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Volumen 3 (2020): Edición 1 (August 2020)

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Volumen 1 (2018): Edición 1 (October 2018)

Conferencia Detalles
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Conferencia
eISSN
2545-2843
Publicado por primera vez
30 Sep 2018
Periodo de publicación
1 tiempo por año
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Volumen 1 (2018): Edición 1 (October 2018)

Conferencia Detalles
Formato
Conferencia
eISSN
2545-2843
Publicado por primera vez
30 Sep 2018
Periodo de publicación
1 tiempo por año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

95 Artículos
Acceso abierto

On Deck Oil Spill Clean-Up Materials – Solution for Engine Rooms

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 11 - 18

Resumen

Abstract

The presence of flammable substances nearby hot surfaces in the engine rooms pose a fire hazard. Therefore the quick and effective removal of oil spills from these areas is of utmost importance. The simplest way is to use sorbent materials having the capacity to absorb oil substances. Oil sorbents comprise of a wide range of organic, inorganic and synthetic products. The choice of form and type of sorbent material depends on the intended application: type of spill, its size and location. The article describes the results of studies aimed to compare the absorbency of selected natural and synthetic sorbents in the context of their application in case of an oil spill in the engine room. Although the natural sorbents should not be used in water, because they absorb it and can in addition contaminate the seabed, they can be used to remove oil spills on the ship. After used they can be disposed on the ship by burning.

Palabras clave

  • oil spill
  • engine room
  • sorbent
Acceso abierto

Student Apprenticeships of Course-of-Study and Diploma-Related Types as an Element Used for Raising the Professional Competences of Engineers Educated for the Needs of Maritime and Inland Shipping Industry

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 19 - 25

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of the underlying paper is to highlight the significance of specialist and diploma-related apprenticeships at the bachelor degree studies provided by the technical university. The evaluation of the quality of apprenticeships was conducted among the students of the Economy, Engineering and Transport Faculty of the Maritime University of Szczecin (Poland), for the study directions Production Management and Engineering (Polish: ZiP), Logistics (L) and Transport (T). The research methodology was based on questionnaire form, statistical analysis of results reliability and the analysis of literature. The results of the conducted research unequivocally indicated a need to introduce changes to the organisation of the apprenticeships, as this area determines the quality of engineers practical education and influences their professional competences.

Palabras clave

  • quality of education
  • engineering education
  • professional competence
Acceso abierto

The Impact of the Ban on Spending Weekly Rest in the Vehicle on Transport Planning in the EU

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 27 - 33

Resumen

Abstract

The working conditions of truck drivers and social legislation are both topical and political issues in the field of road freight transport. The contribution outlines problems which are linked to the observance of the ban on weekly rest in the vehicle. Based on the judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union explicitly forbids drivers to take their regular weekly rest in the vehicle. The contribution identifies the impact of the ban on spending weekly rest in the vehicle on transport planning in the EU. The aim of the contribution is also to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector in connection with insufficient number of truck parks with accommodation.

Palabras clave

  • road freight transport
  • weekly rest
  • driver
  • vehicle
  • truck parking
Acceso abierto

Safety Aspect in Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Railway Transport

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 35 - 41

Resumen

Abstract

Safety in transportation of dangerous goods is an important issue in transport processes. The impact of transport damage on the level of safety is very high and therefore becomes a very important issue in transport. The number of breakdowns in railway transport is becoming more and more advanced with deterioration of wagon condition due to aging. Thanks to the analysis of these data, it was possible to approximate the problem of transport failures and their impact on the safety of people involved in this transport process. In addition, the simulation in ALOHA program has been carried out that allows to illustrate the effects of the hazardous substance release from the transport rail tank. This event may result from derailment of the wagon or breakage of the wagon component. The simulation shows the extent of the threat during the incident. The conducted researches and their analysis have shown the problems of railway transport safety on various levels and different planes.

Palabras clave

  • railway transport
  • dangerous goods
  • threats
  • defects of railway transport
  • advantages of railway transport
Acceso abierto

Selected Problems of Ship Safety in the Process of Docking

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 43 - 49

Resumen

Abstract

This article concerns safety during ship docking operations. It presents its specificity for this type of operation, describes selected problems that may occur during its operation and identifies the main factors initiating extraordinary situations. The article presents 4 examples of accidents during docking operations in recent years. Cause and effect analysis was carried out and presented graphically. This analysis illustrated the occurring errors in the safety system during the docking operation.

Palabras clave

  • ship’s docking
  • safety
  • accidents
  • threats
Acceso abierto

Development of Learners’ Creativity Potential

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 51 - 54

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the paper is viewing the ways to develop learners’ creativity potential. The concept of learners’ creativity potential is defined. The structure of creativity potential is specified. Two groups of activities included into the technology are described: the activity of the teacher (activating, cognitive-search, reflexive components); creative self-actualization of students (motivational, procedural, effective components). The methodology of the research includes case study and pedagogical experiment (the pretest-post-test control and experimental group design). Data are gathered by means of conversational interviewing. The research results in suggesting a technology to develop learners’ creativity potential. The paper includes the results of testing the impact of the technology on the level of creativity. The criteria of development of divergent thinking fluency, flexibility, originality, accuracy; self-reliance; imagination; creative motivation; reflexive-analytical skills were considered.

Statistical data processing is performed applying the chi-square test. It shows that the suggested technology is effective in developing learners’ creativity potential.

Palabras clave

  • creativity potential
  • future teachers training
  • professional development
Acceso abierto

Assessment of the Changes in the Economy of Municipal Waste in Poland After 2004

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 55 - 61

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of European Union policy is to implement the principles of sustainable development, in which particularly important are: environmental protection and rational management of resources. Major role is given to waste management and appropriate prioritization of activities in this area. The main goal of waste management is prevention, minimization and elimination of wastes “at source”, as well as encouraging efficient use of natural resources through recovery and recycling of waste. Storage process should be minimalized over the years until the complete elimination. As shown by statistics data, unfortunately in Poland, the process is very slow. The analysis of the data provided by the Central Statistical Office (CSO) over the last thirteen years shows a significant increase in the level of recovery and recycling of municipal waste. All together it was 11.654 million Mg of municipal waste collected in 2016. Wastes selected from municipal waste (paper, glass, plastics, metals) accounted for only 25.2% (2.942 million Mg), and mixed waste accounted for 74.8% (8.712 million Mg). In 2016 the recycling rate was 27.83%, composting or fermentation – 16.22%, 19.44% of municipal wastes are subjected thermal transformation and the storage level is 36.51%. Landfilling is still the most common form of municipal waste disposal.

Palabras clave

  • sustainable development
  • waste management
  • municipal waste
  • recovery
  • recycling
Acceso abierto

Traffic Safety of Main Roads in Poland

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 63 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents an analysis of traffic safety on major communication routes in Poland. The total number of accidents in Poland has been compared and analysed in relation to the objectives in the context of the GAMBIT programs and the National Road Safety Program for the years 2013-2020. Analyses of the number of accidents in the years 2004-2017 have been presented in the article. A significant decrease in accidents has been demonstrated and annual changes determined, the value of which ranged from 12.15 to 6.74%. The statistics on fatalities have been also analysed. A midyear change in the number of fatalities has been determined, which constitute -4.4% in the analysed period. The data on the number of vehicles registered in Poland, which considerably affects traffic congestion, has been presented. In spite of this, there has been no increase in the number of accidents. The work compares changes in the length of the most important types of routes in Poland, as well as accidents and fatalities that occurred on them. With the decreasing overall number of accidents in Poland, there has been a noticeable drop in accidents per 100 km of road length also on these roads. The fatality rate per 100 accidents in Poland has been determined and the average value of this rate in 2017 was 8.64, while on the analysed roads it ranged from 12.3 to 14.6.

Palabras clave

  • traffic safety
  • roads in Poland
  • accidents
  • analysis
  • statistics
Acceso abierto

Dimensioning of Danger Zones Emerging as a Domino Effect of An Lng Explosion for Industrial Plants Located in the Vicinity of Inland Transport Fairways

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 73 - 79

Resumen

Abstract

The development of new technologies, the use and transport of LNG increases the number of investments that may mutually affect their safety on account of a domino effect. It means that a breakdown caused by one of the business entities may contribute to the escalation of a problem through thermal energy emission in another entity. The energy absorbed in an adjacent technological process line may cause irreparable damage despite the security measures employed. When planning an investment of a pioneering nature, one ought to consider not only the modern technologies used in a newly designed installation, but one must also pay attention to the direct neighbourhood of other industrial plants and the planned infrastructure, e.g. for gas transport or transhipment. Such a synergistic approach guarantees the safety of undertaken activities and ensures a stable, breakdown-free operation of all the business entities located in a given area. This paper discusses the issue of mutual influence exerted by two independent entities located within a small distance of one another, i.e. salt processing plant and a vessel transporting an LNG mixture. The authors considered a situation in which a breakdown occurs in an industrial plant and in which the released energy causes damage to a tank shell of an LNG carrying vessel on an inland fairway. In the examined situation the types of risks arising from LNG tank shell damage on-board an inland vessel were defined and the dimensions of the resulting danger zones were determined in a function of concentration of individual LNG components as well as the pressure and temperature generated inside the tank. The shape of the tank was also taken into consideration, since it affects fractioning in the course of the release of the substance accumulated in it. The analysis was conducted on the basis of DNV Phast 7.11 software.

Palabras clave

  • BLEVE
  • LNG
  • Phast
  • danger zones
  • domino effect
Acceso abierto

Analysis of the Reasons for Violation of the Standards on Working Time by Professional Drivers

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 81 - 86

Resumen

Abstract

The paper features a discussion on the legal conditions that regulate the aspects of working time, driving times, breaks and rest periods for professional drivers. The drivers’ knowledge of and compliance with the regulations were the subject of surveys conducted among thirty professional drivers. The study was conducted on a group of selected drivers (males) hired in a single transport company. The interviewees referred to their knowledge and its practical use in everyday work. The interviewees responded anonymously and voluntarily to the questions asked in the survey. These were persons of the age of 21 to 65 years old. 47% of all interviewees executed only national transports, whereas international transports were executed by 33% drivers. The interviewees included persons with basic, vocational, secondary and higher education. Most of them were persons with large occupational experience, working as a professional driver longer than 5 years, no persons with occupational experience between 11 to 19 years. The paper includes the specification of the survey methodology and analysis of the obtained results, with special attention paid to the reasons for the conscious and unconscious violation of regulations. The analysis results are presented in a graphical form.

Palabras clave

  • professional driver working time
  • professional driver
  • tachograph
  • road transport
Acceso abierto

Photobiological Safety of Incandescent Lamp Replacements

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 87 - 94

Resumen

Abstract

The article, based on the records of the EN 62471:2008, presents guidelines for photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems. There are allowed safe exposure times presented and emission limit values for each of four risk groups, defined by the standard. The paper presents criteria for lamps irradiance or radiance measurement. Discussed risks with association of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. For a detailed presentation of the potential risks associated with the blue light, there is made a comparison of spectra of selected light sources. On these basis, the blue light hazard assessment was presented for selected light sources.

Palabras clave

  • Photobiological safety
  • risk groups
  • ultraviolet radiation
  • blue light hazard
Acceso abierto

Modelling Safety Culture Among Crews of Seafaring Vessels

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 95 - 101

Resumen

Abstract

Marine work conditions, differing from those on land, have been presented. The study has identified a multitude of factors generating physical and psychical effects on crew members, different cultural patterns and dangers which have to be overcome to reach the state when thinking of safety accompanies all performed activities. Creation of legislature and procedures and their observance have been presented as a basis for constructing safety culture and the sense of safety. Safety management, coordinated by ship owners, has been justified as activities to be realized on ships. It has been indicated in this study that building up safety culture among the members of the power plant crew of seafaring ships is the most important issue due to the fact that their work environment is unfriendly to humans and that there is a high fire risk in a ship power plant.

Palabras clave

  • safety
  • seafaring ship
  • management
  • crew
  • fire
Acceso abierto

Mathematical Model for Predicting the Ship Speed in the Actual Weather Conditions on the Planned Ocean Route

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 105 - 112

Resumen

Abstract

While operating the ship, one of the most important tasks is forecasting the ocean route. The vessel’s speed characteristics are used to predict the route. Commonly used are very simplified algorithms for calculating those characteristics in which only a few basic ship parameters are used. The article presents a more detailed mathematical model for forecasting the speed of the ship in real weather conditions. This model requires more detailed geometric data of the ship and its propulsion (propeller and propulsion engine), but this data is available for operating ships.

Palabras clave

  • ocean route
  • ship speed
  • wind
  • current
  • wave
  • ship propulsion
Acceso abierto

Use of the Chief Engineers Experience to Prioritize Operational Tasks in the Ship Engine Room

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 113 - 118

Resumen

Abstract

The frequent causes of ships’ detentions by port authorities are abnormalities of marine power plant functioning. Each extended ship lay time in port results in a waste of ship operating time thus costs rise to ship owners. This is connected with improper marine power plant management. In order to avoid this, a ship engineer should have at his disposal computer aided system supporting him in the managing of the marine power plant. One element of the decision making process in managing the marine engine room is to determine how important is each of the tasks which the operators have to do. This estimation is the base to choose the most important tasks and make optimal schedule with them using AHP method. Based on practice, a hierarchic structure of factors influencing a tasks validity in the engine room operating process was made. Next a preliminary questionnaire was conducted, which put questions to the experts as chief engineers next. This enabled to define numerical values of suitable coefficients influencing on the validity of operating tasks, show results of calculations in form of mileage parameters of engine as a function of crank angle.

Palabras clave

  • AHP
  • engine room
  • operation task priority
Acceso abierto

The Impact of the Route of Transport on Price Formation in Road Freight Transport

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 119 - 125

Resumen

Abstract

In general, transport companies have an unimportant role in the business market, in order to achieve the required sales and the related profit. Competition in road transport is great and enforcement from a large number of carriers is considerable. It is the price for the transport of goods that plays the most important role how to get the carrier and the customer who wants the lowest transport price. On the contrary, the carrier would like to get the highest amount for the shipment. A compromise between these two requirements should form the required shipping price. Pricing involves a factor other than costs, the attractiveness of the transport destination, in terms of the possibility of return utilization the vehicle. The aim of the paper is to verify the hypothesis, that the cost of transport is affected not only by the carrier’s costs, but also the target destination of the ordered shipment.

Palabras clave

  • offer
  • demand
  • road transport
  • price
  • costs
  • transportation
Acceso abierto

Probabilistic-Deterministic Method of Rescaling Ship Manoeuvring Simulation Data Defining Parameters of Fairway Bends

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 127 - 133

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents a method of scaling up existing simulation tests results from ships with parameters L1, B1 (length and breadth) determining a safe waterway bend width (d1) to specify a width (d2) safe for ships with other dimensions L2, B2. This method enables accurate determination of the safe fairway width (d) in case it has been planned to increase maximum length and width of vessels without carrying out relatively expensive simulation tests. The method was used in designing the parameters of the modernized Swinoujscie-Szczecin fairway.

Palabras clave

  • fairways
  • maneuvering of vessels
  • method of simulating vessel movement
Acceso abierto

Capabilities of Local and Remote Monitoring and Control of Equipment Used in Marine Ship Industry

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 135 - 141

Resumen

Abstract

This article presents two aspects regarding marine equipment control and monitoring. The first one is the issue of remote and local control in the maritime and land industry. The second is the economical and efficient use of redundant devices. This article describes the structure of remote control implemented on vessels. Paper presents an idea of control that combines remote and local control to provide optimal use of redundant devices with simultaneous increase of system reliability. The whole concept is shown on the built physical model with the control and operator panels. The control was implemented using freely programmable controller and HMI panel.

Palabras clave

  • maritime devices
  • redundancy
  • remote and local control
  • PLC
Acceso abierto

Impact of Dock Tanks Pumping Plan on Structural Loads of a Dock and a Ship

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 143 - 149

Resumen

Abstract

Positioning of a ship on a working platform above the waterline in order to repair and modernize the underwater hull parts requires changes from continuous support to point support. And as a result of such, the load of the ship structure is subject to changes as well. In extreme cases, the loads may exceed the allowable loads and cause damage to the hull structure. The paper presents the technical aspects of the ships docking process which may have an impact on safety. It also includes a discussion on procedures that reduce the risk of malfunction and failure.

Palabras clave

  • vessels
  • repairs
  • docking
  • floating docks
Acceso abierto

Grid Type Impact on the Results of the Volume of Fluid Method in the Free Surface Flow Calculations Around Ship Hull

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 151 - 157

Resumen

Abstract

This article presents results of the free surface flow around ship hull on two different types of computational grid. Each type of mentioned grid has its own advantages and disadvantages in particular cases, mostly in one phase simulation. Omitting cases with capitation, there is no free surface involved in one phase simulation. Multiphase simulations are crucial in the ship design process and optimization. Recreating free surface on the triangular mesh causes difficulties, in contrast to the hexahedral meshes, where calculated surface is more aligned to the physical border of the fluids. In this paper, results from the triangular mesh were compared to results from hexahedral mesh. Conclusions about triangular meshes in two phase simulation are presented. The computational fluid dynamic toolbox OpenFOAM is used to perform calculations of the total resistance of work boat in calm water.

Palabras clave

  • ship
  • simulation
  • design
  • optimization
  • OpenFOAM
Acceso abierto

Ship’s Operational Speed on the Planned Ocean Route in Real Weather Conditions

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 159 - 166

Resumen

Abstract

While operating the ship, one of the most important tasks is forecasting the ocean route. For this purpose, the speed characteristics of the ship are used, which are used in specialized computer systems and presented in publications. However, published algorithms for speed (or decrease of speed) calculations of a ship in real weather conditions on given routes are very simplified and do not contain all the relevant parameters related to the ship’s hull (affecting its resistance when sailing, eg on waves), its propulsion and weather conditions. The article presents its own, more detailed mathematical model of the speed of the ship, and the performed calculations of speed of the ship were compared with the algorithms available in the literature and with the records from the ship’s log.

Palabras clave

  • ocean route
  • ship speed
  • weather parameters
  • ship propulsion
Acceso abierto

Intensity of Dangerous Phones from Waves on Selected Oceanic Routes

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 167 - 174

Resumen

Abstract

Ocean routes are recommended for ships based on economic criteria. Under the influence of waves. during sailing of the ship. various dangerous phenomena arise which can lead to marine crashes. Although weather sites are known to provide short-term weather forecasts (wave and wind parameters). this information is not used to calculate corrections of ocean-route guidelines. A captain based on his knowledge and experience can make such adjustments. The article presents the results of calculations of the values of dangerous parameters of phenomena which may occur during a cruise on example ocean routes. For the calculation of dangerous phenomena. the average statistical long-term (seasonal) parameters contained in weather atlas were used.

Palabras clave

  • forecasting ocean routes
  • irregular long-term (seasonal) waves
  • dangerous phenomena occurring during sailing at waves
Acceso abierto

Harmonization of Market Conditions in Provision of Road Freight Transport

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 175 - 181

Resumen

Abstract

International road transport is a specific service within the frame of services provided in the European Union. It is because the conditions of being active on the market are influenced by the states where businessmen operate, but services can be provided throughout the whole year in other member states of the European Union. The aim of the contribution is to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector. These problems persist despite the fact that market access was exempted from the national law of individual member states and regulated directly by EU regulations. Despite the unification of market access, tax and social harmonization is not ensured in international road freight transport. An unequal tax burden on carriers and different requirements of wage regulations create a discriminatory environment among entrepreneurs. The contribution identifies the factors that deform the equal operating conditions in single market. The aim of the contribution is also to provide the readers with the answers to the questions: Is it possible under current EU conditions to harmonize tax and social conditions? What impact would this harmonization have on business environment?

Palabras clave

  • approach
  • business activities
  • harmonization
  • market
  • road transport
Acceso abierto

Dangerous Phones Arising from the Waves During the Oceanic Route Ship

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 183 - 189

Resumen

Abstract

Ocean routes are recommended for ships based on economic criteria. Under the influence of waves, during the cruise of the ship, dangerous phenomena are created, the intensity of which depends on the speed of the ship and its course in relation to the direction of the waves, the state of the sea, the size of the ship, the state of loading. Although weather services are known, waves parameters are not used to calculate the value of parameters that characterize dangerous phenomena. The article presents the most frequently analysed dangerous phenomena, how they are calculated, the criteria for their evaluation, and the results of calculations for the selected vessel.

Palabras clave

  • forecasting of shipping routes
  • irregular waves
  • dangerous phenomena when the ship is sailing at the waves
Acceso abierto

Reimbursement of Excise Duty on Minerals Oils

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 191 - 196

Resumen

Abstract

Enterprise in the EU is currently a single market business, but on which the conditions are not completely unified. In the case of mineral oil excise duty a minimum level of taxation is set by EU rules, but individual states do not strictly prescribe a specific rate of tax. It is a fact for international road transport, that there are states on the route of transport, where it is preferable to pump fuel. Because the mineral oil tax is an income of state budget in concrete state, is good for the state, if the carrier pumps fuel on the territory of that state. For carriers who only drive within the country the higher tax rate is more advantageous in terms of choice. For this reason, some EU countries apply for the selected group of entrepreneurs, the refund of excise duty due to the use of carriers in their territory and to achieve higher tax deduction in cumulative terms. The purpose of this contribution is to identify the possibilities for refunding excise duty in the Slovak Republic and to propose a procedure for assessing the effects of the refund of excise duty on mineral oils.

Palabras clave

  • mineral oils
  • reimbursement
  • excise duty
  • taxes
  • freight transport
Acceso abierto

Unification Proposal on Market Access for Freight Forwarding in the European Union

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 197 - 203

Resumen

Abstract

The paper deals with the issue of different market access for the transport procurement in the EU in context of open market of providing forwarding services. It highlights different requirements of market access in freight forwarding. The article proposes conditions of market access unification in freight forwarding based on analysis of the existing situation. It also refers to the different responsibility of freight forwarder depending on membership in the national associations of freight forwarders. The contribution analyses the limitation of liability in freight forwarding and shows differences in contract of freight forwarding for particular shipments by model examples. There is also pointed to the need for the development of uniform freight forwarding conditions in the EU.

Palabras clave

  • business
  • contract
  • freight forwarding
  • market
  • responsibility
Acceso abierto

Ship Route Programming in Restricted and Coastal Areas in Tropical Cyclone Regions

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 205 - 212

Resumen

Abstract

The article describes various methods used for tropical cyclone avoidance maneuvers during navigation in restricted and coastal waters. The avoidance maneuvers were carried out with the use of the following methods: the ORS (Onboard Routing System) systems, Bon Voyage 7.0 and SPOS 7.0, the 1-2-3 rule recommended by the US national weather administration NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), the graphic-manual anti-collision plot, as well as the assistance and recommendations of the shore based AWT (Applied Weather Technologies) Centre. The weather and operational data that were used were from the actual voyage of the 9000TEU container ship POSTPANAMX, from Yantian (China) to Vancouver (Canada), which took place in August 2015. During this voyage the ship encountered the tropical cyclone SOUDELOR.

Palabras clave

  • tropical cyclone
  • avoidance maneuvers
  • Bon Voyage
  • SPOS
  • CYKLON
  • 1-2-3 rule
  • anticollision plot
  • weather routing
Acceso abierto

The Impact of Transport Time on the Carrier’s Costs

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 213 - 218

Resumen

Abstract

In freight road transport, the price per unit of transport is not the same for each shipment for reason, that many factors influence the cost of shipping. An important aspect, in addition to cost inputs, which decides, how high will the shipping cost it is the destination where the transportation takes place. The purpose of this article is to identify the impact of the change of destination on carrier costs. Authors will not deal with specific costs related to the change of destination, which include, for example, charges for the use of the road network or travel compensation to the driver, but will only deal with the probability of vehicle back-up. If the carrier is unable to backhaul of the vehicle, the initial shipping costs increase significantly.

Palabras clave

  • freight transport
  • transport time
  • backhaul
  • costs
Acceso abierto

Significance Analysis of Ship Operational States as a Factor Influencing the Energy Efficiency of a Research – Training Vessel

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 219 - 225

Resumen

Abstract

Ship operational state is a sequence of temporary values of state variable parameters expressing the properties of a particular object and which are recognised as significant for a specific problem. They are the key elements of the operational tasks and essential to determining the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator for a specialised vessel. In that case, the method refers directly to specific operational states and their significance for a particular operational task in the time function. Based on the surveys conducted on a population of people employed by the ship owner and involved in the ship operation, one has analysed the significance of the operational states for that vessel. The differentiated perception of the operational states of the subjected vessel results from, inter alia, the tasks performed by the responders as their duties, their experience and the level of their engagement in the ship operation. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the states enables to conduct the planning process in terms of operational tasks of the specialized ship for effective and efficient operation.

Palabras clave

  • operational state
  • special vessel energy efficiency
Acceso abierto

An Algorithm for Diagnosing Injection Systems of Marine Engines

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 227 - 233

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents the developed methods for diagnosing and analysing signals from injection systems of marine engines. As a source signal, the authors use elastic waves of acoustic emission. The essential fact in the case here considered is that the high frequency of signal from working elements of the injection system comes from a close source directly related to the change of the working parameters of the element (system). Characteristically for elastic waves of acoustic emission, low frequencies (e.g. those from other sources, such as machines in the engine room) are in this case attenuated. Therefore, the proper selection of the method for the analysis allows us accurately diagnose the injection system of a working engine.

Palabras clave

  • Diesel Engine
  • injection system
  • diagnosis
  • acoustic emission
  • elastic waves
Acceso abierto

Application of Steam Jet Injector for Latent Heat Recovery of Marine Steam Turbine Propulsion Plant

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 235 - 244

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents the results of previously carried out analyses regarding efficiency and criteria evaluation of various propulsion plants of modern LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) carriers. The results of previous identification and quality assessment of waste heat energy sources of a CST (Conventional Steam Turbine) plant are presente. In this paper the possibility of use a steam jet injector in order to recover the latent heat is analysed. Calculations were carried out for an injector equipped with a de Laval nozzle, determining the thermodynamic state parameters of the mixture of drive steam and sucked in steam as well as the steam on the outlet of the injector for the various ejection ratios. On the basis of the results of the injector calculation, the heat balance of a simple regenerative Clausius – Rankine steam cycle (with one regenerative heater – deaerator) was carried out. The degree of regeneration (increase of the thermal efficiency) for cycle using the regenerative injector was determined. Based on results the further research directions for complex plants using a steam jets are indicated.

Palabras clave

  • thermal efficiency
  • propulsion plant
  • steam turbine
  • steam jet injector
Acceso abierto

Determination of Regression Formulas for Key Design Characteristics of Container Ships at Preliminary Design Stage

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 247 - 257

Resumen

Abstract

This article presents regression equations to estimate container ship design characteristics based on the most up-to-date data and deadweight capacity, the number of containers and their combination at the preliminary design stage. These design formulas could have application for the estimation of key container ship characteristics such as: main ship dimensions, geometric parameters, main engine total power, ship velocity, final price and others. Regression equations were performed on the basis of IHS Maritime & Trade main container ship data built from 2005-2015. All equations presented in this paper could have practical application at the preliminary design stage and increase ship design theory development.

Palabras clave

  • preliminary
  • ship
  • containership
  • design
  • main dimensions
  • regression
Acceso abierto

Energy Saving Energetic Systems for Coastal Fishing Cutters

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 259 - 265

Resumen

Abstract

The maritime environment protection is increasingly reflected in legal regulations regarding, inter alia, the harmful exhaust gas components emitted by marine combustion engines. The provisions imposing the emission limits for SOx, NOx and CO2 are included in MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX VI adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). However, as of today, these provisions are not applicable to fishing cutters. One of the methods, both to decrease emissions’ volume and also to reduce the operating costs of ships, is to lower fuel consumption of marine energetic systems. The paper presents a proposition of energy-efficient and environmentally friendly energetic systems for coastal fishing cutters. It also demonstrates the importance of the said systems and includes the elaboration regarding the impact of fuel type, renewable energy sources and energy conversion methods on the hazards to the environment caused by the emission of harmful exhaust gas components. The presented solutions refer to fishing cutters of the length of 15-30 m and are categorized into two groups. The division criterion applied is an access to technologies currently available and future technologies enabling the use of alternative energy sources.

Palabras clave

  • fishing cutters
  • energetic systems structure
  • alternative fuels and energy source
  • exhaust gas emission
Acceso abierto

Experimental Research on the Concept of Using an Autonomous Transport Module for Transport From the Seabed

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 267 - 275

Resumen

Abstract

The great interest in the exploitation of sea deposits has in recent years resulted in the creation of many consortia conducting research on various methods of mining and transport to the surface. Exploitation of the shelf areas of crude oil and gas as well as solid minerals is successfully carried out in many places around the world using various methods. More and more often, however, we want to obtain natural resources found at great depths such as polymetallic nodules and massive polymetallic sulphides. This puts much greater demands on scientists and engineers. Unfortunately, solutions developed so far are characterized by high energy consumption. For several years, the authors have been researching new concepts of transport from the seabed. In previous years the authors presented theoretical research results of using a new method involving the use of pyrotechnic materials as a source of energy in transport from the seabed from large depths and experimental ones with the use of potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate in a controlled pyrotechnic reaction and they compared three conceptions of transport of dredge spoil from the point of view of energy demand. This publication presents the results of the continuation of research, this time on the concept of building an autonomous transport module and its operating principles. The construction of the laboratory stand and the way of conducting experiments are discussed. The results of experimental research are presented, which confirm the possibility of using the discussed concept in transport from the seabed.

Palabras clave

  • marine mining
  • transport from great depths
  • autonomous transport module
Acceso abierto

Research on the Concept of Using Calcium Carbide as a Source of Energy for Transport from the Seabed

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 277 - 284

Resumen

Abstract

The growing interest in the exploitation of marine deposits has resulted in the development of research on deposits and technologies for their exploitation. For several years, the authors have been dealing with one of the most important problems in the deep sea mining of mineral deposits, namely transport from great depths. This publication presents theoretical considerations regarding the use of calcium carbide as a source of energy for transport from the seabed. The authors proposed three lines of the course of the decomposition reaction of calcium carbide and then analyzed the possibility of their use. From the obtained results it can be concluded that the maximum depth of use of a simple CaC2 distribution is about 1 km, while using the method proposed by the authors based on the “balance of forces” (using an additional medium) it is possible to apply this method to any depth occurring on Earth.

Palabras clave

  • Marine mining
  • transport from great depths
  • calcium carbide
  • acetylene
Acceso abierto

Model of Processes of the Al25/30 Marine Engine and its Verification

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 285 - 291

Resumen

Abstract

The work presents a model of the marine diesel engine working process. The research object was the AL25/30 engine. The model consists of partial models of the combustion process in the engine cylinders, the heat exchange process, flows through air and exhaust channels, heat exchange in the intercooler and friction in mechanical components of the engine. The model includes a description of the processes taking place in the turbocharger also. The input data to the model and the verification data were the results of direct measurements on the research facility. The verification showed errors in the calculation of air and exhaust gas parameters not exceeding 11%. The paper also presents an analysis of the results of fast-changing parameters, including combustion pressure in engine cylinders and pressures in individual gas channels. The designed model allows the analysis of the research facility operation and enables its further development towards the assessment of toxic compounds emission to the atmosphere.

Palabras clave

  • model engine
  • diesel
  • marine engine
  • combution
Acceso abierto

Methane Slip During Cargo Operations on LNG Carriers and LNG-Fueled Vessels

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 293 - 299

Resumen

Abstract

In this paper was presented the problems of methane leakages during cargo operations on LNG carriers. Also the leakages are possible on LNG fueled vessels. Due to green-house effect from methane on the atmosphere it should be done some measures to avoid it. Building the cargo tanks with very high capacity, utilization of better thermal insulations limits the quantity of boil-off (BOG). It is used as a fuel in marine power plant, only the overage should be liquefied again. The leakages attend all cargo operations which methane goes directly to the atmosphere through pressure-vacuum valves and gas freeing installation to mast riser or by the ventilation system from cargo pump or compressor room. To minimize the slip on LNG carriers the re-liquefaction systems are installed. They are based on cooling systems which boil-off gas (mainly methane) is liquefied at ambient pressure in temperature about −161.5°C by pre-cooled nitrogen gas at temperature about −180°C. Compressed nitrogen to a pressure about 25MPa through multistage compressors with intercooling systems is expanded step by step (in intercoolers) to pressure about ambient reaches the temperature about −180°C. The re-liquefaction system needs delivering a lot of electric energy. The total level of methane leakages from mining to the last consumer may be different and sometimes very high. The leakage level starts as minimal 1% and may be raised up to 10%. It was indicated the undertaken actions and next possibilities of methane slip limitations.

Palabras clave

  • Methane
  • methane slip
  • cargo operations
  • LNG carrier
  • LNG-fueled vessels
Acceso abierto

The Influence of External Factors on Hazards in the Transport Processes of Soybean Meal

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 301 - 307

Resumen

Abstract

The influence of external factors on changes in the soybean meal quality features has an important meaning in the emergence of hazards during the transport processes of this cargo. Soybean meal is one of the most frequently used components of fodder mixtures. Due to its inherent properties, it is classified as special cargoes. Maintaining the quality of soybean meal during transport processes depends on storage, handling and transport conditions. The main external factor included in the study was humidity. Transport-technological quality features were distinguished: kinetic angle of repose, size of particles, bulk density, porosity. The article presents the results of research on soybean meal and its separated fractions. There was presented humidity influence on changes in significant features for this cargo. Type and range of changes in the distinguishing features of soybean meal were determined in the given stages of the transport chain under the influence of humidity. The risk was assessed in the transport processes of soybean meal. A correlation was determined between changes of individual features and water content in soybean meal changing as a result of air humidity. It was found that humidity of the ambient air in which transport processes occur and size of grain particles of soybean meal have a significant impact on changes in transport-technological quality features.

Palabras clave

  • soybean meal
  • humidity
  • density
  • angle of repose
  • porosity
Acceso abierto

The Use of Topology of IHBI Inverters in Parallel Operation of Ship Generating Sets With PMSG Generators

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 309 - 315

Resumen

Abstract

One of the methods to improve the efficiency of the ship’s propulsion is the increase of efficiency in ship generators by using permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG – Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator). Due to the lack of voltage regulator in PMSG, it is necessary to use power electronic converters to maintain a constant voltage level. One of the modes of operation for a ship’s power plant is a parallel work of generating sets. In the parallel work, there are problems in the fluctuation of active and reactive electrical power between generators. The article presents the concept of using inverters in the IHBI topology, which enables the parallel operation of generating sets with PMSG generators. This solution enables the adjustment of the flow of active and reactive powers between generating sets.

Palabras clave

  • PMSG
  • IHBI topology
  • generator sets
Acceso abierto

Ways of Adjusting the Two-Stroke Diesel Engine to be Run on Liquefied Natural Gas

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 317 - 324

Resumen

Abstract

This article attempts at assessing the feasibility and validity of adjusting the two-stroke diesel engine to be fuelled by liquefied natural gas (LNG). It discusses a set of modifications introduced onto one of the ships carrying liquefied natural gas. These changes consisted in adjusting the engines of the main drive so that they can be fuelled by gas. This has been achieved by the modification of the cylinder head and fuel supply installation. Parameter results of the modified engines obtained during sea trials have been presented. Both advantages and disadvantages resulting from gas combustion have been pointed out. Ultimately, the authors of this article assess the applicability of this solution to other LNG carriers.

Palabras clave

  • natural gas
  • dual-fuel diesel engines
  • LNG carriers
Acceso abierto

Analysis of the Topology of „Shore to Ship” Systems – Power Electronic Connection of Ships with Land

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 325 - 333

Resumen

Abstract

The possibility of building efficient and universal systems for the use of electricity land network by ships berthed in the port appeared along with the development of power electronic technologies. The need to connect ships to the land network is primarily related to ecological reasons. The choice of the appropriate topology by the investor (usually port authorities) is mainly connected with ensuring high quality of electricity provided to the ship and local conditions. The article reviews topologies of power electronic system (possible to use) for connection of ships with the land network – their disadvantages and advantages.

Palabras clave

  • “Shore To Ship” system
  • frequency inverter
  • high voltage power supply
Acceso abierto

Calculation of Operational Indicator EEOI for Ships Designed to Other Purpose Than Transport Based on A Research – Training Vessel

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 335 - 340

Resumen

Abstract

Applying the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator as a tool for monitoring the energy efficiency of ships performing other functions or tasks than transport is a problem in the proper assessment of the CO2 emitted by the vessel during its operation. The analysis of 30 voyages of the research-training vessel showed that the vessel Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator is higher than for transport vessels in the world fleet. The authors suggest that the term „performed transport work” in the indicator calculation method recommended by the International Maritime Organization needs to be modified in terms of operational parameters of this type of ships.

Palabras clave

  • Vessel energy efficiency
  • CO emission
  • research – training vessel
  • EEOI
  • operational indicator
Acceso abierto

FEA-Analysis of Shaft and Supports Deformations for Huge Precise Lathe. Statics and Resonances

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 341 - 348

Resumen

Abstract

Load bearing system simulation is provided for a huge lathe to be renovated. Static and modal analyses are done by FEM. Focus was centerline rising, needed for larger rotor shaft machining. Forces between shaft and three supports were applied. Shaft static stiffness is lowered at 1.15 times only for 600 mm centerline rising. Supports have lost its rigidity at 1.42 times. Concrete pouring into bed cavities is recommended for supports flexibility limitation such as tailstock reinforcement. Robustness of bottom resonances is revealed both for rotor shaft (14.5–18.2 Hz) and supports (42.7–55.4 Hz). Centerline rising is allowed on 300 mm at least. It gives possibility to machine extremely large (up to ø2750 mm) shafts.

Palabras clave

  • lathe
  • FEA
  • rotor
  • centerline
  • resonance
Acceso abierto

The Concepts of Inland Passenger Transport in the Oder River Basin

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 349 - 356

Resumen

Abstract

This article presents the concepts of inland passenger transport: tourist and cruise in the basin of the Oder river. The first part describes the operating and technical parameters of the Oder and the present trends and directions in the development of inland waterway passenger services. Another part of the article contains an analysis of the results of the surveys carried out among respondents living in agglomerations lying on the Oder River. These studies have enabled the creation of two passenger transport concepts that enhance the competitiveness and attractiveness of inland waterway transport with respect to other modes of transport.

Palabras clave

  • inland shipping
  • passenger ship
  • transport
  • inland waterways
Acceso abierto

The Method of Energy-Efficiency Investigations of the Newly Produced Marine Fuels Through an Application of the Laboratory Diesel Engine

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 357 - 363

Resumen

Abstract

The article deals with one of the scientific issue solved within frames of the research project financed by Voivodeship Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in Gdansk, namely, in particular, the method of energy investigations of the self-ignition engine in conditions of its supply with a non-standard (modified) marine fuel. The representative results of engine tests worked out on the especially built laboratory test bed have been presented. They aimed to elaborate energy profiles of a single-cylinder four-stroke Diesel engine in the form of Sankey diagrams of energy flows representing the most efficient and effective manner for the verification of a different kind of the modified marine fuels introduced on market. It is expected that the final results of the project will be interesting for their producers as well as the ship-owners of the operated ships, and also for the offices of sea administration as well as the inspectorates of environment protection.

Palabras clave

  • modified marine fuels
  • engine research
  • Sankey’s graphs
Acceso abierto

An Estimation of the Final Price of Container Ships Based on Main Ship Parameters with the Use of ndCurveMaster Curve Fitting Software

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 365 - 370

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents regression formulas that allow us to estimate the final price of new container ships, based on TEU and deadweight capacity, service speed, length between perpendiculars and gross tonnage of container ships built from 2005 to 2015. The formulas were developed using the author’s own method based on curve fitting techniques and regression methods. The study shows that utilising the author’s method to predict the final price could offer greater accuracy solutions than any standard methods presented in literature. This method was implemented properly with ndCurveMaster curve fitting software which was developed by the author and was applied to develop regression equations presented in the article. The formulas presented in the article have practical application for estimation of container ship final price needed in transport studies or preliminary parametric container ship design. These equations refer to the most up to date vessels and offer the chance to advance ship design theory.

Palabras clave

  • container ship
  • price
  • ndCurveMaster
  • deadweight
  • regression
Acceso abierto

Fretting Wear as an Example of Destruction of Railway Vehicles Wheelsets

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 371 - 376

Resumen

Abstract

The article refers to the importance of the aspect of durability and reliability of wheelsets. It contains a short analysis of railway accidents in which the causes were failures of wheelsets. The paper lists most common faults occurring in the course of the wheelsets operation. The major problem of the paper were laboratory analyses of fretting wear developing in interference joints. The research has been conducted using a wheelset comprising a shaft and a sleeve. Fatigue tests in conditions close to the wheelset operating environment have been conducted. The laboratory analyses included macroscopic observation that indicated fretting wear signs on both sides of the wheel seat in form of a 3.5 mm wide ring around the entire perimeter. The following procedures included microscopic observations in the wear signs area, that indicated numerous material accumulations exposed to plastic deformation and oxidation.

Palabras clave

  • wheelset
  • fretting wear
  • railway vehicles
  • operation
Acceso abierto

The Influence of Temperature on Changes in the Distinguishing Features of the Usable Quality of Soybean Meal

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 377 - 383

Resumen

Abstract

Soybean meal is one of the fodder components. It is a by-product of the production of soybean oil. Soybean meal is a specific cargo due to changes that may occur in it during transport processes. These changes are subject to many distinguishing features of usable quality inter alia fat and fatty acid content. The temperature and size of the soybean meal particles are among the factors influencing the transformations. The article presents the results of research on soybean meal and its individual fractions and the impact of selected indicators on the quality changes of this cargo. The results depend on the conditions corresponding to those that occur during the storage, handling and transport processes. The dependencies between them have been determined. The performed research allowed to determine the type and scope of changes taking place in this cargo under the influence of temperature. The results of the study showed that as the temperature rises, the fatty acid content in the soybean meal decreased during storage for a given period of 30 days.

Palabras clave

  • soybean meal
  • fatty acids
  • acid number
  • peroxide value
  • transport processes
  • fodder
Acceso abierto

Influence of the Symmetry Plane Boundary Condition on the Planing Multihull Calm Water Resistance Test. CFD to Towing Tank Comparison

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 385 - 391

Resumen

Abstract

This article present results of the comparison between numerical simulation (utilising Computational Fluid Dynamics) and towing tank experiment of the multihull vessel. Effect of the symmetry plane boundary condition on the resistance has been investigated. Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes equations with k-ω turbulence model has been used to calculate resistance of the hull with two degrees of freedom (2-DOF). Calculation has been done using OpenFOAM software package. Governing equations of fluid motion, together with the concept of the mesh and boundary condition has been presented in the first section of this work. Conclusion about calculating resistance of the multihull vessels has been made, after short presentation of the results.

Palabras clave

  • CFD
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • high speed vessel design
  • multihull workboat
Acceso abierto

The Destructive Effect of Fine Fractions of Soybean Meal in Transport Processes

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 393 - 398

Resumen

Abstract

Soybean meal is one of the most popular components of compound feed. The rise of its demand in the world causes a constant interest in this cargo and to conduct research in different directions. This is related to its inherent properties, and to the continuous changes that occur in it. Soybean meal is a solid bulk cargo. Loose soybean meal, apart from larger particles, also contains fine and dusty/powdery fractions, which create the risk of explosion and environmental pollution. The problem of protecting the environment against dusting of fine fractions of soybean meal is very important in the cargo handling processes. An additional aspect is the destructive effect of powdery fractions during these processes. The results of the research on the degrading effect of fine fractions of soybean meal and its compounds on the means of transshipments were presented. Due to the interaction of esters and other compounds contained in the soybean meal, the research has the implications for the changes in the properties of the rubber elements of the elevator conveyor. The effect of these changes may be the reduced durability of the conveyor belts and the associated risks such as operational failures.

Palabras clave

  • transport process
  • soybean meal
  • conveyor belts
  • hardness of rubber
  • elasticity of rubber
Acceso abierto

Alternative Propulsion Plants for Modern LNG Carriers

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 399 - 407

Resumen

Abstract

This paper shows the latest evolution trends of propulsion plants of modern LNG tankers. Features of conventional and advanced steam plants were confronted with propulsion plants such as Dual Fuel – Diesel electric and plants equipped with slow speed two stroke diesel engines. Propulsion plants were compared in terms of plant efficiency, reliability and environmental. The shipyard’s order book and the active fleet of LNG carriers with a capacity above 65000 m3 were analyzed.

Palabras clave

  • tanker
  • propulsion plant
  • dual fuel diesel engine
  • steam propulsion plant
  • thermal efficiency
Acceso abierto

Equipment Exploitation in Power to Gas Installation

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 409 - 418

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents idea of installation to energy storage in the form of hydrogen – Power to Gas (P2G). The results of laboratory tests carried out at the Silesian University of Technology in the Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery (IMiUE), covering selected aspects of hydrogen generators most frequently used in these types of installations are presented. The influence of water conductivity and temperature during continuous operation of the electrolyzer at constant current value and in operation at variable current on the efficiency of the tested devices are shown. A hydrogen generator equipped with two AEM electrolyzers with a performance of 0.5 Nm3H2/h and a generator containing four PEM electrolyzers connected in series, with a maximum performance of 1.58 Ndm3/min were tested. The efficiency characteristics of the electrolysis process, efficiency of the electrolyzers and changes in the resistance values for both types of electrolyzers were presented. Calculations to estimate effect of temperature change on the efficiency characteristic of AEM electrolyzers were also made.

Palabras clave

  • power to gas
  • hydrogen generator
  • energy storage
Acceso abierto

Analysis of the Possibility of Using Acoustic Emission for Monitoring Technical Condition of the Fuel Injector in 3AL25/30 Engine

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 419 - 425

Resumen

Abstract

Acoustic emission method (AE) can be used for the diagnosis of machine parts such as, for example: fuel injectors. This paper presents the methodology and research results of 3AL25/30 engine fuel injector. During research was studied one injector in good condition and second with simulated failure involving closing 2 of 9 holes of the injector tip. Research was carried out on a laboratory test stand using a set of acoustic emission Vallen System. This set included: 4 channel signal recorder AMSY 6, two measurement modules ASIP-2/S, preamplifier with a frequency range 20 kHz-1 MHz and the strengthening of 34 dB, AE signal measurement sensor type VS 150M, with a frequency range 100-450 kHz. During the study, the acoustic emission (AE) generated by tested injector was recorded. The following parameters were determined: amplitude, rise time, duration time, total time, number of events – hits, the effective value of the signal (RMS). Analysis of the results showed significantly longer total time of the injection in the case of damaged injector compared to the injector in good conditions. Signal amplitude was higher, however, the RMS signal reached approximately 3-times lower value for the injector with damaged tip. This means lower quality fuel atomization. Laboratory test results were compared with signals recorded on injectors installed in the engine. Analysis of the signals allowed detection damage of the injector installed in the engine during normal operation.

Palabras clave

  • acoustic emission
  • diagnostics
  • monitoring
  • injector
  • fuel system
Acceso abierto

The Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine with Extreme Throttled of Air or Exhaust Ducts

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 427 - 433

Resumen

Abstract

Presented paper shows the results of the laboratory tests on the relationship between the extreme throttling of both air intake duct and exhaust gas duct and gaseous emission from the marine engine. The object of research is a laboratory, 4-stroke, DI diesel engine, operated at loads from 50 kW to 250 kW at a constant speed equal to 750 rpm. During the laboratory tests the thermodynamic and exhaust gas emission characteristics of the engine were measured with technical condition recognized as “working properly” and with simulated throttling of both air intake duct and exhaust gas duct. Air intake duct throttling by 60% causes visible changes at both gas temperature and pressure behind the intercooler. The study results show significant changes of NOx and CO2 emission for considered air intake duct throttling. The best indicator of exhaust gas duct throttling among considered thermodynamic parameters of the engine is mean in-cylinder pressure. In the case of measuring the composition of exhaust gas, the throttling of the exhaust gas duct causes visible changes in CO2 and NOx emission. The conclusion is that the results of measurements of the composition of the exhaust gas may contain valuable diagnostic information about the technical condition of air intake and exhaust gas duct of the marine engine.

Palabras clave

  • marine engine
  • throttling
  • emission
  • combustion
  • malfunction
Acceso abierto

The Influence of Liquid Viscosity on Atomized Fuel Mean Droplet Size Determined by the Laser Diffraction Method

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 435 - 441

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents the impact of viscosity of fuel on its atomization, which constitutes an important element of controlling the quality of the fuel-air mixture in compression ignition and direct injection engines. An experiment has been made using a three-hole atomizer of an engine with nominal power of 110 kW and revolutions n = 2800 min−1. Fuel was delivered by a PRW-2M injection pump intended for testing injectors. Fuel was sprayed in the atmospheric air. Three petroleum product liquids used for the experiment had a viscosity of, respectively, 3.93, 16.73 and 36.41 mm2/s. The fuel droplet size in a spray was determined by the laser diffraction method by means of a Spraytec STP 5929 analyzer. The quantity adopted for comparative purposes was the Sauter Mean Diameter D32. The results confirmed that a change of fuel viscosity within the range recommended by ship engine manufacturers has a strong impact on the size of sprayed fuel droplets. Shipowners have a limited choice of low sulphur fuel grade (up to 0.1% S), which forces the engine room personnel to use currently available fuels. Depending on the supplier, marine fuels may vary in viscosity and, according to the recommendations of engine manufacturers, they do not require heating. The increase in the size of the droplets injected into the fuel combustion chamber may affect the quality of the fuel-air mixture, increase of fuel consumption and a greater content of harmful exhaust constituents.

Palabras clave

  • marine diesel engine
  • fuel viscosity
  • fuel atomization
Acceso abierto

Application of Redundancy in Ship Power Plants of Offshore Vessels

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 443 - 452

Resumen

Abstract

Power and propulsion systems of offshore units must be of a very high level of reliability. The loss of ability to perform functions of their components causes generally to very high economic losses, which may be increased by unused the weather window resulting to postponing the planned offshore operations. To ensure carrying out so expensive offshore operations in the most reliable way, various types of redundancies are built-in ship power plants. This paper deals with issues related to application of redundancy in ship power plants of offshore vessels. Especially, evolution of redundancy application in ship power plants, and design solution of redundancy for offshore vessels are presented. Moreover, the specifics of these offshore operations so important from the point of view of minimizing financial losses due to any interruptions caused by failures of power and propulsion systems are discussed in detailed way.

Palabras clave

  • redundancy
  • reliability
  • ship power plant
  • offshore vessel
Acceso abierto

The Use of a Mathematical Model of Marine Diesel Engine in a Computer Program

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 453 - 460

Resumen

Abstract

The paper describes the application of the author’s mathematical model of gas-dynamic processes for a marine piston engine based on a computer program. The developed mathematical and numerical model is designed to conduct simulation diagnostics. Therefore, it is possible to carry out calculations for motors in different technical conditions and observing influence of changes in technical condition on selected parameters of its work. Simulation of changes in technical condition is carried out by modifying parameters of structure’s model object. The article contains a detailed description of each options of the computer program. From the main program window, user can select type of engine model (supercharging method, cylinder number, work order, stroke and piston diameter and a number of other parameters). Through a window of simulation of known and recognizable damages such as: change in fuel dose for each cylinder, change in intake and outlet valves, leakage of piston-ring-cylinder system, change of injector hole cross section. Final windows show results of calculations in form of mileage parameters of engine as a function of crank angle.

Palabras clave

  • engine model
  • computer program
  • engine technical state simulation
Acceso abierto

Assessment of Selected On-Board Ballast Water Treatment Systems in Terms of Technical and Operational Parameters

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 461 - 467

Resumen

Abstract

The BWM Convention (Ballast Water Management Convention) will enter into force on 8 September 2017. This document is a response to a very significant problem such as sea water pollution. Due to the Convention, a huge number of companies will be forced to analyze the matter and implement the required provisions. They shall also assess the technologies applied and the fixed systems for ballast water treatment as well as set the requirements in relation to the selection and installation of same at ships. The paper presents the currently applicable regulations and the review of the technologies used for ballast water treatment. There are 5 ballast water treatment systems described herein that are offered by the top producers. The paper includes also the technical and operational parameters of the systems in question. The analysis shall allow for an assessment that may be valuable during the selection process.

Palabras clave

  • ballast water
  • environmental protection regulations
  • treatment technology assessment
Acceso abierto

Impact of Waves on Dangerous Stability of Vessels on the Oceanic Route

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 469 - 477

Resumen

Abstract

Stability is one of the most important properties of the ship. The greatest influence on stability and thus on the possibility of loss of stability have the rolling of the ship on the wave. Mathematical models describing rolling on wave are complicated, and their solution, especially in the irregular wave, is only possible with numerical methods in the time domain. Large rolling, until the ship capsize, formation not only on the beam wave, but also on the following wave. Various models describing rolling (linear and nonlinear, regular and irregular wave, and constant or variable restoring moment) are presented. The predicted level hazard of stability of the ship depends on the direction of the wave and the cases where the level of hazard will be greatest.

Palabras clave

  • irregular wave
  • rolling of a vessel
  • stability on beam and following waves
  • variable righting moment
Acceso abierto

The Effects of the Addition of Vegetable Oil on the Viscosity of Used Marine Engine Oil Marinol RG 1240

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 479 - 485

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents conducted research on the effects of the additives of vegetable oil on the viscosity of used marine engine oil Marinol RG 1240. Specifically, it shows dependence between viscosity and temperature for: fresh mineral oil, used mineral oil and blends of oils. Research results were compared and assessed. The viscosity of all oil samples were measured using Vibro Viscometer SV-10, at range of temperatures 5°C-65°C. It is noted that most of the used engine oil samples increase value of viscosity compared to fresh oil. However, the addition of 10% rapeseed oil significantly reduced viscosity parameters for all studied temperatures.

Palabras clave

  • vegetable oil
  • engine oil
  • rapeseed oil
  • mineral oil
  • marine
Acceso abierto

Analysis of Marine Piston Engine Injectors Dynamic State for the Non-Invasive Diagnostics Purpose

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 487 - 493

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents results of measurements conducted during multi-stage studies on injectors of WOLA 72H6 engine. The research was conducted to determine the technical condition of the injectors during their operation. As a result of the injector modeling in the CAD environment, the resonant frequencies of the examined element were obtained. The next stage of the study was a stand-alone tests with the simultaneous recording of vibration parameters. The aim of records was to link the vibration parameters with the technical condition of the tested injectors. The study series was finished with measurements on a real object test stand.

Palabras clave

  • injectors
  • vibrations
  • marine piston engines
  • technical state
Acceso abierto

Operational Characteristic of Selected Marine Turbounits Powered by Steam from Auxiliary Oil-Fired Boilers

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 495 - 501

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents characteristic values and operational parameters of two selected marine auxiliary steam turbine units such as efficiency, and steam consumption per unit or per hour. For the purpose of the analysis, the cargo turbine pumps and turbogenerator have been selected. The characteristic values and operational parameters have been determined using the operational tests results for the turbounits installed on oil tankers at various power loads.

Palabras clave

  • marine auxiliary steam turbounits
  • exploitation characteristic
Acceso abierto

Presentation of the Properties of the Supervised Measuring System with Flexible Support of Crankshafts in Application Terms

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 503 - 506

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents an original, innovative solution for an universal system for measurements of geometric deviations of large crankshafts with so-called flexible support of the measured object. The principles of selection of reaction forces realized by flexible supports enabling elimination of elastic deflections and elastic deformations of the shaft under the influence of own weight are discussed. Also presented are the properties of the Automation Studio programming environment and a visualization application for the control and management program of the measurement system developed on the basis of this programming environment.

Palabras clave

  • measuring system
  • elastic deflections
  • elastic support
  • crankshafts
  • computer-aided design
Acceso abierto

Energy Saving Systems of Hydrostatic Drives for Ship Deck Machines

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 507 - 514

Resumen

Abstract

A control system with a proportional directional throttling control valve or a directional control servo valve, controlling a cylinder (linear hydraulic motor) is used in the ship steering gear drive, in the controllable pitch propeller control, in the variable capacity pump control system for hydraulic deck equipment motors or fixed pitch propellers in small ships (for example ferries). Energy savings in a constant capacity pump operation can be achieved by means of overflow valve controlled by the oil outlet pressure between the directional throttling control valve and the cylinder. Although structural volumetric losses cannot be eliminated in such a system, but it is possible to reduce considerably structural pressure losses, mechanical losses and volumetric losses in the pump, and mechanical losses in the cylinder too. The paper discusses these energy savings using an earlier developed by Paszota mathematical model of losses in elements, the energy efficiency of the system and the operating range of the cylinder. The paper also presents a comparison of the energy behavior of two widespread structures of hydrostatic systems: a standard individual systems with a throttling steering fed by a constant capacity pump. Both system solutions are described and equations of the total efficiency η of the system are presented. Diagrams of energy efficiency of two hydraulic systems working at the same parameters of a speed and a load of hydraulic linear motor, which were different due to structure and ability of energy saving, were presented and compared.

Palabras clave

  • energy efficiency
  • power of losses
  • hydrostatic system
  • throttling steering
  • hydraulic linear motor
Acceso abierto

Redundancy as a Way Increasing Reliability of Ship Power Plants

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 515 - 522

Resumen

Abstract

One of key ways of assuring a high level of reliability of a ship power plant is to design redundancy of its structural elements, for example redundancy of prime drivers, drivelines etc. This paper deals with issues related to the redundancy as a way increasing dependability of the ship power and propulsion systems. Especially, fundamental characteristics of dependability, major design strategies influencing the reliability, and types of redundancies related to ship power and propulsion systems are presented.

Palabras clave

  • redundancy
  • dependability
  • ship power plant
Acceso abierto

Environment Protection Policy and Monitoring Systems for Polymetallic Nodules Exploitation

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 523 - 529

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents the analysis of ongoing implementation of environmental protection policies into deep seabed mining projects of Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, (CCZ). Short introduction to the current environmental regime in the Area under UNCLOS jurisdiction is presented and potential impact of deep seabed mining is discussed. Selected results of efforts to minimize the impact on the marine environment and environmental baseline studies are described.

Palabras clave

  • deep sea mining
  • protection of environment and monitoring
  • polymetallic nodules
Acceso abierto

Mechatronic System with the Control of Voltage in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 531 - 537

Resumen

Abstract

In recent years, the use of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) in ship power plant system has increased. PMSGs are characterized by better properties than the classic and commonly used synchronous generators. In comparison with classic synchronous generators, PMSGs do not have a voltage regulator, and hence as the load increases, the voltage at the output of the generator decreases. The article presents the use of an active voltage inverter with the task to maintain a constant voltage on the receiver along with the load’s increase. Simulation studies confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method were carried out.

Palabras clave

  • PMSG
  • voltage regulation of PMSG
  • active inverter
Acceso abierto

Evolution of The Extruder Screw-Disk Plasticizing System Construction

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 539 - 544

Resumen

Abstract

The search for new polymer processing ways has become necessary due to the rapidly growing technology and market needs. The time of manufacturing products, as well as the impact of process parameters and the design itself on the properties of materials have become very important. Therefore, the creation of assumptions allowing the construction of a compact device whose construction will allow, for example, high process efficiency at low screw rotational speeds or a high degree of material homogenisation, is expected by the market. However, this requires the design of new or continuous modifications and improvements to existing structures.

Palabras clave

  • processing of polymer materials and composites
  • screw-disk extruder
  • single-cone plasticizing system
  • double-cone plasticizing system
  • compact design
Acceso abierto

Experimental Research of Self-Ignition Engine Fueled by Mixture of Diesel and Synthetic Fuel

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 545 - 551

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents the bench tests’ results of a swirl chamber engine fed with a mixture of petroleum and synthetic fuels. Synthetic fuel comes from the processing of polymeric waste and its content in the mixture equaled to 7%. According to the results, the basic operational parameters of the engine did not change significantly. A minor increase in NO2 emissions was observed, which may be explained by the increased combustion temperature. Simultaneously, the reduction of the smoke was obtained.

Palabras clave

  • internal combustion engine
  • synthetic fuel
  • petroleum and synthetic fuels
Acceso abierto

Determining and Analysing Support Conditions at Variable Construction of Crankshafts

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 553 - 560

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents study results of the influence of crankshaft construction changes on the choice of support conditions allowing to eliminate deflections and elastic deformations of crankshafts under their self-weight. For the purpose of this study we implemented a programme for strength calculations Nastran FX 2010 which enables modelling the research subject with a finite element method and counting the value if reaction forces ensuring zero value of deflections on main journals at a change in the crankshaft’s angle of rotation.

Palabras clave

  • crankshafts
  • support conditions
  • deflections and elastic deformations
Acceso abierto

Methods of Energy Efficiency Improvement by Modernisation of Hydraulic Installations at a Fishing Cutter at the Baltic Sea

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 561 - 566

Resumen

Abstract

The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) became mandatory for new ships as well as the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships due to the MEPC 62 (July 2011) along with the adoption of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI by the Parties to the MARPOL Annex VI. This was the first legally binding climate change treaty to be adopted since the Kyoto Protocol. The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), which has been obligatory since 2013, did not to cover fishing cutters but triggered the implementation of energy efficiency audits due to fishing limits, high fuel prices, and free freight market. All the above caused that ship-owners started seeking ways for saving money and keep their business profitable. Apart from energy recovery installations, fishing vessels have been furnished with the latest technologies aimed at the reduction of energy consumption and at making ships greener. A research team of the Maritime University of Szczecin conducted energy efficiency audits on several fishing vessels operated on the Baltic Sea and stated that up to 40% of the energy is used during fishing operations by hydraulic devices installed at the fishing vessels. The paper presents the measurement results of energy consumption in typical operational states based on a selected fishing cutter operating at the Baltic Sea. The paper includes also the recommendations in terms modernization of hydraulic installations and the changes of control methods for devices with hydraulic drive. The calculations are also presented herein and they prove that it is possible to reduce energy consumption by a fishing cutter even by 20% while maintaining the unchanged operating parameters of the hydraulic devices.

Palabras clave

  • fishing cutters
  • hydraulic installations
  • energy efficiency
Acceso abierto

Application the Results of Energy Efficiency Audit Planning and Implementation of Fishing Vessels Modernisation

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 567 - 572

Resumen

Abstract

The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) became mandatory for new ships as well as the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships due to the MEPC 62 (July 2011) along with the adoption of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI by the Parties to the MARPOL Annex VI. This was the first legally binding climate change treaty to be adopted since the Kyoto Protocol. The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), which has been obligatory since 2013, did not to cover fishing cutters but triggered the implementation of energy efficiency audits due to fishing limits, high fuel prices, and free freight market. A research team of the Maritime University of Szczecin conducted energy efficiency audits on several fishing vessels operated on the Baltic Sea and provided the results to the shipowners. On their grounds, the shipowners started seeking methods to reduce energy consumption. They began modernizing the vessels using the information collected in the reports on energy audits. Usually, the modernization process is performed in several stages. Apart from energy recovery installations, fishing vessels were furnished with the latest technologies aimed at the reduction of energy consumption and at making ships greener. The paper presents results of the said process at the selected fishing cutters operating on the Baltic Sea. The paper includes also the recommendations on the directions of the following stages of the audits.

Palabras clave

  • fishing cutters
  • energy audits
  • energy efficiency
Acceso abierto

Average Fuel Consumption by a Ship on a Sales Line in Statistical Weather Conditions

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 573 - 579

Resumen

Abstract

During operation of the ship, fuel consumption and associated emissions are very important for economic and ecological reasons. The fuel consumption is greatly influenced by the choice of shipping route, weather conditions on these routes and engine control criteria. The article presents its own algorithm for forecasting ship operation parameters, including fuel consumption on selected shipping routes for average, statistical (seasonal) weather parameters occurring on these routes. It shows what factors have the main impact on fuel consumption and how you can affect fuel consumption during the cruise in changing weather conditions.

Palabras clave

  • fuel consumption
  • ship speed
  • propulsion power
  • shipping lines
  • average statistical weather parameters
Acceso abierto

Selected Transverse Stability Problems Related to Articulated Vehicles Built to Carry Liquid Cargo

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 581 - 587

Resumen

Abstract

The paper deals with problems connected with the transportation of dangerous cargo in articulated road tankers. The problems related to transverse stability of articulated vehicles have been discussed. The rig and experimental tests carried out to explore the transverse stability problem have been presented. Attention has been paid to the specificity of articulated road tankers. The necessity of rig and field testing of vehicles of this kind has been emphasized. The specificity of the transportation of such articulated vehicles by sea has been highlighted.

Palabras clave

  • dangerous cargo
  • road tanker
  • road transport
Acceso abierto

Maritime Containers Refrigeration Plant Faults Survey

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 589 - 595

Resumen

Abstract

Container transport is the most popular type of sea shipping around the world. The share of reefers (refrigerated container) in the total number of containers transported is about 15%.The worldwide stock of refrigerated containers used for transportation of perishable goods is still growing, while the conventional reefer fleet is shrinking. Still, despite of clean advantages they also carry some risks. Difficult operating conditions of refrigerated containers instigate very high risk of malfunctions, including permanent damage. The majority of articles about refrigerated systems failures, focus mainly on the onshore ones. Publications describing damage of reefers are limited. Therefore, this article attempts to classify and analyze the most frequent failures of container’s refrigeration units. This issue is very important for the crew safety, natural environment and high quality product preservation. The data necessary to perform the analysis come from reports on units damaged over two years. Introduction presents the characteristic of refrigerated containers and problems which occur during their exploitation. Next, the research methodology is presented. Eventually, the research results are presented and discussed. The summary and conclusions close the work.

Palabras clave

  • refrigerated containers
  • refrigeration system faults
Acceso abierto

Theoretical Research on the Gas Phase Density Change in Processes Occurring During Work of the Transport Module Intended for Transport From the Seabed

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 597 - 604

Resumen

Abstract

In recent years, we have observed a great interest in the exploitation of marine deposits by various methods of mining and transport to the surface. However, obtaining natural resources deposited at greater depths such as polymetallic nodules and seafloor massive sulphides – SMS creates a lot of challenges for both scientists and engineers. The solutions developed so far, unfortunately, have so far been characterized by high energy consumption.

For several years the authors have been conducting theoretical and experimental research on new concepts of seabed to surface transport. The results of them have been presented in previous publications. This publication presents the results of the continuation of research on the concept of construction and operation of an autonomous transport module (submitted for printing). It focuses on a theoretical analysis of the change in gas phase density in the processes occurring during operation of the transport module intended for transport from the seabed. For this purpose, a reduced form of the van der Waals equation was used in the form of a third-degree equation for parameters interested from the point of view of the transport module.

Palabras clave

  • Marine mining
  • transport from great depths
  • autonomous transport module
Acceso abierto

Theoretical Research on the Stability of the Transport Module Intended for Transport from the Seabed

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 605 - 612

Resumen

Abstract

The interest in sea mining has resulted in the recent years in the creation of many new methods for the exploitation of marine deposits as well as the transport from the seabed to the. For several years, the authors have been trying to develop new concepts of transport from the seabed. In previous publications, the authors presented the concept of an autonomous transport module for transport from the seabed. The research so far has focused on the development of the module’s operation principles, determination of the energy source in the transport process and changes in the average density of the transport module. In this publication, the authors focused on the stability problem of the transport module during deployment and ascent. This is a very important issue, because the stability of the module will determine its practical suitability for transport from the seabed.

Palabras clave

  • Marine mining
  • transport from great depths
  • autonomous transport module
Acceso abierto

Audit as a Tool to Control the Functionality of Ships Safety Management Systems

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 615 - 621

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to assess whether audit may be recognised as the evaluation tool for management systems in terms of their functioning and ensuring constant improvement. The paper content refers to the role of both internal and external audit. It also includes a characteristic of an internal auditor as a person directly responsible for efficient and effective audit. A correlation between the management system and the management process based on the guidelines is a subject of the analysis, too. The paper includes also the presentation of the safety management system and ship energy efficiency management systems the implementation of which is obligatory at ships. However, they differ in the methodology of the efficiency assessment. The author analysed the data previously collected and the information obtained during interviews with individuals to whom were delegated the duties in the scope of the both management schemes. The possibility of the using audit as a tool to improve the energy efficiency of ships is also considered hereunder. A proposed solution that may be applied to develop detailed standards in terms of the ship energy efficiency management process is also included.

Palabras clave

  • safety management systems
  • ship audit
  • evaluation of the functioning of the system
  • ISM Code
  • energy efficiency
Acceso abierto

Lean Management – System Assumptions and Barriers to Implementation

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 623 - 629

Resumen

Abstract

In recent years lean thinking (also referred as slim) increases its popularity not only in industry, but also in the entire business world. There are many confirmed effects demonstrating the high effectiveness of this philosophy: a clear improvement of economic indicators, an increase in current satisfaction and the acquisition of new clients; better, stable quality of offered products and services; efficient organization of production; more effective management; high productivity of work and production; minimizing the costs of production and storage of stocks. Why is Lean implementation in our domestic conditions not easy and sometimes ineffective? In this study we will try to answer these very important questions.

Palabras clave

  • Lean management
  • system
  • just in time
  • barriers
Acceso abierto

Overview of the Ship Efficiency Management Plan for a Seafaring Model Ship Based on the IMO MEPC 231 (65) Resolution

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 631 - 637

Resumen

Abstract

The increase of maritime international trade, especially of dangerous liquid cargos led to a significant increase of the number of sea-going ships. Their operation poses a real threat to the maritime environment both as a result of terminal events with transported dangerous liquid cargos and emissions of harmful products from fuels burnt by ship power systems. Because of those there is a need to undertake actions to prevent such occurrences using formal, legal and utilitarian tools. Philosophy of research methodology and rationalization of actions in compliance with international directives have been shown. The article presents the guidelines of the IMO Resolution MEPC 231(65) on preventing air pollution with carbon dioxide from ships. Design Energy Efficiency Index (EEDI) for a new ship was given as well as Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) determined for conventional ships after a completed voyage was defined and interpreted. A model of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) of a chosen ship has been constructed taking into account possible actions aimed at obtaining the highest power efficiency of the ship at sea voyage. Conclusions have been drawn and possible directions of further actions have been established.

Palabras clave

  • International Maritime Organization (IMO)
  • IMO Resolution MEPS 231 (65)
  • Design Energy Efficiency Index for a New Ship (EEDI) Operational Indicator Energy Efficiency Index (EEOI)
  • CO Emission Index Cf
  • Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)
Acceso abierto

Hotel Industry – Requirements for Hotel Business Managers’ Participatory Culture Acquisition

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 639 - 644

Resumen

Abstract

The paper aims at viewing meeting the requirements of hotel business managers functioning and training. As their successful employment and functions performing largely depends on participatory culture acquisition, the paper addresses the research questions: what groups of skills hotel business managers’ participatory professional skills (PPS) consist of; what activities might be used to teach PPS to future hotel business managers; what is the activities’ impact on teaching PPS to future hotel business managers. Case study and pedagogical experiment (the pretest-post-test control and experimental group design) have been applied in the research. Data have been gathered through conversational interviewing. Data source triangulation has been implemented to prove the validity of conversational interviewing questions. The research results in enlisting profession skills as the core of participatory culture. The traditions of the higher school and the requirements of partners participating in future hotel business managers training have been taken into consideration to teach PPS to future hotel business managers. The paper presents the results of testing the impact of the suggested activities program on the level of PPS. Statistical data processing is performed in the MS Excel 2010 environment using the chi-square test with a sample size (n ≥ 100). It shows that the program of activities meets the requirements to the future hotel business managers’ participatory culture acquisition.

Palabras clave

  • hotel industry
  • hotel business management
  • professional skills requirements
  • participatory culture
Acceso abierto

Simulation of the Process of Metal Hardness Measurement by the Rockwell Method

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 647 - 654

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents a simulation of metal hardness determination by the Rockwell method. The authors describe a physical model of an indenter and the examined sample built by means of the Nastran FX 2010 program using the finite elements method. The modelling included subsequent stages of indenter loads that follow the procedure used in the method. The verifying calculations were made for the results of C45 steel hardness of approx. 20 HRC. Two methods of hardness measurements were analyzed. A diamond cone was used as an indenting tool in one method, a steel ball in the other. As a result of calculations, spatial maps of elastic and plastic strains and stresses were obtained throughout the process. The hardness results obtained from computer simulations and those from experiments involving C45 steel are similar.

Palabras clave

  • metal hardness
  • Rockwell method
  • finite elements method
  • Nastran FX 2010
  • elastic strains
Acceso abierto

The Assembly Loads and Some Strengthening Methods of the Products from Porous Material with Coiled Wire

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 655 - 660

Resumen

Abstract

The product from porous permeable material based on a wire coil consists of a round, porous, thin-walled tube. The impact of assembly loads of the porous tube has been examined to determine the maximum values of the compressive force and axial elastic strain during the assembly. To improve mechanical properties of the product additional reinforcement has been proposed: larger diameter wire, woven wire cloth or spring.

Palabras clave

  • wire
  • porous tube
  • assembly loads
  • reinforcement
Acceso abierto

Contemporary Computer Support Design Solutions for Industrial Infrastructure

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 661 - 667

Resumen

Abstract

This article is an proposition to the use of contemporary CAD (Computer Aided Design) solutions for industrial infrastructure design, and to showing the many benefits of their practical use, avoiding many mistakes during the investment process, thereby increasing the quality of the creating products while reducing the costs associated with their production. The paper proposes a method of inventory of the current state and methods of spatial layout analysis of planned investment using smart databases to configure the individual manufacture slots. Presented is method of material flow analysis in the virtual model of the production line, tools for line analysis with particular focus on collision identification, job scheduling and parametric analysis of the planned installations.

Palabras clave

  • Design
  • CAD
  • technical documentation
  • 3D modeling
  • planning
  • optimization
  • production line
  • production processes
  • visualization
Acceso abierto

Technical Experimental Equipment for Making Porous Wire Samples

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 669 - 674

Resumen

Abstract

Original experimental technical equipment for making samples in the form of permeable tubes of porous material, i.e. coiled wire. The article describes the construction of the equipment, the processes of forming and pressing the wire semi-product and methods of fixing the ends of the wire product.

Palabras clave

  • wire
  • mandrel
  • winding
  • radial reduction
  • fixing of the ends
Acceso abierto

A Characteristic of Selected Properties of Vulcanised Rubber Elements Used on the “Izabel” Inland Vessel

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 675 - 679

Resumen

Abstract

Vulcanised rubber as a complex system is made from the basic component being virgin rubber and various components amounting to 10-15 per cent or even more. The material gains its most valuable properties in the final phase of processing i.e. vulcanisation. In mechanical as well as automotive engineering it is important for vulcanised rubber to be resistant to grease, oil and fuel in high operating temperatures. Being one of the very valuable isolation materials, vulcanised rubber is also characterised by dielectric and elastic properties as well as distinguished resistance to operating conditions (high/low temperature, weather conditions). All the above mentioned applications of vulcanised rubbers are also found in the shipyard industry. Their use is also very much predicated on the properties such as: ability to attenuate mechanical vibrations, high elasticity, considerable elastic deformability under static and dynamic loads, low permeability of water and gas, resistance to various chemicals, and other. The purpose of this article was to determine the hardness of vulcanised rubber samples obtained from various places on the “Izabel” inland barge. The scope of the study covered sampling and preparing the samples for testing (i.e. cleaning and degreasing the samples). Then, the hardness of the samples was measured using the Shore hardness test. The first part of the article presents the general concept of vulcanised rubber, its main components, properties, applications, and ageing. The second part focuses on the research scope and measuring the hardness of vulcanised rubber samples obtained from the “Izabel” inland barge.

Palabras clave

  • vulcanised rubber
  • hardness
  • ageing
  • wear and tear
Acceso abierto

Bulk Modulus of Copper Alloys in Context of Modern Metal Theory

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 681 - 686

Resumen

Abstract

The authors used a modern quantum theory allowing to determine the energy levels of electrons in real metal. Based on that analytical equations have been presented by means of which the bulk modulus for chosen metals were calculated. It should be emphasized that all values obtained directly from the derived equation are in perfect conformity with the experimental data, a few percentage differences are comparable with the potential measurement error. Subsequently a simple mathematical model has been proposed which allows to calculate the bulk modulus of copper alloys depending on their percentage composition. The authors performed numerical calculations for the typical copper alloys and the results are presented in the form of graphs.

Palabras clave

  • convolution
  • nonlocal potential
  • ionization energy
  • copper alloys
Acceso abierto

Results of a Study on the Quality of Conical Picks for Public Procurement Purposes

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 687 - 693

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents the results of a study on the quality of conical picks for the purposes of tender procedures in accordance with the public procurement law in Poland. The pick studies presented here are one of the few that in practice allow the selection of an offer based on objectively determined numerical indicators defining the quality of the product and not only on the basis of price. Thanks to this, the contracting party can decide the relevance of price and quality in their evaluation of a pick. The geometrical and material parameters required in a tender, if not met, are the basis for rejecting a given offer of picks. The numerical parameter influencing the final evaluation of the offer is the picks’ rate of wear. Conical picks are tools for mining minerals, rocks, asphalt or concrete. They are used in many industries, especially in mining, construction and road engineering. In difficult working conditions, the durability of knives is limited to as little as several hours. Several dozen picks work on a cutting unit at the same time, and taking into account the price of a knife which oscillates around several dozen euros, significant operating costs are incurred. Therefore, the selection of tools with an optimum price-quality ratio is crucial. The article presents the results of studies on geometric parameters, material parameters and the rate of wear of 48 sets of picks conducted for a tender consisting of 14 tasks. The tender was conducted for 6 underground mines of a coal company. Five producers submitted their offers for selected tasks in the tender.

Palabras clave

  • conical picks
  • offer selection
  • public tenders
  • durability
Acceso abierto

Modification of 316L Steel Surface in Ozone Atmosphere

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 695 - 701

Resumen

Abstract

The study reported in this paper was undertaken to assess whether certain ecologically-disastrous surface treatments, such as chemical and electrochemical treatment could be replaced with ozonation. The proposed technology is both ecologically-sound and relatively inexpensive. The research works were conducted on 316L steel substrates and involved photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The band positions on the review spectrum provide the basis for the qualitative identification of the atoms forming the surface layer, whereas their intensity – data for the calculation of the total concentration of these atoms in the analysed layer. High resolution spectra are used to determine the type of chemical bonds – based on the characteristic numbers of chemical shift. The results of tests on the state of surface layer energy of 316L steel substrate following ozone treatment are also presented. The conducted tests and the analysis of the obtained results indicate that ozone treatment effectively removes atmospheric carbon contaminants off the specimen surface. The test results show a decrease in atmospheric carbon on samples after ozone treatment compared to untreated samples. Moreover, results show an increase in the value of the free surface energy in specimens subjected to ozone treatment.

Palabras clave

  • 316L surface layer
  • ozone treatment
  • free surface energy
  • 316L steel
Acceso abierto

Amplitudes Spectrum Comparison as a Method of Selecting Welded Joints

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 703 - 709

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents a comparative analysis of non-destructive testing methods used in the assessment of welded joints. The authors describe the methodology of conducting tests on welded plates using the vibration method. On the basis of the FFT analysis of responses from accelerometers, spectral characteristics were calculated, and then used along with statistical measures to develop a comparative method in non-destructive testing of welded joints. This method will make it possible to quickly and easily distinguish plates with non-defective welded joints from plates with faulty welds. The paper presents test results for a non-defective plate weld (sample no. 2202), a plate with defective edge fusion (sample no. 2127) and one with a cracking along the entire sample length (sample no. 2132). The article points out the limitations of the proposed method and the need for further research

Palabras clave

  • diagnostics
  • welded joints
  • non-destructive testing
  • welding defects
  • edge fusion
  • vibration
  • statistical analysis
Acceso abierto

Capabilities Selected Rules, Recommendations and Problems for the Design of Power Electronics Equipment Installed on Ships

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 711 - 719

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of the state and possibilities of using power electronics and electric drives on ships, and in particular, in ship engine room. Problems related to the operation of power electronics in the soft network are presented. The issues related to the design of multi-pulse high power rectifiers are discussed, which is one of the most popular power electronics devices used on vessels. Then a simulation study of selected rectifier circuits was carried out. The purpose of this study was to show the effect of selecting a power electronics design on the waveforms of the voltages and currents in a soft network on the rectifier example. Also discussed are main electromagnetic device problems and issues related to regulations and recommendations for their design and operation. Proper selection of the type of the power supply design and observance of the rules and regulations ensures the efficiency of the equipment and the quality of the energy being processed and reduces their negative impact on the remaining equipment and network.

Palabras clave

  • power electronics
  • electric drive
  • engine room
  • high power converters
  • electricity conditioning
Acceso abierto

Impact of the Engine Tuning on its Technical Condition Assessment Based on Limited Number of Available Parameters

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 721 - 728

Resumen

Abstract

Due to the limited scope of the diagnostic equipment on the ship, the technical condition of the engine is based on the measurement of pressure and temperature at the available measuring points. Usually it is the exhaust temperature at the outlet of individual cylinders, supercharging pressure, oil temperature and cooling water temperature. Sometimes the bearing temperature and turbocharger speed are also measured. Normally, if the engine is adapted to this, the maximum combustion pressure is measured periodically although distorted through the channels with the indicator valves. The paper presents examples of the exploitation of marine diesel engines, where there is a discrepancy between the actual technical state of the engine and the technical state of the engine based on the traditional diagnostic method based on a limited set of available parameters. These discrepancies resulted, inter alia, from the regular fuel injection timing and fuel dose adjustment, so that the measured parameters were adequate to the actual load of the engine. This adjustment is justified, but leads to masking engine components wear symptoms. In this situation, it can only be stated that the state of the fuel injection equipment is suitable for the current technical state of the some engine components and does not provide a sufficient basis for the extension of the repair interval.

Palabras clave

  • piston engine
  • indicated pressure
  • diagnostics
Acceso abierto

Marine Propulsion System Vibration Sensor Heads

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 729 - 737

Resumen

Abstract

Vibration symptoms are the main symptoms used for diagnosing machines. This applies mainly to vibrations of non-rotating machines. Symptoms of rotating element vibrations are used in a limited scope, while mostly used are the symptoms of radial vibrations of rotating shafts. Across industries, the use of technical vibration diagnosis varies. Marine propulsion systems are poorly equipped with diagnostic equipment of that type. One of the main reasons is lack of appropriate sensors. The study presents two solutions of sensor heads. One solution applies to a sensor head built into the free end of the crankshaft of a reciprocating machine. The shaft free end sensor allows measurement of torsional and longitudinal vibration accelerations of the free end as a function of shaft rotation. The other solution refers to a sensor head built into sealed slide bearing of a straight shaft. The slide bearing head enables measurement of the eccentricity to the journal relative to the shell. Sensor heads under consideration are particularly suitable to be built in the ship’s propulsion system and integrated with the ship’s maintenance system. Sensors of the ship’s maintenance system equipped with these heads will allow the operator to draw conclusions concerning the wear margins of the propulsion engine and that of the tail shaft.

Palabras clave

  • vibration of machines
  • marine propulsion systems
  • vibration symptoms
  • sensors
  • sensor heads
Acceso abierto

Changes in Marine Diesel Engines Operating Strategy

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 739 - 746

Resumen

Abstract

Constant changes in the operating strategy of marine diesel engines are observed. They refer to whole engine and different functional systems of the engine in different range. The paper presents changes in marine diesel engines operating strategy. Gradual transition from simple failure response operating strategy – Corrective Maintenance (CM) to a reliability-oriented strategy – Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) has been described together with some remarks about Planed Maintenance (PM) systems and Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) systems with their latest form called CBM+. Some information about changes in diesel engines operating strategy in the Polish Navy (PN) at the turn of the last 35 years is also presented. An attempt to build engine analyzer for high-speed diesel engines at the Polish Naval Academy (PNA) in order to improve submarine diesel engines operating strategy is also described in the paper.

Palabras clave

  • marine diesel engines
  • planned maintenance
  • condition based maintenance
  • vibration analysis
Acceso abierto

Selected Issues on the Methodology of Determining the Efficiency of a Ship’s Energy System in Different Operating States

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 747 - 754

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents the methodology and algorithm for determining the efficiency of a ship’s energy system, which can be helpful at both operation and design stage. Knowledge of the methodology discussed here and the definitions of a ship’s energy system’s efficiency may be particularly useful for operators, as particularly complicated energy conversion chains exist on specialized units, such as fishing vessels, which have many devices that can be driven by different types of engines and transmissions. Proper disposal of energy streams allows for their optimal use and for a reduction in fuel consumption, whose cost constitutes the largest share of the vessel’s operating costs.

Palabras clave

  • ship’s energy system
  • efficiency
  • calculation methods
Acceso abierto

Acoustic Emission of Monolithic IGBT Transistors

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 755 - 760

Resumen

Abstract

Due to the increasing number of applications of power semiconductor devices, more and more attention is being paid to diagnostic methods to determine the condition of working semiconductor components. On the basis of the results of experimental research, a correlation can be observed between the transition between the on/off states of a single IGBT transistor in operation and the acoustic signal emitted by it. Acquisition of acoustic emission signals was obtained using a specialized sensor from Vallen. To record the received signal, a high resolution digital oscilloscope was used, which exported the recorded signal to a file, which enabled further digital processing of the acquired signals. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of acoustic emission detection methods to determine the possibility of damage to an element based on the recorded acoustic signal.

Palabras clave

  • IGBT Modules
  • IGBT Transistor
  • Acoustic Emission
95 Artículos
Acceso abierto

On Deck Oil Spill Clean-Up Materials – Solution for Engine Rooms

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 11 - 18

Resumen

Abstract

The presence of flammable substances nearby hot surfaces in the engine rooms pose a fire hazard. Therefore the quick and effective removal of oil spills from these areas is of utmost importance. The simplest way is to use sorbent materials having the capacity to absorb oil substances. Oil sorbents comprise of a wide range of organic, inorganic and synthetic products. The choice of form and type of sorbent material depends on the intended application: type of spill, its size and location. The article describes the results of studies aimed to compare the absorbency of selected natural and synthetic sorbents in the context of their application in case of an oil spill in the engine room. Although the natural sorbents should not be used in water, because they absorb it and can in addition contaminate the seabed, they can be used to remove oil spills on the ship. After used they can be disposed on the ship by burning.

Palabras clave

  • oil spill
  • engine room
  • sorbent
Acceso abierto

Student Apprenticeships of Course-of-Study and Diploma-Related Types as an Element Used for Raising the Professional Competences of Engineers Educated for the Needs of Maritime and Inland Shipping Industry

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 19 - 25

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of the underlying paper is to highlight the significance of specialist and diploma-related apprenticeships at the bachelor degree studies provided by the technical university. The evaluation of the quality of apprenticeships was conducted among the students of the Economy, Engineering and Transport Faculty of the Maritime University of Szczecin (Poland), for the study directions Production Management and Engineering (Polish: ZiP), Logistics (L) and Transport (T). The research methodology was based on questionnaire form, statistical analysis of results reliability and the analysis of literature. The results of the conducted research unequivocally indicated a need to introduce changes to the organisation of the apprenticeships, as this area determines the quality of engineers practical education and influences their professional competences.

Palabras clave

  • quality of education
  • engineering education
  • professional competence
Acceso abierto

The Impact of the Ban on Spending Weekly Rest in the Vehicle on Transport Planning in the EU

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 27 - 33

Resumen

Abstract

The working conditions of truck drivers and social legislation are both topical and political issues in the field of road freight transport. The contribution outlines problems which are linked to the observance of the ban on weekly rest in the vehicle. Based on the judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union explicitly forbids drivers to take their regular weekly rest in the vehicle. The contribution identifies the impact of the ban on spending weekly rest in the vehicle on transport planning in the EU. The aim of the contribution is also to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector in connection with insufficient number of truck parks with accommodation.

Palabras clave

  • road freight transport
  • weekly rest
  • driver
  • vehicle
  • truck parking
Acceso abierto

Safety Aspect in Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Railway Transport

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 35 - 41

Resumen

Abstract

Safety in transportation of dangerous goods is an important issue in transport processes. The impact of transport damage on the level of safety is very high and therefore becomes a very important issue in transport. The number of breakdowns in railway transport is becoming more and more advanced with deterioration of wagon condition due to aging. Thanks to the analysis of these data, it was possible to approximate the problem of transport failures and their impact on the safety of people involved in this transport process. In addition, the simulation in ALOHA program has been carried out that allows to illustrate the effects of the hazardous substance release from the transport rail tank. This event may result from derailment of the wagon or breakage of the wagon component. The simulation shows the extent of the threat during the incident. The conducted researches and their analysis have shown the problems of railway transport safety on various levels and different planes.

Palabras clave

  • railway transport
  • dangerous goods
  • threats
  • defects of railway transport
  • advantages of railway transport
Acceso abierto

Selected Problems of Ship Safety in the Process of Docking

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 43 - 49

Resumen

Abstract

This article concerns safety during ship docking operations. It presents its specificity for this type of operation, describes selected problems that may occur during its operation and identifies the main factors initiating extraordinary situations. The article presents 4 examples of accidents during docking operations in recent years. Cause and effect analysis was carried out and presented graphically. This analysis illustrated the occurring errors in the safety system during the docking operation.

Palabras clave

  • ship’s docking
  • safety
  • accidents
  • threats
Acceso abierto

Development of Learners’ Creativity Potential

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 51 - 54

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the paper is viewing the ways to develop learners’ creativity potential. The concept of learners’ creativity potential is defined. The structure of creativity potential is specified. Two groups of activities included into the technology are described: the activity of the teacher (activating, cognitive-search, reflexive components); creative self-actualization of students (motivational, procedural, effective components). The methodology of the research includes case study and pedagogical experiment (the pretest-post-test control and experimental group design). Data are gathered by means of conversational interviewing. The research results in suggesting a technology to develop learners’ creativity potential. The paper includes the results of testing the impact of the technology on the level of creativity. The criteria of development of divergent thinking fluency, flexibility, originality, accuracy; self-reliance; imagination; creative motivation; reflexive-analytical skills were considered.

Statistical data processing is performed applying the chi-square test. It shows that the suggested technology is effective in developing learners’ creativity potential.

Palabras clave

  • creativity potential
  • future teachers training
  • professional development
Acceso abierto

Assessment of the Changes in the Economy of Municipal Waste in Poland After 2004

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 55 - 61

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of European Union policy is to implement the principles of sustainable development, in which particularly important are: environmental protection and rational management of resources. Major role is given to waste management and appropriate prioritization of activities in this area. The main goal of waste management is prevention, minimization and elimination of wastes “at source”, as well as encouraging efficient use of natural resources through recovery and recycling of waste. Storage process should be minimalized over the years until the complete elimination. As shown by statistics data, unfortunately in Poland, the process is very slow. The analysis of the data provided by the Central Statistical Office (CSO) over the last thirteen years shows a significant increase in the level of recovery and recycling of municipal waste. All together it was 11.654 million Mg of municipal waste collected in 2016. Wastes selected from municipal waste (paper, glass, plastics, metals) accounted for only 25.2% (2.942 million Mg), and mixed waste accounted for 74.8% (8.712 million Mg). In 2016 the recycling rate was 27.83%, composting or fermentation – 16.22%, 19.44% of municipal wastes are subjected thermal transformation and the storage level is 36.51%. Landfilling is still the most common form of municipal waste disposal.

Palabras clave

  • sustainable development
  • waste management
  • municipal waste
  • recovery
  • recycling
Acceso abierto

Traffic Safety of Main Roads in Poland

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 63 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents an analysis of traffic safety on major communication routes in Poland. The total number of accidents in Poland has been compared and analysed in relation to the objectives in the context of the GAMBIT programs and the National Road Safety Program for the years 2013-2020. Analyses of the number of accidents in the years 2004-2017 have been presented in the article. A significant decrease in accidents has been demonstrated and annual changes determined, the value of which ranged from 12.15 to 6.74%. The statistics on fatalities have been also analysed. A midyear change in the number of fatalities has been determined, which constitute -4.4% in the analysed period. The data on the number of vehicles registered in Poland, which considerably affects traffic congestion, has been presented. In spite of this, there has been no increase in the number of accidents. The work compares changes in the length of the most important types of routes in Poland, as well as accidents and fatalities that occurred on them. With the decreasing overall number of accidents in Poland, there has been a noticeable drop in accidents per 100 km of road length also on these roads. The fatality rate per 100 accidents in Poland has been determined and the average value of this rate in 2017 was 8.64, while on the analysed roads it ranged from 12.3 to 14.6.

Palabras clave

  • traffic safety
  • roads in Poland
  • accidents
  • analysis
  • statistics
Acceso abierto

Dimensioning of Danger Zones Emerging as a Domino Effect of An Lng Explosion for Industrial Plants Located in the Vicinity of Inland Transport Fairways

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 73 - 79

Resumen

Abstract

The development of new technologies, the use and transport of LNG increases the number of investments that may mutually affect their safety on account of a domino effect. It means that a breakdown caused by one of the business entities may contribute to the escalation of a problem through thermal energy emission in another entity. The energy absorbed in an adjacent technological process line may cause irreparable damage despite the security measures employed. When planning an investment of a pioneering nature, one ought to consider not only the modern technologies used in a newly designed installation, but one must also pay attention to the direct neighbourhood of other industrial plants and the planned infrastructure, e.g. for gas transport or transhipment. Such a synergistic approach guarantees the safety of undertaken activities and ensures a stable, breakdown-free operation of all the business entities located in a given area. This paper discusses the issue of mutual influence exerted by two independent entities located within a small distance of one another, i.e. salt processing plant and a vessel transporting an LNG mixture. The authors considered a situation in which a breakdown occurs in an industrial plant and in which the released energy causes damage to a tank shell of an LNG carrying vessel on an inland fairway. In the examined situation the types of risks arising from LNG tank shell damage on-board an inland vessel were defined and the dimensions of the resulting danger zones were determined in a function of concentration of individual LNG components as well as the pressure and temperature generated inside the tank. The shape of the tank was also taken into consideration, since it affects fractioning in the course of the release of the substance accumulated in it. The analysis was conducted on the basis of DNV Phast 7.11 software.

Palabras clave

  • BLEVE
  • LNG
  • Phast
  • danger zones
  • domino effect
Acceso abierto

Analysis of the Reasons for Violation of the Standards on Working Time by Professional Drivers

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 81 - 86

Resumen

Abstract

The paper features a discussion on the legal conditions that regulate the aspects of working time, driving times, breaks and rest periods for professional drivers. The drivers’ knowledge of and compliance with the regulations were the subject of surveys conducted among thirty professional drivers. The study was conducted on a group of selected drivers (males) hired in a single transport company. The interviewees referred to their knowledge and its practical use in everyday work. The interviewees responded anonymously and voluntarily to the questions asked in the survey. These were persons of the age of 21 to 65 years old. 47% of all interviewees executed only national transports, whereas international transports were executed by 33% drivers. The interviewees included persons with basic, vocational, secondary and higher education. Most of them were persons with large occupational experience, working as a professional driver longer than 5 years, no persons with occupational experience between 11 to 19 years. The paper includes the specification of the survey methodology and analysis of the obtained results, with special attention paid to the reasons for the conscious and unconscious violation of regulations. The analysis results are presented in a graphical form.

Palabras clave

  • professional driver working time
  • professional driver
  • tachograph
  • road transport
Acceso abierto

Photobiological Safety of Incandescent Lamp Replacements

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 87 - 94

Resumen

Abstract

The article, based on the records of the EN 62471:2008, presents guidelines for photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems. There are allowed safe exposure times presented and emission limit values for each of four risk groups, defined by the standard. The paper presents criteria for lamps irradiance or radiance measurement. Discussed risks with association of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. For a detailed presentation of the potential risks associated with the blue light, there is made a comparison of spectra of selected light sources. On these basis, the blue light hazard assessment was presented for selected light sources.

Palabras clave

  • Photobiological safety
  • risk groups
  • ultraviolet radiation
  • blue light hazard
Acceso abierto

Modelling Safety Culture Among Crews of Seafaring Vessels

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 95 - 101

Resumen

Abstract

Marine work conditions, differing from those on land, have been presented. The study has identified a multitude of factors generating physical and psychical effects on crew members, different cultural patterns and dangers which have to be overcome to reach the state when thinking of safety accompanies all performed activities. Creation of legislature and procedures and their observance have been presented as a basis for constructing safety culture and the sense of safety. Safety management, coordinated by ship owners, has been justified as activities to be realized on ships. It has been indicated in this study that building up safety culture among the members of the power plant crew of seafaring ships is the most important issue due to the fact that their work environment is unfriendly to humans and that there is a high fire risk in a ship power plant.

Palabras clave

  • safety
  • seafaring ship
  • management
  • crew
  • fire
Acceso abierto

Mathematical Model for Predicting the Ship Speed in the Actual Weather Conditions on the Planned Ocean Route

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 105 - 112

Resumen

Abstract

While operating the ship, one of the most important tasks is forecasting the ocean route. The vessel’s speed characteristics are used to predict the route. Commonly used are very simplified algorithms for calculating those characteristics in which only a few basic ship parameters are used. The article presents a more detailed mathematical model for forecasting the speed of the ship in real weather conditions. This model requires more detailed geometric data of the ship and its propulsion (propeller and propulsion engine), but this data is available for operating ships.

Palabras clave

  • ocean route
  • ship speed
  • wind
  • current
  • wave
  • ship propulsion
Acceso abierto

Use of the Chief Engineers Experience to Prioritize Operational Tasks in the Ship Engine Room

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 113 - 118

Resumen

Abstract

The frequent causes of ships’ detentions by port authorities are abnormalities of marine power plant functioning. Each extended ship lay time in port results in a waste of ship operating time thus costs rise to ship owners. This is connected with improper marine power plant management. In order to avoid this, a ship engineer should have at his disposal computer aided system supporting him in the managing of the marine power plant. One element of the decision making process in managing the marine engine room is to determine how important is each of the tasks which the operators have to do. This estimation is the base to choose the most important tasks and make optimal schedule with them using AHP method. Based on practice, a hierarchic structure of factors influencing a tasks validity in the engine room operating process was made. Next a preliminary questionnaire was conducted, which put questions to the experts as chief engineers next. This enabled to define numerical values of suitable coefficients influencing on the validity of operating tasks, show results of calculations in form of mileage parameters of engine as a function of crank angle.

Palabras clave

  • AHP
  • engine room
  • operation task priority
Acceso abierto

The Impact of the Route of Transport on Price Formation in Road Freight Transport

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 119 - 125

Resumen

Abstract

In general, transport companies have an unimportant role in the business market, in order to achieve the required sales and the related profit. Competition in road transport is great and enforcement from a large number of carriers is considerable. It is the price for the transport of goods that plays the most important role how to get the carrier and the customer who wants the lowest transport price. On the contrary, the carrier would like to get the highest amount for the shipment. A compromise between these two requirements should form the required shipping price. Pricing involves a factor other than costs, the attractiveness of the transport destination, in terms of the possibility of return utilization the vehicle. The aim of the paper is to verify the hypothesis, that the cost of transport is affected not only by the carrier’s costs, but also the target destination of the ordered shipment.

Palabras clave

  • offer
  • demand
  • road transport
  • price
  • costs
  • transportation
Acceso abierto

Probabilistic-Deterministic Method of Rescaling Ship Manoeuvring Simulation Data Defining Parameters of Fairway Bends

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 127 - 133

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents a method of scaling up existing simulation tests results from ships with parameters L1, B1 (length and breadth) determining a safe waterway bend width (d1) to specify a width (d2) safe for ships with other dimensions L2, B2. This method enables accurate determination of the safe fairway width (d) in case it has been planned to increase maximum length and width of vessels without carrying out relatively expensive simulation tests. The method was used in designing the parameters of the modernized Swinoujscie-Szczecin fairway.

Palabras clave

  • fairways
  • maneuvering of vessels
  • method of simulating vessel movement
Acceso abierto

Capabilities of Local and Remote Monitoring and Control of Equipment Used in Marine Ship Industry

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 135 - 141

Resumen

Abstract

This article presents two aspects regarding marine equipment control and monitoring. The first one is the issue of remote and local control in the maritime and land industry. The second is the economical and efficient use of redundant devices. This article describes the structure of remote control implemented on vessels. Paper presents an idea of control that combines remote and local control to provide optimal use of redundant devices with simultaneous increase of system reliability. The whole concept is shown on the built physical model with the control and operator panels. The control was implemented using freely programmable controller and HMI panel.

Palabras clave

  • maritime devices
  • redundancy
  • remote and local control
  • PLC
Acceso abierto

Impact of Dock Tanks Pumping Plan on Structural Loads of a Dock and a Ship

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 143 - 149

Resumen

Abstract

Positioning of a ship on a working platform above the waterline in order to repair and modernize the underwater hull parts requires changes from continuous support to point support. And as a result of such, the load of the ship structure is subject to changes as well. In extreme cases, the loads may exceed the allowable loads and cause damage to the hull structure. The paper presents the technical aspects of the ships docking process which may have an impact on safety. It also includes a discussion on procedures that reduce the risk of malfunction and failure.

Palabras clave

  • vessels
  • repairs
  • docking
  • floating docks
Acceso abierto

Grid Type Impact on the Results of the Volume of Fluid Method in the Free Surface Flow Calculations Around Ship Hull

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 151 - 157

Resumen

Abstract

This article presents results of the free surface flow around ship hull on two different types of computational grid. Each type of mentioned grid has its own advantages and disadvantages in particular cases, mostly in one phase simulation. Omitting cases with capitation, there is no free surface involved in one phase simulation. Multiphase simulations are crucial in the ship design process and optimization. Recreating free surface on the triangular mesh causes difficulties, in contrast to the hexahedral meshes, where calculated surface is more aligned to the physical border of the fluids. In this paper, results from the triangular mesh were compared to results from hexahedral mesh. Conclusions about triangular meshes in two phase simulation are presented. The computational fluid dynamic toolbox OpenFOAM is used to perform calculations of the total resistance of work boat in calm water.

Palabras clave

  • ship
  • simulation
  • design
  • optimization
  • OpenFOAM
Acceso abierto

Ship’s Operational Speed on the Planned Ocean Route in Real Weather Conditions

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 159 - 166

Resumen

Abstract

While operating the ship, one of the most important tasks is forecasting the ocean route. For this purpose, the speed characteristics of the ship are used, which are used in specialized computer systems and presented in publications. However, published algorithms for speed (or decrease of speed) calculations of a ship in real weather conditions on given routes are very simplified and do not contain all the relevant parameters related to the ship’s hull (affecting its resistance when sailing, eg on waves), its propulsion and weather conditions. The article presents its own, more detailed mathematical model of the speed of the ship, and the performed calculations of speed of the ship were compared with the algorithms available in the literature and with the records from the ship’s log.

Palabras clave

  • ocean route
  • ship speed
  • weather parameters
  • ship propulsion
Acceso abierto

Intensity of Dangerous Phones from Waves on Selected Oceanic Routes

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 167 - 174

Resumen

Abstract

Ocean routes are recommended for ships based on economic criteria. Under the influence of waves. during sailing of the ship. various dangerous phenomena arise which can lead to marine crashes. Although weather sites are known to provide short-term weather forecasts (wave and wind parameters). this information is not used to calculate corrections of ocean-route guidelines. A captain based on his knowledge and experience can make such adjustments. The article presents the results of calculations of the values of dangerous parameters of phenomena which may occur during a cruise on example ocean routes. For the calculation of dangerous phenomena. the average statistical long-term (seasonal) parameters contained in weather atlas were used.

Palabras clave

  • forecasting ocean routes
  • irregular long-term (seasonal) waves
  • dangerous phenomena occurring during sailing at waves
Acceso abierto

Harmonization of Market Conditions in Provision of Road Freight Transport

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 175 - 181

Resumen

Abstract

International road transport is a specific service within the frame of services provided in the European Union. It is because the conditions of being active on the market are influenced by the states where businessmen operate, but services can be provided throughout the whole year in other member states of the European Union. The aim of the contribution is to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector. These problems persist despite the fact that market access was exempted from the national law of individual member states and regulated directly by EU regulations. Despite the unification of market access, tax and social harmonization is not ensured in international road freight transport. An unequal tax burden on carriers and different requirements of wage regulations create a discriminatory environment among entrepreneurs. The contribution identifies the factors that deform the equal operating conditions in single market. The aim of the contribution is also to provide the readers with the answers to the questions: Is it possible under current EU conditions to harmonize tax and social conditions? What impact would this harmonization have on business environment?

Palabras clave

  • approach
  • business activities
  • harmonization
  • market
  • road transport
Acceso abierto

Dangerous Phones Arising from the Waves During the Oceanic Route Ship

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 183 - 189

Resumen

Abstract

Ocean routes are recommended for ships based on economic criteria. Under the influence of waves, during the cruise of the ship, dangerous phenomena are created, the intensity of which depends on the speed of the ship and its course in relation to the direction of the waves, the state of the sea, the size of the ship, the state of loading. Although weather services are known, waves parameters are not used to calculate the value of parameters that characterize dangerous phenomena. The article presents the most frequently analysed dangerous phenomena, how they are calculated, the criteria for their evaluation, and the results of calculations for the selected vessel.

Palabras clave

  • forecasting of shipping routes
  • irregular waves
  • dangerous phenomena when the ship is sailing at the waves
Acceso abierto

Reimbursement of Excise Duty on Minerals Oils

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 191 - 196

Resumen

Abstract

Enterprise in the EU is currently a single market business, but on which the conditions are not completely unified. In the case of mineral oil excise duty a minimum level of taxation is set by EU rules, but individual states do not strictly prescribe a specific rate of tax. It is a fact for international road transport, that there are states on the route of transport, where it is preferable to pump fuel. Because the mineral oil tax is an income of state budget in concrete state, is good for the state, if the carrier pumps fuel on the territory of that state. For carriers who only drive within the country the higher tax rate is more advantageous in terms of choice. For this reason, some EU countries apply for the selected group of entrepreneurs, the refund of excise duty due to the use of carriers in their territory and to achieve higher tax deduction in cumulative terms. The purpose of this contribution is to identify the possibilities for refunding excise duty in the Slovak Republic and to propose a procedure for assessing the effects of the refund of excise duty on mineral oils.

Palabras clave

  • mineral oils
  • reimbursement
  • excise duty
  • taxes
  • freight transport
Acceso abierto

Unification Proposal on Market Access for Freight Forwarding in the European Union

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 197 - 203

Resumen

Abstract

The paper deals with the issue of different market access for the transport procurement in the EU in context of open market of providing forwarding services. It highlights different requirements of market access in freight forwarding. The article proposes conditions of market access unification in freight forwarding based on analysis of the existing situation. It also refers to the different responsibility of freight forwarder depending on membership in the national associations of freight forwarders. The contribution analyses the limitation of liability in freight forwarding and shows differences in contract of freight forwarding for particular shipments by model examples. There is also pointed to the need for the development of uniform freight forwarding conditions in the EU.

Palabras clave

  • business
  • contract
  • freight forwarding
  • market
  • responsibility
Acceso abierto

Ship Route Programming in Restricted and Coastal Areas in Tropical Cyclone Regions

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 205 - 212

Resumen

Abstract

The article describes various methods used for tropical cyclone avoidance maneuvers during navigation in restricted and coastal waters. The avoidance maneuvers were carried out with the use of the following methods: the ORS (Onboard Routing System) systems, Bon Voyage 7.0 and SPOS 7.0, the 1-2-3 rule recommended by the US national weather administration NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), the graphic-manual anti-collision plot, as well as the assistance and recommendations of the shore based AWT (Applied Weather Technologies) Centre. The weather and operational data that were used were from the actual voyage of the 9000TEU container ship POSTPANAMX, from Yantian (China) to Vancouver (Canada), which took place in August 2015. During this voyage the ship encountered the tropical cyclone SOUDELOR.

Palabras clave

  • tropical cyclone
  • avoidance maneuvers
  • Bon Voyage
  • SPOS
  • CYKLON
  • 1-2-3 rule
  • anticollision plot
  • weather routing
Acceso abierto

The Impact of Transport Time on the Carrier’s Costs

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 213 - 218

Resumen

Abstract

In freight road transport, the price per unit of transport is not the same for each shipment for reason, that many factors influence the cost of shipping. An important aspect, in addition to cost inputs, which decides, how high will the shipping cost it is the destination where the transportation takes place. The purpose of this article is to identify the impact of the change of destination on carrier costs. Authors will not deal with specific costs related to the change of destination, which include, for example, charges for the use of the road network or travel compensation to the driver, but will only deal with the probability of vehicle back-up. If the carrier is unable to backhaul of the vehicle, the initial shipping costs increase significantly.

Palabras clave

  • freight transport
  • transport time
  • backhaul
  • costs
Acceso abierto

Significance Analysis of Ship Operational States as a Factor Influencing the Energy Efficiency of a Research – Training Vessel

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 219 - 225

Resumen

Abstract

Ship operational state is a sequence of temporary values of state variable parameters expressing the properties of a particular object and which are recognised as significant for a specific problem. They are the key elements of the operational tasks and essential to determining the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator for a specialised vessel. In that case, the method refers directly to specific operational states and their significance for a particular operational task in the time function. Based on the surveys conducted on a population of people employed by the ship owner and involved in the ship operation, one has analysed the significance of the operational states for that vessel. The differentiated perception of the operational states of the subjected vessel results from, inter alia, the tasks performed by the responders as their duties, their experience and the level of their engagement in the ship operation. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the states enables to conduct the planning process in terms of operational tasks of the specialized ship for effective and efficient operation.

Palabras clave

  • operational state
  • special vessel energy efficiency
Acceso abierto

An Algorithm for Diagnosing Injection Systems of Marine Engines

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 227 - 233

Resumen

Abstract

The article presents the developed methods for diagnosing and analysing signals from injection systems of marine engines. As a source signal, the authors use elastic waves of acoustic emission. The essential fact in the case here considered is that the high frequency of signal from working elements of the injection system comes from a close source directly related to the change of the working parameters of the element (system). Characteristically for elastic waves of acoustic emission, low frequencies (e.g. those from other sources, such as machines in the engine room) are in this case attenuated. Therefore, the proper selection of the method for the analysis allows us accurately diagnose the injection system of a working engine.

Palabras clave

  • Diesel Engine
  • injection system
  • diagnosis
  • acoustic emission
  • elastic waves
Acceso abierto

Application of Steam Jet Injector for Latent Heat Recovery of Marine Steam Turbine Propulsion Plant

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 235 - 244

Resumen

Abstract

This paper presents the results of previously carried out analyses regarding efficiency and criteria evaluation of various propulsion plants of modern LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) carriers. The results of previous identification and quality assessment of waste heat energy sources of a CST (Conventional Steam Turbine) plant are presente. In this paper the possibility of use a steam jet injector in order to recover the latent heat is analysed. Calculations were carried out for an injector equipped with a de Laval nozzle, determining the thermodynamic state parameters of the mixture of drive steam and sucked in steam as well as the steam on the outlet of the injector for the various ejection ratios. On the basis of the results of the injector calculation, the heat balance of a simple regenerative Clausius – Rankine steam cycle (with one regenerative heater – deaerator) was carried out. The degree of regeneration (increase of the thermal efficiency) for cycle using the regenerative injector was determined. Based on results the further research directions for complex plants using a steam jets are indicated.

Palabras clave

  • thermal efficiency
  • propulsion plant
  • steam turbine
  • steam jet injector
Acceso abierto

Determination of Regression Formulas for Key Design Characteristics of Container Ships at Preliminary Design Stage

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 247 - 257

Resumen

Abstract

This article presents regression equations to estimate container ship design characteristics based on the most up-to-date data and deadweight capacity, the number of containers and their combination at the preliminary design stage. These design formulas could have application for the estimation of key container ship characteristics such as: main ship dimensions, geometric parameters, main engine total power, ship velocity, final price and others. Regression equations were performed on the basis of IHS Maritime & Trade main container ship data built from 2005-2015. All equations presented in this paper could have practical application at the preliminary design stage and increase ship design theory development.

Palabras clave

  • preliminary
  • ship
  • containership
  • design
  • main dimensions
  • regression
Acceso abierto

Energy Saving Energetic Systems for Coastal Fishing Cutters

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 259 - 265

Resumen

Abstract

The maritime environment protection is increasingly reflected in legal regulations regarding, inter alia, the harmful exhaust gas components emitted by marine combustion engines. The provisions imposing the emission limits for SOx, NOx and CO2 are included in MARPOL 73/78 ANNEX VI adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). However, as of today, these provisions are not applicable to fishing cutters. One of the methods, both to decrease emissions’ volume and also to reduce the operating costs of ships, is to lower fuel consumption of marine energetic systems. The paper presents a proposition of energy-efficient and environmentally friendly energetic systems for coastal fishing cutters. It also demonstrates the importance of the said systems and includes the elaboration regarding the impact of fuel type, renewable energy sources and energy conversion methods on the hazards to the environment caused by the emission of harmful exhaust gas components. The presented solutions refer to fishing cutters of the length of 15-30 m and are categorized into two groups. The division criterion applied is an access to technologies currently available and future technologies enabling the use of alternative energy sources.

Palabras clave

  • fishing cutters
  • energetic systems structure
  • alternative fuels and energy source
  • exhaust gas emission
Acceso abierto

Experimental Research on the Concept of Using an Autonomous Transport Module for Transport From the Seabed

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 267 - 275

Resumen

Abstract

The great interest in the exploitation of sea deposits has in recent years resulted in the creation of many consortia conducting research on various methods of mining and transport to the surface. Exploitation of the shelf areas of crude oil and gas as well as solid minerals is successfully carried out in many places around the world using various methods. More and more often, however, we want to obtain natural resources found at great depths such as polymetallic nodules and massive polymetallic sulphides. This puts much greater demands on scientists and engineers. Unfortunately, solutions developed so far are characterized by high energy consumption. For several years, the authors have been researching new concepts of transport from the seabed. In previous years the authors presented theoretical research results of using a new method involving the use of pyrotechnic materials as a source of energy in transport from the seabed from large depths and experimental ones with the use of potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate in a controlled pyrotechnic reaction and they compared three conceptions of transport of dredge spoil from the point of view of energy demand. This publication presents the results of the continuation of research, this time on the concept of building an autonomous transport module and its operating principles. The construction of the laboratory stand and the way of conducting experiments are discussed. The results of experimental research are presented, which confirm the possibility of using the discussed concept in transport from the seabed.

Palabras clave

  • marine mining
  • transport from great depths
  • autonomous transport module
Acceso abierto

Research on the Concept of Using Calcium Carbide as a Source of Energy for Transport from the Seabed

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 277 - 284

Resumen

Abstract

The growing interest in the exploitation of marine deposits has resulted in the development of research on deposits and technologies for their exploitation. For several years, the authors have been dealing with one of the most important problems in the deep sea mining of mineral deposits, namely transport from great depths. This publication presents theoretical considerations regarding the use of calcium carbide as a source of energy for transport from the seabed. The authors proposed three lines of the course of the decomposition reaction of calcium carbide and then analyzed the possibility of their use. From the obtained results it can be concluded that the maximum depth of use of a simple CaC2 distribution is about 1 km, while using the method proposed by the authors based on the “balance of forces” (using an additional medium) it is possible to apply this method to any depth occurring on Earth.

Palabras clave

  • Marine mining
  • transport from great depths
  • calcium carbide
  • acetylene
Acceso abierto

Model of Processes of the Al25/30 Marine Engine and its Verification

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 285 - 291

Resumen

Abstract

The work presents a model of the marine diesel engine working process. The research object was the AL25/30 engine. The model consists of partial models of the combustion process in the engine cylinders, the heat exchange process, flows through air and exhaust channels, heat exchange in the intercooler and friction in mechanical components of the engine. The model includes a description of the processes taking place in the turbocharger also. The input data to the model and the verification data were the results of direct measurements on the research facility. The verification showed errors in the calculation of air and exhaust gas parameters not exceeding 11%. The paper also presents an analysis of the results of fast-changing parameters, including combustion pressure in engine cylinders and pressures in individual gas channels. The designed model allows the analysis of the research facility operation and enables its further development towards the assessment of toxic compounds emission to the atmosphere.

Palabras clave

  • model engine
  • diesel
  • marine engine
  • combution
Acceso abierto

Methane Slip During Cargo Operations on LNG Carriers and LNG-Fueled Vessels

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 293 - 299

Resumen

Abstract

In this paper was presented the problems of methane leakages during cargo operations on LNG carriers. Also the leakages are possible on LNG fueled vessels. Due to green-house effect from methane on the atmosphere it should be done some measures to avoid it. Building the cargo tanks with very high capacity, utilization of better thermal insulations limits the quantity of boil-off (BOG). It is used as a fuel in marine power plant, only the overage should be liquefied again. The leakages attend all cargo operations which methane goes directly to the atmosphere through pressure-vacuum valves and gas freeing installation to mast riser or by the ventilation system from cargo pump or compressor room. To minimize the slip on LNG carriers the re-liquefaction systems are installed. They are based on cooling systems which boil-off gas (mainly methane) is liquefied at ambient pressure in temperature about −161.5°C by pre-cooled nitrogen gas at temperature about −180°C. Compressed nitrogen to a pressure about 25MPa through multistage compressors with intercooling systems is expanded step by step (in intercoolers) to pressure about ambient reaches the temperature about −180°C. The re-liquefaction system needs delivering a lot of electric energy. The total level of methane leakages from mining to the last consumer may be different and sometimes very high. The leakage level starts as minimal 1% and may be raised up to 10%. It was indicated the undertaken actions and next possibilities of methane slip limitations.

Palabras clave

  • Methane
  • methane slip
  • cargo operations
  • LNG carrier
  • LNG-fueled vessels
Acceso abierto

The Influence of External Factors on Hazards in the Transport Processes of Soybean Meal

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 301 - 307

Resumen

Abstract

The influence of external factors on changes in the soybean meal quality features has an important meaning in the emergence of hazards during the transport processes of this cargo. Soybean meal is one of the most frequently used components of fodder mixtures. Due to its inherent properties, it is classified as special cargoes. Maintaining the quality of soybean meal during transport processes depends on storage, handling and transport conditions. The main external factor included in the study was humidity. Transport-technological quality features were distinguished: kinetic angle of repose, size of particles, bulk density, porosity. The article presents the results of research on soybean meal and its separated fractions. There was presented humidity influence on changes in significant features for this cargo. Type and range of changes in the distinguishing features of soybean meal were determined in the given stages of the transport chain under the influence of humidity. The risk was assessed in the transport processes of soybean meal. A correlation was determined between changes of individual features and water content in soybean meal changing as a result of air humidity. It was found that humidity of the ambient air in which transport processes occur and size of grain particles of soybean meal have a significant impact on changes in transport-technological quality features.

Palabras clave

  • soybean meal
  • humidity
  • density
  • angle of repose
  • porosity
Acceso abierto

The Use of Topology of IHBI Inverters in Parallel Operation of Ship Generating Sets With PMSG Generators

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 309 - 315

Resumen

Abstract

One of the methods to improve the efficiency of the ship’s propulsion is the increase of efficiency in ship generators by using permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG – Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator). Due to the lack of voltage regulator in PMSG, it is necessary to use power electronic converters to maintain a constant voltage level. One of the modes of operation for a ship’s power plant is a parallel work of generating sets. In the parallel work, there are problems in the fluctuation of active and reactive electrical power between generators. The article presents the concept of using inverters in the IHBI topology, which enables the parallel operation of generating sets with PMSG generators. This solution enables the adjustment of the flow of active and reactive powers between generating sets.

Palabras clave

  • PMSG
  • IHBI topology
  • generator sets
Acceso abierto

Ways of Adjusting the Two-Stroke Diesel Engine to be Run on Liquefied Natural Gas

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 317 - 324

Resumen

Abstract

This article attempts at assessing the feasibility and validity of adjusting the two-stroke diesel engine to be fuelled by liquefied natural gas (LNG). It discusses a set of modifications introduced onto one of the ships carrying liquefied natural gas. These changes consisted in adjusting the engines of the main drive so that they can be fuelled by gas. This has been achieved by the modification of the cylinder head and fuel supply installation. Parameter results of the modified engines obtained during sea trials have been presented. Both advantages and disadvantages resulting from gas combustion have been pointed out. Ultimately, the authors of this article assess the applicability of this solution to other LNG carriers.

Palabras clave

  • natural gas
  • dual-fuel diesel engines
  • LNG carriers
Acceso abierto

Analysis of the Topology of „Shore to Ship” Systems – Power Electronic Connection of Ships with Land

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 325 - 333

Resumen

Abstract

The possibility of building efficient and universal systems for the use of electricity land network by ships berthed in the port appeared along with the development of power electronic technologies. The need to connect ships to the land network is primarily related to ecological reasons. The choice of the appropriate topology by the investor (usually port authorities) is mainly connected with ensuring high quality of electricity provided to the ship and local conditions. The article reviews topologies of power electronic system (possible to use) for connection of ships with the land network – their disadvantages and advantages.

Palabras clave

  • “Shore To Ship” system
  • frequency inverter
  • high voltage power supply
Acceso abierto

Calculation of Operational Indicator EEOI for Ships Designed to Other Purpose Than Transport Based on A Research – Training Vessel

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 335 - 340

Resumen

Abstract

Applying the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator as a tool for monitoring the energy efficiency of ships performing other functions or tasks than transport is a problem in the proper assessment of the CO2 emitted by the vessel during its operation. The analysis of 30 voyages of the research-training vessel showed that the vessel Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator is higher than for transport vessels in the world fleet. The authors suggest that the term „performed transport work” in the indicator calculation method recommended by the International Maritime Organization needs to be modified in terms of operational parameters of this type of ships.

Palabras clave

  • Vessel energy efficiency
  • CO emission
  • research – training vessel
  • EEOI
  • operational indicator
Acceso abierto

FEA-Analysis of Shaft and Supports Deformations for Huge Precise Lathe. Statics and Resonances

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 341 - 348

Resumen

Abstract

Load bearing system simulation is provided for a huge lathe to be renovated. Static and modal analyses are done by FEM. Focus was centerline rising, needed for larger rotor shaft machining. Forces between shaft and three supports were applied. Shaft static stiffness is lowered at 1.15 times only for 600 mm centerline rising. Supports have lost its rigidity at 1.42 times. Concrete pouring into bed cavities is recommended for supports flexibility limitation such as tailstock reinforcement. Robustness of bottom resonances is revealed both for rotor shaft (14.5–18.2 Hz) and supports (42.7–55.4 Hz). Centerline rising is allowed on 300 mm at least. It gives possibility to machine extremely large (up to ø2750 mm) shafts.

Palabras clave

  • lathe
  • FEA
  • rotor
  • centerline
  • resonance
Acceso abierto

The Concepts of Inland Passenger Transport in the Oder River Basin

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 349 - 356

Resumen

Abstract

This article presents the concepts of inland passenger transport: tourist and cruise in the basin of the Oder river. The first part describes the operating and technical parameters of the Oder and the present trends and directions in the development of inland waterway passenger services. Another part of the article contains an analysis of the results of the surveys carried out among respondents living in agglomerations lying on the Oder River. These studies have enabled the creation of two passenger transport concepts that enhance the competitiveness and attractiveness of inland waterway transport with respect to other modes of transport.

Palabras clave

  • inland shipping
  • passenger ship
  • transport
  • inland waterways
Acceso abierto

The Method of Energy-Efficiency Investigations of the Newly Produced Marine Fuels Through an Application of the Laboratory Diesel Engine

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 357 - 363

Resumen

Abstract

The article deals with one of the scientific issue solved within frames of the research project financed by Voivodeship Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management in Gdansk, namely, in particular, the method of energy investigations of the self-ignition engine in conditions of its supply with a non-standard (modified) marine fuel. The representative results of engine tests worked out on the especially built laboratory test bed have been presented. They aimed to elaborate energy profiles of a single-cylinder four-stroke Diesel engine in the form of Sankey diagrams of energy flows representing the most efficient and effective manner for the verification of a different kind of the modified marine fuels introduced on market. It is expected that the final results of the project will be interesting for their producers as well as the ship-owners of the operated ships, and also for the offices of sea administration as well as the inspectorates of environment protection.

Palabras clave

  • modified marine fuels
  • engine research
  • Sankey’s graphs
Acceso abierto

An Estimation of the Final Price of Container Ships Based on Main Ship Parameters with the Use of ndCurveMaster Curve Fitting Software

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 365 - 370

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents regression formulas that allow us to estimate the final price of new container ships, based on TEU and deadweight capacity, service speed, length between perpendiculars and gross tonnage of container ships built from 2005 to 2015. The formulas were developed using the author’s own method based on curve fitting techniques and regression methods. The study shows that utilising the author’s method to predict the final price could offer greater accuracy solutions than any standard methods presented in literature. This method was implemented properly with ndCurveMaster curve fitting software which was developed by the author and was applied to develop regression equations presented in the article. The formulas presented in the article have practical application for estimation of container ship final price needed in transport studies or preliminary parametric container ship design. These equations refer to the most up to date vessels and offer the chance to advance ship design theory.

Palabras clave

  • container ship
  • price
  • ndCurveMaster
  • deadweight
  • regression
Acceso abierto

Fretting Wear as an Example of Destruction of Railway Vehicles Wheelsets

Publicado en línea: 10 Dec 2018
Páginas: 371 - 376