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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2255-8896
Publicado por primera vez
18 Mar 2008
Periodo de publicación
6 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 53 (2016): Edición 6 (December 2016)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2255-8896
Publicado por primera vez
18 Mar 2008
Periodo de publicación
6 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

7 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Smart Grid Development: Multinational Demo Project Analysis

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 3 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

This paper analyses demand side management (DSM) projects and stakeholders’ experience with the aim to develop, promote and adapt smart grid tehnologies in Latvia. The research aims at identifying possible system service posibilites, including demand response (DR) and determining the appropriate market design for such type of services to be implemented at the Baltic power system level, with the cooperation of distribution system operator (DSO) and transmission system operator (TSO). This paper is prepared as an extract from the global smart grid best practices, smart solutions and business models.

Palabras clave

  • demand side management
  • demand response
  • electricity market
Acceso abierto

Introduction of Energy and Climate Mitigation Policy Issues in Energy - Environment Model of Latvia

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 12 - 20

Resumen

Abstract

The present research is aimed at contributing to the Latvian national climate policy development by projecting total GHG emissions up to 2030, by evaluating the GHG emission reduction path in the non-ETS sector at different targets set for emissions reduction and by evaluating the obtained results within the context of the obligations defined by the EU 2030 policy framework for climate and energy. The method used in the research was bottom-up, linear programming optimisation model MARKAL code adapted as the MARKAL-Latvia model with improvements for perfecting the integrated assessment of climate policy. The modelling results in the baseline scenario, reflecting national economic development forecasts and comprising the existing GHG emissions reduction policies and measures, show that in 2030 emissions will increase by 19.1 % compared to 2005. GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030, compared to 2005, were researched in respective alternative scenarios. Detailed modelling and analysis of the Latvian situation according to the scenario of non-ETS sector GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030 compared to 2005 have revealed that to implement a cost effective strategy of GHG emissions reduction first of all a policy should be developed that ensures effective absorption of the available energy efficiency potential in all consumer sectors. The next group of emissions reduction measures includes all non-ETS sectors (industry, services, agriculture, transport, and waste management).

Palabras clave

  • bottom-up models
  • GHG abatement
  • energy efficiency
  • non-ETS
  • scenarios
Acceso abierto

Energy Aspects of Green Buildings – International Experience

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 21 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

Palabras clave

  • behaviour
  • construction
  • energy
  • energy efficiency
  • environment
  • green buildings
  • green materials
  • renewable energy
  • sustainability
Acceso abierto

Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 29 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

Palabras clave

  • solar energy
  • electrical-driven
  • solar air conditioning
  • performance evaluation
Acceso abierto

Lifecycle Analysis of Different Motors from the Standpoint of Environmental Impact

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 37 - 46

Resumen

Abstract

Comparative analysis is performed for different motors from the standpoint of damage inflicted by them during their lifecycle. Three types of motors have been considered: the synchronous reluctance motor, the permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor and the induction motor. The assessment of lifecycle has been made in terms of its four stages: manufacturing, distribution, use and end of life. The results show that the production costs of synchronous reluctance motor are lower compared to that of permanent magnet assisted motors, but due to their low efficiency they exert the greatest environmental impact. The main conclusion is that the assessment made at the early designing stage for the related environmental impact enables its reduction.

Palabras clave

  • environmental impact
  • induction motor
  • lifecycle assessment
  • permanent magnets
  • synchronous reluctance motor
Acceso abierto

Electricity Market Liberalisation and Flexibility of Conventional Generation to Balance Intermittent Renewable Energy – Is It Possible to Stay Competitive?

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 47 - 56

Resumen

Abstract

Intermittent generation (solar PV and wind energy) integration in power production portfolio as well as electricity price fluctuations have changed the running manner of conventional combined heat and power (CHP) plants: the shift from base load operation to running in cyclic modes. These cogeneration power plants are not adapted to new running conditions. The level of CHP plant flexibility should be improved to operate profitably and efficiently from both technical and fuel usage point of view. There are different ways to increase the flexibility of power plants. Before any improvements, the situation at power plants should be evaluated and the weakest points defined. In this publication, such measures are presented on Riga CHP-2 plant example: installation of heat storage tank; extension of operation rang; acceleration of start-ups.

Palabras clave

  • electricity price fluctuation
  • flexibility
  • intermittent generation
Acceso abierto

Determination of Contact Potential Difference by the Kelvin Probe (Part II) 2. Measurement System by Involving the Composite Bucking Voltage

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 57 - 66

Resumen

Abstract

The present research is devoted to creation of a new low-cost miniaturised measurement system for determination of potential difference in real time and with high measurement resolution. Furthermore, using the electrode of the reference probe, Kelvin method leads to both an indirect measurement of electronic work function or contact potential of the sample and measurement of a surface potential for insulator type samples. The bucking voltage in this system is composite and comprises a periodically variable component. The necessary steps for development of signal processing and tracking are described in detail.

Palabras clave

  • Kelvin probe
  • contact potential difference
  • surface potential
7 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Smart Grid Development: Multinational Demo Project Analysis

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 3 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

This paper analyses demand side management (DSM) projects and stakeholders’ experience with the aim to develop, promote and adapt smart grid tehnologies in Latvia. The research aims at identifying possible system service posibilites, including demand response (DR) and determining the appropriate market design for such type of services to be implemented at the Baltic power system level, with the cooperation of distribution system operator (DSO) and transmission system operator (TSO). This paper is prepared as an extract from the global smart grid best practices, smart solutions and business models.

Palabras clave

  • demand side management
  • demand response
  • electricity market
Acceso abierto

Introduction of Energy and Climate Mitigation Policy Issues in Energy - Environment Model of Latvia

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 12 - 20

Resumen

Abstract

The present research is aimed at contributing to the Latvian national climate policy development by projecting total GHG emissions up to 2030, by evaluating the GHG emission reduction path in the non-ETS sector at different targets set for emissions reduction and by evaluating the obtained results within the context of the obligations defined by the EU 2030 policy framework for climate and energy. The method used in the research was bottom-up, linear programming optimisation model MARKAL code adapted as the MARKAL-Latvia model with improvements for perfecting the integrated assessment of climate policy. The modelling results in the baseline scenario, reflecting national economic development forecasts and comprising the existing GHG emissions reduction policies and measures, show that in 2030 emissions will increase by 19.1 % compared to 2005. GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030, compared to 2005, were researched in respective alternative scenarios. Detailed modelling and analysis of the Latvian situation according to the scenario of non-ETS sector GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030 compared to 2005 have revealed that to implement a cost effective strategy of GHG emissions reduction first of all a policy should be developed that ensures effective absorption of the available energy efficiency potential in all consumer sectors. The next group of emissions reduction measures includes all non-ETS sectors (industry, services, agriculture, transport, and waste management).

Palabras clave

  • bottom-up models
  • GHG abatement
  • energy efficiency
  • non-ETS
  • scenarios
Acceso abierto

Energy Aspects of Green Buildings – International Experience

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 21 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

Palabras clave

  • behaviour
  • construction
  • energy
  • energy efficiency
  • environment
  • green buildings
  • green materials
  • renewable energy
  • sustainability
Acceso abierto

Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 29 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

Palabras clave

  • solar energy
  • electrical-driven
  • solar air conditioning
  • performance evaluation
Acceso abierto

Lifecycle Analysis of Different Motors from the Standpoint of Environmental Impact

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 37 - 46

Resumen

Abstract

Comparative analysis is performed for different motors from the standpoint of damage inflicted by them during their lifecycle. Three types of motors have been considered: the synchronous reluctance motor, the permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor and the induction motor. The assessment of lifecycle has been made in terms of its four stages: manufacturing, distribution, use and end of life. The results show that the production costs of synchronous reluctance motor are lower compared to that of permanent magnet assisted motors, but due to their low efficiency they exert the greatest environmental impact. The main conclusion is that the assessment made at the early designing stage for the related environmental impact enables its reduction.

Palabras clave

  • environmental impact
  • induction motor
  • lifecycle assessment
  • permanent magnets
  • synchronous reluctance motor
Acceso abierto

Electricity Market Liberalisation and Flexibility of Conventional Generation to Balance Intermittent Renewable Energy – Is It Possible to Stay Competitive?

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 47 - 56

Resumen

Abstract

Intermittent generation (solar PV and wind energy) integration in power production portfolio as well as electricity price fluctuations have changed the running manner of conventional combined heat and power (CHP) plants: the shift from base load operation to running in cyclic modes. These cogeneration power plants are not adapted to new running conditions. The level of CHP plant flexibility should be improved to operate profitably and efficiently from both technical and fuel usage point of view. There are different ways to increase the flexibility of power plants. Before any improvements, the situation at power plants should be evaluated and the weakest points defined. In this publication, such measures are presented on Riga CHP-2 plant example: installation of heat storage tank; extension of operation rang; acceleration of start-ups.

Palabras clave

  • electricity price fluctuation
  • flexibility
  • intermittent generation
Acceso abierto

Determination of Contact Potential Difference by the Kelvin Probe (Part II) 2. Measurement System by Involving the Composite Bucking Voltage

Publicado en línea: 25 Jan 2017
Páginas: 57 - 66

Resumen

Abstract

The present research is devoted to creation of a new low-cost miniaturised measurement system for determination of potential difference in real time and with high measurement resolution. Furthermore, using the electrode of the reference probe, Kelvin method leads to both an indirect measurement of electronic work function or contact potential of the sample and measurement of a surface potential for insulator type samples. The bucking voltage in this system is composite and comprises a periodically variable component. The necessary steps for development of signal processing and tracking are described in detail.

Palabras clave

  • Kelvin probe
  • contact potential difference
  • surface potential

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