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Clinical Pharmacy in the Slovak Republic, dedicated to the associated professor Lívia Magulová, PhD.

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2453-6725
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 62 (2015): Edición s9 (June 2015)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2453-6725
Publicado por primera vez
25 Nov 2011
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

9 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Foreword

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 1 - 1

Resumen

access type Acceso abierto

Phenolic compounds variation in Mentha L. Species in the course of a four-years period / Kolísanie fenolových látok v rôznych druhoch Mentha L. Počas 4 ročného obdobia

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 2 - 7

Resumen

Abstract

Mints rank among the most important Lamiaceae plants. In addition to essential oil, they contain many valuable phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and phenolic acids that participate in mints’ pharmacological properties. In this work, we examined the contents of phenolic compounds variation in the course of 4 years of vegetation. We compared the contents of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (λ = 505 nm), total polyphenols and tannins expressed as rosmarinic acid (λ = 760 nm), and flavonoids expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside (λ = 392 nm) and quercetin (λ = 420 nm) in 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old plants’ dry leaves, respectively. Spectrophotometric methods of the European Pharmacopoeia were employed. Our results show high levels of active phenolic compounds, particularly in 3- and 4-year-old plants.

Keywords

  • Mentha
  • THD
  • total polyphenols
  • tannins
  • flavonoids
  • age of plants

Kľúčové slová

  • Mentha
  • THD
  • celkove polyfenoly
  • triesloviny
  • flavonoidy
  • vek rastlin
access type Acceso abierto

Quantification of some secondary metabolites in selected Cornaceae species / Stanovenie vybraných sekundárnych metabolitov v niektorých druhoch čeľade Cornaceae

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 8 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

Leaves of selected species of the Cornaceae family (Swida alba, Swida australis, Swida controversa, Swida coreana, Swida baileyi, Cornus kousa, Cornus mas) were investigated in this study. These shrubs or small trees with hard wood are cultivated in Slovakia (Tesarske Mlyňany Arboretum). Some species (C. mas and C. kousa) have edible fruits. Cornels find broad ethnopharmacological use, for example, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), where fruits of C. officinalis are used for the treatment of several disorders, such as organ hypersecretion or diabetes. They are also used as tonics and for astringent effects. Leaves and fruits of C. kousa have been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. The aim of our study is to compare the content of selected secondary metabolites groups in the leaves of above-mentioned species. The plant material was collected in the Tesarske Mlyňany Arboretum, Slovakia, in September 2010. Modified spectrophotometric methods of the European Pharmacopoeia, 8th edition (Ph. Eur. 8) were used for all assays. Results show that the total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (THD) content varied from 1.14 (S. alba) to 2.86% (S. coreana) when expressed as rosmarinic acid, and from 1.01 (S. alba) to 2.55% (S. coreana) when expressed as caffeic acid. The flavonoids content ranged from 0.21 (C. mas) to 1.37% (S. coreana), total polyphenols content from 9.6 (C. kousa) to 7.27% (S. coreana), and tannins content from 7.17 (C. kousa) to 4.04% (S. coreana). Leaves of Korean dogwood (S. coreana) were observed to show the highest content of THD expressed as rosmarinic acid (2.86%) and caffeic acid (2.55%), as well as of flavonoids (1.37%). Kousa dogwood (C. kousa) contained the highest amounts of tannins (7.17%) and total polyphenols (9.6%) on the other hand.

Palabras clave

  • Cornus
  • leaves
  • hydroxycinnamic derivatives
  • flavonoids
  • total polyphenols
  • tannins

Kľúčové slová

  • Cornus
  • listy
  • hydroxyškoricové deriváty
  • flavonoidy
  • celkové polyfenoly
  • triesloviny
access type Acceso abierto

Polyphenolic compounds and essential oil analysis of selected species of the genus Thymus / Analýza fenolových zložiek a analýza silice vybraných druhov rodu Thymus

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 12 - 17

Resumen

Abstract

The content of phenolic compounds (total phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanidins) of three species of thyme (Thymus pulegioides, Thymus pannonicus, Thymus praecox) of different origin (Bohemian-Moravian highlands, Křivoklat and Považsky Inovec) was determined using spectrophotometric methods of European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. Furthermore, the determination of the content of essential oil and analysis of its constituents was realised. The amount of total phenolics was determined by a spectrophotometric method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Their content ranged from 3.87 to 8.86%. The content of tannins was established on a preliminary determination of the total phenolics, followed by adsorption of tannins on hide powder. The amount of tannins in our samples varied from 1.96 to 5.65%. The content of total flavonoids was determined by a spectrophotometric method using aluminium chloride. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids has shown that content in our samples ranged from 0.59 to 1.52% expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside (λ = 392 nm) and from 0.41 to 1.12% expressed as rutin (λ = 420 nm). Anthocyanins represent a small amount of total polyphenol content in Thymus species. In our samples, the content of anthocyanins expressed as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside varied from 0.02 to 0.1%. The determination of essential oil was realised by method of European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. Its contents in our samples ranged from 0.2 to 0.75%. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for essential oil analysis. According to the presence of main monoterpene in Thymus essential oil, we can distinguish three chemotypes: thymol, carvacrol and linalool. Due to variations of chemical constituents of thyme essential oil, it was possible to observe a relationship between occurrence of certain chemotype and origin of sample. Differences in content of flavonoids have not shown a significant relationship to locality of origin.

Palabras clave

  • Thymus L.
  • phenolic compounds
  • essential oil
  • flavonoids

Kľúčové slová

  • Thymus L.
  • fenolové zlúčeniny
  • silica
  • flavonoidy
access type Acceso abierto

Evaluation of content of phenolics in Salvia species cultivated in South Moravian Region / Hodnotenie obsahu fenolov vo vybraných druhoch rodu Salvia L. pestovaných v Juhomoravskom kraji

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 18 - 22

Resumen

Abstract

In this study, total phenolic content (TPC) and rosmarinic acid (RA) of 37 samples sage (Salvia L.) of extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The amount of total phenols was analysed with Folin-Ciocalteu reagents. Gallic acid was used as a standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg.g−1 gallic acid equivalents of dried plant material. The values of the extracts displayed substantial differences. All of the investigated species except Salvia jurisicii (990.79 mg GAE. g−1 d.w.) exhibited higher content of phenolics. Among the studies, species demonstrated the highest content of phenol, followed in sequence by Salvia tomentosa, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia triloba, Salvia officinalis ‘Extrakta’, Salvia officinalis. TPC varied from 990.79 to 4459.88 mg GAE. g−1 d.w. in the extracts. The total amount of RA was between 0.88 and 8.04% among species. Salvia tomentosa, Salvia verticillata and Salvia officinalis ‘Extrakta’ had the highest content of RA. The high content of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity.

Palabras clave

  • sage
  • Salvia L.
  • phenolic compounds ,rosmarinic acid
  • south Moravian region

Kľúčové slová

  • šalvia
  • Salvia L.
  • fenolové látky
  • kyselina rozmarínová
  • juhomoravský kraj
access type Acceso abierto

Evaluation of content of essential oil in selected Salvia L. Species / Hodnocení obsahu silice ve vybraných druzích rodu Salvia L.

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 23 - 30

Resumen

Abstract

Salvia L. is multipurpose aromatic plant, used in a wide range of industries, including pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and above all, in ornamental gardening. The aim of this study is evaluation of essential oil content of ornamental Salvia L. species cultivated in experimental field of Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice during two periods 2002-2004 and 2009- 2012. Variability of essential oil yield of 42 different taxa was monitored for 9 years. Essential oil content was determined via steam distillation, expressed as ml/kg. The lowest content for the entire period showed sample S. przewalskii, in year 2010 (content 0.02 ml/kg) and the highest content for the entire period showed sample S. officinalis ‘Extracta’, in year 2004 (22.90 ml/kg). The results of evaluation of essential oil content in Salvia L. are consistent with data in the literature comparing the case of subspecies and varieties of Salvia officinalis L. The average content of essential oil ranges from 6.51 to 19.20 ml/kg.

Keywords

  • sage
  • Salvia L.
  • ornamental taxa
  • essential oil

Kľúčové slová

  • šalvěj
  • Salvia L.
  • okrasné taxony
  • silice
access type Acceso abierto

Factors affecting the actual yield of active substances from anthocyanin-rich berries / Faktory ovlivňující skutečný výtěžek aktivních látek z plodů bohatých na anthokyany

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 31 - 40

Resumen

Abstract

The content of anthocyanins in fruits (Sambucus nigra. Vaccinium myrtillus. Aronia melanocarpa) and in some fruit (berry) products was determined by differential spectrophotometry, a method recommended by AOAC International (former Association of Official Analytical Chemists). The method takes advantage of the reversible pH-dependent transformation of the colour to the colourless form of anthocyanins. The procedure and evaluation were refined to allow measurements of incompletely specified anthocyanin mixtures. Parameters of the determination (buffer composition, pH, stabilisation of samples, reference standards) were optimised. Using the modified method, anthocyanins in various matrices (fruits, syrups, wines) were measured with the aim to explain possible losses of these active substances during processing and/or storage of fruit products. Real samples of commercial products recommended conventionally as a valuable source of antioxidants were analysed and in some of them, only low levels of anthocyanins were found. In a model arrangement, anthocyanins in the skin and the pulp of Sambucus nigra fruits were extracted separately. In all samples of various cultivars, anthocyanins were present predominantly in the skin (up to 90% of the total content). Considering this, among other factors, a suitable extraction technology might improve the quality of berry products substantially.

Keywords

  • anthocyanins
  • skin and pulp of berries
  • differential spectrophotometry
  • wild berry products

Kľučove slova

  • anthokyany
  • slupka a dužnina plodů
  • diferenční spektrofotometrie
  • produkty z lesních plodů
access type Acceso abierto

Antioxidant activity of some coumarins / Antioxidačná activita niektorých kumarínov

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 41 - 45

Resumen

Abstract

Nineteen derivatives of coumarin were tested on the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. It was found that antioxidant activity exhibits only such coumarins that contain hydroxyl groups. The derivatives without hydroxyl group showed very low antioxidant effectiveness or they were ineffective. On the other hand, the greatest antioxidant effectiveness was exhibited by coumarin derivatives that contained hydroxyl groups in 6 or 8 position, whereas the effectiveness of derivatives with one hydroxyl group in 4, 5 or 7 position was very low. Based on scavenging of the above-mentioned radicals, it was found that the most effective scavengers were 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (i.e. compound that contains two hydroxyl groups in 7 and 8 positions), (7,8-dihydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetic acid (this compound contains in addition to two hydroxyl groups in 7 and 8 positions also one hydroxyl group in the acidic residue), esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and 6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin.

Palabras clave

  • coumarins
  • DPPH
  • EPR
  • hydroxyl
  • superoxide anion radicals
  • scavenger activity

Kľúčové slová

  • kumaríny
  • DPPH
  • EPR
  • hydroxyl
  • superoxid anión radikály
  • skavengerová aktivita
access type Acceso abierto

Elicitation – a tool to improve secondary metabolites production in Melissa Officinalis L. Suspension cultures / Elicitácia ako nástroj na zlepšenie produkcie sekundárnych metabolitov v suspenzných kultúrach Melissa Officinalis L.

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 46 - 50

Resumen

Abstract

Our recent study is focussed on the investigation of the influence of biotic (Botrytis cinerea, methyl jasmonate) and abiotic (cadmium and cobalt chloride) elicitors on Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) suspension cultures production properties. The plant material was treated with different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (10 and 100 μmol.l−1), with a phytopathogenic fungus hydrolyzate (Botrytis cinerea, 1 and 2 ml with glucose equivalent 24 μg.ml−1), cadmium and cobalt (II) chloride (both at concentrations 100 μmol.l−1 and 1 μmol.l−1). Elicited suspension cultures were harvested after 24, 48 and 72 h of elicitor treatment. The elicitation effect was evaluated based on hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives content expressed as rosmarinic acid in dose- and time-dependent manners. The Botrytis cinerea hydrolyzate exhibited the best effect on Melissa officinalis L. suspension cultures production properties among biotic elicitors (glucose equivalent 24 mg.ml−1, 1 ml, after 72 h of treatment). The hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives content increased in triplicate compared to non-elicited samples. Methyl jasmonate affected the suspension cultures production properties moderately at concentration 10 μmol.l−1. Chlorides salts of cobalt and cadmium stimulated phenolic compounds production effectively at concentrations 100 μmol.l−1. The presence of cobalt and cadmium ions in suspension cultures growth media increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives content twofold and quadruple, respectively.

Palabras clave

  • elicitation
  • Melissa officinalis L.
  • hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives
  • methyl jasmonate
  • Botrytis cinerea
  • metal ions

Kľúčové slová

  • elicitácia
  • Melissa officinalis L.
  • deriváty kyseliny hydroxyškoricovej
  • metyljazmonát
  • Botrytis cineream
  • ióny ťažkých kovov
9 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Foreword

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 1 - 1

Resumen

access type Acceso abierto

Phenolic compounds variation in Mentha L. Species in the course of a four-years period / Kolísanie fenolových látok v rôznych druhoch Mentha L. Počas 4 ročného obdobia

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 2 - 7

Resumen

Abstract

Mints rank among the most important Lamiaceae plants. In addition to essential oil, they contain many valuable phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and phenolic acids that participate in mints’ pharmacological properties. In this work, we examined the contents of phenolic compounds variation in the course of 4 years of vegetation. We compared the contents of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (λ = 505 nm), total polyphenols and tannins expressed as rosmarinic acid (λ = 760 nm), and flavonoids expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside (λ = 392 nm) and quercetin (λ = 420 nm) in 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old plants’ dry leaves, respectively. Spectrophotometric methods of the European Pharmacopoeia were employed. Our results show high levels of active phenolic compounds, particularly in 3- and 4-year-old plants.

Keywords

  • Mentha
  • THD
  • total polyphenols
  • tannins
  • flavonoids
  • age of plants

Kľúčové slová

  • Mentha
  • THD
  • celkove polyfenoly
  • triesloviny
  • flavonoidy
  • vek rastlin
access type Acceso abierto

Quantification of some secondary metabolites in selected Cornaceae species / Stanovenie vybraných sekundárnych metabolitov v niektorých druhoch čeľade Cornaceae

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 8 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

Leaves of selected species of the Cornaceae family (Swida alba, Swida australis, Swida controversa, Swida coreana, Swida baileyi, Cornus kousa, Cornus mas) were investigated in this study. These shrubs or small trees with hard wood are cultivated in Slovakia (Tesarske Mlyňany Arboretum). Some species (C. mas and C. kousa) have edible fruits. Cornels find broad ethnopharmacological use, for example, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), where fruits of C. officinalis are used for the treatment of several disorders, such as organ hypersecretion or diabetes. They are also used as tonics and for astringent effects. Leaves and fruits of C. kousa have been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. The aim of our study is to compare the content of selected secondary metabolites groups in the leaves of above-mentioned species. The plant material was collected in the Tesarske Mlyňany Arboretum, Slovakia, in September 2010. Modified spectrophotometric methods of the European Pharmacopoeia, 8th edition (Ph. Eur. 8) were used for all assays. Results show that the total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (THD) content varied from 1.14 (S. alba) to 2.86% (S. coreana) when expressed as rosmarinic acid, and from 1.01 (S. alba) to 2.55% (S. coreana) when expressed as caffeic acid. The flavonoids content ranged from 0.21 (C. mas) to 1.37% (S. coreana), total polyphenols content from 9.6 (C. kousa) to 7.27% (S. coreana), and tannins content from 7.17 (C. kousa) to 4.04% (S. coreana). Leaves of Korean dogwood (S. coreana) were observed to show the highest content of THD expressed as rosmarinic acid (2.86%) and caffeic acid (2.55%), as well as of flavonoids (1.37%). Kousa dogwood (C. kousa) contained the highest amounts of tannins (7.17%) and total polyphenols (9.6%) on the other hand.

Palabras clave

  • Cornus
  • leaves
  • hydroxycinnamic derivatives
  • flavonoids
  • total polyphenols
  • tannins

Kľúčové slová

  • Cornus
  • listy
  • hydroxyškoricové deriváty
  • flavonoidy
  • celkové polyfenoly
  • triesloviny
access type Acceso abierto

Polyphenolic compounds and essential oil analysis of selected species of the genus Thymus / Analýza fenolových zložiek a analýza silice vybraných druhov rodu Thymus

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 12 - 17

Resumen

Abstract

The content of phenolic compounds (total phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanidins) of three species of thyme (Thymus pulegioides, Thymus pannonicus, Thymus praecox) of different origin (Bohemian-Moravian highlands, Křivoklat and Považsky Inovec) was determined using spectrophotometric methods of European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. Furthermore, the determination of the content of essential oil and analysis of its constituents was realised. The amount of total phenolics was determined by a spectrophotometric method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Their content ranged from 3.87 to 8.86%. The content of tannins was established on a preliminary determination of the total phenolics, followed by adsorption of tannins on hide powder. The amount of tannins in our samples varied from 1.96 to 5.65%. The content of total flavonoids was determined by a spectrophotometric method using aluminium chloride. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids has shown that content in our samples ranged from 0.59 to 1.52% expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside (λ = 392 nm) and from 0.41 to 1.12% expressed as rutin (λ = 420 nm). Anthocyanins represent a small amount of total polyphenol content in Thymus species. In our samples, the content of anthocyanins expressed as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside varied from 0.02 to 0.1%. The determination of essential oil was realised by method of European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition. Its contents in our samples ranged from 0.2 to 0.75%. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for essential oil analysis. According to the presence of main monoterpene in Thymus essential oil, we can distinguish three chemotypes: thymol, carvacrol and linalool. Due to variations of chemical constituents of thyme essential oil, it was possible to observe a relationship between occurrence of certain chemotype and origin of sample. Differences in content of flavonoids have not shown a significant relationship to locality of origin.

Palabras clave

  • Thymus L.
  • phenolic compounds
  • essential oil
  • flavonoids

Kľúčové slová

  • Thymus L.
  • fenolové zlúčeniny
  • silica
  • flavonoidy
access type Acceso abierto

Evaluation of content of phenolics in Salvia species cultivated in South Moravian Region / Hodnotenie obsahu fenolov vo vybraných druhoch rodu Salvia L. pestovaných v Juhomoravskom kraji

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 18 - 22

Resumen

Abstract

In this study, total phenolic content (TPC) and rosmarinic acid (RA) of 37 samples sage (Salvia L.) of extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The amount of total phenols was analysed with Folin-Ciocalteu reagents. Gallic acid was used as a standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg.g−1 gallic acid equivalents of dried plant material. The values of the extracts displayed substantial differences. All of the investigated species except Salvia jurisicii (990.79 mg GAE. g−1 d.w.) exhibited higher content of phenolics. Among the studies, species demonstrated the highest content of phenol, followed in sequence by Salvia tomentosa, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia triloba, Salvia officinalis ‘Extrakta’, Salvia officinalis. TPC varied from 990.79 to 4459.88 mg GAE. g−1 d.w. in the extracts. The total amount of RA was between 0.88 and 8.04% among species. Salvia tomentosa, Salvia verticillata and Salvia officinalis ‘Extrakta’ had the highest content of RA. The high content of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity.

Palabras clave

  • sage
  • Salvia L.
  • phenolic compounds ,rosmarinic acid
  • south Moravian region

Kľúčové slová

  • šalvia
  • Salvia L.
  • fenolové látky
  • kyselina rozmarínová
  • juhomoravský kraj
access type Acceso abierto

Evaluation of content of essential oil in selected Salvia L. Species / Hodnocení obsahu silice ve vybraných druzích rodu Salvia L.

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 23 - 30

Resumen

Abstract

Salvia L. is multipurpose aromatic plant, used in a wide range of industries, including pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and above all, in ornamental gardening. The aim of this study is evaluation of essential oil content of ornamental Salvia L. species cultivated in experimental field of Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice during two periods 2002-2004 and 2009- 2012. Variability of essential oil yield of 42 different taxa was monitored for 9 years. Essential oil content was determined via steam distillation, expressed as ml/kg. The lowest content for the entire period showed sample S. przewalskii, in year 2010 (content 0.02 ml/kg) and the highest content for the entire period showed sample S. officinalis ‘Extracta’, in year 2004 (22.90 ml/kg). The results of evaluation of essential oil content in Salvia L. are consistent with data in the literature comparing the case of subspecies and varieties of Salvia officinalis L. The average content of essential oil ranges from 6.51 to 19.20 ml/kg.

Keywords

  • sage
  • Salvia L.
  • ornamental taxa
  • essential oil

Kľúčové slová

  • šalvěj
  • Salvia L.
  • okrasné taxony
  • silice
access type Acceso abierto

Factors affecting the actual yield of active substances from anthocyanin-rich berries / Faktory ovlivňující skutečný výtěžek aktivních látek z plodů bohatých na anthokyany

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 31 - 40

Resumen

Abstract

The content of anthocyanins in fruits (Sambucus nigra. Vaccinium myrtillus. Aronia melanocarpa) and in some fruit (berry) products was determined by differential spectrophotometry, a method recommended by AOAC International (former Association of Official Analytical Chemists). The method takes advantage of the reversible pH-dependent transformation of the colour to the colourless form of anthocyanins. The procedure and evaluation were refined to allow measurements of incompletely specified anthocyanin mixtures. Parameters of the determination (buffer composition, pH, stabilisation of samples, reference standards) were optimised. Using the modified method, anthocyanins in various matrices (fruits, syrups, wines) were measured with the aim to explain possible losses of these active substances during processing and/or storage of fruit products. Real samples of commercial products recommended conventionally as a valuable source of antioxidants were analysed and in some of them, only low levels of anthocyanins were found. In a model arrangement, anthocyanins in the skin and the pulp of Sambucus nigra fruits were extracted separately. In all samples of various cultivars, anthocyanins were present predominantly in the skin (up to 90% of the total content). Considering this, among other factors, a suitable extraction technology might improve the quality of berry products substantially.

Keywords

  • anthocyanins
  • skin and pulp of berries
  • differential spectrophotometry
  • wild berry products

Kľučove slova

  • anthokyany
  • slupka a dužnina plodů
  • diferenční spektrofotometrie
  • produkty z lesních plodů
access type Acceso abierto

Antioxidant activity of some coumarins / Antioxidačná activita niektorých kumarínov

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 41 - 45

Resumen

Abstract

Nineteen derivatives of coumarin were tested on the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. It was found that antioxidant activity exhibits only such coumarins that contain hydroxyl groups. The derivatives without hydroxyl group showed very low antioxidant effectiveness or they were ineffective. On the other hand, the greatest antioxidant effectiveness was exhibited by coumarin derivatives that contained hydroxyl groups in 6 or 8 position, whereas the effectiveness of derivatives with one hydroxyl group in 4, 5 or 7 position was very low. Based on scavenging of the above-mentioned radicals, it was found that the most effective scavengers were 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (i.e. compound that contains two hydroxyl groups in 7 and 8 positions), (7,8-dihydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetic acid (this compound contains in addition to two hydroxyl groups in 7 and 8 positions also one hydroxyl group in the acidic residue), esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and 6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin.

Palabras clave

  • coumarins
  • DPPH
  • EPR
  • hydroxyl
  • superoxide anion radicals
  • scavenger activity

Kľúčové slová

  • kumaríny
  • DPPH
  • EPR
  • hydroxyl
  • superoxid anión radikály
  • skavengerová aktivita
access type Acceso abierto

Elicitation – a tool to improve secondary metabolites production in Melissa Officinalis L. Suspension cultures / Elicitácia ako nástroj na zlepšenie produkcie sekundárnych metabolitov v suspenzných kultúrach Melissa Officinalis L.

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2015
Páginas: 46 - 50

Resumen

Abstract

Our recent study is focussed on the investigation of the influence of biotic (Botrytis cinerea, methyl jasmonate) and abiotic (cadmium and cobalt chloride) elicitors on Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) suspension cultures production properties. The plant material was treated with different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (10 and 100 μmol.l−1), with a phytopathogenic fungus hydrolyzate (Botrytis cinerea, 1 and 2 ml with glucose equivalent 24 μg.ml−1), cadmium and cobalt (II) chloride (both at concentrations 100 μmol.l−1 and 1 μmol.l−1). Elicited suspension cultures were harvested after 24, 48 and 72 h of elicitor treatment. The elicitation effect was evaluated based on hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives content expressed as rosmarinic acid in dose- and time-dependent manners. The Botrytis cinerea hydrolyzate exhibited the best effect on Melissa officinalis L. suspension cultures production properties among biotic elicitors (glucose equivalent 24 mg.ml−1, 1 ml, after 72 h of treatment). The hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives content increased in triplicate compared to non-elicited samples. Methyl jasmonate affected the suspension cultures production properties moderately at concentration 10 μmol.l−1. Chlorides salts of cobalt and cadmium stimulated phenolic compounds production effectively at concentrations 100 μmol.l−1. The presence of cobalt and cadmium ions in suspension cultures growth media increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives content twofold and quadruple, respectively.

Palabras clave

  • elicitation
  • Melissa officinalis L.
  • hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives
  • methyl jasmonate
  • Botrytis cinerea
  • metal ions

Kľúčové slová

  • elicitácia
  • Melissa officinalis L.
  • deriváty kyseliny hydroxyškoricovej
  • metyljazmonát
  • Botrytis cineream
  • ióny ťažkých kovov

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