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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1897-3191
Publicado por primera vez
23 Feb 2007
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 40 (2011): Edición 4 (December 2011)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1897-3191
Publicado por primera vez
23 Feb 2007
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

14 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

The transport and distribution of the river load from the Kacza River into the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea, Poland)

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 1 - 10

Resumen

Abstract

The results of measurements of suspended sediment and bed load carried by the Kacza River into the Gulf of Gdańsk are discussed. The investigations were conducted in the years 2009–2010 at the Orłowo transect and at the mouth of the Kacza River in the Gulf of Gdańsk. The research has shown that the Kacza River discharged about 673 tons of sediment annually to the Gulf of Gdańsk, with 77% being transported as bed load. The granulometric composition of the river load is dominated by coarse-grained sand fractions.

Palabras clave

  • suspended sediment
  • bed load
  • Kacza River
  • Gulf of Gdańsk
access type Acceso abierto

Towards validating a last generation, integrated wave-current-sediment numerical model in coastal regions using video measurements

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 11 - 20

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents the first steps in the implementation of a morphological numerical model to be applied in the Bevano River region, a shallow water area in the Adriatic Sea, with the aim of helping the identification and assessment of erosional patterns and bottom morphological modifications induced by severe marine storms. The numerical modeling, performed using a fully 3D coupled wave-current-sediment version of the ROMS model, has been complemented with in situ data analysis and observations: a first qualitative validation of the results was given by the analysis of images acquired via an ARGUS video station.

Hydrodynamic modeling highlighted how shear bottom stresses and bottom currents fields were heavily influenced by severe storm situations, and had large effects on the morphology of shallow regions. The correlation between the wave-current induced bottom stresses and the resulting topography was investigated. Nearshore hydrodynamics modeling results demonstrated the dominant role played by alongshore sediment transport, with the magnitude of both cross- and along-shore wave-induced currents strongly depending on wave height and direction.

We found a good qualitative conformity between the results of the numerical models applied during a “Bora” storm and the corresponding video observations; both techniques indicated the migration of the existing sandbar within the range of about 40 m seaward.

Results show how integrated numerical open source tools, often used in oceanography, are becoming suitable for both preliminary investigations and for planning the effective littoral management, and how their calibration can be supported by the use of new low cost techniques, such as video measurements.

Palabras clave

  • sediment transport
  • shoreline evolution
  • littoral management
  • ROMS
  • ARGUS
access type Acceso abierto

Chaetoceros resting spores as indicators of Holocene paleoenvironmental changes in the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 21 - 29

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze resting spores of Chaetoceros spp. preserved in Middle and Late Holocene sediments of the three parts of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea. The material studied consists of ten cores retrieved from Kuźnica Deep (Puck Lagoon), as well as the shallower and deeper parts of the Outer Puck Bay region. Our results indicate that the abundance of Chaetoceros resting spores in diatom taphocoenoses corresponded to regional and local paleoecological changes registered in Mastogloia, Littorina and Post-Littorina sediments, and that they also reflect human impact in the last hundred years.

Palabras clave

  • diatoms
  • paleoecology
  • Holocene
  • Gulf of Gdańsk
access type Acceso abierto

Blooms of toxin-producing Cyanobacteria — a real threat in small dam reservoirs at the beginning of their operation

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 30 - 37

Resumen

Abstract

Large and harmful cyanobacterial blooms appeared in two newly-built artificial reservoirs shortly after being filled with water. Taxonomic composition of cyanobacterial communities was highly variable in both water bodies and fast species replacement was observed. In the first year of the operation of the smaller Konstantynów Reservoir, the mass development of Anabaena flos-aquae and Planktolyngbya limnetica (48.7 and 53.6% of the cyanobacterial abundance) occurred in summer, while in autumn the dominance of Planktothrix agardhii (99.9%, 14.95 × 106 ind. Dm−3) was noted. The surface scum developed in summer consisted of An. flos-aquae that contained high amounts of anatoxin-a (1412.4 μg AN-a dm−3 of scum) and smaller amounts of microcystins (10 μg eq. MC-LR dm−3 of scum). In the larger Kraśnik Reservoir, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred in high abundance in spring and summer, however, it was replaced by different species of Microcystis (1.3 × 107 ind. dm−3) which created thick surface scum. Simultaneously, a hazardous increase in the total concentration of microcystins (from 13.6 to 788.5 μg eq. MC-LR dm−3 of water with scum) and anatoxin-a (from 0.03 to 43.6 μg dm−3) was observed.

Palabras clave

  • anatoxin-a
  • microcystins
  • dam reservoir
  • Microcystis
  • Planktothrix
  • Anabaena
access type Acceso abierto

The epilithon of a cooling tower of the power plant at Bełchatów, Poland

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 38 - 43

Resumen

Abstract

We studied the diversity of the photosynthetic microscopic epilithon overgrowing the concrete walls of a cooling tower of the power plant at Bełchatów, central Poland. Epilithon samples were collected from the open upper part of concrete walls of a cooling tower in March 2006 and examined in labs as dried material in September 2006, and again in March 2011. The aerophytic assemblages were strongly dominated by a nostocalean cyanobacterium, Scytonema myochrous C. Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault. Other cyanobacteria and algae occurred very sporadically and in low abundance. The trichome morphology of S. myochrous growing directly on the tower differs considerably from that of lab-cultured ones. Trichomes from field material were very long, conspicuously sheathed and dark brown, with relatively sparse ramification and with cylindrical cells and heterocytes. Trichomes cultivated in the laboratory were shorter and thicker, with thin, hyaline sheaths which were not layered; they were frequently ramified, and the cells and heterocytes were discoid. Besides Scytonema myochrous, the first revitalized cyanobacteria growing in laboratory conditions included Nostoc sp., Leptolyngbya gracillima (Zopf ex Hansgirg) Anagnostidis et Komárek, and Gloeothece rupestris (Lyngbye) Bornet in Witrock et Nordstedt.

Palabras clave

  • cooling towers
  • epilithon
  • revitalization
  • Scytonema myochrous
access type Acceso abierto

In situ study of adult Artemia salina morphometry and its relationship to the physicochemical water parameters in the saltwork of Sahline (Tunisia)

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 44 - 51

Resumen

Abstract

The morphometric characteristics of the adult natural population of the brine shrimp Artemia salina from the saltwork of Sahline were surveyed in order to establish the relationship between morphometry and environmental water parameters. The field work was performed monthly from October 2005 to June 2006. During this period, the variation in water temperature, salinity, pH, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nutrients (orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrate and ammonium) were monitored. Adult Artemia samples (male and female) were randomly collected and stored in plastic containers and transferred to the laboratory for morphometric characterisation. Results show that adult specimens appear in the saltwork of Sahline from December through June. The population sampled in June had significantly lower values in all morphometric characters when compared to the other samples. Concerning male specimens, correlation analysis of the morphometric parameters and environmental conditions indicate that the strongest correlations were between temperature and total length (r xy = −0.656), salinity and total length (r xy = −0.558), and between pH and width of head (r xy = 0.559). For female specimens, the strongest correlations were between total length and salinity (r xy = −0.610), total length and temperature (r xy = −0.537) and between total length and pH (r xy = 0.583). No correlations were observed between dissolved oxygen concentrations or ammonium levels and any morphometric parameters. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that diameter of compound eyes, width of second abdominal segment and width of third abdominal segment, for male specimens, and total length, abdominal length and width of the ovisac, for female specimens, are the morphometric parameters that show the greatest variation between samples.

Palabras clave

  • Artemia salina
  • morphometry
  • physicochemical parameter
  • Tunisia
access type Acceso abierto

Composition and density of plant-associated invertebrates in relation to environmental gradients and hydrological connectivity of wetlands

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 52 - 63

Resumen

Abstract

Frequency of occurrence and intensity of the raised water stage determine the structure of invertebrates in the wetland ecosystems of wetland river floodplains. In order to assess the relationships in a regulated, lowland river of moderate climate, samples of water and invertebrates inhabiting submerged shoots of reed Phragmites australis Trin Ex. Stued. were taken from the middle section of the Słupia River and five of its oxbow lakes.

The wetlands differed in hydrological activity (type of connection with the river). Redundancy Analysis (RDA) revealed that hydrological connectivity accounted for 37% of the total invertebrate variance, physico-chemical conditions — 21%, while the trophic state only — 7%. Linear regression showed that the highest species richness was observed in oxbow lakes connected to the river with one arm. Diversity and species evenness increased with the increasing hydrological connectivity. The study revealed that plant-associated invertebrates inhabiting wetlands can be the main source for the reconstruction of biodiversity after floods.

Palabras clave

  • Invertebrates
  • oxbow lakes
  • Słupia River
  • Redundancy Analysis
  • variance partitioning
access type Acceso abierto

Periphyton dry mass, ash content, and chlorophyll content on natural substrata in three water bodies of different trophy

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 64 - 70

Resumen

Abstract

Periphyton communities were studied on several dominating macrophytes, Phragmites australis, Potamogeton lucens, and Nuphar lutea, in three different types of lakes. In soft-water mesotrophic Lake Mały Borek and in shallow, eutrophic Lake Gardno samples were collected about once every two months from April to November 2009. In eutrophic Szczecin Lagoon (the estuary of the Oder River), samples were only collected once in July. The aim of this paper was to determine the dry mass, the ash content, and the chlorophyll-a content of periphyton on a natural substratum, in order to determine the mass, the inorganicorganic status of periphyton, and the auto-heterotrophic character of this complex. The analyzed periphytic communities exhibited low dry mass at the beginning of the growth season, which increased with colonization period on the aquatic vegetation. The highest (but still low) values were achieved in autumn, which persisted, with small loss, until spring of the subsequent year. The differences in dry mass between each type of lake were small, but in the strongly eutrophic Szczecin Lagoon this index was slightly higher than in the other two water bodies. The highest dry mass was noted for periphyton dominated by Cordylophora caspia colonies overgrowing common reeds and for periphyton on Potamogeton lucens in Szczecin Lagoon. In shallow water bodies, such as Lake Gardno and Szczecin Lagoon, wind causes strong resuspension of sediments. This can explain the relatively high level of inorganic matter in dry mass of the periphyton in both water bodies. However, the small ash content in periphyton in Mały Borek may result from the soft-water character of this lake. The hetero-autotrophic status of the periphytic community prevailed throughout the study period in Gardno and Mały Borek lakes. The auto-heterotrophic status of periphyton was noted only in short periods of time in each lake.

Palabras clave

  • periphyton
  • biomass
  • chlorophyll-a
  • natural substratum
access type Acceso abierto

Spatial distribution of rotifers (Rotifera) in monospecies beds of invasive Vallisneria spiralis L. in heated lakes

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 71 - 76

Resumen

Abstract

Species abundance and richness of rotifer communities occupying monospecies beds of Vallisneria was studied in Lake Licheńskie included in the open cooling system of heat and power stations. Differences were found in rotifer numbers, species composition and diversity between sampling points within the same location and between the locations. Factors that seem to be responsible for the high diversity of rotifer communities inhabiting Vallisneria beds are: large-scale horizontal diversity (between macrophyte patches), small-scale horizontal diversity (within patches) and the high vulnerability of Vallisneria epiphyton to disturbances caused by wave action.

Palabras clave

  • invasive Vallisneria spiralis
  • Rotifera
  • lake littoral
  • heated lake
access type Acceso abierto

Phyto- and zooplankton in fishponds contaminated with heavy metal runoff from a lead-zinc mine

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 77 - 85

Resumen

Abstract

This investigation focused on plankton inhabiting fishponds, which previously received mine waters from the lead-zinc mine ‘Matylda’, located in southern Poland (Upper Silesia). The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of chronic and persistent contamination of fishpond bottom sediments with heavy metals originated from the lead and zinc mine. The phyto-and zooplankton in the four fishponds were dominated by diatoms, green algae and rotifers. Plankton composition of the reference non-contaminated pond was different, since Chrysophytes dominated, and Copepoda were the most numerous among zooplankton. In the contaminated fishponds, we observed teratological forms, both for phyto-and zooplankton species, but only as individuals. Our results showed that planktonic communities had adapted to chronic and persistent heavy metal contamination.

Palabras clave

  • aquatic ecosystems
  • heavy metals
  • industrial impact
  • lead
  • plankton
  • zinc
access type Acceso abierto

Inventory of the taxonomical composition of the plankton ciliates in the Curonian Lagoon (SE Baltic Sea)

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 86 - 95

Resumen

Abstract

Species composition of plankton ciliates was studied in the Curonian Lagoon in 2007–2008 and compared to long term investigations dating back to the 1980th. In total, 152 taxa were identified at the level of species or genera. More species (76 species/higher taxa) was found in the estuarine part of the Lagoon due to temporally unstable salinity and the presence of both freshwater and brackish/marine species. Some of the brackish/marine species: Tintinnopsis baltica, Tintinnopsis kofoidi, Cothurnia maritima, Lohmaniella oviformis, Lohmaniella spiralis and Helicostomella subulatum were recorded for the first time in the lagoon. The ciliate community at the freshwater sites was less diverse, containing 63 species/higher taxa in the central stagnant part of the Lagoon and 47 — in the Nemunas River avandelta. The comparison of present and past studies revealed that the use of a single live-counting method could lead to underestimation of small nanociliate species, whereas examination of Lugol fixed material provides relatively poor taxonomic information.

Palabras clave

  • Ciliates
  • species diversity
  • salinity
  • Curonian Lagoon
access type Acceso abierto

Diet composition of herring (Clupea harengus L.) and cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the southern Baltic Sea in 2007 and 2008

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 96 - 109

Resumen

Abstract

Diet composition of two commercial fish species, herring and cod, were studied in some regions (mainly Gda’nsk and Bornholm Basins, and the Polish coast) of the southern Baltic Sea in 2007 and 2008. Herring is the dominant zooplanktivorous species in the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea, but apart from mesoplanktonic organisms it also eats macroplanktonic and benthic species in considerable amount. The diet of cod consists of fish and crustaceans from pelagic, hyperbenthic and benthic habitats. The feeding preferences of fish indirectly reflect changes in the whole food chain in the Baltic Sea. This research focuses specifically on these invertebrate species, which are eliminated from the environment by most of the ichthyofauna of this region. The aim of this research is to examine the role of invertebrate organisms belonging to Crustacea in the diet of herring and adult cod to supply updated results about feeding of these fish as little data have been collected since the 1990s. The present study is a preliminary survey and results can not be considered conclusive. The restricted numbers of analyzed stomachs of fish and selected seasons of the year addressed in this paper are a starting point for further studies with a larger scope. In this study, 20 to 90% of herring had empty stomachs. Mesozooplankton dominated the diets of small and large herring. Mysidacea, which were historically important prey for herring, are now scarce and have been replaced by planktonic Amphipoda. In the case of cod, consumption of Mysidacea has never been as low as in this study. As for other invertebrate prey, the benthic isopod Saduria and Crangon shrimp achieved the highest amount by number and weight. These results show distinct changes in diet when compared to previous investigations and require verification at a larger spatial scale.

Palabras clave

  • diet composition
  • herring
  • cod
  • Crustacea
  • Baltic Sea
access type Acceso abierto

Leaves as “crackers”, biofilm as “peanut butter”: Exploratory use of stable isotopes as evidence for microbial pathways in detrital food webs

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 110 - 115

Resumen

Abstract

Laboratory experiments have shown benthic macroinvertebrates to be capable of consuming heterotrophic organisms which develop on decomposing terrestrial leaves. Questions remain, however, as to whether these microbial biofilms represent a significant energy source to macroinvertebrates within the natural environment compared to that supplied by leaf substrates themselves. A compilation of literature data on field measurements of stable nitrogen isotope ratios for herbivorous macroinvertebrates suggests that assimilation of microbial biofilms may be the principle means by which allochthonous organic matter enters freshwater detrital food webs.

Palabras clave

  • leaves
  • microbial biofilm
  • macroinvertebrates
  • σ15N analysis
access type Acceso abierto

The role of lakes in inflow of water and biogenic substances in the polish part of the southern Baltic Sea

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 116 - 123

Resumen

Abstract

Polish rivers, which make up 20% of the Baltic Sea’s catchment area, transport a load of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds into the sea. Theoretically, this load should be strongly correlated with the amount of water flowing in those rivers. However, this is not the case, especially in terms of the phosphorus compounds, since most of them come from point source pollution. The outflow load is also significantly influenced by nonpoint source pollution from farmland, which is very difficult to quantify. About 50% of nitrogen and 30% of phosphorus appear to come from nonpoint source pollution. It is important to realize that the load from nonpoint source pollution also includes the load of phosphorus and nitrogen transformed by lakes. Only recently, however, has this issue been mentioned in the specialist literature. In Polish studies on lake balance this remains a marginal issue. A limited number of observations indicate that lakes are capable of both limiting and increasing the load (mainly from the bottom sediments). This article presents some data on this issue which suggest that the roles of lakes in the transformation of the load of biogenic substances may be significant, but diverse.

Palabras clave

  • limnology
  • Baltic Sea
  • load of biogenic substances
14 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

The transport and distribution of the river load from the Kacza River into the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea, Poland)

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 1 - 10

Resumen

Abstract

The results of measurements of suspended sediment and bed load carried by the Kacza River into the Gulf of Gdańsk are discussed. The investigations were conducted in the years 2009–2010 at the Orłowo transect and at the mouth of the Kacza River in the Gulf of Gdańsk. The research has shown that the Kacza River discharged about 673 tons of sediment annually to the Gulf of Gdańsk, with 77% being transported as bed load. The granulometric composition of the river load is dominated by coarse-grained sand fractions.

Palabras clave

  • suspended sediment
  • bed load
  • Kacza River
  • Gulf of Gdańsk
access type Acceso abierto

Towards validating a last generation, integrated wave-current-sediment numerical model in coastal regions using video measurements

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 11 - 20

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents the first steps in the implementation of a morphological numerical model to be applied in the Bevano River region, a shallow water area in the Adriatic Sea, with the aim of helping the identification and assessment of erosional patterns and bottom morphological modifications induced by severe marine storms. The numerical modeling, performed using a fully 3D coupled wave-current-sediment version of the ROMS model, has been complemented with in situ data analysis and observations: a first qualitative validation of the results was given by the analysis of images acquired via an ARGUS video station.

Hydrodynamic modeling highlighted how shear bottom stresses and bottom currents fields were heavily influenced by severe storm situations, and had large effects on the morphology of shallow regions. The correlation between the wave-current induced bottom stresses and the resulting topography was investigated. Nearshore hydrodynamics modeling results demonstrated the dominant role played by alongshore sediment transport, with the magnitude of both cross- and along-shore wave-induced currents strongly depending on wave height and direction.

We found a good qualitative conformity between the results of the numerical models applied during a “Bora” storm and the corresponding video observations; both techniques indicated the migration of the existing sandbar within the range of about 40 m seaward.

Results show how integrated numerical open source tools, often used in oceanography, are becoming suitable for both preliminary investigations and for planning the effective littoral management, and how their calibration can be supported by the use of new low cost techniques, such as video measurements.

Palabras clave

  • sediment transport
  • shoreline evolution
  • littoral management
  • ROMS
  • ARGUS
access type Acceso abierto

Chaetoceros resting spores as indicators of Holocene paleoenvironmental changes in the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 21 - 29

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze resting spores of Chaetoceros spp. preserved in Middle and Late Holocene sediments of the three parts of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea. The material studied consists of ten cores retrieved from Kuźnica Deep (Puck Lagoon), as well as the shallower and deeper parts of the Outer Puck Bay region. Our results indicate that the abundance of Chaetoceros resting spores in diatom taphocoenoses corresponded to regional and local paleoecological changes registered in Mastogloia, Littorina and Post-Littorina sediments, and that they also reflect human impact in the last hundred years.

Palabras clave

  • diatoms
  • paleoecology
  • Holocene
  • Gulf of Gdańsk
access type Acceso abierto

Blooms of toxin-producing Cyanobacteria — a real threat in small dam reservoirs at the beginning of their operation

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 30 - 37

Resumen

Abstract

Large and harmful cyanobacterial blooms appeared in two newly-built artificial reservoirs shortly after being filled with water. Taxonomic composition of cyanobacterial communities was highly variable in both water bodies and fast species replacement was observed. In the first year of the operation of the smaller Konstantynów Reservoir, the mass development of Anabaena flos-aquae and Planktolyngbya limnetica (48.7 and 53.6% of the cyanobacterial abundance) occurred in summer, while in autumn the dominance of Planktothrix agardhii (99.9%, 14.95 × 106 ind. Dm−3) was noted. The surface scum developed in summer consisted of An. flos-aquae that contained high amounts of anatoxin-a (1412.4 μg AN-a dm−3 of scum) and smaller amounts of microcystins (10 μg eq. MC-LR dm−3 of scum). In the larger Kraśnik Reservoir, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred in high abundance in spring and summer, however, it was replaced by different species of Microcystis (1.3 × 107 ind. dm−3) which created thick surface scum. Simultaneously, a hazardous increase in the total concentration of microcystins (from 13.6 to 788.5 μg eq. MC-LR dm−3 of water with scum) and anatoxin-a (from 0.03 to 43.6 μg dm−3) was observed.

Palabras clave

  • anatoxin-a
  • microcystins
  • dam reservoir
  • Microcystis
  • Planktothrix
  • Anabaena
access type Acceso abierto

The epilithon of a cooling tower of the power plant at Bełchatów, Poland

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 38 - 43

Resumen

Abstract

We studied the diversity of the photosynthetic microscopic epilithon overgrowing the concrete walls of a cooling tower of the power plant at Bełchatów, central Poland. Epilithon samples were collected from the open upper part of concrete walls of a cooling tower in March 2006 and examined in labs as dried material in September 2006, and again in March 2011. The aerophytic assemblages were strongly dominated by a nostocalean cyanobacterium, Scytonema myochrous C. Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault. Other cyanobacteria and algae occurred very sporadically and in low abundance. The trichome morphology of S. myochrous growing directly on the tower differs considerably from that of lab-cultured ones. Trichomes from field material were very long, conspicuously sheathed and dark brown, with relatively sparse ramification and with cylindrical cells and heterocytes. Trichomes cultivated in the laboratory were shorter and thicker, with thin, hyaline sheaths which were not layered; they were frequently ramified, and the cells and heterocytes were discoid. Besides Scytonema myochrous, the first revitalized cyanobacteria growing in laboratory conditions included Nostoc sp., Leptolyngbya gracillima (Zopf ex Hansgirg) Anagnostidis et Komárek, and Gloeothece rupestris (Lyngbye) Bornet in Witrock et Nordstedt.

Palabras clave

  • cooling towers
  • epilithon
  • revitalization
  • Scytonema myochrous
access type Acceso abierto

In situ study of adult Artemia salina morphometry and its relationship to the physicochemical water parameters in the saltwork of Sahline (Tunisia)

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 44 - 51

Resumen

Abstract

The morphometric characteristics of the adult natural population of the brine shrimp Artemia salina from the saltwork of Sahline were surveyed in order to establish the relationship between morphometry and environmental water parameters. The field work was performed monthly from October 2005 to June 2006. During this period, the variation in water temperature, salinity, pH, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nutrients (orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrate and ammonium) were monitored. Adult Artemia samples (male and female) were randomly collected and stored in plastic containers and transferred to the laboratory for morphometric characterisation. Results show that adult specimens appear in the saltwork of Sahline from December through June. The population sampled in June had significantly lower values in all morphometric characters when compared to the other samples. Concerning male specimens, correlation analysis of the morphometric parameters and environmental conditions indicate that the strongest correlations were between temperature and total length (r xy = −0.656), salinity and total length (r xy = −0.558), and between pH and width of head (r xy = 0.559). For female specimens, the strongest correlations were between total length and salinity (r xy = −0.610), total length and temperature (r xy = −0.537) and between total length and pH (r xy = 0.583). No correlations were observed between dissolved oxygen concentrations or ammonium levels and any morphometric parameters. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that diameter of compound eyes, width of second abdominal segment and width of third abdominal segment, for male specimens, and total length, abdominal length and width of the ovisac, for female specimens, are the morphometric parameters that show the greatest variation between samples.

Palabras clave

  • Artemia salina
  • morphometry
  • physicochemical parameter
  • Tunisia
access type Acceso abierto

Composition and density of plant-associated invertebrates in relation to environmental gradients and hydrological connectivity of wetlands

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 52 - 63

Resumen

Abstract

Frequency of occurrence and intensity of the raised water stage determine the structure of invertebrates in the wetland ecosystems of wetland river floodplains. In order to assess the relationships in a regulated, lowland river of moderate climate, samples of water and invertebrates inhabiting submerged shoots of reed Phragmites australis Trin Ex. Stued. were taken from the middle section of the Słupia River and five of its oxbow lakes.

The wetlands differed in hydrological activity (type of connection with the river). Redundancy Analysis (RDA) revealed that hydrological connectivity accounted for 37% of the total invertebrate variance, physico-chemical conditions — 21%, while the trophic state only — 7%. Linear regression showed that the highest species richness was observed in oxbow lakes connected to the river with one arm. Diversity and species evenness increased with the increasing hydrological connectivity. The study revealed that plant-associated invertebrates inhabiting wetlands can be the main source for the reconstruction of biodiversity after floods.

Palabras clave

  • Invertebrates
  • oxbow lakes
  • Słupia River
  • Redundancy Analysis
  • variance partitioning
access type Acceso abierto

Periphyton dry mass, ash content, and chlorophyll content on natural substrata in three water bodies of different trophy

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 64 - 70

Resumen

Abstract

Periphyton communities were studied on several dominating macrophytes, Phragmites australis, Potamogeton lucens, and Nuphar lutea, in three different types of lakes. In soft-water mesotrophic Lake Mały Borek and in shallow, eutrophic Lake Gardno samples were collected about once every two months from April to November 2009. In eutrophic Szczecin Lagoon (the estuary of the Oder River), samples were only collected once in July. The aim of this paper was to determine the dry mass, the ash content, and the chlorophyll-a content of periphyton on a natural substratum, in order to determine the mass, the inorganicorganic status of periphyton, and the auto-heterotrophic character of this complex. The analyzed periphytic communities exhibited low dry mass at the beginning of the growth season, which increased with colonization period on the aquatic vegetation. The highest (but still low) values were achieved in autumn, which persisted, with small loss, until spring of the subsequent year. The differences in dry mass between each type of lake were small, but in the strongly eutrophic Szczecin Lagoon this index was slightly higher than in the other two water bodies. The highest dry mass was noted for periphyton dominated by Cordylophora caspia colonies overgrowing common reeds and for periphyton on Potamogeton lucens in Szczecin Lagoon. In shallow water bodies, such as Lake Gardno and Szczecin Lagoon, wind causes strong resuspension of sediments. This can explain the relatively high level of inorganic matter in dry mass of the periphyton in both water bodies. However, the small ash content in periphyton in Mały Borek may result from the soft-water character of this lake. The hetero-autotrophic status of the periphytic community prevailed throughout the study period in Gardno and Mały Borek lakes. The auto-heterotrophic status of periphyton was noted only in short periods of time in each lake.

Palabras clave

  • periphyton
  • biomass
  • chlorophyll-a
  • natural substratum
access type Acceso abierto

Spatial distribution of rotifers (Rotifera) in monospecies beds of invasive Vallisneria spiralis L. in heated lakes

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 71 - 76

Resumen

Abstract

Species abundance and richness of rotifer communities occupying monospecies beds of Vallisneria was studied in Lake Licheńskie included in the open cooling system of heat and power stations. Differences were found in rotifer numbers, species composition and diversity between sampling points within the same location and between the locations. Factors that seem to be responsible for the high diversity of rotifer communities inhabiting Vallisneria beds are: large-scale horizontal diversity (between macrophyte patches), small-scale horizontal diversity (within patches) and the high vulnerability of Vallisneria epiphyton to disturbances caused by wave action.

Palabras clave

  • invasive Vallisneria spiralis
  • Rotifera
  • lake littoral
  • heated lake
access type Acceso abierto

Phyto- and zooplankton in fishponds contaminated with heavy metal runoff from a lead-zinc mine

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 77 - 85

Resumen

Abstract

This investigation focused on plankton inhabiting fishponds, which previously received mine waters from the lead-zinc mine ‘Matylda’, located in southern Poland (Upper Silesia). The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of chronic and persistent contamination of fishpond bottom sediments with heavy metals originated from the lead and zinc mine. The phyto-and zooplankton in the four fishponds were dominated by diatoms, green algae and rotifers. Plankton composition of the reference non-contaminated pond was different, since Chrysophytes dominated, and Copepoda were the most numerous among zooplankton. In the contaminated fishponds, we observed teratological forms, both for phyto-and zooplankton species, but only as individuals. Our results showed that planktonic communities had adapted to chronic and persistent heavy metal contamination.

Palabras clave

  • aquatic ecosystems
  • heavy metals
  • industrial impact
  • lead
  • plankton
  • zinc
access type Acceso abierto

Inventory of the taxonomical composition of the plankton ciliates in the Curonian Lagoon (SE Baltic Sea)

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 86 - 95

Resumen

Abstract

Species composition of plankton ciliates was studied in the Curonian Lagoon in 2007–2008 and compared to long term investigations dating back to the 1980th. In total, 152 taxa were identified at the level of species or genera. More species (76 species/higher taxa) was found in the estuarine part of the Lagoon due to temporally unstable salinity and the presence of both freshwater and brackish/marine species. Some of the brackish/marine species: Tintinnopsis baltica, Tintinnopsis kofoidi, Cothurnia maritima, Lohmaniella oviformis, Lohmaniella spiralis and Helicostomella subulatum were recorded for the first time in the lagoon. The ciliate community at the freshwater sites was less diverse, containing 63 species/higher taxa in the central stagnant part of the Lagoon and 47 — in the Nemunas River avandelta. The comparison of present and past studies revealed that the use of a single live-counting method could lead to underestimation of small nanociliate species, whereas examination of Lugol fixed material provides relatively poor taxonomic information.

Palabras clave

  • Ciliates
  • species diversity
  • salinity
  • Curonian Lagoon
access type Acceso abierto

Diet composition of herring (Clupea harengus L.) and cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the southern Baltic Sea in 2007 and 2008

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 96 - 109

Resumen

Abstract

Diet composition of two commercial fish species, herring and cod, were studied in some regions (mainly Gda’nsk and Bornholm Basins, and the Polish coast) of the southern Baltic Sea in 2007 and 2008. Herring is the dominant zooplanktivorous species in the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea, but apart from mesoplanktonic organisms it also eats macroplanktonic and benthic species in considerable amount. The diet of cod consists of fish and crustaceans from pelagic, hyperbenthic and benthic habitats. The feeding preferences of fish indirectly reflect changes in the whole food chain in the Baltic Sea. This research focuses specifically on these invertebrate species, which are eliminated from the environment by most of the ichthyofauna of this region. The aim of this research is to examine the role of invertebrate organisms belonging to Crustacea in the diet of herring and adult cod to supply updated results about feeding of these fish as little data have been collected since the 1990s. The present study is a preliminary survey and results can not be considered conclusive. The restricted numbers of analyzed stomachs of fish and selected seasons of the year addressed in this paper are a starting point for further studies with a larger scope. In this study, 20 to 90% of herring had empty stomachs. Mesozooplankton dominated the diets of small and large herring. Mysidacea, which were historically important prey for herring, are now scarce and have been replaced by planktonic Amphipoda. In the case of cod, consumption of Mysidacea has never been as low as in this study. As for other invertebrate prey, the benthic isopod Saduria and Crangon shrimp achieved the highest amount by number and weight. These results show distinct changes in diet when compared to previous investigations and require verification at a larger spatial scale.

Palabras clave

  • diet composition
  • herring
  • cod
  • Crustacea
  • Baltic Sea
access type Acceso abierto

Leaves as “crackers”, biofilm as “peanut butter”: Exploratory use of stable isotopes as evidence for microbial pathways in detrital food webs

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 110 - 115

Resumen

Abstract

Laboratory experiments have shown benthic macroinvertebrates to be capable of consuming heterotrophic organisms which develop on decomposing terrestrial leaves. Questions remain, however, as to whether these microbial biofilms represent a significant energy source to macroinvertebrates within the natural environment compared to that supplied by leaf substrates themselves. A compilation of literature data on field measurements of stable nitrogen isotope ratios for herbivorous macroinvertebrates suggests that assimilation of microbial biofilms may be the principle means by which allochthonous organic matter enters freshwater detrital food webs.

Palabras clave

  • leaves
  • microbial biofilm
  • macroinvertebrates
  • σ15N analysis
access type Acceso abierto

The role of lakes in inflow of water and biogenic substances in the polish part of the southern Baltic Sea

Publicado en línea: 25 Oct 2011
Páginas: 116 - 123

Resumen

Abstract

Polish rivers, which make up 20% of the Baltic Sea’s catchment area, transport a load of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds into the sea. Theoretically, this load should be strongly correlated with the amount of water flowing in those rivers. However, this is not the case, especially in terms of the phosphorus compounds, since most of them come from point source pollution. The outflow load is also significantly influenced by nonpoint source pollution from farmland, which is very difficult to quantify. About 50% of nitrogen and 30% of phosphorus appear to come from nonpoint source pollution. It is important to realize that the load from nonpoint source pollution also includes the load of phosphorus and nitrogen transformed by lakes. Only recently, however, has this issue been mentioned in the specialist literature. In Polish studies on lake balance this remains a marginal issue. A limited number of observations indicate that lakes are capable of both limiting and increasing the load (mainly from the bottom sediments). This article presents some data on this issue which suggest that the roles of lakes in the transformation of the load of biogenic substances may be significant, but diverse.

Palabras clave

  • limnology
  • Baltic Sea
  • load of biogenic substances

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