1. bookVolume 51 (2022): Edition 3 (September 2022)
Détails du magazine
License
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1897-3191
Première parution
23 Feb 2007
Périodicité
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
Accès libre

How do mussel provenance and spat size affect mussel aquaculture performance in the South-Western Mediterranean (Algeria)?

Publié en ligne: 07 Nov 2022
Volume & Edition: Volume 51 (2022) - Edition 3 (September 2022)
Pages: 239 - 256
Reçu: 03 Jul 2022
Accepté: 06 Oct 2022
Détails du magazine
License
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1897-3191
Première parution
23 Feb 2007
Périodicité
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
Introduction

In recent decades, aquaculture production has served as an essential source of protein for a large portion of the world's population. An ever-increasing demand for aquatic products suggests that aquaculture will continue to be one of the fastest-growing sectors for protein-based food production (FAO 2016). Therefore, the rapid development of aquaculture has increased the need for sustainable production strategies (Fuentes-Santos & Cubillo 2015). In this context, integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) has demonstrated a reduction in the environmental footprint and has increased the profitability of farming (Chatzivasileiou et al. 2022). This innovative mariculture methodology combines species cultivation from different trophic levels, simulating a natural food web (Chatzivasileiou et al. 2022). As commercial aquaculture is a profit-orientated activity, achieving control over the costs and returns is a key element in optimising production (Asche et al. 2008, 2012; Theodorou et al. 2014, 2020, 2021). It is therefore possible to analyse the performance of a given production process and to propose improvements to increase its efficiency.

According to the latest statistics from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, mariculture and coastal aquaculture production reached 30.8 million tonnes (equivalent to 106.5 billion aquatic animals) in 2018 (FAO 2020). A significant part of its production is of bivalve origin (i.e. clams, oysters, mussels and other species) (FAO 2020). Their production has been increasing considerably with consumer demand (Prato et al. 2019). In the Mediterranean countries, they are considered a rich food source and a healthy balanced diet (Cherifi et al. 2018; Dridi et al. 2007). Their cultivation continues to play an important role in providing food for the growing world population (Landmann et al. 2019). For example, Mytilus galloprovincialis is the main species used in mussel farming on the French, Spanish, Italian, Greek, Tunisian and Algerian coasts (FAO 2016). In order to increase its production from less than 150 metric tonnes in 2013 to 7600 tonnes in 2025 (MPRH 2008), the Algerian Ministry of Fish and Fisheries Resources designed a strategic plan to sustainably develop marine aquaculture (MPRH 2008). This programme aims to establish 56 new farms of this species along the Algerian coast between 2015 and 2025.

Several scientific studies have been carried out to improve the production of mussels in offshore systems. Some authors were interested in comparing the farming production (Camacho et al. 1995; Okumus & Stirling 1998; Fuentes et al. 2009), taking into account response variables such as growth (Fernandez-Reiriz et al. 1996; Hatzonikolakis et al. 2017) and condition index (Okumus & Stirling 1998). Guillou et al. (2020) studied the commercial performance of the blue mussel in Canada. Theodorou et al. (2014) reported that the optimal farm size for mussel production of the Mediterranean mussel in Greece is a larger than 3 ha. Other researchers focussed on improving aspects of grow-out techniques in order to reduce losses, by minimising mussel thinning practices during the grow-out period (Pérez-Camacho et al. 2013), varying the seeding density (Cubillo, Peteiro, Fernández-Reiriz, et al. 2012b), grading mussels by size during the initial seeding (Lauzon-Guay et al. 2005; Supono et al. 2020), adjusting the spacing of mussel ropes (Drapeau et al. 2006) and providing a period of feeding and conditioning before transferring them to coastal farms (Sim-Smith 2006; Carton et al. 2007).

Several studies have demonstrated that PE and CI are the main tools for the commercialisation of bivalves, depending generally on endogenous and exogenous conditions (Lagade et al. 2015). They provide information about the physiological state and growth of the organisms (Andral et al. 2004), which is of great interest for harvesting purposes, e.g. to indicate the market value (Martinez et al. 2018). The physiological implications of mussel size on shell thickening or byssus attachment strength, together with the ecological implications driven by site-specific heterogeneity, will therefore play a key role in mussel performance in a widely exploited area.

In Algeria, mussel farming data are almost unavailable, apart from a study by Laama and Bachari (2018) on evaluating site suitability for the expansion of mussel farming and one by Lourguioui et al. (2017) on the environmental impacts of aquaculture. Offshore aquaculture remains a very recent activity with little research into the characterisation and improvement of farming production. Specifically, there is a lack of data on the results of mussel production optimisation due to a lack of scientific studies, monitoring and follow-up systems of mussel production in Algeria. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of different spat sizes and origins on the growth of M. galloprovincialis and the biomass produced in a mussel culture system in Algeria. This work aims to acquire the information on mussel farming necessary for the management and optimisation of M. galloprovincialis in Algeria. It is the first study to develop best farming strategies for optimising the production of this species in the study area, and the only one that deals with optimally growing in a suspended culture system on a microgeographic scale. The objectives of this paper are 1) to study the main production processes governing mussel farming activity, 2) to estimate the variation of relative biomass production (RBP) in a mussel farming system and 3) to analyse biomass production gain and loss based on spat size and origin in order to understand their effect on productivity. For the analysis, we used data from Cultmare farm on three initial spat size classes and four different sources, over three years (2017–2020). The experiment was strictly conducted according to commercial culture methods to ensure that our findings from the study are applicable to improving mussel culture and contribute to the development of an IMTA methodology suitable for use in the oligotrophic Western Mediterranean.

Materials and methods
Study area

Bou-Ismail Bay is located on the central coast of Algeria (the south-western Mediterranean Sea); it extends for over 47 km and has a wide continental shelf of 11 km. It is bounded by the promontory of Ras Acrata in the east and by the Cape of Mount Chenoua in the west (Amarouche et al. 2018). It is characterised by a mobile bottom and strong hydrodynamic activity (Amarouche et al. 2018). This bay is an important economic zone that brings various investment in the tourism, industry, fishing and energy sectors (Houma 2009). The field experiments took place at Cultmare farm, located in the east of Bou-Ismail Bay. It is a mussel production farm that hosts a series of floats, or rafts, from which M. galloprovincialis mussels are suspended on ‘droppers’. These droppers hang in the water column on 20 lines, each 300 m long and extending perpendicular to the shoreline (Fig. 1).

Figure 1

Study area location and sampling stations

Sampling and laboratory procedures

The production performance of M. galloprovincialis was studied on 284 mussel plots from October 2017 to July 2020. The spats were sampled from different origins: Tlemcen, Tenes, Ain Tagourait and from the collectors at the study site. They were sorted into three size categories (10–30, 30–60 and >60 mm) and transplanted into socks suspended culture method at the Cultmare farm in densities of 1200 ind m−1, 600 ind m−1 and 300 ind m−1 (Fig. 2). The mussels from each sock were harvested after a traditional production cycle in one of three grow-out periods (16, 12 and 8 months, respectively). All socks were weighed before seeding and after harvesting, using a digital scale with a capacity of 50 kg and an accuracy rating of 0.05 kg.

Figure 2

Transplantation of M. galloprovincialis from different origins (Tlemcen, Tenes, Ain Tagourait and the study site) and sorting three spat sizes

Note that the Tlemcen and Tenes mussels reared at the study site were spawned near a finfish cage farm, while those from Ain Tagourait were obtained from mussel lines suspended on artificial collectors in the same way as the specimens collected for the study site (Fig. 2).

The physiology of M. galloprovincialis was investigated using biological data from 1180 commercial-sized individuals measuring between 35 and 85 mm. They were randomly sampled during grow-out from 21 socks (Fig. 3) from three sources (Tlemcen, Tenes and the study site) in two initial spat sizes (10–30 and 30–60 mm). These individuals were transported in thermal bags to the laboratory and stored overnight in a refrigerator (4°C) to be analysed the next day. After the mussels were dislodged, the anterior-posterior (lengths), dorsoventral (heights) and lateral axis (widths) of the shells were measured using a Vernier calliper (± 0.1 mm). The total live weight (TLW) after the tissue was dissected from the shell, the total flesh weight (FW) and the shells (patted dry with paper towels) of each animal were weighed to the nearest 0.01 g (Fig. 3).

Figure 3

Random sampling points of M. galloprovincialis from 21 droppers at the study site and the laboratory processing of individuals

Data analysis
Production and stock performance

The index for culture efficiency is the average physical product (APP) (Ferreira et al. 2007b) or the relative biomass production (RBP) (Capelle et al. 2016). The overall production of the farm in each plot was calculated by the ratio between the initial mussel biomass (kg m−1) before submersion (WBS) and the harvested mussel biomass (kg m−1) after the growing cycle (WBH). The APP was defined as follows (Ferreira et al. 2007b): APP=WBHWBS APP = {{WBH} \over {WBS}}

The mussel biomass gain ratio (in) represents all plots that gained biomass after one growing cycle and had an greater than, given by: Gain%=(APP1)×100 Gain\% = \left( {APP - 1} \right) \times 100

The loss ratio (in %) represents the amount of mussel biomass lost from initial weight, after one growing cycle, given by: Loss=(1APP)×100 Loss = \left( {1 - APP} \right) \times 100

Marketability indices

The percentage of edibility (PE) and the condition index (CI) were derived after separating the meat from the shells, according to Mohite et al. (2008) and Okumus and Stirling (1998): PE(%)=totalfleshweighttotalliveweight×100 PE\left( \% \right) = {{total\,flesh\,weight} \over {total\,live\,weight}} \times 100 CI(%)=totalfleshweightshellweight×100 CI\left( \% \right) = {{total\,flesh\,weight} \over {shell\,weight}} \times 100

The values of shell thickness index (STI) were obtained according to the following formula (Freeman et al. 2009; Freeman & Byers 2006; Babarro et al. 2020): STI=1000×dryshellweight[L(H2+W2)0.5×π2] STI = 1000 \times {{dry\,shell\,weight} \over {\left[ {L{{\left( {{H^2} + {W^2}} \right)}^{0.5}} \times {\pi \over 2}} \right]}}

L, H and W are the length, height and width of the shell (in mm), respectively.

Statistical analysis

With the null hypothesis stating that there would be no effect of seed size or origin on the biomass produced in the mussel culture, the one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the gain and loss ratios of the APP of all mussel stocks. The total weight (TW), CI, PE and STI of all mussel samples were also compared by ANOVA according to spat size and origin. Tukey's test was used when significant differences were detected (differences were considered significant when p < 0.05).

Results
Production and stock performance

The ANOVA results for APP ratio revealed a statistically significant difference in performance between the three seeding sizes (Table 1). Significant inverse relationships between seeding size and APP were indicated by Tukey's HSD test (Table 2). However, the mussel loss rate was statistically non-significant for all three seeded size classes (Tables 1 and 2).

Statistical analysis of variance of the average physical product of mussel plots according to the three initial seeding sizes and the four origins of the seeded spat stocks

df SS MS F P
Spat Sources :Study site; Ain Tagourait; Tlemcen; Tenes Overall production (APP) 3 2.445 0.815 1.640 0.180
Gain biomass (%) 13.278 4.426 10.581 < 0.0001
Losses (%) 0.395 0.132 7.857 < 0.0001
Seed-size of spat (mm)10 – 30; 30 – 60; >60 Overall production (APP) 2 54.522 27.261 87.960 < 0.0001
Gain biomass (%) 38.029 19.015 62.683 < 0.0001
Losses (%) 0.072 0.036 1.639 0.203

Analysis of differences determined by Tukey's HSD test between modalities in mussel biomass production with 95% confidence intervals (significant results [p < 0.05] are in bold)

Overall production (APP)
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 >60 Ain Tagourait Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.003 0.810 0.682 0.537 0.406
Estimated means 2.189 ± 0.07 1.276 ± 0.04 0.949 ± 0.09 1.401 ± 0.13 1.450 ± 0.06 1.261 ± 0.14 1.595 ± 0.09
Groups A B C A A A A
Gained mussel biomass (%)
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 >60 Ain Tagourait Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value < 0.0001 0.382 0.382 0.528 0.803 0.640 0.033
Estimated means 126.7 ± 06.7 39.4 ± 04.7 19.0 ± 14.7 169.9 ± 14.5 151.0 ± 05.4 155.8 ± 16.2 215.0 ± 10.1
Groups A B B A / B B B A
Losses mussel biomass (%)
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 >60 Ain Tagourait Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value 0.673 0.354 0.583 0.278 0.019 0.415 0.262
Estimated means 14.6 ± 7.4 24.2 ± 2.6 18.1 ± 2.9 9.6 ± 3.7 35.2 ± 3.9 17.1 ± 3.9 21.9 ± 2.4
Groups A A A C A B / C B

In the total mussel production, no significant differences were observed between the four spat sources, whereas significant differences were noted in biomass gain and loss rates (Table 1), in favour of the Tlemcen mussels (Table 2).

The values of APP ratio between the seeded and harvested biomass in each mussel plot are presented in Figure 4. APP varies over a magnitude of 3.02, with a minimum of 0.95 and a maximum of 3.97. The highest APP values were observed in the small spat class (10–30 mm), according to their origin. Spat size is in a distinct inverse relationship with the amount of biomass produced (APP was 1.72 to 3.97 for spat sizes of 10 to 30 mm, 1.15 to 1.33 for spat sizes of 30 to 60 mm and 0.95 for sizes over 60 mm). Moreover, it was found that biomass production was greater when the spat source was closer to the rearing site (Ain Tagourait).

Figure 4

The average physical product according to different sources and sizes of spat

Variation in biomass relative to spat size

The distribution of total production according to the size of seeded mussel (Fig. 5) showed APP values that were clearly asymmetric for the small seeded spat (10–30 mm), becoming visibly symmetric for the medium (30–60 mm) and large (>60 mm) seeded individuals. Furthermore, the highest variability in overall production was observed in the small spat (10–30 mm), with an interquartile range of 1.45. This variability decreased significantly in the medium (30–60 mm) and large (>60 mm) spats, with interquartile ranges of 0.36 and 0.21, respectively. In addition, this distribution also indicates that the biomass decreased significantly as spat size increased. The amount of biomass produced ranged from 0.72 to 4.29, with 50% of the values being below 1.81 for mussels with small spat (10–30 mm). For mussels with medium-sized spat (30–60 mm) this value was between 0.58 and 1.88, with 50% of the values being below 1.29. In the case of mussels with large spat (>60 mm), the biomass was between 0.52 and 1.31, with 50% of the values being less than 0.95 (Fig. 5).

Figure 5

Average physical product with three sizes of spat

A gradual decrease of the mean biomass gain rate, from 127% to 19%, was observed with increasing seeded size. The average biomass loss rate was 15% for spat 10–30 mm in size, 24% for the 30–60 mm spat and 18% for the largest class (>60 mm) (Fig. 6). However, the differences between the three spat sizes in terms of biomass gain and loss rates were significant. The small spat mussels (10–30 mm) presented a difference of 115% between the average gain and average loss in biomass. The medium-sized mussels (30–60 mm) had a relatively high growth rate (15%) compared to the biomass loss. The gain and loss rates of the large mussels, on the other hand, were almost identical (Fig. 6).

Figure 6

Average gain and loss rate of mussel biomass according to the size of the spat

Variation of the biomass produced according to the spat's origin

The distribution of biomass measured by APP (Fig. 7) clearly showed a visible asymmetry and high variability when the mussels originated the farthest (Tlemcen) from the study site, with an interquartile range of 1.4. This distribution appeared to be more symmetric and showed less variability for the spat obtained closer to the study site (Tenes and Ain Tagourait, with interquartile ranges of 0.76 and 0.24, respectively). The APP distribution for mussels native to the study site were relatively asymmetric and more variable than in the other cases: the biomass was between 0.72 and 1.88, with 50% of the values being above 1.25 and with an interquartile range of 0.36.

Figure 7

Variation in the average physical product for the four sources of spat

Compared to the native mussels at our study site, this distribution revealed that the biomass was higher when the spat was collected near a finfish cage (Fig. 7). When the mussels were native to Tenes, the distribution was between 0.72 and 2.23, with 50% of the values being greater than 1.19. With the mussels from Tlemcen, it was between 0.46 and 4.14, with 50% of the values being above 1.16. The mussels originating from Ain Tagourait produced a biomass distribution between 0.77 and 1.4, with 50% of the values being above 0.94 (Fig. 7).

The mean gain rate according to the mussels’ origin (Fig. 8) had an important variation between the four spat sources: It was 70% for spat from Ain Tagourait, 51% for mussels native to the study site, 115% for mussels from Tlemcen and 56% for spat from Tenes. However the mean biomass loss rate comparing the four spat origins (Fig. 8) was minimal for Ain tagourait spats by 10% followed by Tenes with 17% of loss, then 22% for Tlemcen spats, the maximum biomass loss was 35% when the mussels were native of the study site.

Figure 8

Variation in the average physical product for the four sources of spat

Moreover, differences between the four seed origins in terms of biomass gain and loss rates were clearly visible (Fig. 8). Mussels native to the study site exhibited a relatively high growth rate (16%) compared to the biomass loss rate. The mussels from Tlemcen presented the highest gap (93%) between the average gain and loss of biomass, followed by those from Ain Tagourait (60%) and Tenes (39%).

Marketability indices of mussels by seed size and spat origin

Two initial seeding size classes (10–30 and 30–60 mm) were identified with three spat sources (Tlemcen, Tenes and the study site). The ANOVA analysis showed a significant difference in TW, CI, PE and STI across several mussel size classes compared by spat size and origin, though the difference between the three spat sources was not statistically significant for CI (see Table 3). Tukey's test also confirmed the results of the marketability indices, which favoured the small seed size (10–30 mm) and spat from Tlemcen (see Table 4).

Statistical analysis of variance of the marketability indices and total weight of mussels, sampled according to two initial seeding sizes and three origins of the seeded spat stocks

df SS MS F P
Spat Sources : Study site; Tlemcen; Tenes Total weight of mussels (g) 2 1730.454 865.227 15.325 < 0.0001
Percentage edibility (PE) 0.090 0.045 4,101 0.017
Condition index (CI) 0.316 0.158 1.188 0.305
Shell thickness index (STI) 7.557 3.779 8.61 <0.0001
Seed-size of spat (mm)10 – 3030 – 60 Total weight of mussels (g) 1 2275.739 2275,739 40.676 < 0.0001
Percentage edibility (PE) 0.493 0.493 35.898 < 0.0001
Condition index (CI) 13.195 13.195 32.190 < 0.0001
Shell thickness index (STI) 3.992 3.992 9.06 0.003

Analysis of the differences determined by Tukey's HSD test between the modalities for mussels with 95% confidence intervals (significant results [p < 0.05] are in bold)

Total weight of mussels (g)
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Estimated means 14.539 ± 0.415 11.430 ± 0.256 12.221 ± 0.265 10.107 ± 0.571 14.393 ± 0.526
Groups A B B C A
Percentage edibility (PE) %
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.507 0.035 0.528
Estimated means 27.7 ± 0.006 23.8 ± 0.003 27.8 ± 0.004 25.3 ± 0.008 27.8 ± 0.007
Groups A B A B A
Condition index (CI) %
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value 0.0004 0.0004 0.590 0.453 0.412
Estimated means 66 ± 2 57.7 ± 1.2 59.9 ± 1.3 57.1 ± 2.8 62.8 ± 2.6
Groups A B A A A
Shell thickness index (STI)
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value 0.003 0.003 0.230 0.356 0.0001
Estimated means 1.468 ± 0.033 1.357 ± 0.017 1.421 ± 0.018 1.342 ± 0.045 1.265 ± 0.034
Groups A B A A B

At the study site, relatively large values were found for the TW, PE and CI of the mussels sampled in the different size classes. This clearly indicated that the mussels seeded when small had more efficient growth and physiology than those seeded with a medium STI value and revealed a slight difference between the small and medium seeded spat size (Figs. 9a–d).

Figure 9

Changes in marketability indices and the total weight of mussels sampled according to initial spat size over different shell lengths (a: total weight, b: percentage of edibility, c: condition index, d: shell thickness index)

Figure 9

Variation of marketability indices and the total weight of mussels sampled according to spat origin with shell lengths (a: total weight, b: percentage of edibility, c: condition index, d: shell thickness index)

The variability in marketability indices of mussels grown at the study site according to spat origin over the different size classes is illustrated in Figure 10. Excluding STI, considerable differences between the three spat origins were observed in TW, PE and CI.

The Tlemcen mussels showed more efficient growth and physiology for commercial-sized individuals, followed by the mussels native to the study site. However, the mussels from Tenes recorded the lowest values (Figs. 10a–d).

Discussion

The production generated by different combinations of stocks at a single farm site, using the traditional techniques and criteria of mussel producers, has never been evaluated in Algeria. This study investigated the growth performance of mussels grown from spat from four different sources in three different initial seeding size categories. The density was controlled and did not exceed 1200 ind/m, depending on the initial seeding size, in order to eliminate any smothering effect. After three years of mussel farming, the yield expressed as APP was inversely proportional to the initial size. It differed significantly from one stock to another, favouring small spat, with a maximum production of 4.3 kg harvested per kg seeded. These results are consistent with previous work from seeding to harvest. An average of 1.5–2.5 kg harvested per kg seeded of M. edulis was reported in the Wadden Sea, and often less than 1 kg harvested per kg seeded in Ireland (Calderwood et al. 2015; Wijsman et al. 2014). Along the Moroccan Atlantic coast, reported relative biomass production shows more variation for this species (2.8–5.7 kg harvested per kg seeded) (Idhalla et al. 2017). For M. galloprovincialis culture, a maximum of 7 kg harvested per kg seeded has been modelled (Ferreira et al. 2007a).

The production cycle of mussels depends on their growth and optimal harvesting conditions (Petersen et al. 2020), including local environmental conditions such as temperature, salinity (Bayne & Worrall 1980; Fuentes et al. 2000; Karayücel & Karayücel 2000; Waite et al. 2005), concentration of food particles (Camacho et al. 1995; Celik et al. 2009; Filgueira et al. 2008; Lök et al. 2007; Waite et al. 2005; Hatzonikolakis et al. 2017), seeding density and farming system design (Drapeau et al. 2006; Ferreira et al. 2007a; Lauzon-Guay et al. 2005; Raman-Nair & Colbourne 2003; Strohmeier et al. 2008). In fact, the mussel density on a rope will decrease as the mussels grow in size and take up more space (Bonardelli et al. 2019). In this study, the final biomass production decreased as the spat size increased. The percentage of biomass lost was greatly compensated for by the gain in biomass for small mussels, followed by a remarkable gain from the medium-sized spat. This stands in contrast to large mussels, in which there was almost no difference between the seeded and harvested weights. The growth rate of the small mussels in suspension was higher than that of the large mussels (Lauzon-Guay et al. 2005) and the growth rate was slower in older mussels (Lauzon-Guay et al. 2005; Lök et al. 2007; Seed 1969). Although smaller mussels may be more sensitive to the effects of desiccation or other stressors occurring during their transfer from harvest to the nursery site (Webb & Heasman 2006; Jenewein & Gosselin 2013) and may have higher losses (Lauzon-Guay et al. 2005), they also have a higher potential for biomass production (Petraitis 1995). The existence of high inter-individual variability in growth is a major problem for aquaculture and positions bivalves as prime candidates for size-based selective breeding programmes to increase the production of shellfish farms (Fernández-Reiriz et al. 2016). Although the difference in overall production between the four spat origin sites was not statistically significant in this study, the variation in the rates of biomass gain and loss was significant depending on the source, showing the best values for the Tlemcen mussels. Mussels from the on-site collection were not affected by a change in their living environment. They experienced the stress of the grow-out process for the first time, after attaching to the collectors of the farm. The spat from the other three sources was placed into water after remaining out of water for more than 24 hours during transport, selection and socking. Transfer-associated factors such as emersion, desiccation, temperature variations and fasting have been shown to affect the fitness, behaviour and subsequent losses of juvenile mussels (Calderwood et al. 2014; Carton et al. 2007; Theodorou et al. 2017, 2018; South et al. 2020). Contrary to our expectations, the mussels from the study site were not the most efficient in terms of biomass yield, though they did compensate with the biomass gained. The biomass loss rate was the highest from this source, testifying to their fragility.

In this study, the Tlemcen mussels – followed by those from Tenes – showed more efficient growth and physiology for a commercial size, reflected by greater variation in the APP compared to the other two sources. This is in agreement with the study by Phillips (2002). The variation in growth can be explained by the nutritional status of the juveniles, as their native environment was very rich in suspended matter, due to artificial feeding and waste from the floating fish cages cultivated near the mussel lines. Thus, food supply seems to be the principal factor that can limit production in suspended culture systems (Babarro & Zwaan 2008; Navarro et al. 1991) absorption efficiencies and metabolic rates. The availability of food and the nutritional status of the mussels have been described as some of the many factors influencing production (Babarro & Zwaan 2008; Clarke 1999). Moreover, growth is also influenced by a genetically determined trait (Prieto et al. 2020). Consequently, growth between populations can vary markedly, even when the individuals are exposed to identical environmental conditions (Prieto et al. 2018). The large variation in APP can be also attributed to the genetic characteristics that make some mussels more efficient and resistant to environmental changes than others. This also may have resulted from adaptation to regional environments in which animals have developed stock-related traits of genetic variation (Camacho et al. 1995; Pace et al. 2006; Wang et al. 2012). As mussels grow, their requirements for limitied resources increase and intraspecific competition becomes more pronounced (Cubillo et al. 2012a).

In this study, the highest APP was recorded for the Ain Tagourait mussels, but this can only be due for some plots where the yield was maximum. On the other hand, the variation in global production of this source has not been efficient compared to others, meaning that inter-individual differences are present even among the same stock origin and size, and that mussel growth can vary despite all breeding and transfer conditions being the same. This hypothesis has been investigated in a few bivalves (Fernández-Reiriz et al. 2016; Tamayo et al. 2011) and is supported by physiological experiments on Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ruditapes philippinarum (Fernández-reiriz et al. 2016; Tamayo et al. 2011). At the medium seeding size, the biomass yield showed a small variation in gain, between 33% and 15% on average for all sources, in favour of those from the study site. This suggests that medium-sized mussels are less fragile than smaller ones at the same site. Additionally, the resistance was not developed at this size, as it was with the large mussels. This category of large individuals from Tlemcen and Ain Tagourait lost their initial biomass. The production seems to be balanced between the small mussels’ fragility and the large ones’ resilience and lack of adaption to new environments.

In the present study, a significant difference in the marketability indices, the STI, TW and PE was noted between three sources (the study site, Tlemcen and Tenes), in favour of the Tlemcen mussels, followed by those from the study site. This confirms that certain stocks will be more efficient than others, even at the same site, and that the mussels have as a genetic trait the ability to adapt to changes in the environment when they have good conditions in the larval state. However, the mussels from Tlemcen were genetically more robust and developed genetic plasticity, as they were born in a rich environment under IMTA conditions. They were implemented in the study site and they exhibit better production efficiency, confirmed that mussels in proximity to multiculture farms have more flesh in their shell than those growing on a typical mussel farm, as reported by Chatzivasileiou et al. (2022). The authors indicated that the areas near fish farms may be an exception for the oligotrophic Mediterranean, due to the significant amount of nutrients released from fish cages (Chatzivasileiou et al. 2022). According to Wenne et al. (2022), seascape genetic analyses suggest that a complex mix of environmental variables help explain the genetic variation in M. galloprovincialis populations within the Mediterranean Sea, which most likely reflects the complex geological history of formation, isolation and reconnection among the regional sub-basins of the Sea. These authors also analysed one population from the west of Algeria (Oran) and identified it as being intermediate between the two main groups from the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. As Tlemcen is on the western coast of Algeria, mussels from this area are more likely to have similar characteristics and may be influenced by the Atlantic form of M. galloprovincialis, whereas mussels from sites east of Oran – Tenes, Tipaza (the study site) and Ain Tagourait – most likely represent populations of M. galloprovincialis that have been influenced by the Mediterranean (Simon et al. 2021; Wenne et al. 2022).

The STI and the marketability indices showed significant differences in the length of individuals between small and medium seeded mussels, in favour of the small spat, and confirmed that growth is faster in small individuals, slowing as size increases. Also, their rapid adaptation to environmental changes makes them more efficient. However, the larger mussels were resistant to a different environment at the beginning of their transfer, especially those in the advanced stage of the reproductive cycle. Stressing them at this stage causes a significant part of their body reserves to be lost. This can be clearly seen in the changes in CI and PE and in the evolution of the TW of the mussels across the initial size categories. Differences in shell morphology – the shape or thickness of bivalve molluscs – are influenced by key environmental parameters such as food competition, substrate type, crowding, temperature, wave impact and the activity of predators (see Alunno-Bruscia et al. 2001; Beadman et al. 2003; Steffani & Branch 2003; Valladares 2010). Some growers use the stress method of shaking socks every month. This method develops resistance in the mussels, which leads to a longer life. This stress slows down the growth in the flesh and encourages the mussels to use their reserves to thicken and harden their shells, as well as to manufacture byssal threads, which reduces the loss rate at the end of the cycle (Personal communication. M. Khoudja, mussel grower in the centre of the Algerian coast).

Capital expenses have not been included in this work (e.g. buildings, boats, vehicles, equipment and land travel), nor have expenses related to licences, taxes, insurance and quality analysis, as they are too variable and depend on the governance of the farm. These expenses should be included by individual producers in order to obtain a true manufacturing estimate. However, our productivity and revenue estimates for each mussel stock have been standardised on the basis of spat supply from a long line of collectors, so that commercial performance is linked to the characteristics of the origin of the stocks and their biological characteristics, density and spat size.

Conclusion and perspectives

This study focuses on the aquaculture of M. galloprovincialis in the central Algerian coast, and it contributes to the knowledge of mussel farming. After investigating mussel production according to seeding size and spat origin, it was found that production was greatest in the small seeded mussels. Mussel origin is also an important parameter for selecting the optimal stock. Mussels from sites east of Oran – Tenes, Tipaza (the study site) and Ain Tagourait – most likely represent populations influenced by the Mediterranean, in comparison to those from Telemcen, which were influenced by the Atlantic form of M. galloprovincialis. They have also developed genetic traits for environmental sensitivity and seem more robust, as they were born in a rich environment under IMTA conditions.

Mussel farming does not seem to be closely monitored, as no strategic management system has been established to ensure efficient cultivation. According to several aquaculture farmers who were asked about the strategy of management, all of them confirmed that they do not perform any studies to follow their production. Their cultivation does not take into account the physiological aspects of the organisms or the factors that influence their growth and productivity. As no data collection or statistical analysis are available at any institution, including the Ministry of Fisheries and Fish Resources, we recommend the creation of a database of aquaculture. As Cultmare is the first farm to analyse the production of each lot of mussels from its beginning, we encourage other farmers to perform this kind of study and to use IMTA methodology, which is suitable for use in the oligotrophic Western Mediterranean. In order to improve knowledge on the biology and production cycle of Mytilus galloprovinciallis, it is important to establish a production calendar to better manage mussel farming. It is also recommended to use spat originating near fish farms because of the environmental enrichment in nutrients, which helps ensure that the spat is suitable at the beginning of the mussel production. Moreover, the construction of new hatcheries specialised in spat quality for aquaculture in Algeria is essential to ensure better larval nutrition and optimal production by shellfish farmers. Also, further studies on shell fragility and spat resilience to new environments will complement and enrich the existing knowledge and improve aquaculture practice in Algeria; for instance, we suggest investigating how shaking socks can impact mussel culture and improve shell thickness. This can be performed by studying the structure and molecular composition of the byssus from M. galloprovencialis and analysing environmental parameters related to shell thickness and mussel genetic plasticity that act as stressors and positively affect mussel production.

Figure 1

Study area location and sampling stations
Study area location and sampling stations

Figure 2

Transplantation of M. galloprovincialis from different origins (Tlemcen, Tenes, Ain Tagourait and the study site) and sorting three spat sizes
Transplantation of M. galloprovincialis from different origins (Tlemcen, Tenes, Ain Tagourait and the study site) and sorting three spat sizes

Figure 3

Random sampling points of M. galloprovincialis from 21 droppers at the study site and the laboratory processing of individuals
Random sampling points of M. galloprovincialis from 21 droppers at the study site and the laboratory processing of individuals

Figure 4

The average physical product according to different sources and sizes of spat
The average physical product according to different sources and sizes of spat

Figure 5

Average physical product with three sizes of spat
Average physical product with three sizes of spat

Figure 6

Average gain and loss rate of mussel biomass according to the size of the spat
Average gain and loss rate of mussel biomass according to the size of the spat

Figure 7

Variation in the average physical product for the four sources of spat
Variation in the average physical product for the four sources of spat

Figure 8

Variation in the average physical product for the four sources of spat
Variation in the average physical product for the four sources of spat

Figure 9

Changes in marketability indices and the total weight of mussels sampled according to initial spat size over different shell lengths (a: total weight, b: percentage of edibility, c: condition index, d: shell thickness index)
Changes in marketability indices and the total weight of mussels sampled according to initial spat size over different shell lengths (a: total weight, b: percentage of edibility, c: condition index, d: shell thickness index)

Figure 9

Variation of marketability indices and the total weight of mussels sampled according to spat origin with shell lengths (a: total weight, b: percentage of edibility, c: condition index, d: shell thickness index)
Variation of marketability indices and the total weight of mussels sampled according to spat origin with shell lengths (a: total weight, b: percentage of edibility, c: condition index, d: shell thickness index)

Analysis of differences determined by Tukey's HSD test between modalities in mussel biomass production with 95% confidence intervals (significant results [p < 0.05] are in bold)

Overall production (APP)
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 >60 Ain Tagourait Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.003 0.810 0.682 0.537 0.406
Estimated means 2.189 ± 0.07 1.276 ± 0.04 0.949 ± 0.09 1.401 ± 0.13 1.450 ± 0.06 1.261 ± 0.14 1.595 ± 0.09
Groups A B C A A A A

Analysis of the differences determined by Tukey's HSD test between the modalities for mussels with 95% confidence intervals (significant results [p < 0.05] are in bold)

Total weight of mussels (g)
Seed-size of spat (mm) Spat Sources
10 – 30 30 – 60 Study site Tenes Tlemcen
P-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.001 0.001 0.001
Estimated means 14.539 ± 0.415 11.430 ± 0.256 12.221 ± 0.265 10.107 ± 0.571 14.393 ± 0.526
Groups A B B C A

Statistical analysis of variance of the marketability indices and total weight of mussels, sampled according to two initial seeding sizes and three origins of the seeded spat stocks

df SS MS F P
Spat Sources : Study site; Tlemcen; Tenes Total weight of mussels (g) 2 1730.454 865.227 15.325 < 0.0001
Percentage edibility (PE) 0.090 0.045 4,101 0.017
Condition index (CI) 0.316 0.158 1.188 0.305
Shell thickness index (STI) 7.557 3.779 8.61 <0.0001
Seed-size of spat (mm)10 – 3030 – 60 Total weight of mussels (g) 1 2275.739 2275,739 40.676 < 0.0001
Percentage edibility (PE) 0.493 0.493 35.898 < 0.0001
Condition index (CI) 13.195 13.195 32.190 < 0.0001
Shell thickness index (STI) 3.992 3.992 9.06 0.003

Statistical analysis of variance of the average physical product of mussel plots according to the three initial seeding sizes and the four origins of the seeded spat stocks

df SS MS F P
Spat Sources :Study site; Ain Tagourait; Tlemcen; Tenes Overall production (APP) 3 2.445 0.815 1.640 0.180
Gain biomass (%) 13.278 4.426 10.581 < 0.0001
Losses (%) 0.395 0.132 7.857 < 0.0001
Seed-size of spat (mm)10 – 30; 30 – 60; >60 Overall production (APP) 2 54.522 27.261 87.960 < 0.0001
Gain biomass (%) 38.029 19.015 62.683 < 0.0001
Losses (%) 0.072 0.036 1.639 0.203

Alunno-Bruscia, M., Bourget, E., & Frechette, M. (2001). Shell allometry and length-mass-density relationship for Mytilus edulis in an experimental food-regulated situation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 219(September), 177–188. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps219177 Alunno-BrusciaM. BourgetE. FrechetteM. 2001 Shell allometry and length-mass-density relationship for Mytilus edulis in an experimental food-regulated situation Marine Ecology Progress Series 219 September 177 188 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps219177 10.3354/meps219177 Search in Google Scholar

Amarouche, K., Bachari, N. E. I., Houma, F., & Boughrira, A. (2018). Development of a numerical code to simulate the hydrodynamic energy potential, applied at Bou Ismail bay Development of a numerical code to simulate the hydrodynamic energy potential, applied at Bou Ismail bay. Energies Renouvelables, 20 N°3(March), 377–388. https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/downArticle/401/20/3/121694 AmaroucheK. BachariN. E. I. HoumaF. BoughriraA. 2018 Development of a numerical code to simulate the hydrodynamic energy potential, applied at Bou Ismail bay Development of a numerical code to simulate the hydrodynamic energy potential, applied at Bou Ismail bay Energies Renouvelables 20 N°3 March 377 388 https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/downArticle/401/20/3/121694 Search in Google Scholar

Andral, B., Stanisiere, J. Y., Sauzade, D., Damier, E., Thebault, H., Galgani, F., & Boissery, P. (2004). Monitoring chemical contamination levels in the Mediterranean based on the use of mussel caging. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49(9–10), 704–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.05.008 PMID:15530513 AndralB. StanisiereJ. Y. SauzadeD. DamierE. ThebaultH. GalganiF. BoisseryP. 2004 Monitoring chemical contamination levels in the Mediterranean based on the use of mussel caging Marine Pollution Bulletin 49 9–10 704 712 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.05.008 PMID:15530513 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.05.00815530513 Search in Google Scholar

Asche, F., Roll, K. H., & Tveteras, R. (2012). Innovations and Productivity Performance in Salmon Aquaculture d the Innovation System in Salmon. In J. Frick & B. T. Laugen (Eds.), IFIP International Federation for Information Processing (pp. 620–627). Stavanger, Norway: Springer; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33980-6_66 AscheF. RollK. H. TveterasR. 2012 Innovations and Productivity Performance in Salmon Aquaculture d the Innovation System in Salmon In FrickJ. LaugenB. T. (Eds.), IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 620 627 Stavanger, Norway Springer https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33980-6_66 10.1007/978-3-642-33980-6_66 Search in Google Scholar

Babarro, J. M. F., & De Zwaan, A. (2008). Anaerobic survival potential of four bivalves from different habitats. A comparative survey. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 151(1), 108–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.06.006 PMID:18593601 BabarroJ. M. F. De ZwaanA. 2008 Anaerobic survival potential of four bivalves from different habitats. A comparative survey Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology 151 1 108 113 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.06.006 PMID:18593601 10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.06.00618593601 Search in Google Scholar

Bayne, B., & Worrall, C. (1980). Growth and Production of Mussels Mytilus edulis from Two Populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 3(December), 317–328. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps003317 BayneB. WorrallC. 1980 Growth and Production of Mussels Mytilus edulis from Two Populations Marine Ecology Progress Series 3 December 317 328 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps003317 10.3354/meps003317 Search in Google Scholar

Beadman, H. A., Caldow, R. W., Kaiser, M. J., & Willows, R. (2003). How to toughen up your mussels : Using mussel shell morphological plasticity to reduce predation losses. Marine Biology, 142(3), 487–494. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-002-0977-4 BeadmanH. A. CaldowR. W. KaiserM. J. WillowsR. 2003 How to toughen up your mussels : Using mussel shell morphological plasticity to reduce predation losses Marine Biology 142 3 487 494 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-002-0977-4 10.1007/s00227-002-0977-4 Search in Google Scholar

Biandolino, F., Parlapiano, I., Grattagliano, A., Fanelli, G., & Prato, E. (2020). Comparative characteristics of percentage edibility, condition index, biochemical constituents and lipids nutritional quality indices of wild and farmed scallops (Flexopecten Glaber). Water (Basel), 12(6), 1777–1789. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061777 BiandolinoF. ParlapianoI. GrattaglianoA. FanelliG. PratoE. 2020 Comparative characteristics of percentage edibility, condition index, biochemical constituents and lipids nutritional quality indices of wild and farmed scallops (Flexopecten Glaber) Water (Basel) 12 6 1777 1789 https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061777 10.3390/w12061777 Search in Google Scholar

Bonardelli, J. C., Kokaine, L., Ozolina, Z., & Aigars, J. (2019). Technical evaluation of submerged mussel farms in the Baltic sea. BonardelliJ. C. KokaineL. OzolinaZ. AigarsJ. 2019 Technical evaluation of submerged mussel farms in the Baltic sea Search in Google Scholar

Calderwood, J., O’Connor, N. E. O., Sigwart, J. D., & Roberts, D. (2014). Determining optimal duration of seed translocation periods for benthic mussel (Mytilus edulis) cultivation using physiological and behavioural measures of stress. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 434, 288–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.08.023 CalderwoodJ. O’ConnorN. E. O. SigwartJ. D. RobertsD. 2014 Determining optimal duration of seed translocation periods for benthic mussel (Mytilus edulis) cultivation using physiological and behavioural measures of stress Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 434 288 295 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.08.023 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.08.023 Search in Google Scholar

Calderwood, J., O’Connor, N. E., & Roberts, D. (2015). The effects of transportation stress and barnacle fouling on predation rates of starfish (Asterias rubens) on mussels (Mytilus edulis). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 444, 108–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.02.038 CalderwoodJ. O’ConnorN. E. RobertsD. 2015 The effects of transportation stress and barnacle fouling on predation rates of starfish (Asterias rubens) on mussels (Mytilus edulis) Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 444 108 113 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.02.038 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.02.038 Search in Google Scholar

Camacho, A. P., Labarta, U., & Beiras, R. (1995). Growth of mussels (Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis) on cultivation rafts: Influence of seed source, cultivation site and phytoplankton availability. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 138(1–4), 349–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(95)01139-0 CamachoA. P. LabartaU. BeirasR. 1995 Growth of mussels (Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis) on cultivation rafts: Influence of seed source, cultivation site and phytoplankton availability Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 138 1–4 349 362 https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(95)01139-0 10.1016/0044-8486(95)01139-0 Search in Google Scholar

Capelle, J. J., Wijsman, J. W. M., Van Stralen, M. R., Herman, P. M. J., & Smaal, A. C. (2016). Effect of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture. Journal of Sea Research, 110, 8–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2016.02.001 CapelleJ. J. WijsmanJ. W. M. Van StralenM. R. HermanP. M. J. SmaalA. C. 2016 Effect of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture Journal of Sea Research 110 8 15 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2016.02.001 10.1016/j.seares.2016.02.001 Search in Google Scholar

Carton, A. G., Jeffs, A. G., Foote, G., Palmer, H., & Bilton, J. (2007). Evaluation of methods for assessing the retention of seed mussels (Perna canaliculus) prior to seeding for grow-out. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 262, 521–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.11.026 CartonA. G. JeffsA. G. FooteG. PalmerH. BiltonJ. 2007 Evaluation of methods for assessing the retention of seed mussels (Perna canaliculus) prior to seeding for grow-out Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 262 521 527 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.11.026 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.11.026 Search in Google Scholar

Celik, M. Y., Karayücel, S., & Karayücel, Ý. (2009). Effects of environmental factors on growth and mortality of raft cultivated mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultivated in lantern nets in Black Sea. AACL Bioflux, Aquaculture, Aquarium. Conservation & Legislation International Journal of the Bioflux Society, 2(2), 97–108. CelikM. Y. KarayücelS. KarayücelÝ. 2009 Effects of environmental factors on growth and mortality of raft cultivated mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultivated in lantern nets in Black Sea AACL Bioflux, Aquaculture, Aquarium. Conservation & Legislation International Journal of the Bioflux Society 2 2 97 108 Search in Google Scholar

Chatzivasileiou, D., Dimitriou, P. D., Theodorou, J., Kalantzi, I., Magiopoulos, I., Papageorgiou, N., Pitta, P., Tsapakis, M., & Karakassis, I. (2022). An IMTA in Greece: Co-Culture of Fish, Bivalves, and Holothurians. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(6), 776–791. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060776 ChatzivasileiouD. DimitriouP. D. TheodorouJ. KalantziI. MagiopoulosI. PapageorgiouN. PittaP. TsapakisM. KarakassisI. 2022 An IMTA in Greece: Co-Culture of Fish, Bivalves, and Holothurians Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 10 6 776 791 Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060776 10.3390/jmse10060776 Search in Google Scholar

Cherifi, H., Chebil Ajjabi, L., & Sadok, S. (2018). Nutritional value of the Tunisian mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with a special emphasis on lipid quality. Food Chemistry, 268(June), 307–314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.06.075 PMID:30064763 CherifiH. Chebil AjjabiL. SadokS. 2018 Nutritional value of the Tunisian mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis with a special emphasis on lipid quality Food Chemistry 268 June 307 314 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.06.075 PMID:30064763 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.06.07530064763 Search in Google Scholar

Clarke, M. (1999). The effect of food availability on byssogenesis by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The Journal of Molluscan Studies, 65(3), 327–333. https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/65.3.327 ClarkeM. 1999 The effect of food availability on byssogenesis by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) The Journal of Molluscan Studies 65 3 327 333 https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/65.3.327 10.1093/mollus/65.3.327 Search in Google Scholar

Cubillo, A. M., Peteiro, L. G., Fernández-reiriz, M. J., & Labarta, U. (2012a). Influence of stocking density on growth of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in suspended culture. Aquaculture, 342343(b), 103–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.02.017 CubilloA. M. PeteiroL. G. Fernández-reirizM. J. LabartaU. 2012a Influence of stocking density on growth of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in suspended culture Aquaculture 342–343 b 103 111 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.02.017 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.02.017 Search in Google Scholar

Cubillo, A. M., Peteiro, L. G., Fernández-Reiriz, M. J., & Labarta, U. (2012b). Density-dependent effects on morphological plasticity of Mytilus gallloprovincialis in suspended culture. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 338–341, 246–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.01.028 CubilloA. M. PeteiroL. G. Fernández-ReirizM. J. LabartaU. 2012b Density-dependent effects on morphological plasticity of Mytilus gallloprovincialis in suspended culture Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 338–341 246 252 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.01.028 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.01.028 Search in Google Scholar

Dimitriou, P. D., Karakassis, I., Pitta, P., Tsagaraki, T. M., Apostolaki, E. T., Magiopoulos, I., Nikolioudakis, N., Diliberto, S., Theodorou, J. A., Tzovenis, I., Kagalou, I., Beza, P., & Tsapakis, M. (2015). Mussel farming in Maliakos Gulf and quality indicators of the marine environment: Good benthic below poor pelagic ecological status. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101(2), 784–793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.035 PMID:26478459 DimitriouP. D. KarakassisI. PittaP. TsagarakiT. M. ApostolakiE. T. MagiopoulosI. NikolioudakisN. DilibertoS. TheodorouJ. A. TzovenisI. KagalouI. BezaP. TsapakisM. 2015 Mussel farming in Maliakos Gulf and quality indicators of the marine environment: Good benthic below poor pelagic ecological status Marine Pollution Bulletin 101 2 784 793 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.035 PMID:26478459 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.03526478459 Search in Google Scholar

Drapeau, A., Comeau, L. A., Landry, T., Stryhn, H., & Davidson, J. (2006). Association between longline design and mussel productivity in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 261(3), 879–889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.07.045 DrapeauA. ComeauL. A. LandryT. StryhnH. DavidsonJ. 2006 Association between longline design and mussel productivity in Prince Edward Island, Canada Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 261 3 879 889 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.07.045 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.07.045 Search in Google Scholar

Dridi, S., Romdhane, M. S., & Elcafsi, M. (2007). Seasonal variation in weight and biochemical composition of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in relation to the gametogenic cycle and environmental conditions of the Bizert lagoon, Tunisia. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 263(1–4), 238–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.10.028 DridiS. RomdhaneM. S. ElcafsiM. 2007 Seasonal variation in weight and biochemical composition of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in relation to the gametogenic cycle and environmental conditions of the Bizert lagoon, Tunisia Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 263 1–4 238 248 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.10.028 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.10.028 Search in Google Scholar

FAO. (2016). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016. Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. https://doi.org/http://www.fao.org/3/i5555e/i5555e.pdf FAO 2016 The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016 Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. https://doi.org/http://www.fao.org/3/i5555e/i5555e.pdf Search in Google Scholar

FAO. (2020). FAO. 2020. La situation mondiale des pêches et de l’aquaculture 2020. La durabilité en action. Rome. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4060/ca9229fr FAO 2020 FAO. 2020. La situation mondiale des pêches et de l’aquaculture 2020. La durabilité en action. Rome https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.4060/ca9229fr 10.4060/ca9229fr Search in Google Scholar

Fernández-Reiriz, M. J., Irisarri, J., & Labarta, U. (2016). Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. PLoS One, 11(2), e0148245. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148245 PMID:26849372 Fernández-ReirizM. J. IrisarriJ. LabartaU. 2016 Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis PLoS One 11 2 e0148245 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148245 PMID:26849372 10.1371/journal.pone.0148245474396826849372 Search in Google Scholar

Fernandez-Reiriz, M. J., Labarta, U., & Babarro, J. M. F. (1996). Comparative allometries in growth and chemical composition of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultured in two zones in the ria Sada (Galicia, NW Spain). Journal of Shellfish Research, 15(2), 349–353. Retrieved from https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/61211 Fernandez-ReirizM. J. LabartaU. BabarroJ. M. F. 1996 Comparative allometries in growth and chemical composition of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultured in two zones in the ria Sada (Galicia, NW Spain) Journal of Shellfish Research 15 2 349 353 Retrieved from https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/61211 Search in Google Scholar

Ferreira, J. G., Hawkins, A. J. S., & Bricker, S. B. (2007a). Management of productivity, environmental effects and profitability of shellfish aquaculture - the Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 264(1–4), 160–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.017 FerreiraJ. G. HawkinsA. J. S. BrickerS. B. 2007a Management of productivity, environmental effects and profitability of shellfish aquaculture - the Farm Aquaculture Resource Management (FARM) model Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 264 1–4 160 174 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.017 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.017 Search in Google Scholar

Ferreira, J., Hawkins, A., Monteiro, P., Service, M., Moore, H., Edwards, A., Gowen, R., Lourenco, P., Mellor, A., Nunes, J., Pascoe, P., Ramos, L., Sequira, A., Simas, T., & Strong, J. (2007b). SMILE - Sustainable Mariculture in northern Irish Lough Ecosystems. Assessment of Carrying Capacity for Environmentally Sustainable Shellfish Culture in Carlingford Lough, Strangford Lough, Belfast Lough, Larne Lough and Lough Foyle. In Ed. IMAR - Institute of Marine Research. http://medcontent.metapress.com/index/A65RM03P4874243N.pdf FerreiraJ. HawkinsA. MonteiroP. ServiceM. MooreH. EdwardsA. GowenR. LourencoP. MellorA. NunesJ. PascoeP. RamosL. SequiraA. SimasT. StrongJ. 2007b SMILE - Sustainable Mariculture in northern Irish Lough Ecosystems. Assessment of Carrying Capacity for Environmentally Sustainable Shellfish Culture in Carlingford Lough, Strangford Lough, Belfast Lough, Larne Lough and Lough Foyle In Ed. IMAR - Institute of Marine Research http://medcontent.metapress.com/index/A65RM03P4874243N.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Filgueira, R., Labarta, U., & Fernández-reiriz, M. J. (2008). Effect of condition index on allometric relationships of clearance rate in Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía, 43(2), 391–398. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572008000200015 FilgueiraR. LabartaU. Fernández-reirizM. J. 2008 Effect of condition index on allometric relationships of clearance rate in Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 43 2 391 398 https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572008000200015 10.4067/S0718-19572008000200015 Search in Google Scholar

Freeman, A. S., & Byers, J. E. (2006). Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations. Science, 313(5788), 831–833. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1125485 PMID:16902136 FreemanA. S. ByersJ. E. 2006 Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations Science 313 5788 831 833 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1125485 PMID:16902136 10.1126/science.112548516902136 Search in Google Scholar

Freeman, A. S., Meszaros, J., & Byers, J. E. (2009). Poor phenotypic integration of blue mussel inducible defenses in environments with multiple predators. Oikos, 118(5), 758–766. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2008.17176.x FreemanA. S. MeszarosJ. ByersJ. E. 2009 Poor phenotypic integration of blue mussel inducible defenses in environments with multiple predators Oikos 118 5 758 766 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2008.17176.x 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2008.17176.x Search in Google Scholar

Fuentes-Santos, I., Cubillo, A. M., & Labarta, U. (2015). A bioeconomic approach to optimize mussel culture production. Reviews in Aquaculture, 9(2), 125–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12108 Fuentes-SantosI. CubilloA. M. LabartaU. 2015 A bioeconomic approach to optimize mussel culture production Reviews in Aquaculture 9 2 125 140 https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12108 10.1111/raq.12108 Search in Google Scholar

Fuentes, A., Fernández-Segovia, I., Escriche, I., & Serra, J. A. (2009). Comparison of physico-chemical parameters and composition of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from different Spanish origins. Food Chemistry, 112(2), 295–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.064 FuentesA. Fernández-SegoviaI. EscricheI. SerraJ. A. 2009 Comparison of physico-chemical parameters and composition of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from different Spanish origins Food Chemistry 112 2 295 302 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.064 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.064 Search in Google Scholar

Fuentes, J., Gregorio, V., Giraldez, R., & Molares, J. (2000). Within-raft variability of the growth rate of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, cultivated in the Ria de Arousa (NW Spain). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 189, 39–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00357-4 FuentesJ. GregorioV. GiraldezR. MolaresJ. 2000 Within-raft variability of the growth rate of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, cultivated in the Ria de Arousa (NW Spain) Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 189 39 52 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00357-4 10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00357-4 Search in Google Scholar

Guillou, E., Cyr, C., Laplante, J. F., Bourque, F., Toupoint, N., & Tremblay, R. (2020). Commercial performance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) Stocks at a microgeographic scale. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8(6), 382–401. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060382 GuillouE. CyrC. LaplanteJ. F. BourqueF. ToupointN. TremblayR. 2020 Commercial performance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) Stocks at a microgeographic scale Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8 6 382 401 https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060382 10.3390/jmse8060382 Search in Google Scholar

Hatzonikolakis, Y., Tsiaras, K., Theodorou, J. A., Petihakis, G., Sofianos, S., & Triantafyllou, G. (2017). Simulation of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis growth with a dynamic energy budget model in Maliakos and Thermaikos Gulfs (Eastern mediterranean). Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 9(September), 371–383. https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00236 HatzonikolakisY. TsiarasK. TheodorouJ. A. PetihakisG. SofianosS. TriantafyllouG. 2017 Simulation of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis growth with a dynamic energy budget model in Maliakos and Thermaikos Gulfs (Eastern mediterranean) Aquaculture Environment Interactions 9 September 371 383 https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00236 10.3354/aei00236 Search in Google Scholar

Houma. (2009). Modélisation et cartographie de la pollution marine et de la bathymétrie à partir de l’imagerie satellitaire. [Paris Est]. https://www.theses.fr/2009PEST0065 Houma 2009 Modélisation et cartographie de la pollution marine et de la bathymétrie à partir de l’imagerie satellitaire [Paris Est]. https://www.theses.fr/2009PEST0065 Search in Google Scholar

Idhalla, M., Nhhala, H., Kassila, J., Ait Chatou, E. M., Orbi, A., & Moukrim, A. (2017). Comparative production of two mussel species (Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis) reared on an offshore submerged longline system in Agadir, Morocco. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 8(6), 1203–1213. Retrieved from http://www.ijser.org IdhallaM. NhhalaH. KassilaJ. Ait ChatouE. M. OrbiA. MoukrimA. 2017 Comparative production of two mussel species (Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis) reared on an offshore submerged longline system in Agadir, Morocco International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 8 6 1203 1213 Retrieved from http://www.ijser.org Search in Google Scholar

Jenewein, B. T., & Gosselin, L. A. (2013). Ontogenetic shift in stress tolerance thresholds of Mytilus trossulus : Effects of desiccation and heat on juvenile mortality. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 481, 147–159. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10221 JeneweinB. T. GosselinL. A. 2013 Ontogenetic shift in stress tolerance thresholds of Mytilus trossulus : Effects of desiccation and heat on juvenile mortality Marine Ecology Progress Series 481 147 159 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10221 10.3354/meps10221 Search in Google Scholar

Karayücel, S., & Karayücel, I. (2000). The effect of environmental factors, depth and position on the growth and mortality of raft-cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Aquaculture Research, 31(12), 893–899. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2109.2000.00496.x KarayücelS. KarayücelI. 2000 The effect of environmental factors, depth and position on the growth and mortality of raft-cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) Aquaculture Research 31 12 893 899 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2109.2000.00496.x 10.1046/j.1365-2109.2000.00496.x Search in Google Scholar

Laama, C., & Bachari, N. E. I. (2018). Evaluation of site suitability for the expansion of mussel farming in the Bay of Souahlia (Algeria) using empirical models. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 31(4), 337–355. https://doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2018.1556145 LaamaC. BachariN. E. I. 2018 Evaluation of site suitability for the expansion of mussel farming in the Bay of Souahlia (Algeria) using empirical models Journal of Applied Aquaculture 31 4 337 355 https://doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2018.1556145 10.1080/10454438.2018.1556145 Search in Google Scholar

Lagade, V. M., Taware, S., & Muley, D. (2015). Seasonal Variation in the Biochemical Constituents, Percentage Edibility and Condition Index of the Estuarine Clam, Soletellina diphos (Linnaeus, 1771) (Mollusca : Bivalvia : Veneroida: Psammobiidae). International Journal of Zoological Research, 11(4), 127–139. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijzr.2015.127.139 LagadeV. M. TawareS. MuleyD. 2015 Seasonal Variation in the Biochemical Constituents, Percentage Edibility and Condition Index of the Estuarine Clam, Soletellina diphos (Linnaeus, 1771) (Mollusca : Bivalvia : Veneroida: Psammobiidae) International Journal of Zoological Research 11 4 127 139 https://doi.org/10.3923/ijzr.2015.127.139 10.3923/ijzr.2015.127.139 Search in Google Scholar

Landmann, J., Ongsiek, T., Goseberg, N., Heasman, K., Buck, B. H., Paffenholz, J. A., & Hildebrandt, A. (2019). Physical modelling of blue mussel dropper lines for the development of surrogates and hydrodynamic coefficients. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 7(3), 65–80. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7030065 LandmannJ. OngsiekT. GosebergN. HeasmanK. BuckB. H. PaffenholzJ. A. HildebrandtA. 2019 Physical modelling of blue mussel dropper lines for the development of surrogates and hydrodynamic coefficients Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 7 3 65 80 https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7030065 10.3390/jmse7030065 Search in Google Scholar

Lauzon-Guay, J.-S., Dionne, M., Barbeau, M. A., & Hamilton, D. J. (2005). Effects of seed size and density on growth, tissue-to-shell ratio and survival of cultivated mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 250, 652–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.03.049 Lauzon-GuayJ.-S. DionneM. BarbeauM. A. HamiltonD. J. 2005 Effects of seed size and density on growth, tissue-to-shell ratio and survival of cultivated mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Prince Edward Island, Canada Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 250 652 665 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.03.049 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.03.049 Search in Google Scholar

Lök, A., Acarlι, S., Serdar, S., Köse, A., & Yιldιz, H. (2007). Growth and mortality of Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam., 1819, in relation to size on longline in Mersin Bay, Izmir (Turkey – Aegean Sea). Aquaculture Research, 38(8), 819–826. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2007.01717.x LökA. AcarlιS. SerdarS. KöseA. YιldιzH. 2007 Growth and mortality of Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam., 1819, in relation to size on longline in Mersin Bay, Izmir (Turkey – Aegean Sea) Aquaculture Research 38 8 819 826 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2007.01717.x 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2007.01717.x Search in Google Scholar

Lourguioui, H., Brigolin, D., Boulahdid, M., & Pastres, R. (2017). A perspective for reducing environmental impacts of mussel culture in Algeria. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 22(8), 1266–1277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-017-1261-7 LourguiouiH. BrigolinD. BoulahdidM. PastresR. 2017 A perspective for reducing environmental impacts of mussel culture in Algeria The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 22 8 1266 1277 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-017-1261-7 10.1007/s11367-017-1261-7 Search in Google Scholar

Martinez, M., Mangano, M. C., Maricchiolo, G., Genovese, L., Mazzola, A., & Sarà, G. (2018). Measuring the effects of temperature rise on Mediterranean shell fish aquaculture. Ecological Indicators, 88(December 2017), 71–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.01.002 MartinezM. ManganoM. C. MaricchioloG. GenoveseL. MazzolaA. SaràG. 2018 Measuring the effects of temperature rise on Mediterranean shell fish aquaculture Ecological Indicators 88 December 2017 71 78 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.01.002 10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.01.002 Search in Google Scholar

Mohite, S. A., Mohite, A. S., & Singh, H. (2008). On condition index and percentage edibiliy of the shortneck clam Paphia malabarica (Chemintz) from estuarine regions of Ratnagiri, west coast of India. Aquaculture Research, 40(1), 69–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.02064.x MohiteS. A. MohiteA. S. SinghH. 2008 On condition index and percentage edibiliy of the shortneck clam Paphia malabarica (Chemintz) from estuarine regions of Ratnagiri, west coast of India Aquaculture Research 40 1 69 73 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.02064.x 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.02064.x Search in Google Scholar

MPRH. (2008). Schéma Directeur de développement des activités de la pêche et de l’aquaculture, Horizon 2025. (Ministère de la Pêche et des Ressources Halieutiques (ed.)). http://www.mpeche.gov.dz MPRH 2008 Schéma Directeur de développement des activités de la pêche et de l’aquaculture, Horizon 2025 Ministère de la Pêche et des Ressources Halieutiques (ed.)). http://www.mpeche.gov.dz Search in Google Scholar

Navarro, E., Iglesias, J. I. P., Perez Camacho, A., Labarta, U., & Beiras, R. (1991). The physiological energetics of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from different cultivation rafts in the Ria de Arosa (Galicia, N.W. Spain). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 94(2–3), 197–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(91)90118-Q NavarroE. IglesiasJ. I. P. Perez CamachoA. LabartaU. BeirasR. 1991 The physiological energetics of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from different cultivation rafts in the Ria de Arosa (Galicia, N.W. Spain) Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 94 2–3 197 212 https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(91)90118-Q 10.1016/0044-8486(91)90118-Q Search in Google Scholar

Okumuş, I., & Stirling, H. P. (1998). Seasonal variations in the meat weight, condition index and biochemical composition of mussels (Mytilus edulis) in suspended culture in two Scottish sea lochs. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 159(3–4), 249–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(97)00206-8 OkumuşI. StirlingH. P. 1998 Seasonal variations in the meat weight, condition index and biochemical composition of mussels (Mytilus edulis) in suspended culture in two Scottish sea lochs Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 159 3–4 249 261 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(97)00206-8 10.1016/S0044-8486(97)00206-8 Search in Google Scholar

Pace, D. A., Marsh, A. G., Leong, P. K., Green, A. J., Hedgecock, D., & Manahan, D. T. (2006). Physiological bases of genetically determined variation in growth of marine invertebrate larvae : A study of growth heterosis in the bivalve Crassostrea gigas. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 335(2), 188–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.03.005 PaceD. A. MarshA. G. LeongP. K. GreenA. J. HedgecockD. ManahanD. T. 2006 Physiological bases of genetically determined variation in growth of marine invertebrate larvae : A study of growth heterosis in the bivalve Crassostrea gigas Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 335 2 188 209 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.03.005 10.1016/j.jembe.2006.03.005 Search in Google Scholar

Pérez-Camacho, A., Labarta, U., Vinseiro, V., & Fernándezreiriz, M. J. (2013). Mussel production management : Raft culture without thinning-out. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 406–407, 172–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.05.019 Pérez-CamachoA. LabartaU. VinseiroV. FernándezreirizM. J. 2013 Mussel production management : Raft culture without thinning-out Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 406–407 172 179 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.05.019 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.05.019 Search in Google Scholar

Petersen, J. K., Taylor, D., Bergström, P., Buer, A.-L., Darecki, M., Filippelli, R., Gren, I.-M., Hasler, B., Holbach, A., Nielsen, P., Petersen, L. K., Lindegarth, M., Lund, I., Maar, M., Ritzenhofen, L., Sagan, S., Saurel, C., Schernewski, G., Stybel, N., & Timmermann, K. (2020). Policy guidelines for implementation of mussel cultivation as a mitigation measure for coastal eutrophication in the Western Baltic Sea. In DTU Aqua Report (Vol. 362, Issue April). https://doi.org/10.11581/dtu:00000079 PetersenJ. K. TaylorD. BergströmP. BuerA.-L. DareckiM. FilippelliR. GrenI.-M. HaslerB. HolbachA. NielsenP. PetersenL. K. LindegarthM. LundI. MaarM. RitzenhofenL. SaganS. SaurelC. SchernewskiG. StybelN. TimmermannK. 2020 Policy guidelines for implementation of mussel cultivation as a mitigation measure for coastal eutrophication in the Western Baltic Sea In DTU Aqua Report 362 April https://doi.org/10.11581/dtu:00000079 Search in Google Scholar

Petraitis, P. S. (1995). The role of growth in maintaining spatial dominance by mussels (Mytilus edulis). Ecology, 76(4), 1337–1346. https://doi.org/10.2307/1940940 PetraitisP. S. 1995 The role of growth in maintaining spatial dominance by mussels (Mytilus edulis) Ecology 76 4 1337 1346 https://doi.org/10.2307/1940940 10.2307/1940940 Search in Google Scholar

Phillips, N. E. (2002). Effects of nutrition-mediated larval condition on juvenile performance in a marine mussel. Ecology, 83(9), 2562–2574. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)08[2562:EONMLC]2.0.CO;2 PhillipsN. E. 2002 Effects of nutrition-mediated larval condition on juvenile performance in a marine mussel Ecology 83 9 2562 2574 https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)08[2562:EONMLC]2.0.CO;2 10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[2562:EONMLC]2.0.CO;2 Search in Google Scholar

Prato, E., Biandolino, F., Parlapiano, I., Papa, L., Denti, G., & Fanelli, G. (2019). Seasonal changes of commercial traits, proximate and fatty acid compositions of the scallop Flexopecten glaber from the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Italy). PeerJ, 7(1), e5810. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5810 PMID:30693150 PratoE. BiandolinoF. ParlapianoI. PapaL. DentiG. FanelliG. 2019 Seasonal changes of commercial traits, proximate and fatty acid compositions of the scallop Flexopecten glaber from the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Italy) PeerJ 7 1 e5810 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5810 PMID:30693150 10.7717/peerj.5810 Search in Google Scholar

Prieto, D., Tamayo, D., Urrutxurtu, I., Navarro, E., Ibarrola, I., & Urrutia, M. B. (2020). Nature more than nurture affects the growth rate of mussels. Scientific Reports, 10 (1), 3539. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60312-y PMID:32103079 PrietoD. TamayoD. UrrutxurtuI. NavarroE. IbarrolaI. UrrutiaM. B. 2020 Nature more than nurture affects the growth rate of mussels Scientific Reports 10 1 3539 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60312-y PMID:32103079 10.1038/s41598-020-60312-y Search in Google Scholar

Prieto, D., Urrutxurtu, I., Navarro, E., Urrutia, M. B., & Ibarrola, I. (2018). Mytilus galloprovincialis fast growing phenotypes under different restrictive feeding conditions: Fast feeders and energy savers. Marine Environmental Research, 140(May), 114–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.05.007 PMID:29907318 PrietoD. UrrutxurtuI. NavarroE. UrrutiaM. B. IbarrolaI. 2018 Mytilus galloprovincialis fast growing phenotypes under different restrictive feeding conditions: Fast feeders and energy savers Marine Environmental Research 140 May 114 125 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.05.007 PMID:29907318 10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.05.007 Search in Google Scholar

Raman-Nair, W., & Colbourne, B. (2003). Dynamics of a mussel longline system. Aquacultural Engineering, 27, 191–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8609(02)00083-3 Raman-NairW. ColbourneB. 2003 Dynamics of a mussel longline system Aquacultural Engineering 27 191 212 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8609(02)00083-3 10.1016/S0144-8609(02)00083-3 Search in Google Scholar

Seed, R. (1969). The ecology of Mytilus edulis. (Lamellibranchiata) on exposed rocky shores : I. Breeding and settlement. Oecologia, 3(3–4), 277–316. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00390380 PMID:28308905 SeedR. 1969 The ecology of Mytilus edulis. (Lamellibranchiata) on exposed rocky shores : I. Breeding and settlement Oecologia 3 3–4 277 316 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00390380 PMID:28308905 10.1007/BF0039038028308905 Search in Google Scholar

Sim-Smith, C. (2006). Greenshell mussels : Solving the case of the disappearing spat. Water and Atmosphere, 14(3), 16–17. Sim-SmithC. 2006 Greenshell mussels : Solving the case of the disappearing spat Water and Atmosphere 14 3 16 17 Search in Google Scholar

Simon, A., Fraïsse, C., El Ayari, T., Liautard-Haag, C., Strelkov, P., Welch, J. J., & Bierne, N. (2021). How do species barriers decay? Concordance and local introgression in mosaic hybrid zones of mussels. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 34(1), 208–223. https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.13709 PMID:33045123 SimonA. FraïsseC. El AyariT. Liautard-HaagC. StrelkovP. WelchJ. J. BierneN. 2021 How do species barriers decay? Concordance and local introgression in mosaic hybrid zones of mussels Journal of Evolutionary Biology 34 1 208 223 https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.13709 PMID:33045123 10.1111/jeb.1370933045123 Search in Google Scholar

South, P. M., Floerl, O., & Jeffs, A. G. (2020). Magnitude and timing of seed losses in mussel (Perna canaliculus) aquaculture. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 515, 734528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734528 SouthP. M. FloerlO. JeffsA. G. 2020 Magnitude and timing of seed losses in mussel (Perna canaliculus) aquaculture Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 515 734528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734528 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734528 Search in Google Scholar

Steffani, C. N., & Branch, G. M. (2003, January). Growth rate, condition, and shell shape of Mytilus galloprovincialis : Responses to wave exposure. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 246, 197–209. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps246197 SteffaniC. N. BranchG. M. 2003 January Growth rate, condition, and shell shape of Mytilus galloprovincialis : Responses to wave exposure Marine Ecology Progress Series 246 197 209 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps246197 10.3354/meps246197 Search in Google Scholar

Strohmeier, T., Duinker, A., Strand, Ø., & Aure, J. (2008). Temporal and spatial variation in food availability and meat ratio in a longline mussel farm (Mytilus edulis). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 276(1–4), 83–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.01.043 StrohmeierT. DuinkerA. StrandØ. AureJ. 2008 Temporal and spatial variation in food availability and meat ratio in a longline mussel farm (Mytilus edulis) Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 276 1–4 83 90 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.01.043 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.01.043 Search in Google Scholar

Supono, S., Dunphy, B., & Jeffs, A. (2020). Retention of green-lipped mussel spat : The roles of body size and nutritional condition. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 520(January), 735017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735017 SuponoS. DunphyB. JeffsA. 2020 Retention of green-lipped mussel spat : The roles of body size and nutritional condition Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 520 January 735017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735017 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735017 Search in Google Scholar

Tamayo, D., Ibarrola, I., Urrutia, M. B., & Navarro, E. (2011). The physiological basis for inter-individual growth variability in the spat of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 321(1–2), 113–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.08.024 TamayoD. IbarrolaI. UrrutiaM. B. NavarroE. 2011 The physiological basis for inter-individual growth variability in the spat of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 321 1–2 113 120 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.08.024 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.08.024 Search in Google Scholar

Theodorou, J. A., Tzovenis, I., Adams, C. M., Sorgeloos, P., & Viaene, J. (2014). Risk Factors Affecting the Profitability of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck 1819) Farming in Greece. Journal of Shellfish Research, 33(3), 695–708. https://doi.org/10.2983/035.033.0304 TheodorouJ. A. TzovenisI. AdamsC. M. SorgeloosP. ViaeneJ. 2014 Risk Factors Affecting the Profitability of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck 1819) Farming in Greece Journal of Shellfish Research 33 3 695 708 https://doi.org/10.2983/035.033.0304 10.2983/035.033.0304 Search in Google Scholar

Theodorou, J. A., James, R., Tagalis, D., Tzovenis, I., Hellio, C., & Katselis, G. (2017). Density and size structure of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus 1758), in the shallow water zone of Maliakos Gulf, Greece. Acta Adriatica, 58(1), 63–76. https://doi.org/10.32582/aa.58.1.5 TheodorouJ. A. JamesR. TagalisD. TzovenisI. HellioC. KatselisG. 2017 Density and size structure of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus 1758), in the shallow water zone of Maliakos Gulf, Greece Acta Adriatica 58 1 63 76 https://doi.org/10.32582/aa.58.1.5 10.32582/aa.58.1.5 Search in Google Scholar

Theodorou, J. A., & Tzovenis, I. (2018). Managing the risks of the Greek crisis in aquaculture: A SWOT analysis of the mediterranean mussel farming. Agricultural Economics Review, 18(2), 18–29. TheodorouJ. A. TzovenisI. 2018 Managing the risks of the Greek crisis in aquaculture: A SWOT analysis of the mediterranean mussel farming Agricultural Economics Review 18 2 18 29 Search in Google Scholar

Theodorou, J. A., Leech, B. S., Perdikaris, C., Hellio, C., & Katselis, G. (2019). Performance of the cultured Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark 1819) after summer post-harvest reimmersion. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 19(3); Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v19_3_05 TheodorouJ. A. LeechB. S. PerdikarisC. HellioC. KatselisG. 2019 Performance of the cultured Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark 1819) after summer post-harvest reimmersion Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 19 3 Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v19_3_05 10.4194/1303-2712-v19_3_05 Search in Google Scholar

Theodorou, J. A., Moutopoulos, D. K., & Tzovenis, I. (2020). Semi-quantitative risk assessment of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) harvesting bans due to harmful algal bloom (HAB) incidents in Greece. Aquaculture Economics & Management, 24(3), 273–293. https://doi.org/10.1080/13657305.2019.1708994 TheodorouJ. A. MoutopoulosD. K. TzovenisI. 2020 Semi-quantitative risk assessment of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) harvesting bans due to harmful algal bloom (HAB) incidents in Greece Aquaculture Economics & Management 24 3 273 293 https://doi.org/10.1080/13657305.2019.1708994 10.1080/13657305.2019.1708994 Search in Google Scholar

Theodorou, J. A., Tzovenis, I., & Katselis, G. (2021). Empirical approach to risk management strategies of Mediterranean mussel farmers in Greece. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 50(4), 455–472. https://doi.org/10.2478/oandhs-2021-0039 TheodorouJ. A. TzovenisI. KatselisG. 2021 Empirical approach to risk management strategies of Mediterranean mussel farmers in Greece Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 50 4 455 472 https://doi.org/10.2478/oandhs-2021-0039 10.2478/oandhs-2021-0039 Search in Google Scholar

Valladares, A., Manríquez, G., & Suárez-Isla, B. A. (2010). Shell shape variation in populations of Mytilus chilensis (Hupe 1854) from southern Chile : A geometric morphometric approach. Marine Biology, 157(12), 2731–2738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-010-1532-3 ValladaresA. ManríquezG. Suárez-IslaB. A. 2010 Shell shape variation in populations of Mytilus chilensis (Hupe 1854) from southern Chile : A geometric morphometric approach Marine Biology 157 12 2731 2738 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-010-1532-3 10.1007/s00227-010-1532-3 Search in Google Scholar

Waite, L., Grant, J., & Davidson, J. (2005, August). Bay-scale spatial growth variation of mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended culture, Prince Edward Island, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 297, 157–167. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps297157 WaiteL. GrantJ. DavidsonJ. 2005 August Bay-scale spatial growth variation of mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended culture, Prince Edward Island, Canada Marine Ecology Progress Series 297 157 167 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps297157 10.3354/meps297157 Search in Google Scholar

Wang, M., Shi, W., & Jiang, L. (2012). Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western Pacific region. Optics Express, 20(2), 741–753. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.000741 PMID:22274419 WangM. ShiW. JiangL. 2012 Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western Pacific region Optics Express 20 2 741 753 https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.000741 PMID:22274419 10.1364/OE.20.00074122274419 Search in Google Scholar

Webb, S. C., & Heasman, K. G. (2006). Evaluation of fast green uptake as a simple fitness test for spat of Perna canaliculus (Gmelin, 1791). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 252(2–4), 305–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.07.006 WebbS. C. HeasmanK. G. 2006 Evaluation of fast green uptake as a simple fitness test for spat of Perna canaliculus (Gmelin, 1791) Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 252 2–4 305 316 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.07.006 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.07.006 Search in Google Scholar

Wenne, R., Zbawicka, M., Prądzińska, A., Kotta, J., Herkül, K., Gardner, J. P. A., Apostolidis, A. P., Poćwierz-Kotus, A., Rouane-Hacene, O., Korrida, A., Dondero, F., Baptista, M., Reizopoulou, S., Hamer, B., Sundsaasen, K. K., Árnyasi, M., & Kent, M. P. (2022). Molecular genetic differentiation of native populations of Mediterranean blue mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819, and the relationship with environmental variables. The European Zoological Journal, 89(1), 755–784. https://doi.org/10.1080/24750263.2022.2086306 WenneR. ZbawickaM. PrądzińskaA. KottaJ. HerkülK. GardnerJ. P. A. ApostolidisA. P. Poćwierz-KotusA. Rouane-HaceneO. KorridaA. DonderoF. BaptistaM. ReizopoulouS. HamerB. SundsaasenK. K. ÁrnyasiM. KentM. P. 2022 Molecular genetic differentiation of native populations of Mediterranean blue mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819, and the relationship with environmental variables The European Zoological Journal 89 1 755 784 https://doi.org/10.1080/24750263.2022.2086306 10.1080/24750263.2022.2086306 Search in Google Scholar

Wijsman, J. W. M., Schellekens, T., Van Stralen, M., Capelle, J. J., & Smaal, A. C. (2014). Rendement van mosselkweek in de westelijke Waddenzee [Efficiency of mussel culture in the western Wadden Sea]. IMARES, Wageningen UR, Yerseke. WijsmanJ. W. M. SchellekensT. Van StralenM. CapelleJ. J. SmaalA. C. 2014 Rendement van mosselkweek in de westelijke Waddenzee [Efficiency of mussel culture in the western Wadden Sea] IMARES Wageningen UR, Yerseke Search in Google Scholar

Articles recommandés par Trend MD

Planifiez votre conférence à distance avec Sciendo