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MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES, Guest Editors: Stefan Schindler and Linda Olsvig-Whittaker

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1805-4196
Publicado por primera vez
20 Jun 2008
Periodo de publicación
3 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 14 (2021): Edición 1 (May 2021)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1805-4196
Publicado por primera vez
20 Jun 2008
Periodo de publicación
3 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

7 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Comparison of Forest Species- Diversity and Composition Inside and Outside of the Holedná Game Reserve (The City of Brno, Czech Republic)

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 1 - 18

Resumen

Abstract

The impact of ungulates on the forest vegetation has far-reaching consequences: it decreases species diversity and the production of biomass, causes soil dehydration, erosion and eutrophication the entire forest community. The article addresses the influence of fallow deer and mouflon on the forest vegetation in the Holedná game reserve (western border of the city of Brno, South Moravia, Czech Republic) and compares differences with the forests adjacent to the game reserve. Sixty localities were distributed randomly and phytosociological relevés subsequently recorded there according to the age of the stands inside and outside of the game reserve. The differences in floristic composition were compared for trees, shrubs and herbs, the herb layer species number, the diversity indices and the values of Ellenberg indicators. In the game reserve, a significant difference was found in the coverage of the herb and shrub layer, which was significantly lower than outside the territory. Furthermore, the increased amount of nitrophilous, heliophytes and ruderal herb species inside the game reserve exhibited affiliation to the interior of game reserve. Besides, young trees and woody sapling were less abundant or even missing inside of game reserve. By contrast, the frequency of typical species of oak-hornbeam forests was higher outside game reserve. Due to the higher number of animals and consequent disturbances, nitrophilous plant species dominate in the herb layer of the game reserve, while forest species are more often represented outside it.

Palabras clave

  • Game reserve
  • grazing of animals
  • change of biodiversity
  • forest vegetation
  • herb layer
  • nitrophytes
Acceso abierto

Dynamism of Landscape Transformation in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 19 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

Studies have shown that information on landscape transformation is an important benchmark data set because of its value as an environmental change indicator. Therefore, dynamism of landscape transformation over a 34-year period are analysed for a case study in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed method consisting of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis, and semi-structured interviews covering 400 households while factors contributing to landscape structures and changes are studied. The results point out three main driving factors responsible for the landscape transformation in the study area: agricultural practices which lead to intensification of forest resources, riparian vegetation, vegetated wetlands and non-vegetated wetlands; urbanization which modifies the structure and morphology of the landscape, and finally, population growth directly related to massive infrastructural development which encroached on all other land spaces. GIS-based analysis of remotely-sensed data showed that built-up area had increased by 7535.2 ha between 1986 and 2020; shrub and arable land by 1343.9 ha and light forest decreased by 4998.3 ha. While bare-land reduced by 1522.1 ha; vegetated wetland reduced by 1092 ha; water body coverage reduced by 168 ha and non-vegetated wetland size also reduced by 2029.4 ha. Analysis of household survey results revealed that the perceptions of respondents validate the observed patterns during the remotely-sensed data analysis phase of the research, with 54 % (n=400) of respondents reporting a decline in agricultural land use, and 19.3 % (n=400) observing a decline in forest areas in the study area. Furthermore, agricultural intensification, urban development, timber exploitation, firewood collection and increase in settlements were identified as the proximate drivers of these observed landscape transformation dynamics in the study area. The study concluded that the variation in landscape transformation of the study area are clear indication of the extent of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in the study area.

Palabras clave

  • Biodiversity loss
  • Dynamism
  • ecosystem status
  • degradation
  • landscape transformation
Acceso abierto

The Relationship Between Landscape Diversity and Crops Productivity: Landscape Scale Study

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 39 - 58

Resumen

Abstract

The present study evaluates the relationship between the crops productivity and ecosystem diversity. The spatial variability in ecosystem diversity was measured using the Shannon landscape diversity index and distance from biodiversity hotspots that are nature conservation areas. Three crops were selected for the study: soybeans, sunflowers and winter rye. The initial data included the average crops yields in administrative districts within 10 regions of Ukraine. It was found that the studied crops yield dynamics from the mid-90s of the previous century to the current period could be described by a sigmoid curve (log-logistic model). The parameters of the yield model are the following indicators: the minimum level of yield (Lower Limit); maximum level of productivity (Upper limit); the slope of the model, which shows the rate of change in yields over time; ED50 - the time required to achieve half, from the maximum yield level. Our studies have shown that there is a statistically significant regression relationship between the yield parameters of all the studied crops and biodiversity, even at the landscape level. Among the studied crops, soybean shows the strongest regression relationship between yields and indicators of landscape diversity. Sunflower yield is the least dependent on landscape diversity. Most of the established dependencies are nonlinear, which indicates the existence of an optimal level of landscape diversity to achieve the maximum possible crop yields. Therefore, the obtained patterns can be the basis for land-use planning and management, especially while creating new natural protected areas.

Palabras clave

  • sunflower
  • soybean
  • winter rye
  • yield
  • landscape diversity
Acceso abierto

Does Experimental Non-Reclaimed Sites Differ from Technically Reclaimed Areas in the Risk of Artificial Bird Nest Predation?

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 59 - 72

Resumen

Abstract

Areas left to natural development have been found to be sites with higher diversity and conservation value of local communities, including bird communities, compared to artificial reclamation of post-industrial areas. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused primarily on bird communities of post-mining areas, in terms of the diversity and richness of species. Our study dealt with bird nest predation on specific case of two experimental sites (20 and 32 ha) with more than a 20-year history of primary spontaneous succession established within the technical reclamation of the Radovesická spoil heap (approx. 1,200 ha, North Bohemia, Czech Republic). In the spring of 2018, we conducted a predation experiment using artificial nests (ground and elevated), installed within both succession areas and beyond, in the adjacent artificially reclaimed areas. We monitored the way of restoration and the distance of the nest placement from the succession-reclamation sites edge. The rate of predation was very high: 92.5 % in reclaimed area and 89.4 % in spontaneous successions. None of the observed factors analysed in the generalised linear model (GLM) have conclusively explained the risk of predation. The two experimental succession sites did not differ from the surrounding reclaimed sites in terms of the risk of predation, nor did they significantly influence predation risk on reclaimed sites. We believe that both relatively small and mutually isolated areas do not provide enough of an inner environment without or with at least a limited effect of predation pressure coming from adjacent reclaimed areas.

Palabras clave

  • predation risk
  • spontaneous development
  • technical reclamation
  • nest predator
  • matrix effect
Acceso abierto

State of the Landscape and Dynamics of Loss and Fragmentation of Forest Critically Endangered in the Tropical Andes Hotspot: Implications for Conservation Planning

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 73 - 91

Resumen

Abstract

Currently, there is no precise information on the degree of transformation of Tropical Andes hotspot landscape and native ecosystems due to the intensification of agricultural and urban land-use. Proper knowledge of these changes would provide crucial information for planning conservation strategies. We evaluated the impact of the intensification of agricultural and urban land-use on the Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest, both of which are categorized as Critically Endangered, and the state of the landscape in the High Rio Guayllabamba watershed, Ecuador, during the periods 1991–2005 and 2005–2017. The evaluation was carried out using Landsat satellite images of 30 x 30 m pixels and landscape metrics. We found an advanced state of landscape transformation. Since the 1990s, the loss of both ecosystems was largely caused by the conversion of forest to agriculture, resulting in substantial changes in the spatial configuration of these ecosystems. From 1991 to 2017, 19.8 % and 16.1 % of Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest respectively, were converted to agriculture. The loss of Inter-Andean Dry Forest was 28 % and the number of forest patches increased by more than 150%. The loss of Tropical Montane Forest was 16.5 % and the number of forest patches increased by more than 300 %. The largest loss and fragmentation of forest cover occurred from 1991 to 2005. We suggested planning landscape-scale conservation, using the patch-corridor-matrix model. This model is appropriate given the current configuration of the landscape studied, with Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest restricted to small patches sparsely distributed across the landscape.

Palabras clave

  • Changing landscape
  • Ecuador
  • Forest habitat
  • Forest landscape
  • Landscape-scale conservation
  • Rio Guayllabamba watershed
Acceso abierto

Rapid Decreasing of a Selected Plant Species Distribution Within Recent Decades as an Illustration of Gradual Local Extinction of Low-Productive Wet Meadow Species in Central Europe

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 92 - 105

Resumen

Abstract

This study provides an illustration of the contemporary extinction trend of a selected wet grassland species, Pedicularis sylvatica, within a region of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic. Historically, it was a relatively common species in the study region, but it has been severely reduced in recent decades due to the abandonment of the traditional management of the grasslands, or inappropriate management practices, including extensive drainage, fertilisation, and liming. Low precipitation in recent years, a depleted soil seed bank, inbreeding in small, isolated populations, the inability to germinate, and the emergence of seedlings can also play an important role. After personal resurvey, P. sylvatica was not confirmed on 28 % of the localities where it was documented between two and 20 years ago. In a selected south-eastern subregion, only one of 19 localities persist nowadays. A steep decrease of local subpopulations of P. sylvatica points to the holistic problem of both the low-productive wet meadow species’ extinctions and their habitat collapses in central Europe. Without proper protection and management, it is likely that low-productive wet meadows will continue to decline and, in the next few decades, only a fraction of today’s already faint frequency will remain within a few higher-elevated subregions.

Palabras clave

  • biodiversity
  • plant extinction
  • degradation of wetlands
  • nature protection
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Reynoutria × Bohemica on the Condition of Capreolus Capreolus and Cervus Elaphus

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 106 - 126

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the work is to evaluate the effects of a granulated feeding mixture enriched with knotweed (Reynoutria × bohemica) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) bred at a closed farm and red deer (Cervus elaphus) bred at a farm. Based on both biochemical and haematological blood analysis, the knotweed is expected to have an influence on the microbiome in the digestive system as well as allowing better utilisation of fodder and lower manifestation of pathogenic organisms. The results are of practical use mainly on farms and in hobby breeding but also in deer parks. Furthermore, the results may be used for feeding deer in open hunting grounds.

Palabras clave

  • roe deer
  • red deer
  • granulated feeding mixture
  • Bohemian knotweed
  • biochemical analysis of the blood
  • haematological analysis of the blood
7 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Comparison of Forest Species- Diversity and Composition Inside and Outside of the Holedná Game Reserve (The City of Brno, Czech Republic)

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 1 - 18

Resumen

Abstract

The impact of ungulates on the forest vegetation has far-reaching consequences: it decreases species diversity and the production of biomass, causes soil dehydration, erosion and eutrophication the entire forest community. The article addresses the influence of fallow deer and mouflon on the forest vegetation in the Holedná game reserve (western border of the city of Brno, South Moravia, Czech Republic) and compares differences with the forests adjacent to the game reserve. Sixty localities were distributed randomly and phytosociological relevés subsequently recorded there according to the age of the stands inside and outside of the game reserve. The differences in floristic composition were compared for trees, shrubs and herbs, the herb layer species number, the diversity indices and the values of Ellenberg indicators. In the game reserve, a significant difference was found in the coverage of the herb and shrub layer, which was significantly lower than outside the territory. Furthermore, the increased amount of nitrophilous, heliophytes and ruderal herb species inside the game reserve exhibited affiliation to the interior of game reserve. Besides, young trees and woody sapling were less abundant or even missing inside of game reserve. By contrast, the frequency of typical species of oak-hornbeam forests was higher outside game reserve. Due to the higher number of animals and consequent disturbances, nitrophilous plant species dominate in the herb layer of the game reserve, while forest species are more often represented outside it.

Palabras clave

  • Game reserve
  • grazing of animals
  • change of biodiversity
  • forest vegetation
  • herb layer
  • nitrophytes
Acceso abierto

Dynamism of Landscape Transformation in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 19 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

Studies have shown that information on landscape transformation is an important benchmark data set because of its value as an environmental change indicator. Therefore, dynamism of landscape transformation over a 34-year period are analysed for a case study in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed method consisting of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis, and semi-structured interviews covering 400 households while factors contributing to landscape structures and changes are studied. The results point out three main driving factors responsible for the landscape transformation in the study area: agricultural practices which lead to intensification of forest resources, riparian vegetation, vegetated wetlands and non-vegetated wetlands; urbanization which modifies the structure and morphology of the landscape, and finally, population growth directly related to massive infrastructural development which encroached on all other land spaces. GIS-based analysis of remotely-sensed data showed that built-up area had increased by 7535.2 ha between 1986 and 2020; shrub and arable land by 1343.9 ha and light forest decreased by 4998.3 ha. While bare-land reduced by 1522.1 ha; vegetated wetland reduced by 1092 ha; water body coverage reduced by 168 ha and non-vegetated wetland size also reduced by 2029.4 ha. Analysis of household survey results revealed that the perceptions of respondents validate the observed patterns during the remotely-sensed data analysis phase of the research, with 54 % (n=400) of respondents reporting a decline in agricultural land use, and 19.3 % (n=400) observing a decline in forest areas in the study area. Furthermore, agricultural intensification, urban development, timber exploitation, firewood collection and increase in settlements were identified as the proximate drivers of these observed landscape transformation dynamics in the study area. The study concluded that the variation in landscape transformation of the study area are clear indication of the extent of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in the study area.

Palabras clave

  • Biodiversity loss
  • Dynamism
  • ecosystem status
  • degradation
  • landscape transformation
Acceso abierto

The Relationship Between Landscape Diversity and Crops Productivity: Landscape Scale Study

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 39 - 58

Resumen

Abstract

The present study evaluates the relationship between the crops productivity and ecosystem diversity. The spatial variability in ecosystem diversity was measured using the Shannon landscape diversity index and distance from biodiversity hotspots that are nature conservation areas. Three crops were selected for the study: soybeans, sunflowers and winter rye. The initial data included the average crops yields in administrative districts within 10 regions of Ukraine. It was found that the studied crops yield dynamics from the mid-90s of the previous century to the current period could be described by a sigmoid curve (log-logistic model). The parameters of the yield model are the following indicators: the minimum level of yield (Lower Limit); maximum level of productivity (Upper limit); the slope of the model, which shows the rate of change in yields over time; ED50 - the time required to achieve half, from the maximum yield level. Our studies have shown that there is a statistically significant regression relationship between the yield parameters of all the studied crops and biodiversity, even at the landscape level. Among the studied crops, soybean shows the strongest regression relationship between yields and indicators of landscape diversity. Sunflower yield is the least dependent on landscape diversity. Most of the established dependencies are nonlinear, which indicates the existence of an optimal level of landscape diversity to achieve the maximum possible crop yields. Therefore, the obtained patterns can be the basis for land-use planning and management, especially while creating new natural protected areas.

Palabras clave

  • sunflower
  • soybean
  • winter rye
  • yield
  • landscape diversity
Acceso abierto

Does Experimental Non-Reclaimed Sites Differ from Technically Reclaimed Areas in the Risk of Artificial Bird Nest Predation?

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 59 - 72

Resumen

Abstract

Areas left to natural development have been found to be sites with higher diversity and conservation value of local communities, including bird communities, compared to artificial reclamation of post-industrial areas. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused primarily on bird communities of post-mining areas, in terms of the diversity and richness of species. Our study dealt with bird nest predation on specific case of two experimental sites (20 and 32 ha) with more than a 20-year history of primary spontaneous succession established within the technical reclamation of the Radovesická spoil heap (approx. 1,200 ha, North Bohemia, Czech Republic). In the spring of 2018, we conducted a predation experiment using artificial nests (ground and elevated), installed within both succession areas and beyond, in the adjacent artificially reclaimed areas. We monitored the way of restoration and the distance of the nest placement from the succession-reclamation sites edge. The rate of predation was very high: 92.5 % in reclaimed area and 89.4 % in spontaneous successions. None of the observed factors analysed in the generalised linear model (GLM) have conclusively explained the risk of predation. The two experimental succession sites did not differ from the surrounding reclaimed sites in terms of the risk of predation, nor did they significantly influence predation risk on reclaimed sites. We believe that both relatively small and mutually isolated areas do not provide enough of an inner environment without or with at least a limited effect of predation pressure coming from adjacent reclaimed areas.

Palabras clave

  • predation risk
  • spontaneous development
  • technical reclamation
  • nest predator
  • matrix effect
Acceso abierto

State of the Landscape and Dynamics of Loss and Fragmentation of Forest Critically Endangered in the Tropical Andes Hotspot: Implications for Conservation Planning

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 73 - 91

Resumen

Abstract

Currently, there is no precise information on the degree of transformation of Tropical Andes hotspot landscape and native ecosystems due to the intensification of agricultural and urban land-use. Proper knowledge of these changes would provide crucial information for planning conservation strategies. We evaluated the impact of the intensification of agricultural and urban land-use on the Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest, both of which are categorized as Critically Endangered, and the state of the landscape in the High Rio Guayllabamba watershed, Ecuador, during the periods 1991–2005 and 2005–2017. The evaluation was carried out using Landsat satellite images of 30 x 30 m pixels and landscape metrics. We found an advanced state of landscape transformation. Since the 1990s, the loss of both ecosystems was largely caused by the conversion of forest to agriculture, resulting in substantial changes in the spatial configuration of these ecosystems. From 1991 to 2017, 19.8 % and 16.1 % of Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest respectively, were converted to agriculture. The loss of Inter-Andean Dry Forest was 28 % and the number of forest patches increased by more than 150%. The loss of Tropical Montane Forest was 16.5 % and the number of forest patches increased by more than 300 %. The largest loss and fragmentation of forest cover occurred from 1991 to 2005. We suggested planning landscape-scale conservation, using the patch-corridor-matrix model. This model is appropriate given the current configuration of the landscape studied, with Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest restricted to small patches sparsely distributed across the landscape.

Palabras clave

  • Changing landscape
  • Ecuador
  • Forest habitat
  • Forest landscape
  • Landscape-scale conservation
  • Rio Guayllabamba watershed
Acceso abierto

Rapid Decreasing of a Selected Plant Species Distribution Within Recent Decades as an Illustration of Gradual Local Extinction of Low-Productive Wet Meadow Species in Central Europe

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 92 - 105

Resumen

Abstract

This study provides an illustration of the contemporary extinction trend of a selected wet grassland species, Pedicularis sylvatica, within a region of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic. Historically, it was a relatively common species in the study region, but it has been severely reduced in recent decades due to the abandonment of the traditional management of the grasslands, or inappropriate management practices, including extensive drainage, fertilisation, and liming. Low precipitation in recent years, a depleted soil seed bank, inbreeding in small, isolated populations, the inability to germinate, and the emergence of seedlings can also play an important role. After personal resurvey, P. sylvatica was not confirmed on 28 % of the localities where it was documented between two and 20 years ago. In a selected south-eastern subregion, only one of 19 localities persist nowadays. A steep decrease of local subpopulations of P. sylvatica points to the holistic problem of both the low-productive wet meadow species’ extinctions and their habitat collapses in central Europe. Without proper protection and management, it is likely that low-productive wet meadows will continue to decline and, in the next few decades, only a fraction of today’s already faint frequency will remain within a few higher-elevated subregions.

Palabras clave

  • biodiversity
  • plant extinction
  • degradation of wetlands
  • nature protection
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Reynoutria × Bohemica on the Condition of Capreolus Capreolus and Cervus Elaphus

Publicado en línea: 26 May 2021
Páginas: 106 - 126

Resumen

Abstract

The objective of the work is to evaluate the effects of a granulated feeding mixture enriched with knotweed (Reynoutria × bohemica) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) bred at a closed farm and red deer (Cervus elaphus) bred at a farm. Based on both biochemical and haematological blood analysis, the knotweed is expected to have an influence on the microbiome in the digestive system as well as allowing better utilisation of fodder and lower manifestation of pathogenic organisms. The results are of practical use mainly on farms and in hobby breeding but also in deer parks. Furthermore, the results may be used for feeding deer in open hunting grounds.

Palabras clave

  • roe deer
  • red deer
  • granulated feeding mixture
  • Bohemian knotweed
  • biochemical analysis of the blood
  • haematological analysis of the blood

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