migrant husbands resume their role in decisions following their return, but decisions are more likely to be made jointly. These persistent effects are consistent with a model in which households are pushed to a new, more-equitable equilibrium and then are driven to form habits, which, in turn, cause the new equilibrium to stick, thus facilitating long-term cultural change in gender norms.

Mots clés

  • migration
  • decision-making
  • bargaining power
  • household economics
  • gender

JEL Classification

  • O150
  • D130
  • F220
  • J160

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