- Detalles de la revista
- Publicado por primera vez
- 25 Nov 2011
- Periodo de publicación
- 2 veces al año
- Acceso abierto
Páginas: 1 - 6
The aim of this study was to obtain chitosan hydrogels containing megosin, an antiviral medicinal substance, to prolong its bioavailability. Megosin as an immunomodulating agent possesses at least twice higher virostatic and virucidal activities than gossypol, the megosin precursor, and other imine derivatives of gossypol.
Chitosan, used in this paper, was obtained by deacetylation of chitin; megosin was obtained on the bases of gossypol. Different concentrations of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) were used as the cross-linking agent. The release of megosin from hydrogel samples into blood was conducted on five white rats in four groups.
Infrared spectral data demonstrated cross-linkage that the band responsible for NH bending of the uncross-linked chitosan reduced its intensity and moved to a lower wavelength, 1636 cm−1. It has been proven that megosin contained in gels does not penetrate into the blood and organs after vaginal administration. Release kinetics of megosin from chitosan hydrogels revealed that within 7 h, up to 52% of megosin is allowed into acidic solution (pH 4.5).
This study demonstrates the possibility to prolong bioavailability of megosin for at least 7 h, during which time it is not released into blood. The obtained results show the possibility to use the gel composition to treat vaginal herpes.
- Chitosan hydrogel
- vaginal herpes
- Acceso abierto
Synthesis, antibacterial and free radical scavenging activity of some newer N-((10-nitro-1 H-indolo [1, 2-c]quinazolin-12-yl)methylene)benzenamines
Páginas: 7 - 16
Present research is oriented on the synthesis of some novel 12-(
- free radical scavenger
- Acceso abierto
Concentration-dependent effect of silymarin on concanavalin A-stimulated mouse spleen cells in vitro
Páginas: 17 - 26
Silymarin (SIL), a mixture of phenolic compounds, has a pleiotropic mode of action on various cell types, including immune cells. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effect of SIL on proliferation of concanavalin A (CoA)-stimulated mouse spleen T lymphocytes, their viability, and secretion of IFN-g and IL-4 cytokines
Isolated splenocytes were stimulated with lectin CoA and treated with SIL atthe concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/ml for 70 h and unstimulated cells served as the control. Cultures of splenocytes were evaluated for proliferation index following BrdU incorporation and viability of cells after trypan blue staining. Gene expressions of transcription factors and cytokines were assessed using real-time PCR, whereas ELISA test was applied to measure cytokine secretion. Mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry.
We demonstrated that CoA-activated mouse spleen T lymphocytes show different susceptibilities to low (£10 μg/ml) and higher (20 and 40 μg/ml) SIL concentrations. Low concentrations resulted in increased proliferation, cytokine secretion, and mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced transition of cells to apoptosis. High concentration of SIL had the opposite effect without exerting significant cytotoxicity and upregulated genes for cytokines and transcription factors on mRNA level. It is possible that individual subpopulations of T cells induced by CoA were differentially affected by the various SIL concentrations and the dose of 40 μg/ml had the profound suppressive effect. This correlated with the highest expression of Foxp3 factor, indicating that this dose stimulated preferential differentiation to Tregs lymphocytes.
Treatment with suitable doses of SIL can provide potential benefits in the modulation of host immune functions in various diseases.
- mitochondrial potential
- Acceso abierto
Study of qualitative and quantitative content of amino acids in pumpkin seeds for further standardization of the herbal drug
Páginas: 27 - 32
Literary sources on qualitative composition, quantitative content of biologically active substances, and standardization methods of pumpkin seeds have been studied. It has been established that, along with Δ7-sterols, whose action is associated with treatment of the prostate gland, pumpkin seeds contain amino acids, cucurbitin in particular, which are responsible for their antihelminthic effect. The aim is to study the qualitative and quantitative content of amino acids in domestic samples of pumpkin seeds in order to clarify the possibility of pumpkin seed standardization for this class of biologically active substances.
The investigation of the possibility of amino acids’ identification in the herbal drug by the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method was carried out on silica gel 60 F254 plates, Merck and Silica gel 60, Merck, on aluminum and glass supports in a mixture of the following solvents: butanol–acetone–acetic acid–water (35:35:10:20). The conclusions have been made based on the presence of characteristic zones of amino acids in the chromatograms after the treatment with ninhydrin solution.
Quantitative determination of amino acids in the herbal drug was carried out by absorption spectrometry using HP spectrophotometer HP-8453 UV-VIS, Hewlett Packard (USA).
The chromatographic profile of the amino acid fraction of domestic samples of pumpkin seeds was studied using a TLC technique. In the chromatograms of test solutions from all samples, the zones were detected at the level of histidine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, and leucine zones, as well as a zone with color (olive) that differs from the other zones of amino acids and which is possibly a zone of cucurbitin.
On the basis of the results of qualitative research, the quantitative content of the sum of amino acids according to a UV method developed has been determined, which including purification from the fatty oil, further extraction with an aqueous alcohol solution, selection of aliquots for the reaction with ninhydrin solution, and subsequent determination of the absorbance of the test solution and the solution of glutamic acid at a wavelength of 400 nm.
It has been established that the content of the sum of amino acids expressed as glutamic acid in domestic samples is about 2%.
The research of the possibility of pumpkin seed standardization by the content of amino acids was carried out. The chromatographic profile of the amino acid fraction of domestic samples of pumpkin seeds was studied using a TLC method developed. The quantitative content of the amino acids sum by the absorption spectrophotometry method was investigated. The techniques developed will be recommended for inclusion in the draft of national monograph “Pumpkin seeds.”
- pumpkin seeds
- amino acids
- TLC method
- UV-vis spectrophotometry method
- Acceso abierto
Páginas: 33 - 37
Depression is a common mental disorder affecting more than 264 million people in the world and 5.1% of the Slovak population. Although various antidepressant approaches have been used; still, about 40% of patients do not respond to a first-choice drug administration and one third of patients do not achieve total remission. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a method used for quantification and interpreting the drug concentrations in plasma in order to optimize the pharmacotherapy. The aim of this study was to measure the plasma concentrations of venlafaxine, the fourth most prescribed antidepressant in Slovakia, as well as its active metabolite and interpret them with the relevant patients’ characteristics.
The study was of retrospective nature and 28 adult patients in total were included. The concentrations of venlafaxine and its active metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) in plasma were quantified using the validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The effects of potential influencing factors were evaluated by a multivariate linear regression model.
Only 39% of patients reached the venlafaxine active moiety concentrations within the recommended therapeutic range. Plasma concentrations were dependent on age, gender, and duration of the therapy. Venlafaxine metabolism expressed as a metaboliteto-parent concentrations ratio was influenced by a combination of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). We did not observe any significant difference in plasma concentrations between the patients with a single and recurrent diagnosis of depression. Combining variables made an additive effect on plasma concentrations, for example, active moiety plasma concentrations were higher in older women. In contrast, drug metabolism was higher in older men and men with lower BMI. TDM of venlafaxine is recommended in clinical practice, especially in the elderly when beginning the pharmacotherapy.
- major depressive disorder
- therapeutic drug monitoring
- Acceso abierto
Páginas: 38 - 45
This study presents the results of our comparative evaluation of diagnostic morphological characteristics of raw material from 11 species of genus
- raw material
- medicinal plants