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MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES, Guest Editors: Stefan Schindler and Linda Olsvig-Whittaker

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1805-4196
Publicado por primera vez
20 Jun 2008
Periodo de publicación
3 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 12 (2019): Edición 2 (September 2019)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1805-4196
Publicado por primera vez
20 Jun 2008
Periodo de publicación
3 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

7 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Geospatial Approach for Quantitative Drainage Morphometric Analysis of Varuna River Basin, India

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 1 - 25

Resumen

Abstract

An assessment of Varuna river basin of India was performed to study the various drainage parameters in GIS platform. The delineation of drainage network is possible either physically from topographic sheets or with the help data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by methods for calculation techniques. Extraction of the basin and sub-basins, stream network has been produced to evaluate the drainage characteristics in the study zone. The entire Varuna river basin has been subdivided into 3 sub-watersheds and 41 morphometric parameters have been computed under four broad categories i.e. drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics. The morphometric analysis has been performed and different parameters have been correlated with each other to understand their underlying connection and their role over the basin hydro geomorphology. The study discloses different types of morphometric analysis and how they influence the soil and topography of the basin. The investigation and estimation of basin morphometry and relief parameters in GIS will be of massive utility in catchment area advancement, understanding the watershed for natural resource evaluation, planning and administration at any scale. The outcomes thus generated equip us with significant knowledge and may also provide an input that are essential in decision making for watershed planning and drainage development of the watershed.

Palabras clave

  • River basin
  • morphometry
  • Varuna river
  • DEM
  • GIS
  • watershed
Acceso abierto

Mangrove Vegetation Health Assessment Based on Remote Sensing Indices for Tanjung Piai, Malay Peninsular

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 26 - 40

Resumen

Abstract

Mangroves critically require conservation activity due to human encroachment and environmental unsustainability. The forests must be conserving through monitoring activities with an application of remote sensing satellites. Recent high-resolution multispectral satellite was used to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Tasselled Cap transformation (TC) indices mapping for the area. Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) SPOT-6 was employed for ground truthing. The area was only a part of mangrove forest area of Tanjung Piai which estimated about 106 ha. Although, the relationship between the spectral indices and dendrometry parameters was weak, we found a very significant between NDVI (mean) and stem density (y=10.529x + 12.773) with R2=0.1579. The sites with NDVI calculated varied from 0.10 to 0.26 (P1 and P2), under the environmental stress due to sand deposition found was regard as unhealthy vegetation areas. Whereas, site P5 with NDVI (mean) 0.67 is due to far distance from risk wave’s zone, therefore having young/growing trees with large lush green cover was regard as healthy vegetation area. High greenness indicated in TC means, the bands respond to a combination of high absorption of chlorophyll in the visible bands and the high reflectance of leaf structures in the near-infrared band, which is characteristic of healthy green vegetation. Overall, our study showed our tested WV-2 image combined with ground data provided valuable information of mangrove health assessment for Tanjung Piai, Johor, Malay Peninsula.

Palabras clave

  • mangrove
  • Peninsular Malaysia
  • Tasselled Cap
  • vegetation indices
Acceso abierto

Land Use and Landscape Pattern Changes on the Inside and Outside of Protected Areas in Urbanizing Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysia

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 41 - 63

Resumen

Abstract

Unabated land use changes in developing countries have imperilled the urban ecosystem resilience. An urban protected area is one of the critical systems to absorb disturbance regimes in the metropolitan area, but it is increasingly pressured by urbanization. Therefore, assessing their land use and landscape pattern changes are pivotal to identify the conservation capacity. We developed land use maps for Klang Gate, Bukit Kutu, and Sungai Dusun wildlife reserves to assess their spatial and temporal land use changes between 1988 and 2012. The degree of fragmentation, the intensity of human impact and structural connectedness for these wildlife reserves were also quantified. The findings revealed that Klang Gate which located adjacent to the highly urbanizing area experienced a very significant loss of forest while built-up area and commercial agriculture gradually encroached into the reserve. It also has a higher degree of fragmentation and human impact than the other two reserves. Human impact inside of Klang Gate was concomitant to the outside. However, Bukit Kutu almost undisturbed and Sungai Dusun was slightly intruded by commercial agriculture. The results help different stakeholders, such as managing authorities and policy planners to strategize new land use planning that utilize limited land-based resources for future economic and social development. As the findings showed that urban protected areas alone are not sufficient in maintaining the urban ecosystem; therefore new conservation planning that integrates other urban green spaces at their surrounding is critical to ameliorating the conservation on a long-term basis.

Palabras clave

  • Urban protected area
  • ecological integrity
  • land use change
  • sustainable development
  • remote sensing
  • GIS
Acceso abierto

Cross-Border Comparison of Non-Forest Woody Vegetation in the White Carpathians (Central Europe) Over Last 65 Years

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 64 - 78

Resumen

Abstract

Landscape structure is determined by human activities and natural processes. Despite both influences are described in many studies, there remains still question, how the landscape structure reflects the individual socio-economic predictors. To answer this question we compared landscape structure, with emphasis on non-forest woody vegetation, of two states, however, with common socio-economic and political history. Non-forest woody vegetation represents characteristic feature in rural landscape, which increases water retention, biodiversity and bio-migration using green structures. In our study we supposed, that non-forest woody vegetation will have high sensitivity to societal changes and nature conservation measures. On an example of border region in former Czechoslovakia we compared three classes of non-forest woody vegetation (solitaires, patches and linear elements) in three time horizons (1950, 1986, 2011). The most significant differences in spatial structure of non-forest woody vegetation between countries were in the number and area of solitaires, which decreased during the entire period. However, the largest solitaire decrease was in 1950-1986, mainly in correspondence with socialist collective farming. Moreover, the decrease was higher in the Slovak part compared to the Czech part. The primary reason for this was the removal of non-forest woody vegetation on one side and the joining crowns into bigger patches on the other side. The current trend of increasing area of patch and linear elements is related to natural succession. We assume that the main drivers of different development in non-forest woody vegetation in the border region after the split of Czechoslovakia were different management measures applied in nature and landscape conservation and social development.

Palabras clave

  • non-forest woody vegetation
  • landscape structure
  • nature conservation
  • landscape management
  • White Carpathians
Acceso abierto

The Role of Hillshade, Aspect, and Toposhape in the Woodland Dieback of Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystems: A Case Study in Zagros Woodlands of Ilam Province, Iran

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 79 - 91

Resumen

Abstract

Soil moisture plays a key role in the ecological capability of arid and semi-arid woodland. Reducing soil moisture due to frequent droughts causes pest prevalence and disease outbreak and the consequence of forest dieback. On the other hand, soil moisture is strongly correlated with the amount of radiation received on the Earth’s surface. The sun’s radiation is traditionally described often by aspect and sometimes by toposhape. The use of the hillshade map for estimating solar radiation is possible through developing GIS. The present study aimed to compare the relationship and the ability of these indices to describe the phenomenon of arid and semi-arid woodland decline better and more accurately in a case study in the west of Iran. To this aim, the aspect and toposhape layers were generated in 5 and 12 classes, respectively. Then, the hillshade map in range of 0-255 was made during the peak of summer heat. The comparison of the dieback ratio in the three characteristic histograms showed that the shade index, unlike the other two indicators, had a significant effect on forest drought (R2=0.91 for linear equation and R2=0.94 for quadratic equation). The results indicated that the application of hillshade in describing and analysing ecological processes by relying on soil moisture such as woodland dieback is superior to the other two indicators. It is suggested that this index be used to obtain a risk model to predict woodlands dieback which are under the pressure of frequent droughts due to climate change or other mortal factors.

Palabras clave

  • Arid ecosystems
  • Aspect
  • Dieback
  • Decline
  • Hillshade
  • Toposhape
  • Zagros woodland
Acceso abierto

Forest Management Plan in Domogt Sharyn Gol, Mongolia is Elaborated on Ecological and Sustainable Principles

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 92 - 115

Resumen

Abstract

A forest management plan based on ecological principles and forest management sustainability was elaborated for the Domogt Sharyn Gol Company, Mongolia. We presented possibility of use of principles and methods traditionally utilized in forest management planning in the Czech Republic. A used methodology was adjusted for the forestry legislature in Mongolia.

A stratification of site characteristics and the forest development type concept was used as a framework for assessment of a forest property state via an operational forest inventory. A randomly generalized network of 354 inventory plots on the total area of 3 194 ha with spacing of 300 × 300 m was established for measurements of tree species, natural regeneration and a volume of lying deadwood.

We produced a text, table, graph, figure and map material consisted of areal, tree species and wood volume structuring including calculation of decenal logging, thinning treatments, plantation activities and natural regeneration support.

This forest management plan provides a feasible perspective not only towards immediate commercial benefits but also towards sustainability of forest yield and other ecological forest functions. This way of management planning is also a save way towards mitigation of current environmental issues in a Mongolian forest landscape.

Palabras clave

  • Forest management plan
  • Mongolia
  • Forest classification
  • Sustainable management
  • Operational inventory
Acceso abierto

The Principal Threats to the Standing Water Habitats in the Continental Biogeographical Region of Central Europe

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 116 - 139

Resumen

Abstract

This paper discusses threats of standing water habitats of high importance to the European Community in the Continental Biogeographical Region (CBR) of Europe, specifically in Poland, as a reference. The study covers five standing water habitats types distinguished in Natura 2000: 3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160, occurring in 806 Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) in Poland. The most significant threats to standing water habitats in the Continental biogeographical region, result from human-induced changes in hydrological conditions that have modified whole natural systems. Based on multivariate analysis, we found that significant differences in the conservation status of the standing water habitats resulted from a variety of threats, pressures, and activities, among which the most significant are decreased and unstable water resources (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160), fishing and harvesting aquatic resources (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160), pollution from use of the catchment (3130, 3140, 3150), improper management and use of the agricultural catchment (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160) and forest catchment (3110, 3140, 3160), urbanisation, residential and commercial development (3150, 3140), transportation and service corridors (3140> 3160 > 3110, 3150), including parking areas (3140), changes in biocenotic evolution, succession, plant species composition (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160), succession of invasive species (3130), and more intense touristic exploration (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160). Only in the case of habitats 3110, 3130, 3140 changes in their conservation status have been associated with climate change.

Palabras clave

  • threats
  • freshwater habitats
  • biodiversity conservation
  • Natura 2000
7 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Geospatial Approach for Quantitative Drainage Morphometric Analysis of Varuna River Basin, India

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 1 - 25

Resumen

Abstract

An assessment of Varuna river basin of India was performed to study the various drainage parameters in GIS platform. The delineation of drainage network is possible either physically from topographic sheets or with the help data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by methods for calculation techniques. Extraction of the basin and sub-basins, stream network has been produced to evaluate the drainage characteristics in the study zone. The entire Varuna river basin has been subdivided into 3 sub-watersheds and 41 morphometric parameters have been computed under four broad categories i.e. drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics. The morphometric analysis has been performed and different parameters have been correlated with each other to understand their underlying connection and their role over the basin hydro geomorphology. The study discloses different types of morphometric analysis and how they influence the soil and topography of the basin. The investigation and estimation of basin morphometry and relief parameters in GIS will be of massive utility in catchment area advancement, understanding the watershed for natural resource evaluation, planning and administration at any scale. The outcomes thus generated equip us with significant knowledge and may also provide an input that are essential in decision making for watershed planning and drainage development of the watershed.

Palabras clave

  • River basin
  • morphometry
  • Varuna river
  • DEM
  • GIS
  • watershed
Acceso abierto

Mangrove Vegetation Health Assessment Based on Remote Sensing Indices for Tanjung Piai, Malay Peninsular

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 26 - 40

Resumen

Abstract

Mangroves critically require conservation activity due to human encroachment and environmental unsustainability. The forests must be conserving through monitoring activities with an application of remote sensing satellites. Recent high-resolution multispectral satellite was used to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Tasselled Cap transformation (TC) indices mapping for the area. Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) SPOT-6 was employed for ground truthing. The area was only a part of mangrove forest area of Tanjung Piai which estimated about 106 ha. Although, the relationship between the spectral indices and dendrometry parameters was weak, we found a very significant between NDVI (mean) and stem density (y=10.529x + 12.773) with R2=0.1579. The sites with NDVI calculated varied from 0.10 to 0.26 (P1 and P2), under the environmental stress due to sand deposition found was regard as unhealthy vegetation areas. Whereas, site P5 with NDVI (mean) 0.67 is due to far distance from risk wave’s zone, therefore having young/growing trees with large lush green cover was regard as healthy vegetation area. High greenness indicated in TC means, the bands respond to a combination of high absorption of chlorophyll in the visible bands and the high reflectance of leaf structures in the near-infrared band, which is characteristic of healthy green vegetation. Overall, our study showed our tested WV-2 image combined with ground data provided valuable information of mangrove health assessment for Tanjung Piai, Johor, Malay Peninsula.

Palabras clave

  • mangrove
  • Peninsular Malaysia
  • Tasselled Cap
  • vegetation indices
Acceso abierto

Land Use and Landscape Pattern Changes on the Inside and Outside of Protected Areas in Urbanizing Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysia

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 41 - 63

Resumen

Abstract

Unabated land use changes in developing countries have imperilled the urban ecosystem resilience. An urban protected area is one of the critical systems to absorb disturbance regimes in the metropolitan area, but it is increasingly pressured by urbanization. Therefore, assessing their land use and landscape pattern changes are pivotal to identify the conservation capacity. We developed land use maps for Klang Gate, Bukit Kutu, and Sungai Dusun wildlife reserves to assess their spatial and temporal land use changes between 1988 and 2012. The degree of fragmentation, the intensity of human impact and structural connectedness for these wildlife reserves were also quantified. The findings revealed that Klang Gate which located adjacent to the highly urbanizing area experienced a very significant loss of forest while built-up area and commercial agriculture gradually encroached into the reserve. It also has a higher degree of fragmentation and human impact than the other two reserves. Human impact inside of Klang Gate was concomitant to the outside. However, Bukit Kutu almost undisturbed and Sungai Dusun was slightly intruded by commercial agriculture. The results help different stakeholders, such as managing authorities and policy planners to strategize new land use planning that utilize limited land-based resources for future economic and social development. As the findings showed that urban protected areas alone are not sufficient in maintaining the urban ecosystem; therefore new conservation planning that integrates other urban green spaces at their surrounding is critical to ameliorating the conservation on a long-term basis.

Palabras clave

  • Urban protected area
  • ecological integrity
  • land use change
  • sustainable development
  • remote sensing
  • GIS
Acceso abierto

Cross-Border Comparison of Non-Forest Woody Vegetation in the White Carpathians (Central Europe) Over Last 65 Years

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 64 - 78

Resumen

Abstract

Landscape structure is determined by human activities and natural processes. Despite both influences are described in many studies, there remains still question, how the landscape structure reflects the individual socio-economic predictors. To answer this question we compared landscape structure, with emphasis on non-forest woody vegetation, of two states, however, with common socio-economic and political history. Non-forest woody vegetation represents characteristic feature in rural landscape, which increases water retention, biodiversity and bio-migration using green structures. In our study we supposed, that non-forest woody vegetation will have high sensitivity to societal changes and nature conservation measures. On an example of border region in former Czechoslovakia we compared three classes of non-forest woody vegetation (solitaires, patches and linear elements) in three time horizons (1950, 1986, 2011). The most significant differences in spatial structure of non-forest woody vegetation between countries were in the number and area of solitaires, which decreased during the entire period. However, the largest solitaire decrease was in 1950-1986, mainly in correspondence with socialist collective farming. Moreover, the decrease was higher in the Slovak part compared to the Czech part. The primary reason for this was the removal of non-forest woody vegetation on one side and the joining crowns into bigger patches on the other side. The current trend of increasing area of patch and linear elements is related to natural succession. We assume that the main drivers of different development in non-forest woody vegetation in the border region after the split of Czechoslovakia were different management measures applied in nature and landscape conservation and social development.

Palabras clave

  • non-forest woody vegetation
  • landscape structure
  • nature conservation
  • landscape management
  • White Carpathians
Acceso abierto

The Role of Hillshade, Aspect, and Toposhape in the Woodland Dieback of Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystems: A Case Study in Zagros Woodlands of Ilam Province, Iran

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 79 - 91

Resumen

Abstract

Soil moisture plays a key role in the ecological capability of arid and semi-arid woodland. Reducing soil moisture due to frequent droughts causes pest prevalence and disease outbreak and the consequence of forest dieback. On the other hand, soil moisture is strongly correlated with the amount of radiation received on the Earth’s surface. The sun’s radiation is traditionally described often by aspect and sometimes by toposhape. The use of the hillshade map for estimating solar radiation is possible through developing GIS. The present study aimed to compare the relationship and the ability of these indices to describe the phenomenon of arid and semi-arid woodland decline better and more accurately in a case study in the west of Iran. To this aim, the aspect and toposhape layers were generated in 5 and 12 classes, respectively. Then, the hillshade map in range of 0-255 was made during the peak of summer heat. The comparison of the dieback ratio in the three characteristic histograms showed that the shade index, unlike the other two indicators, had a significant effect on forest drought (R2=0.91 for linear equation and R2=0.94 for quadratic equation). The results indicated that the application of hillshade in describing and analysing ecological processes by relying on soil moisture such as woodland dieback is superior to the other two indicators. It is suggested that this index be used to obtain a risk model to predict woodlands dieback which are under the pressure of frequent droughts due to climate change or other mortal factors.

Palabras clave

  • Arid ecosystems
  • Aspect
  • Dieback
  • Decline
  • Hillshade
  • Toposhape
  • Zagros woodland
Acceso abierto

Forest Management Plan in Domogt Sharyn Gol, Mongolia is Elaborated on Ecological and Sustainable Principles

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 92 - 115

Resumen

Abstract

A forest management plan based on ecological principles and forest management sustainability was elaborated for the Domogt Sharyn Gol Company, Mongolia. We presented possibility of use of principles and methods traditionally utilized in forest management planning in the Czech Republic. A used methodology was adjusted for the forestry legislature in Mongolia.

A stratification of site characteristics and the forest development type concept was used as a framework for assessment of a forest property state via an operational forest inventory. A randomly generalized network of 354 inventory plots on the total area of 3 194 ha with spacing of 300 × 300 m was established for measurements of tree species, natural regeneration and a volume of lying deadwood.

We produced a text, table, graph, figure and map material consisted of areal, tree species and wood volume structuring including calculation of decenal logging, thinning treatments, plantation activities and natural regeneration support.

This forest management plan provides a feasible perspective not only towards immediate commercial benefits but also towards sustainability of forest yield and other ecological forest functions. This way of management planning is also a save way towards mitigation of current environmental issues in a Mongolian forest landscape.

Palabras clave

  • Forest management plan
  • Mongolia
  • Forest classification
  • Sustainable management
  • Operational inventory
Acceso abierto

The Principal Threats to the Standing Water Habitats in the Continental Biogeographical Region of Central Europe

Publicado en línea: 06 Aug 2019
Páginas: 116 - 139

Resumen

Abstract

This paper discusses threats of standing water habitats of high importance to the European Community in the Continental Biogeographical Region (CBR) of Europe, specifically in Poland, as a reference. The study covers five standing water habitats types distinguished in Natura 2000: 3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160, occurring in 806 Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) in Poland. The most significant threats to standing water habitats in the Continental biogeographical region, result from human-induced changes in hydrological conditions that have modified whole natural systems. Based on multivariate analysis, we found that significant differences in the conservation status of the standing water habitats resulted from a variety of threats, pressures, and activities, among which the most significant are decreased and unstable water resources (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160), fishing and harvesting aquatic resources (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160), pollution from use of the catchment (3130, 3140, 3150), improper management and use of the agricultural catchment (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160) and forest catchment (3110, 3140, 3160), urbanisation, residential and commercial development (3150, 3140), transportation and service corridors (3140> 3160 > 3110, 3150), including parking areas (3140), changes in biocenotic evolution, succession, plant species composition (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160), succession of invasive species (3130), and more intense touristic exploration (3110, 3130, 3140, 3150, 3160). Only in the case of habitats 3110, 3130, 3140 changes in their conservation status have been associated with climate change.

Palabras clave

  • threats
  • freshwater habitats
  • biodiversity conservation
  • Natura 2000

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