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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2081-6383
ISSN
0137-477X
Publicado por primera vez
01 Jun 1974
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 32 (2013): Edición 3 (September 2013)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2081-6383
ISSN
0137-477X
Publicado por primera vez
01 Jun 1974
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

10 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Initial Assessment of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model for Forecasting Bioclimatic Conditions During Breeze Circulation – Case Study of the Słowiński National Park

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 5 - 14

Resumen

Abstract

Land-sea interaction at the Polish Baltic Coast impacts the specific local climate conditions. Thermally driven circulation, observed mainly in the summer season, causes the advection of the cool sea air over land and influences the local atmospheric environment, including bioclimatic conditions. The aim of this paper is to present the evaluation of the WRF model for forecasting sensitive bioclimatic conditions on a selected day with sea breeze in the vicinity of the Łeba Sandbar (the Słowiński National Park). The results obtained from a numerical weather prediction model were post-processed to calculate the daily variability of two biothermal indices: the Effective Temperature (ET) and the Dry Cooling Power (H). To evaluate the thermal comfort of a person wearing typical clothes, the Michajlow’s, Petrovič and Kacvińsky’s scales were adopted. A detailed analysis performed for 31st July 2010 shows in most cases a satisfactory level of agreement between the simulated data and the in-situ measurements for nested domains with horizontal grid resolution less than 2 km. However, the simulation results tend to underestimate the thermal comfort, especially in the middle part of the Łeba Sandbar due to terrain data misrepresentations, which results in the overestimation of wind speed.

Palabras clave

  • breeze circulation
  • sea breeze index
  • WRF
  • the Słowiński National Park
  • bioclimatic conditions
Acceso abierto

Thermal and Humidity Conditions Over a Salient Land Form as Exemplified by a Coastal Sand Dune at the Łeba Sandbar in the Słowiński National Park

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 15 - 25

Resumen

Abstract

In July 2011, measurements were taken of selected meteorological elements in the central part of the Łeba Sandbar in the Słowiński National Park. On the basis of the results of measurements performed at five points located on a salient land form in close proximity to the seashore, a thermal and humidity characteristics of this form were determined for a twenty-four hour period. The results of measurements obtained from an automatic weather station located in an open area, near the measurement points on the coastal sand dune, were used as information on the atmospheric conditions predominant in the standard area (flat area covered by grass). The research analysis was performed for the entire measurement period and for days with radiational weather. The authors also determined the dependence between air temperature and humidity values observed over the analysed land form and the values of weather elements measured over the standard area.

Palabras clave

  • air temperature
  • relative humidity
  • correlation
  • regressive analysis
  • salient land form
  • Łeba Sandbar
  • Słowiński National Park
Acceso abierto

Changes in the Physical Properties of Precipitation in Pine Stands in the Area with A Low Degree of Air Pollution (Western Pomerania)

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 27 - 37

Resumen

Abstract

The study presents the results of research conducted in the years 2010-2012 in pine stands in Western Pomerania. The research included physicochemical properties of bulk precipitation and throughfall. The results confirm that despite a decrease in the total throughfall in the interception process, the size of mineral and organic depositions in pine stands exceeded values recorded for bulk precipitation. It was caused both by the process of enriching the throughfall with (K+, Mg2+) rinsed out of needles and leaves and by washing off the dry deposition (NH4+, Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NO3 -). The share of leaching processes for K+ was 74.1%, while for Mg2+ 23.6% of the total load of these elements brought to the ground with throughfall. In the case of Ca2+ no canopy leaching was observed for this element. The throughfall acidification processes were mostly caused by NO3-.

Palabras clave

  • Forest ecosystem
  • throughfall
  • ion deposition
  • canopy leaching
  • Scots Pine
Acceso abierto

Influence of Relief and Land Cover on the Distribution of Values of the Land Surface Temperature in Upper Parsęta River Area

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 39 - 51

Resumen

Abstract

The primary research problem presented in the article is verification of the thesis on the influence of relief and land cover type on the spatial variability of the land surface temperature (LST) distribution in the area including the river catchment area of upper Parsęta. The paper presents the use of thermal channels from two Landsat ETM+ scenes pictures, Corine Land Cover database from 2000 as well as the DTED-2 digital elevation model. Two ETM+ thermal bands processing algorithms were used for calculation of the land surface temperature: Qin et al. (2001) and Jiménez-Muňoz et al. (2003). Conducted statistical tests show significant differences of the land surface temperature values between particular land cover forms as well as types of relief. LST maps can be applied in topoclimatology eg. to detail and verify the in situ measurements.

Palabras clave

  • Land surface temperature (LST)
  • topoclimate
  • remote sensing
  • Landsat
  • Polish Lowland
Acceso abierto

Land Consolidation as an Instrument of Shaping the Agrarian Structure in Poland: A Case Study of the Wielkopolskie and Dolnośląskie Voivodeships

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 53 - 67

Resumen

Abstract

Fragmentation of agricultural landscape is a specific feature of agrarian structure in Poland. Despite the fact that consolidation work has been carried out for years, the positive effects are still negligible. This is because land consolidation in Poland is encountering with a number of obstacles, which on the one hand, is cumbersome formal and legal policy, and on the other hand, disapproval of officials and farmers as well. These barriers unnecessarily prolong the proceeding, which is inherently long-term, sometimes takes years and not always is successfully completed. For this reason an effort was made to answer the question: how improving in land consolidation policy may look up the efficiency of land merging work in Poland? Two formal procedures were presented, on the basis of which land consolidation is carried out in two voivodeships: Wielkopolskie and Dolnośląskie. The study revealed the main obstacles and weaknesses in legal regulation. Additionally, open-interviews among farmers as well as local and regional land consolidation authorities, were undertaken. On the basis of the acquired data, a number of new suggestions to more successful land consolidation policy, were put forward. Finally, possible solutions to perk up the land unification work were established.

Palabras clave

  • agrarian structure
  • land fragmentation
  • patchwork
  • chessboard
  • plot distribution pattern
  • Wielkopolskie and Dolnośląskie voivodeships
Acceso abierto

The Link Between from Day to Day Change of Weather Types and Synoptic Situations in Kraków During the Period 1961–2010

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 69 - 84

Resumen

Abstract

This paper analyses day-to-day changes of weather types and links these with synoptic situations, i.e. circulation types, air masses and weather fronts. The weather types were classified according to Woś (1999), while a calendar proposed by Niedźwiedź (2013) was used for synoptic situations. Weather records from Kraków were used covering the period 1961-2010. The frequency of all combinations of day-to-day weather type changes was calculated, identified using specific values of air temperature, cloudiness and precipitation. The analysis of the succession and frequency of the day-to-day changes was linked with the synoptic situations accompanying the change. It was found that the thermal weather types were relatively very stable and remained unchanged on the following day in 61.3% of cases, and that the synoptic situation also remained similar. Weather subtypes, identified with just cloudiness and precipitation, but not temperature, displayed much more day-to-day change in terms of frequency and scale. Synoptically it was the air mass change and/or the occurrence of atmospheric fronts, which tended to cause day-to-day weather type changes, while the impact of circulation was not always clear. Particular attention was devoted to sudden weather type changes caused primarily by dramatic air temperature fluctuations.

Palabras clave

  • weather types
  • circulation types
  • synoptic situations
  • day-to-day change
  • Kraków
Acceso abierto

The Lakescape in the Eyes of a Tourist

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 85 - 97

Resumen

Abstract

Visual-esthetic landscapes values are determining a comfort of leisure in the environment, forms of tourist activities and constitute value as such. The aim of the research is to define how, and which components of lakescape are perceived by tourists, and how it influences on lake tourist activity. Presented paper describes also the role of water itself and the importance of the aesthetics of lakescape in tourist experience. The research of visual landscape values has been conducted for a long time, using different methods. The paper describes, apart from traditional method of inquires, use of eye-tracking to define elements of lakescape perceived by tourists.

Palabras clave

  • lakescape
  • multisensory perception
  • aesthetic of landscape
  • eye-tracking
Acceso abierto

Climatology of Hail in Central Europe

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 99 - 110

Resumen

Abstract

Taking into consideration the spatial variability of the occurrence of hail in central Europe in the warm season (April - September) during the years 1966-2010, five hail regions were distinguished by Ward’s group hierarchy method. For this purpose the daily data of hail occurrence were used. Circulation patterns responsible for hail precipitation at each cluster of stations were analysed using Reanalysis data (NCEP/NCAR). Composite maps of the sea-level pressure, 500 hPa geopotential height and 850 hPa-level temperature means were constructed for the days with hail. Additionally, anomalies of the values of each parameter were presented. It was found that more than 65% of hail events were recorded from April to June, with May as the hail-peak month. In all five distinguished regions hail precipitation was associated with negative anomalies of SLP and 500 hPa heights over Europe, most often with low-pressure systems developing within colder than usual air mass.

Palabras clave

  • central Europe
  • hail frequency
  • hail regions
  • atmospheric circulation
Acceso abierto

Seasonal Water Temperature Variability of Springs From Porous Sediments in Gryżynka Valley, Western Poland

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 111 - 117

Resumen

Abstract

This paper discusses fluctuations in spring water temperature and its correlation to climate and aquifer characteristics. Data from nine springs in the Gryżynka River catchment (Polish Plain) were taken monthly (November 2005 to October 2010). The springs examined in this study are characterised by significant thermal inertia in contrast to air temperature, that is expressed in small temperature amplitudes that range from 1.3°C to 2.3°C. The average temperature of the springs is about 9°C. The research proved that observed groundwater temperature variations on the surface resulted mainly from atmospheric conditions, especially air temperature. The highest water temperatures (up to 10°C) were observed during late summer and early autumn, and the lowest temperature (7.7°C) was observed at the end of the winter period. The range of spring water temperature variability may reflect amount of water contribution from local water recharge in the spring vicinity.

Palabras clave

  • springs
  • spring water temperature
  • groundwater monitoring
  • Poland
Acceso abierto

Effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation on Ice Phenomena on Selected Lakes in Poland Over the Years 1961–2010

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 119 - 128

Resumen

Abstract

An analysis is presented of changes in the parameters of ice phenomena on selected Polish lakes over the years 1961-2010 against the background of variations in the intensity of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The following features were analysed: the start and end of ice phenomena and ice cover, their duration, and the stability of ice cover at observation sites of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management on lakes located in various physical-geographic regions. Multi-year tendencies of change in the ice parameters under study were identified. The most statistically significant negative trends were observed for the ending dates of ice phenomena and their duration. Changes in the ice characteristics in the different NAODJFM stages were determined on the basis of their deviations: between years with high (> 1.7) and low (< -1.09) values of the winter NAO index, and from average values from the years 1961-2010. Changes in the intensity of the North Atlantic Oscillation affect all the parameters of ice phenomena except their starting dates. In a negative NAODJFM stage, ice phenomena and ice cover end later and last longer; also, the maximum thickness of ice cover is greater, its forms later and is more stable than in a positive stage and in average conditions

Palabras clave

  • lake
  • ice phenomena
  • trends
  • North Atlantic Oscillation
  • Poland
10 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Initial Assessment of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model for Forecasting Bioclimatic Conditions During Breeze Circulation – Case Study of the Słowiński National Park

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 5 - 14

Resumen

Abstract

Land-sea interaction at the Polish Baltic Coast impacts the specific local climate conditions. Thermally driven circulation, observed mainly in the summer season, causes the advection of the cool sea air over land and influences the local atmospheric environment, including bioclimatic conditions. The aim of this paper is to present the evaluation of the WRF model for forecasting sensitive bioclimatic conditions on a selected day with sea breeze in the vicinity of the Łeba Sandbar (the Słowiński National Park). The results obtained from a numerical weather prediction model were post-processed to calculate the daily variability of two biothermal indices: the Effective Temperature (ET) and the Dry Cooling Power (H). To evaluate the thermal comfort of a person wearing typical clothes, the Michajlow’s, Petrovič and Kacvińsky’s scales were adopted. A detailed analysis performed for 31st July 2010 shows in most cases a satisfactory level of agreement between the simulated data and the in-situ measurements for nested domains with horizontal grid resolution less than 2 km. However, the simulation results tend to underestimate the thermal comfort, especially in the middle part of the Łeba Sandbar due to terrain data misrepresentations, which results in the overestimation of wind speed.

Palabras clave

  • breeze circulation
  • sea breeze index
  • WRF
  • the Słowiński National Park
  • bioclimatic conditions
Acceso abierto

Thermal and Humidity Conditions Over a Salient Land Form as Exemplified by a Coastal Sand Dune at the Łeba Sandbar in the Słowiński National Park

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 15 - 25

Resumen

Abstract

In July 2011, measurements were taken of selected meteorological elements in the central part of the Łeba Sandbar in the Słowiński National Park. On the basis of the results of measurements performed at five points located on a salient land form in close proximity to the seashore, a thermal and humidity characteristics of this form were determined for a twenty-four hour period. The results of measurements obtained from an automatic weather station located in an open area, near the measurement points on the coastal sand dune, were used as information on the atmospheric conditions predominant in the standard area (flat area covered by grass). The research analysis was performed for the entire measurement period and for days with radiational weather. The authors also determined the dependence between air temperature and humidity values observed over the analysed land form and the values of weather elements measured over the standard area.

Palabras clave

  • air temperature
  • relative humidity
  • correlation
  • regressive analysis
  • salient land form
  • Łeba Sandbar
  • Słowiński National Park
Acceso abierto

Changes in the Physical Properties of Precipitation in Pine Stands in the Area with A Low Degree of Air Pollution (Western Pomerania)

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 27 - 37

Resumen

Abstract

The study presents the results of research conducted in the years 2010-2012 in pine stands in Western Pomerania. The research included physicochemical properties of bulk precipitation and throughfall. The results confirm that despite a decrease in the total throughfall in the interception process, the size of mineral and organic depositions in pine stands exceeded values recorded for bulk precipitation. It was caused both by the process of enriching the throughfall with (K+, Mg2+) rinsed out of needles and leaves and by washing off the dry deposition (NH4+, Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NO3 -). The share of leaching processes for K+ was 74.1%, while for Mg2+ 23.6% of the total load of these elements brought to the ground with throughfall. In the case of Ca2+ no canopy leaching was observed for this element. The throughfall acidification processes were mostly caused by NO3-.

Palabras clave

  • Forest ecosystem
  • throughfall
  • ion deposition
  • canopy leaching
  • Scots Pine
Acceso abierto

Influence of Relief and Land Cover on the Distribution of Values of the Land Surface Temperature in Upper Parsęta River Area

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 39 - 51

Resumen

Abstract

The primary research problem presented in the article is verification of the thesis on the influence of relief and land cover type on the spatial variability of the land surface temperature (LST) distribution in the area including the river catchment area of upper Parsęta. The paper presents the use of thermal channels from two Landsat ETM+ scenes pictures, Corine Land Cover database from 2000 as well as the DTED-2 digital elevation model. Two ETM+ thermal bands processing algorithms were used for calculation of the land surface temperature: Qin et al. (2001) and Jiménez-Muňoz et al. (2003). Conducted statistical tests show significant differences of the land surface temperature values between particular land cover forms as well as types of relief. LST maps can be applied in topoclimatology eg. to detail and verify the in situ measurements.

Palabras clave

  • Land surface temperature (LST)
  • topoclimate
  • remote sensing
  • Landsat
  • Polish Lowland
Acceso abierto

Land Consolidation as an Instrument of Shaping the Agrarian Structure in Poland: A Case Study of the Wielkopolskie and Dolnośląskie Voivodeships

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 53 - 67

Resumen

Abstract

Fragmentation of agricultural landscape is a specific feature of agrarian structure in Poland. Despite the fact that consolidation work has been carried out for years, the positive effects are still negligible. This is because land consolidation in Poland is encountering with a number of obstacles, which on the one hand, is cumbersome formal and legal policy, and on the other hand, disapproval of officials and farmers as well. These barriers unnecessarily prolong the proceeding, which is inherently long-term, sometimes takes years and not always is successfully completed. For this reason an effort was made to answer the question: how improving in land consolidation policy may look up the efficiency of land merging work in Poland? Two formal procedures were presented, on the basis of which land consolidation is carried out in two voivodeships: Wielkopolskie and Dolnośląskie. The study revealed the main obstacles and weaknesses in legal regulation. Additionally, open-interviews among farmers as well as local and regional land consolidation authorities, were undertaken. On the basis of the acquired data, a number of new suggestions to more successful land consolidation policy, were put forward. Finally, possible solutions to perk up the land unification work were established.

Palabras clave

  • agrarian structure
  • land fragmentation
  • patchwork
  • chessboard
  • plot distribution pattern
  • Wielkopolskie and Dolnośląskie voivodeships
Acceso abierto

The Link Between from Day to Day Change of Weather Types and Synoptic Situations in Kraków During the Period 1961–2010

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 69 - 84

Resumen

Abstract

This paper analyses day-to-day changes of weather types and links these with synoptic situations, i.e. circulation types, air masses and weather fronts. The weather types were classified according to Woś (1999), while a calendar proposed by Niedźwiedź (2013) was used for synoptic situations. Weather records from Kraków were used covering the period 1961-2010. The frequency of all combinations of day-to-day weather type changes was calculated, identified using specific values of air temperature, cloudiness and precipitation. The analysis of the succession and frequency of the day-to-day changes was linked with the synoptic situations accompanying the change. It was found that the thermal weather types were relatively very stable and remained unchanged on the following day in 61.3% of cases, and that the synoptic situation also remained similar. Weather subtypes, identified with just cloudiness and precipitation, but not temperature, displayed much more day-to-day change in terms of frequency and scale. Synoptically it was the air mass change and/or the occurrence of atmospheric fronts, which tended to cause day-to-day weather type changes, while the impact of circulation was not always clear. Particular attention was devoted to sudden weather type changes caused primarily by dramatic air temperature fluctuations.

Palabras clave

  • weather types
  • circulation types
  • synoptic situations
  • day-to-day change
  • Kraków
Acceso abierto

The Lakescape in the Eyes of a Tourist

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 85 - 97

Resumen

Abstract

Visual-esthetic landscapes values are determining a comfort of leisure in the environment, forms of tourist activities and constitute value as such. The aim of the research is to define how, and which components of lakescape are perceived by tourists, and how it influences on lake tourist activity. Presented paper describes also the role of water itself and the importance of the aesthetics of lakescape in tourist experience. The research of visual landscape values has been conducted for a long time, using different methods. The paper describes, apart from traditional method of inquires, use of eye-tracking to define elements of lakescape perceived by tourists.

Palabras clave

  • lakescape
  • multisensory perception
  • aesthetic of landscape
  • eye-tracking
Acceso abierto

Climatology of Hail in Central Europe

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 99 - 110

Resumen

Abstract

Taking into consideration the spatial variability of the occurrence of hail in central Europe in the warm season (April - September) during the years 1966-2010, five hail regions were distinguished by Ward’s group hierarchy method. For this purpose the daily data of hail occurrence were used. Circulation patterns responsible for hail precipitation at each cluster of stations were analysed using Reanalysis data (NCEP/NCAR). Composite maps of the sea-level pressure, 500 hPa geopotential height and 850 hPa-level temperature means were constructed for the days with hail. Additionally, anomalies of the values of each parameter were presented. It was found that more than 65% of hail events were recorded from April to June, with May as the hail-peak month. In all five distinguished regions hail precipitation was associated with negative anomalies of SLP and 500 hPa heights over Europe, most often with low-pressure systems developing within colder than usual air mass.

Palabras clave

  • central Europe
  • hail frequency
  • hail regions
  • atmospheric circulation
Acceso abierto

Seasonal Water Temperature Variability of Springs From Porous Sediments in Gryżynka Valley, Western Poland

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 111 - 117

Resumen

Abstract

This paper discusses fluctuations in spring water temperature and its correlation to climate and aquifer characteristics. Data from nine springs in the Gryżynka River catchment (Polish Plain) were taken monthly (November 2005 to October 2010). The springs examined in this study are characterised by significant thermal inertia in contrast to air temperature, that is expressed in small temperature amplitudes that range from 1.3°C to 2.3°C. The average temperature of the springs is about 9°C. The research proved that observed groundwater temperature variations on the surface resulted mainly from atmospheric conditions, especially air temperature. The highest water temperatures (up to 10°C) were observed during late summer and early autumn, and the lowest temperature (7.7°C) was observed at the end of the winter period. The range of spring water temperature variability may reflect amount of water contribution from local water recharge in the spring vicinity.

Palabras clave

  • springs
  • spring water temperature
  • groundwater monitoring
  • Poland
Acceso abierto

Effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation on Ice Phenomena on Selected Lakes in Poland Over the Years 1961–2010

Publicado en línea: 12 Oct 2013
Páginas: 119 - 128

Resumen

Abstract

An analysis is presented of changes in the parameters of ice phenomena on selected Polish lakes over the years 1961-2010 against the background of variations in the intensity of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The following features were analysed: the start and end of ice phenomena and ice cover, their duration, and the stability of ice cover at observation sites of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management on lakes located in various physical-geographic regions. Multi-year tendencies of change in the ice parameters under study were identified. The most statistically significant negative trends were observed for the ending dates of ice phenomena and their duration. Changes in the ice characteristics in the different NAODJFM stages were determined on the basis of their deviations: between years with high (> 1.7) and low (< -1.09) values of the winter NAO index, and from average values from the years 1961-2010. Changes in the intensity of the North Atlantic Oscillation affect all the parameters of ice phenomena except their starting dates. In a negative NAODJFM stage, ice phenomena and ice cover end later and last longer; also, the maximum thickness of ice cover is greater, its forms later and is more stable than in a positive stage and in average conditions

Palabras clave

  • lake
  • ice phenomena
  • trends
  • North Atlantic Oscillation
  • Poland

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