1. bookVolumen 80 (2021): Edición 1 (October 2021)
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1899-7562
Primera edición
13 Jan 2009
Calendario de la edición
5 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
access type Acceso abierto

Are the Player Selection Process and Performance Influenced by Relative Age Effect in Elite Women’s Handball?

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2021
Volumen & Edición: Volumen 80 (2021) - Edición 1 (October 2021)
Páginas: 223 - 237
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1899-7562
Primera edición
13 Jan 2009
Calendario de la edición
5 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Abstract

The relative age effect (RAE) is a phenomenon present in team sports, but it does not influence each gender to the same extent. This study aimed to examine the RAE and its relation to performance in international women's handball competitions (2017/18 World Championships). The sample was composed of 1,096 female players distributed into three categories: youth or under 18 (n = 369); junior or under 20 (n = 328) and senior (n = 399). The teams were divided into four groups based on their final position (medalist, quarter-finalist, eight-finalist and bottom-eight teams). The birthdate distribution (trimesters and semesters) was analysed according to the competition category and the playing position. Differences between the expected and observed birthdate distribution were checked using the chi-square statistical test followed by the calculation of the odds ratio. The results revealed, by trimester, the presence of the RAE in the youth (x2(7) = 87.22; p < 0.001) and junior (x2 (7) = 33.12; p < 0.001) categories, with no impact on senior (p > 0.05). The effect size was relatively strong in the youth category (Vc = 0.48). By semester, the prevalence of the RAE was also found in the senior category (p < 0.05). According to the playing position, the RAE was especially detected in ‘goalkeeper’ (p < 0.01) and ‘centre-back’ (p < 0.05) positions, both in U-18 and U-20 categories. Surprisingly, this effect also appeared in the ‘back’ players in the senior category (p < 0.05). A prevalence of the RAE was identified in teams with a higher final position, but interestingly had a greater impact in the quarter-finalist teams (p < 0.001) than in the medalist teams (p < 0.01). The findings demonstrated that the RAE tends to decrease as the chronological age of players increases, demonstrating a strong presence according to collective performance in international women’s handball.

Key words

Introduction

In some areas of our society, the clustering of subjects by age or age-groups is common and verified. In sports, and especially in team sports, it is normal to group athletes according to their chronological age in categories of 1 or 2 years (annual or bi-annual cycle). Internationally, January 1 is globally accepted as the beginning of the selection year. This decision, which aims to ensure an appropriate development and maximum equality of opportunities in youth competitive environments, seems a priori fair, but has the disadvantage of obviating the maturational status, that is, the personal, individual and unique way that every person has to grow and evolve over the years (Helsen et al., 2005). Chronological age and the maturational level, which do not have to develop in parallel (Torres-Unda et al., 2013), may have a direct impact on individuals’ sports careers, even when two athletes are born in the same year. This is known as relative age and the consequences are named the Relative Age Effect (Musch and Grondin, 2001).

Research based on RAEs has been carried out in different fields, such as education or clinic contexts (Dixon et al., 2011; Sprietsma, 2010). In the sport field, the heterogeneity of the studies yielded different results and conclusions based on internal and external factors of the sport transition process. A meta-analysis of the presence of the RAE, composed of 130,108 athletes (Cobley et al., 2009), verified a prevalence in most sports (team sports and individual sport disciplines) and identified the age category, skill level and sport context as influential factors of the RAE. In team sports, the RAE has been the main objective to investigate in different research areas, including talent identification and development (TID) systems (López de Subijana and Lorenzo, 2019), performance evaluation (Lago-Fuentes et al., 2019), player selection processes (Torres-Unda et al., 2013), and specific case studies within clubs or academies (Campos et al., 2017). Most of these investigations, even paying attention to the adulthood or the senior competition category, focused on the analysis of the influence of the RAE throughout the athlete's transition process according to the different moderating factors of the phenomenon (de la Rubia et al., 2020b; Smith et al., 2018).

With regard to the magnitude of the RAE through the athlete’s sport transition process, it seems that the impact tends to decrease as the chronological age of the athlete increases. This occurs not only in team sports (Bjørndal et al., 2018b), but also in the context of individual sport disciplines (Mon-López et al., 2020). In the scientific literature, there are several explanations for this phenomenon, but the most plausible is associated with the maturational status of the athlete (Torres-Unda et al., 2016). Physical and anthropometric factors tend to equalise in advanced human development stages (i.e., adulthood); however, this relationship is not always robust. Studies on TID systems have shown that relatively young athletes manage to overcome the initial difficulties caused by a biased selection process and achieve higher performance levels than relatively older counterparts, even reaching more success throughout his/her professional career (Fumarco et al., 2017). This phenomenon is known as the reverse Relative Age Effect (reverse RAE) (Gibbs et al., 2012). Psychological factors such as resilience (McCarthy and Collins, 2014), positive facing of challenges or experiencing a ‘trauma’ (Collins and MacNamara, 2012), a higher development of technical and tactical specific-skills and a late sport specialisation (Güllich and Emrich, 2014), as well as secondary factors such as family, coaches, and friends (Wattie et al., 2015) seem to be some of the most relevant explanations provided regarding the reverse RAE in sport.

The impact of the RAE differs among genders. While the findings demonstrate a clear presence of the RAE in men's sport, especially in formative categories (de la Rubia et al., 2020b), diversified results were registered in women's sport (Smith et al., 2018). This fact emphasises the greater influence of anthropometric, physical, and physiological factors on the player selection processes that take place in men's sport (Ibañez et al., 2018; Torres-Unda et al., 2016). However, this trend does not seem to be of the same magnitude in women's sport due to factors such as the ‘depth of competition’, the number of active participants, and the decreased relevance of strength and power abilities and anthropometric variables to sports performance (Baker et al., 2009).

Handball is a team sport that presents a set of physiological demands and technical, tactical, and cognitive requirements to achieve success (Camacho-Cardenosa et al., 2018). However, these conditions depend on, among other factors, the playing position. Thus, the coach, by attributing a specific playing position, could be involuntarily establishing a selection bias in relation to the maturational status of the player. One of the most extensive investigations on this topic was performed by Schorer et al. (2009); those authors showed a prevalence of the RAE in the ‘backcourt’ positions. Similar findings were reported by Fonseca et al. (2019) in a study with 383 male handball players who participated in the 2017 Youth World Championship. That analysis showed an impact of the RAE on players at ‘wing’ and ‘back’ positions. In the same line, de la Rubia et al. (2020a) verified the presence of the RAE in a sample of 3,358 male handball players and 3,273 female handball players, especially for male ‘pivots’ and ‘goalkeepers’ and female ‘centre-backs’. On the other hand, studies have not found differences with regard to unequal and biased distribution of players by their playing position (Gómez-López et al., 2017; Saavedra and Saavedra, 2020). Despite the lack of homogeneity of results, biological factors (physical, physiological, anthropometric, and morphological) seem to be the moderating factors of the presence of the RAE by the playing position (Camacho-Cardenosa et al., 2018). Furthermore, the difference perceived by the coach, based on the current characteristics of each player, could influence the final decision when assigning certain playing positions (Krahenbühl and Leonardo, 2020; Matthys et al., 2013).

Within the TID systems employed by national handball federations, the impact of the RAE on female players is less extensive. Bjørndal et al. (2018b) showed that the RAE did not affect the development process of the relatively younger Norwegian female players throughout their sport careers (local, regional, national, and international levels). Wrang et al. (2018) demonstrated, in a sample of Danish female players belonging to U-18, U-20, and senior national teams, that late developers had more opportunities to be reselected to the senior level than early developers. In that study, a reverse RAE was confirmed, although relatively older players were slightly favoured in the initial stages of the TID system. Even in women's handball, a trend was observed to find more relatively younger players as the competition category/level progressed (Figueiredo et al., 2020). Therefore, this scientific evidence demonstrates great variability in the presence and impact of the RAE on women's handball (Sá et al., 2020).

Given the heterogeneity of the findings in the scientific literature and the non-proliferation of studies associated with high performance women's sports, it is necessary to clarify the real presence of the RAE in international female handball. Therefore, the aims of this study were (i) to analyse and evaluate the prevalence of the RAE in three official female categories (youth, junior, and senior); and (ii) to examine the presence of the RAE according to collective competition performance through qualifying criteria (final team position). Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to examine the RAE in elite performance female contexts in handball.

Methods
Participants

The sample of this study was composed of 1,096 female handball players who participated in World Championships organized by the International Handball Federation (IHF) in 2017 (senior) and 2018 (youth and junior). Players were allocated according to their chronological age and using January 1 as the cut-off date. Therefore, according to biannual competition cycles established by the IHF in formative categories, the sample was classified according to the competition level or category: youth (U-18), junior (U-20), and senior. In the formative categories, players who were not born into the biannual competition cycle competition were excluded from the sample (U-18: n = 21, 5.4%; U-20: n = 45, 12.1%). However, junior players (n = 5) who also participated in the senior competition category were also considered, separately, according to competitive annual cycles (T1-T4). Players included in the sample were further categorised according to handball playing positions: ‘goalkeeper’ (n = 163, 14.9%), ‘wing’ (n = 256, 23.4%), ‘back’ (n = 318, 29.0%), ‘centre-back’ (n = 186, 17.0%) and ‘pivot’ (n = 173, 15.7%). The distribution of female handball players by the competition category and the playing position is shown in Table 1.

Distribution of female handball players (n and [%]) by the competition category and the playing position

POSITION CATEGORY
Total POS [n(%)]
U-18[n(%)]
U-20[n(%)]
Senior[n(%)]

Goalkeeper 55(14.9) 53(16.2) 55(13.8) 163(14.9)
Wing 89(24.1) 78(23.7) 89(22.3) 256(23.4)
Back 110(29.8) 90(27.4) 118(29.6) 318(29.0)
Centre-Back 61(16.5) 54(16.5) 71(17.8) 186(17.0)
Pivot 54(14.7) 53(16.2) 66(16.5) 173(15.7)
Total CAT [n(%)] 369(33.7) 328(29.9) 399(36.4) 1,096(100.0)

Notes: n = absolute frequency; % = relative frequency; U-18 = youth category; U-20 = junior category

Design and Procedures

All data linked to players (birthdate and playing position) were extracted and collected from the ‘Competitions’ – ‘World Championships’ (WC) – ‘Team Roster’ section of the IHF official website (https://www.ihf.info/competitions). The information corresponds to each competition analysed: U-18 WC (2018), U-20 WC (2018) and senior WC (2017). Likewise, the final team position was collected from the ‘Competitions’ – ‘World Championships’ (WC) – ‘Teams Ranking’ section of the IHF official website (https://www.ihf.info/competitions).

Birthdates of senior players were distributed in four trimesters (T) and two semesters (S). Consequently, players born between January 1 and March 31 were included in ‘Trimester 1’ (T1), players born between April 1 and June 30 in ‘Trimester 2’ (T2); players born between July 1 and September 30 in ‘Trimester 3’ (T3); and players born between October 1 and December 31 in ‘Trimester 4’ (T4). However, in the youth (U-18) and junior (U-20) categories, players were categorized according to the competition biannual cycle set by the IHF, grouping the sample into eight trimesters: players born in even numbered years were included in ‘Trimester 1 - T1’ (January 1 and March 31); in ‘Trimester 2 - T2’ (April 1 and June 30); in ‘Trimester 3 - T3’ (July 1 and September 30); and in ‘Trimester 4 - T4’ (October 1 and December 31). Players born in odd-numbered years were included in ‘Trimester 5 - T5’ (January 1 and March 31); in ‘Trimester 6 - T6’ (April 1 and June 30); in ‘Trimester 7 - T7’ (July 1 and September 30); and in ‘Trimester 8 - T8’ (October 1 and December 31). By semester, the sample was distributed in the following groups: in the senior category, players born in the first half of the year (January 1 - 30 June) were categorized in ‘Semester 1’ (S1) and players born in the second half of the year (July 1 - 31 December) were categorized in ‘Semester 2’ (S2); in the youth and junior categories, the sample distribution was as follows: for even numbered years, ‘Semester 1’ (S1) - players born in the first half of the year (January 1 - 30 June); ‘Semester 2’ (S2) - players born in the second half of the year (July 1 - 31 December). For odd-numbered years, ‘Semester 3’ (S3) - players born in the first half of the year (January 1 - 30 June); ‘Semester 4’ (S4) - players born in the second half of the year (July 1 - 31 December).

Teams of each World Handball Championship were classified by previously used qualifying criteria (Vogelbein et al., 2014) in order to be able to perform the analysis of the RAE and collective performance based on the final team position. Teams were grouped into four performance levels: ‘very high performance’ (‘medalists’ – from the 1st to the 3rd position); ‘high performance’ (‘quarterfinalists’ – from the 4th to the 8th position); ‘medium performance’ (‘eightfinalists’ – from the 9th to the 16th position); ‘low performance’ (bottom-eight teams – from the 17th to the 24th position).

Statistical Analysis

Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 23.0, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Differences between the observed and expected birthdate distributions were tested using the chi-square goodness of fit test. In the same line as other studies (Edgar and O’Donoghue, 2005; Saavedra-García et al., 2016), a heterogeneous distribution of the sample was considered according to the number of days contained in each trimester and semester, assuming a small correction to the uniform probability distribution (Delorme and Champely, 2015). Thus, the expected fraction and relative frequency of any group of players who were born in T1/T5 would be 90¼/365¼ (24.7091034%), compared with 91/365¼ (24.9144422%) in T2/T6 and 92/365¼ (25.1882272%) in T3/T7 and T4/T8. Likewise, by semester, the expected fraction was 181¼/365¼ (49.6235456%) in S1/S3 and 184/365¼ (50.3764544%) in S2/S4. The odd ratio calculation was made in the birthdate distribution according to the competition category with the aim to observe differences between the relatively younger players and the rest of the sample: players born in the reference trimester or semester (T8 and S4 in U-18 and U-20 categories; T4 and S2 in senior category) and other players born in the rest of trimesters or semesters (T1-T7 and S1-S3 in the U-18 and U-20 categories; T1-T3 and S1 in the senior category). In order to determine the strength of association, a ‘Cramer’s V’ statistical test was applied, in which 0.10 to 0.20 indicated a ‘weak association’; 0.20 to 0.40, a ‘moderate association’; 0.40 to 0.60, a ‘relatively strong association’; 0.60 to 0.80, a ‘strong association’; and 0.80 to 1, a ‘very strong association’ (Rea and Parker, 1992). The level of significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results
By the competition level - category

With regard to the competition level, an unequal trimester distribution of players’ birthdates was observed (Table 2). Statistical analysis revealed a presence of the RAE in the youth ( x2(7)= $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7)= \right.$87.22; p < 0.001) and junior categories ( x2(7)= $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7)= \right.$33.12; p < 0.001). Post hoc analysis (odds ratio) showed that players born in the first trimester (T1) presented higher values in relation to the reference trimester (T8), in the U-18 (OR = 6.1) and U-20 (OR = 3.1) categories. The largest effect size was identified in the U-18 category (Vc = 0.49 – ‘relatively strong association’). No significant differences were found in female senior players (p > 0.05).

Birthdate players’ distribution (n [%] and odds ratio [OR]) by trimester (T) and semester (S) according to the competition category

TRIMESTERS T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 d Vc


% % % % % % % % x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ f p
(OR) (OR) (OR) (OR) (OR) (OR) (OR) (OR)
CAT U-18 26.0 (6.1) 15.7 (3.3) 13.3 (2.7) 10.3 (2.0) 13.0 (2.6) 8.1 (1.5) 8.1 (1.5) 5.4 (-) 87.2 2 7 <0.001 0.49
U-20 22.0 (3.1) 9.1 (1.1) 12.5 (1.6) 12.2 (1.5) 12.2 (1.5) 12.8 (1.6) 11.0 (1.4) 8.2 (-) 33.1 2 7 <0.001 0.3 2
Senior 26.3 (1.5) 28.3 (1.6) 25.8 (1.4) 19.5 (-) - - - - 7.38 3 0.061 0.1 4

SEMESTERS S1 S2 S 3 S 4 d Vc


% OR % OR % OR % OR x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ f p

CAT U-18 41.7 4.7 23.6 2.0 21.4 1.8 13.3 - 64.8 8 3 <0.001 0.42
U-20 31.1 1.9 24.7 1.4 25.0 1.4 19.2 - 9.69 3 0.021 0.1 7
Senior 54.9 1.5 45.1 - - - - - 4.19 1 0.041 0.10

Notes: T1-T4/T8 = birth trimester; S1-S2/S4 = birth semester; % = relative frequency; OR = odds ratio; x2= ${{x}^{2}}=$ chi square; df = degrees of freedom; p = level of significance; Vc = Cramer’s V; CAT = competition category; U-18 = youth category; U-20 = junior category

In relation to the sample distribution by semester, similar results were observed. The number of players born in the first half of the year (S1) was significantly higher in the U-18 ( x2(3)= $\left( {{x}^{2}}(3)= \right.$64.88; p < 0.001) and U-20 categories ( x2(3)=9.69; $\left( {{x}^{2}}(3)=9.69 \right.;$p < 0.05). Interestingly, this also occurred in the senior category ( x2(3)=4.19; $\left( {{x}^{2}}(3)=4.19 \right.;$p < 0.05). Post hoc analysis (odds ratio) showed that players born in the first semester (S1) presented higher values in relation to the reference semester (S4/S2) in the U-18 (OR = 4.7), U-20 (OR = 1.9) and senior categories (OR = 1.5). The largest effect size was detected in the U-18 category (Vc = 0.42 – ‘relatively strong association’). However, the effect size was lower in the U-20 category (Vc = 0.17 – ‘small effect’) than in the analysis by trimester.

By the playing position

Considering the playing position (Table 3), an unequal distribution of players’ birthdates by trimester was observed in the whole sample ( x2(7)=339.20; $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7)=339.20 \right.;$p < 0.001). According to the competition category, statistical analysis revealed overrepresentation of relatively older players in the following playing positions by the competition category: the U-18 category: ‘goalkeeper’ ( x2(7)=24.93; $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7)=24.93 \right.;$p < 0.01), ‘wing’ ( x2(7) $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7) \right.$= 21.30; p < 0.01), ‘back’ ( x2(7)=15.16; $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7)=15.16 \right.;$p < 0.05), ‘centre-back’ ( x2(6)=23.26; $\left( {{x}^{2}}(6)=23.26 \right.;$p < 0.01), and ‘pivot’ ( x2(7)=18.01; $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7)=18.01 \right.;$p < 0.05); the U-20 category: ‘goalkeeper’ ( x2(7)=21.02; $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7)=21.02 \right.;$p < 0.01), and ‘centre-back’ (x2(7)=16.32 $({{x}^{2}}(7)=16.32$p < 0.05). The largest effect sizes were observed in ‘goalkeeper’ in the U-18 (Vc = 0.67 – ‘strong association’) and U-20 categories (Vc = 0.63 – ‘strong association’), and ‘centre-back’ in the U-18 category (Vc = 0.62 – ‘strong association’). No significant differences were found in female senior players (p > 0.05).

Birthdate female players’ distribution (n y %) by trimester (T) according to the competition category and the playing position

YOUTH CATEGORY (U-18)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

P.P. n n n n n n n n x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Gk 17 (30.9) 9 (16.4) 6 (10.9) 9 (16.4) 4 (7.3) 4 (7.3) 5 (9.1) 1 (1.8) 24.93 7 0.001 0.67
W 19 (21.3) 14 (15.7) 12 (13.5) 11 (12.4) 17 (19.1) 9 (10.1) 5 (5.6) 2 (2.2) 21.30 7 0.003 0.49
B 25 (22.7) 13 (11.8) 14 (12.7) 9 (8.2) 16 (14.5) 7 (6.4) 13 (11.8) 13 (11.8) 15.16 7 0.034 0.37
CB 19 (31.1) 13 (21.3) 10 (16.4) 4 (6.6) 7 (11.5) 5 (8.2) 3 (4.9) 0 (0) 23.26 6 0.001 0.62
P 16 (29.6) 9 (16.7) 7 (13.0) 5 (9.3) 4 (7.4) 5 (9.3) 4 (7.4) 4 (7.4) 18.01 7 0.012 0.58

JUNIOR CATEGORY (U-20)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

P.P. n n n n n n n n x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

Gk 16 (30.2) 6 (11.3) 2 (3.8) 4 (7.5) 8 (15.1) 6 (11.3) 3 (5.7) 8 (15.1) 21.02 7 0.004 0.63
W 13 (16.7) 9 (11.5) 14 (17.9) 12 (15.4) 6 (7.7) 7 (9.0) 7 (9.0) 10 (12.8) 6.44 7 0.490 0.29
B 17 (18.9) 7 (7.8) 11 (12.2) 11 (12.2) 13 (14.4) 14 (15.6) 12 (13.3) 5 (5.6) 9.29 7 0.233 0.32
CB 14 (25.9) 2 (3.7) 10 (18.5) 6 (11.1) 8 (14.8) 4 (7.4) 7 (13.0) 3 (5.6) 16.32 7 0.022 0.55
P 12 (22.6) 6 (11.3) 4 (7.5) 7 (13.2) 5 (9.4) 11 (20.8) 7 (13.2) 1 (1.9) 13.95 7 0.052 0.51

SENIOR CATEGORY

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

P.P. n n n n n n n n x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

Gk (32.718 ) (18.210 ) (29.116 ) (20.011 ) - - - - 3.39 3 0.335 0.25
W (28.125 ) (30.327 ) (22.520 ) (19.117 ) - - - - 3.01 3 0.391 0.18
B (25.430 ) (33.940 ) (21.225 ) (19.523 ) - - - - 6.10 3 0.107 0.23
CB (23.917 ) (22.516 ) (38.027 ) (15.511 ) - - - - 7.46 3 0.059 0.32
P (22.715 ) (30.320 ) (22.715 ) (24.216 ) - - - - 1.07 3 0.785 0.13

Notes: T1-T4/T8 = birth trimester; P.P. = playing position; Gk = goalkeeper; W = wing; B = back; CB = centre-back; P = pivot; n = absolute frequency; % = relative frequency; x2= ${{x}^{2}}=$ chi square; df = degrees of freedom; p = level of significance; Vc = Cramer’s V

Similar findings were found by semester (x2(3)=313.14; $({{x}^{2}}(3)=313.14;$p < 0.001) (Table 4). Statistical analysis revealed a prevalence of the RAE at all playing positions in the U-18 category (p < 0.01), except ‘back’ (p > 0.05). In the U-20 category, significant differences were only found in the goalkeeper position (p < 0.05). The largest effect sizes were observed in ‘centre-back’ (Vc = 0.70 – ‘strong association’) and ‘goalkeeper’ (Vc = 0.58 – ‘relatively strong association’) positions in the U-18 category. Interestingly, the presence of the RAE at the senior ‘back’ players was found (p < 0.05), with no effect detected on this playing position in the youth and/or junior categories.

Birthdate female players’ distribution (‘n’ y ‘%’) by semester (S) according to the competition category and the playing position

YOUTH CATEGORY (U-18)
P.P. S1 S2 S3 S4 x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc

n % n % n % n %
Gk 26 47.3 15 27.3 8 14.5 6 10.9 18.19 3 <0.001 0.58
W 33 37.1 23 25.8 27 30.3 6 6.7 18.49 3 <0.001 0.46
B 38 34.5 23 20.9 23 20.9 26 23.6 5.77 3 0.123 0.23
CB 32 52.5 14 23.0 12 19.7 3 4.9 29.66 3 <0.001 0.70
P 25 46.3 12 22.2 9 16.7 8 14.8 13.98 3 0.003 0.51

JUNIOR CATEGORY (U-20)

S1 S2 S3 S4

P.P. x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc

n % n % n % n %
Gk 22 41.5 6 11.3 14 26.4 11 20.8 10.32 3 0.016 0.44
W 22 28.2 26 33.3 13 16.7 17 21.8 4.89 3 0.180 0.25
B 24 26.7 22 24.4 27 30.0 17 18.9 2.57 3 0.462 0.17
CB 16 29.6 16 29.6 12 22.2 10 18.5 2.03 3 0.567 0.19
P 18 34.0 11 20.8 16 30.2 8 15.1 4.85 3 0.183 0.30

SENIOR CATEGORY

S1 S2 S3 S4

P.P. x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
n % n % n % n %

Gk 28 50.9 27 49.1 - - - - 0.04 1 0.850 0.03
W 53 59.6 36 40.4 - - - - 3.48 1 0.062 0.20
B 70 59.3 48 40.7 - - - - 4.41 1 0.036 0.19
CB 33 46.5 38 53.5 - - - - 0.27 1 0.602 0.06
P 35 53.0 31 47.0 - - - - 0.29 1 0.588 0.07

Notes: S1-S2/S4 = birth semester; P.P. = playing position; Gk = goalkeeper; W = wing; B = back; CB = centre-back; P = pivot; n = absolute frequency; % = relative frequency; x2= ${{x}^{2}}=$ chi square; df = degrees of freedom; p = level of significance; Vc = Cramer’s V

RAE and the final team position

Table 5 shows the magnitude of the RAE according to the final team position. Statistical analysis revealed overrepresentation of the relatively older players in the medalist (x2(7)= $({{x}^{2}}\left( 7 \right)=$17.47; p < 0.05), quarterfinalist (x2(7)=32.20 $({{x}^{2}}\left( 7 \right)=32.20$; p < 0.001), and eightfinalist teams (x2(7)=46.23 $({{x}^{2}}(7)=46.23$; p < 0.001) in the U-18 category. Conversely, the RAE affected the quarterfinalist (x2(7)=27.81 $({{x}^{2}}\left( 7 \right)=27.81$; p < 0.001) and bottom-eight teams ( x2(7)=15.54 $\left( {{x}^{2}}(7)=15.54 \right.$; p < 0.05) in the U-20 category. The largest effect sizes were observed in quarterfinalist teams, both in the youth (Vc = 0.63 – ‘strong association’) and junior (Vc = 0.61 – ‘strong association’) categories, and medalist (Vc = 0.61 – ‘strong association’) and eightfinalist teams (Vc = 0.60 – ‘strong association’) in the U-18 category. Nevertheless, there was a homogeneous distribution of players by trimester in the senior category (p > 0.05).

Relative age effect (RAE) according to collective performance (final team position) by the competition category

YOUTH CATEGORY (U-18)
FINAL TEAM POSITION T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc

n n n n n n n n
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
1st - 3rd place (27.713 ) (21.310 ) (10.65 ) (12.86 ) (10.65 ) (6.43 ) (6.43 ) (4.32 ) 17.47 7 0.015 0.6 1
4th - 8th place (30.925 ) (17.314 ) (11.19 ) (7.46 ) (7.46 ) (8.67 ) (12.310 ) (4.94 ) 32.20 7 <0.001 0.6 3
9th - 16th place (28.937 ) (15.620 ) (10.914 ) (11 8.6) (17.222 ) (10 7.8) (5.57 ) (5.57 ) 46.23 7 <0.001 0.6 0
17th - 24th place (18.621 ) (12.414 ) (18.621 ) (13.315 ) (13.315 ) (10 8.8) (10 8.8) (6.27 ) 12.96 7 0.073 0.3 4

JUNIOR CATEGORY (U-20)

FINAL TEAM POSITION T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 x2 ${{x}^{2}}$

n n n n n n n n df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

1st - 3rd place (20.59 ) (15.97 ) (6.83 ) (4.52 ) (11.45 ) (25.011 ) (6.83 ) (9.14 ) 13.19 7 0.068 0.5 5
4th - 8th place (32.024 ) (10.78 ) (8.06 ) (13.310 ) (10.78 ) (8.06 ) (8.06 ) (9.37 ) 27.81 7 <0.001 0.6 1
9th - 16th place (18.622 ) (11 9.3) (14.417 ) (13.616 ) (14.417 ) (11 9.3) (10.212 ) (10.212 ) 7.53 7 0.376 0.2 5
17th - 24th place (18.717 ) (4.44 ) (16.515 ) (13.212 ) (11.010 ) (15.414 ) (16.515 ) (4.44 ) 15.54 7 0.030 0.4 1

SENIOR CATEGORY

FINAL TEAM POSITION T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

n n n n n n n n x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

1st - 3rd place (25.513 ) (33.317 ) (23.512 ) (17.69 ) - - - - 2.64 3 0.450 0.2 3
4th - 8th place (22.919 ) (25.321 ) (30.125 ) (21.718 ) - - - - 1.32 3 0.724 0.1 3
9th - 16th place (25.434 ) (25.434 ) (28.438 ) (20.928 ) - - - - 1.55 3 0.670 0.1 1
17th - 24th place (29.839 ) (31.341 ) (21.428 ) (17.623 ) - - - - 7.34 3 0.062 0.2 4

Notes: T1-T4/T8 = birth trimester; n = absolute frequency; % = relative frequency; x2=chi ${{x}^{2}}=\text{chi}$square; df = degrees of freedom; p = level of significance; Vc = Cramer’s V

Discussion

The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of the RAE in the female players’ selection process throughout their participation in the Handball World Championship and the prevalence of the RAE according to collective competition performance. Moreover, secondary purposes were to analyse the influence of modulating factors of the RAE, such as competition category and playing position. As in other studies focused on female handball (Gómez-López et al., 2017; Schorer et al., 2009), an unequal birthdate distribution by trimester of handball players in the youth and junior categories was observed, detecting no impact of the RAE in the senior category. Nevertheless, this study shows there was overrepresentation of female players born in the first half of the year (S1) in the senior category. Therefore, the RAE widely tends to decrease as the chronological age of the player increases. However, this fact should be interpreted with awareness of specific contextual considerations or methodological concerns corresponding to each study. With regard to the relationship between the RAE and performance, teams that reached a higher final position were mainly composed of players born in T1. Interestingly, teams that ranked between the 4th and the 8th place showed a stronger association between the RAE and collective performance than the medallist teams.

A large prevalence of the RAE was found in other studies based on female team sports (Delorme et al., 2010; Torres-Unda et al., 2016). This fact could imply a lack of opportunities for the relatively younger players in the selection process in relation to those players born at the beginning of the same year. According to Baxter-Jones (1995), the presence of the RAE in youth female sport (e.g., handball) is associated with an early maturational development. Thus, relatively older players tend to be more select and overrepresented due to biological factors (morphological, physical, anthropometric, and physiological), which confirms the ‘maturation-selection hypothesis’ (Cobley et al., 2009). However, stabilization of this kind of differences occurs earlier in men than in women (Baxter-Jones, 1995). This would cause a slower process in women's sports due to, among other factors, the greater heterogeneity and variability of results (Smith et al., 2018). Therefore, it seems that the selection process in youth categories in women’s handball is biased in favour of players with a greater maturation profile in order to achieve a higher and more immediate performance (de la Rubia et al., 2020a; Saavedra and Saavedra, 2020; Schorer et al., 2009).

In the senior category, in which the distribution of players is not biased in biannual competition cycles, a decrease in the RAE was observed. Therefore, an increase in the chronological age of female players seems to involve a lower bias in the player selection process to participate in international competitions. This fact has been explicated by several studies considering different approaches, including sports, sociology, and sport specialization. From a sports perspective, one of the most common and accurate explanations is the ‘depth of competition’ (Baker et al., 2009; Musch and Grondin, 2001). This theory argues that in female sport, there is an insufficient number of federal licenses in relation to male handball and, therefore, the RAE would not be affected by player selection at high performance levels. From a sociological view, female players tend to bear great pressure to maintain a figure considered ‘ideal’, which would mean lower competitive performance due to physical development not suitable for sports practice (Vincent and Glamser, 2006). Thus, this could even lead to a high dropout rate among female players (Delorme et al., 2010). From a sport specialization perspective, female senior players could experience a transfer from one sport to another in which performance factors were similar, especially in team sports. Therefore, this would avoid a biased sport context by the RAE (Baker et al., 2009). An alternative explanation, associated with the previous point, would be based on a higher injury rate by relatively older players. This fact would cause competitive interruptions throughout the sport transition process, complicating their career towards high performance levels (Bjørndal et al., 2018b).

With regard to the analysis by the playing position, the RAE seems to be a factor with a great impact on the player selection process, especially at some playing positions (de la Rubia et al., 2020a; Fonseca et al., 2019; Ibañez et al., 2018; Schorer et al., 2009). Findings of the present study showed overrepresentation of relatively older players at all playing positions in the youth category (U-18), while the RAE did not appear in the senior category, highlighting stabilization at the elite level. The largest impact of the RAE was found at the ‘goalkeeper’ and ‘centre-back’ positions in the youth and junior categories, according to other studies (Fonseca et al., 2019; Schorer et al., 2009). Those investigations highlighted physical and anthropometric factors as keys in the occupation of back positions, such as the ‘centre-back’. Larger and stronger body sizes, higher strength levels and higher shot velocity (Kruger et al., 2014) seem to explain why relatively older players may have some advantages due to greater maturational development than their relatively younger peers (Matthys et al., 2013). In relation to the ‘goalkeeper’ position, in addition to maturational development, position-specific skill demands may explain the presence of the RAE (Wattie et al., 2015). Early specialization, necessary for this position, through intense training and competition could be influenced by selection processes in which relatively older players would have enjoyed more and better training experience (i.e., more skilled coaches, better facilities and sport programs) than their relatively younger counterparts (Nikolaidis et al., 2015).

Analysis of the influence of the RAE on performance showed, as expected, overrepresentation of relatively older players in teams with better collective performance, that is, with a better final position. Furthermore, it was shown that this phenomenon did not occur in the same way according to the competition category. Thus, the prevalence of the RAE at higher competition levels was either detected in teams classified at the lower level (junior category) or it disappeared completely (senior category). These findings coincide with previous studies (Campos et al., 2020; Vegara-Ferri et al., 2019; Zimmermann de Oliveira et al., 2017). Most likely, talent identification and development programs, of which priority is to achieve immediate high performance (i.e., national teams), tend to shape rosters with overrepresentation of relatively older players. Thus, athletes with a higher maturational development, especially in female formative categories, would reach better individual performance than their relatively younger peers (Saavedra and Saavedra, 2020), translating into a higher final team position. However, this relationship seems not to be present in male handball competitions (Fonseca et al., 2019) because biological differences among players are not as evident as in women's sport. For these reasons, there was a strong prevalence of the RAE in collective performance in international youth and junior competitions, but it had no influence at the senior level (de la Rubia et al., 2020a).

This study had several limitations. First, we ignored the birthdate distribution among the populations of the countries analysed (Schorer et al., 2009). Second, we did not include, as a study sample, players considered ‘minor’ because they were born outside the biannual competition cycle. Third, we did not have a performance index rating in handball to individually evaluate the player's specific skills. Fourth, we did not have access to the maturation data of players. Fifth, the analysis focused on a specific competitive period (2017–18), thus it would be necessary to increase the number of seasons or competitions to consider a longitudinal evaluation of the trend of the RAE in women's handball.

Unexpected findings

Surprisingly (by semester), the RAE was detected among female senior players in the ‘back’ position, whereby relatively older players were favoured over relatively younger ones. This fact is relevant because no prevalence of the RAE was found for this playing position in lower categories (U-18 and U-20). This result may lead to a paradigm shift in the TID systems in international women's handball (Figueiredo et al., 2020). Considering that the age range of players who compose the sample is wide (16–40 years), it seems that a single talent-selection model has not been applied. Therefore, it seems that in the selection process of talented young players, less relevance is given to physical and conditioning factors to the detriment of more tactical and comprehensive training (Bjørndal et al., 2018a).

An explanation may associate game-specific demands with the biological characteristics of the player. At the elite levels, the 'back' players perform a greater number of actions per match which require a high component of strength or the rate of force development, such as throws, offensive breakthroughs, hard tackles, physical confrontations, etc. (Michalsik et al., 2015). This would mean that relatively older players, whose maturational level is higher, will occupy this playing position to a greater extent due to higher levels of strength (Matthys et al., 2013). Also linked to maturational status, height, and weight, among other anthropometric measures, are relevant factors to this playing position, in which nine meter shots are usually made in offense and blocks in defense (Sarvestan et al., 2019; Schwesig et al., 2017). On the other hand, considering that relatively older players enjoy more and better training experience (skilled coaches, higher competition levels, better facilities, etc.) than their relatively younger counterparts (Hancock et al., 2013), coaches may tend to select relatively older players for positions with a high relative ‘weight’ in the match, such as the ‘back’ (Krahenbühl and Leonardo, 2020). Therefore, these results may support the interaction between ‘task’ (i.e., sport-specific demands) and ‘environmental’ constraints (i.e., training conditions) to explain the prevalence of the RAE in female senior ‘back’ players (Wattie et al., 2015).

Practical implications & Future research

Organisations and institutions responsible for the player selection processes (national and international federations, clubs, academies, professional associations) could implement solutions to reduce the consequences of the RAE and, thus, ensure that future talents are not excluded at early stages of the sport development (formative categories) due to chronological age and maturational status.

Future research should design a global statistical variable which accurately measures individual performance of the handball player and, therefore, be able to analyse how the RAE influences individual competition performance. On the other hand, it is necessary to examine long-term performance of handball players based on the possible selection bias that occurred throughout the sport transition due to the RAE, among other factors. Therefore, a deeper exploration would help mitigate possible negative consequences, such as the dropout of talented handball players. Finally, knowing exactly the most sensitive moment of the player development process, when the mechanisms associated with the RAE could have a greater influence, would help implement strategies in TID systems focused on ensuring suitable sport development conditions. Some of them presented in the existing literature are: rotation of the cut-off date by age, greater attention of coaches to other factors less associated with biological criteria in the player selection process, optimization of the process through a multidisciplinary and long-term approach fleeing immediate and current performance, the design of specific and individualised training programs according to a player profile to improve performance, and even the omission of official competitions at youth and junior levels.

Conclusions

The RAE was especially present in formative categories (youth and junior), reducing or even disappearing at the senior stages in female handball. Thus, relatively older players had greater opportunities to be selected by the national federation in youth and junior categories and, therefore, to compete at the highest level than relatively younger players.

The specific demands of playing positions could cause the player recruitment systems to prioritise the maturational development of the player at the expense of other characteristics (i.e., techniques, tactics, psychological). This could entail the relatively older players to be preferentially considered to occupy certain playing positions. In this way, the RAE would be a determining factor for female player selection, accentuated in the positions in which competitive quality incentives must be experienced to reach high performance (i.e., ‘centre-back’ and ‘goalkeeper’). Unexpectedly, the prevalence of the RAE was found in female senior ‘back’ players.

The RAE was a factor which affected collective competition performance in women’s handball, especially in teams that achieved higher final positions (from 1st to 8th). Nevertheless, the number of relatively older players was reduced as the competitive level (final team position) decreased and the competition category increased.

Distribution of female handball players (n and [%]) by the competition category and the playing position

POSITION CATEGORY
Total POS [n(%)]
U-18[n(%)]
U-20[n(%)]
Senior[n(%)]

Goalkeeper 55(14.9) 53(16.2) 55(13.8) 163(14.9)
Wing 89(24.1) 78(23.7) 89(22.3) 256(23.4)
Back 110(29.8) 90(27.4) 118(29.6) 318(29.0)
Centre-Back 61(16.5) 54(16.5) 71(17.8) 186(17.0)
Pivot 54(14.7) 53(16.2) 66(16.5) 173(15.7)
Total CAT [n(%)] 369(33.7) 328(29.9) 399(36.4) 1,096(100.0)

Birthdate female players’ distribution (‘n’ y ‘%’) by semester (S) according to the competition category and the playing position

YOUTH CATEGORY (U-18)
P.P. S1 S2 S3 S4 x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc

n % n % n % n %
Gk 26 47.3 15 27.3 8 14.5 6 10.9 18.19 3 <0.001 0.58
W 33 37.1 23 25.8 27 30.3 6 6.7 18.49 3 <0.001 0.46
B 38 34.5 23 20.9 23 20.9 26 23.6 5.77 3 0.123 0.23
CB 32 52.5 14 23.0 12 19.7 3 4.9 29.66 3 <0.001 0.70
P 25 46.3 12 22.2 9 16.7 8 14.8 13.98 3 0.003 0.51

JUNIOR CATEGORY (U-20)

S1 S2 S3 S4

P.P. x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc

n % n % n % n %
Gk 22 41.5 6 11.3 14 26.4 11 20.8 10.32 3 0.016 0.44
W 22 28.2 26 33.3 13 16.7 17 21.8 4.89 3 0.180 0.25
B 24 26.7 22 24.4 27 30.0 17 18.9 2.57 3 0.462 0.17
CB 16 29.6 16 29.6 12 22.2 10 18.5 2.03 3 0.567 0.19
P 18 34.0 11 20.8 16 30.2 8 15.1 4.85 3 0.183 0.30

SENIOR CATEGORY

S1 S2 S3 S4

P.P. x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
n % n % n % n %

Gk 28 50.9 27 49.1 - - - - 0.04 1 0.850 0.03
W 53 59.6 36 40.4 - - - - 3.48 1 0.062 0.20
B 70 59.3 48 40.7 - - - - 4.41 1 0.036 0.19
CB 33 46.5 38 53.5 - - - - 0.27 1 0.602 0.06
P 35 53.0 31 47.0 - - - - 0.29 1 0.588 0.07

Relative age effect (RAE) according to collective performance (final team position) by the competition category

YOUTH CATEGORY (U-18)
FINAL TEAM POSITION T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc

n n n n n n n n
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
1st - 3rd place (27.713 ) (21.310 ) (10.65 ) (12.86 ) (10.65 ) (6.43 ) (6.43 ) (4.32 ) 17.47 7 0.015 0.6 1
4th - 8th place (30.925 ) (17.314 ) (11.19 ) (7.46 ) (7.46 ) (8.67 ) (12.310 ) (4.94 ) 32.20 7 <0.001 0.6 3
9th - 16th place (28.937 ) (15.620 ) (10.914 ) (11 8.6) (17.222 ) (10 7.8) (5.57 ) (5.57 ) 46.23 7 <0.001 0.6 0
17th - 24th place (18.621 ) (12.414 ) (18.621 ) (13.315 ) (13.315 ) (10 8.8) (10 8.8) (6.27 ) 12.96 7 0.073 0.3 4

JUNIOR CATEGORY (U-20)

FINAL TEAM POSITION T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 x2 ${{x}^{2}}$

n n n n n n n n df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

1st - 3rd place (20.59 ) (15.97 ) (6.83 ) (4.52 ) (11.45 ) (25.011 ) (6.83 ) (9.14 ) 13.19 7 0.068 0.5 5
4th - 8th place (32.024 ) (10.78 ) (8.06 ) (13.310 ) (10.78 ) (8.06 ) (8.06 ) (9.37 ) 27.81 7 <0.001 0.6 1
9th - 16th place (18.622 ) (11 9.3) (14.417 ) (13.616 ) (14.417 ) (11 9.3) (10.212 ) (10.212 ) 7.53 7 0.376 0.2 5
17th - 24th place (18.717 ) (4.44 ) (16.515 ) (13.212 ) (11.010 ) (15.414 ) (16.515 ) (4.44 ) 15.54 7 0.030 0.4 1

SENIOR CATEGORY

FINAL TEAM POSITION T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

n n n n n n n n x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

1st - 3rd place (25.513 ) (33.317 ) (23.512 ) (17.69 ) - - - - 2.64 3 0.450 0.2 3
4th - 8th place (22.919 ) (25.321 ) (30.125 ) (21.718 ) - - - - 1.32 3 0.724 0.1 3
9th - 16th place (25.434 ) (25.434 ) (28.438 ) (20.928 ) - - - - 1.55 3 0.670 0.1 1
17th - 24th place (29.839 ) (31.341 ) (21.428 ) (17.623 ) - - - - 7.34 3 0.062 0.2 4

Birthdate players’ distribution (n [%] and odds ratio [OR]) by trimester (T) and semester (S) according to the competition category

TRIMESTERS T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 d Vc


% % % % % % % % x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ f p
(OR) (OR) (OR) (OR) (OR) (OR) (OR) (OR)
CAT U-18 26.0 (6.1) 15.7 (3.3) 13.3 (2.7) 10.3 (2.0) 13.0 (2.6) 8.1 (1.5) 8.1 (1.5) 5.4 (-) 87.2 2 7 <0.001 0.49
U-20 22.0 (3.1) 9.1 (1.1) 12.5 (1.6) 12.2 (1.5) 12.2 (1.5) 12.8 (1.6) 11.0 (1.4) 8.2 (-) 33.1 2 7 <0.001 0.3 2
Senior 26.3 (1.5) 28.3 (1.6) 25.8 (1.4) 19.5 (-) - - - - 7.38 3 0.061 0.1 4

SEMESTERS S1 S2 S 3 S 4 d Vc


% OR % OR % OR % OR x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ f p

CAT U-18 41.7 4.7 23.6 2.0 21.4 1.8 13.3 - 64.8 8 3 <0.001 0.42
U-20 31.1 1.9 24.7 1.4 25.0 1.4 19.2 - 9.69 3 0.021 0.1 7
Senior 54.9 1.5 45.1 - - - - - 4.19 1 0.041 0.10

Birthdate female players’ distribution (n y %) by trimester (T) according to the competition category and the playing position

YOUTH CATEGORY (U-18)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

P.P. n n n n n n n n x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Gk 17 (30.9) 9 (16.4) 6 (10.9) 9 (16.4) 4 (7.3) 4 (7.3) 5 (9.1) 1 (1.8) 24.93 7 0.001 0.67
W 19 (21.3) 14 (15.7) 12 (13.5) 11 (12.4) 17 (19.1) 9 (10.1) 5 (5.6) 2 (2.2) 21.30 7 0.003 0.49
B 25 (22.7) 13 (11.8) 14 (12.7) 9 (8.2) 16 (14.5) 7 (6.4) 13 (11.8) 13 (11.8) 15.16 7 0.034 0.37
CB 19 (31.1) 13 (21.3) 10 (16.4) 4 (6.6) 7 (11.5) 5 (8.2) 3 (4.9) 0 (0) 23.26 6 0.001 0.62
P 16 (29.6) 9 (16.7) 7 (13.0) 5 (9.3) 4 (7.4) 5 (9.3) 4 (7.4) 4 (7.4) 18.01 7 0.012 0.58

JUNIOR CATEGORY (U-20)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

P.P. n n n n n n n n x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

Gk 16 (30.2) 6 (11.3) 2 (3.8) 4 (7.5) 8 (15.1) 6 (11.3) 3 (5.7) 8 (15.1) 21.02 7 0.004 0.63
W 13 (16.7) 9 (11.5) 14 (17.9) 12 (15.4) 6 (7.7) 7 (9.0) 7 (9.0) 10 (12.8) 6.44 7 0.490 0.29
B 17 (18.9) 7 (7.8) 11 (12.2) 11 (12.2) 13 (14.4) 14 (15.6) 12 (13.3) 5 (5.6) 9.29 7 0.233 0.32
CB 14 (25.9) 2 (3.7) 10 (18.5) 6 (11.1) 8 (14.8) 4 (7.4) 7 (13.0) 3 (5.6) 16.32 7 0.022 0.55
P 12 (22.6) 6 (11.3) 4 (7.5) 7 (13.2) 5 (9.4) 11 (20.8) 7 (13.2) 1 (1.9) 13.95 7 0.052 0.51

SENIOR CATEGORY

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

P.P. n n n n n n n n x2 ${{x}^{2}}$ df p Vc
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

Gk (32.718 ) (18.210 ) (29.116 ) (20.011 ) - - - - 3.39 3 0.335 0.25
W (28.125 ) (30.327 ) (22.520 ) (19.117 ) - - - - 3.01 3 0.391 0.18
B (25.430 ) (33.940 ) (21.225 ) (19.523 ) - - - - 6.10 3 0.107 0.23
CB (23.917 ) (22.516 ) (38.027 ) (15.511 ) - - - - 7.46 3 0.059 0.32
P (22.715 ) (30.320 ) (22.715 ) (24.216 ) - - - - 1.07 3 0.785 0.13

Baker, J., Cobley, S. P., & Winckel, V. (2009). Gender, depth of competition and relative age effects in team sports. Asian Journal of Exercise & Sports Science, 6(1), 1–8. Baker J. Cobley S. P. & Winckel V. 2009 Gender, depth of competition and relative age effects in team sports Asian Journal of Exercise & Sports Science 61 1 8Search in Google Scholar

Baxter-Jones, A. D. . (1995). Growth and development of young athletes. Should competition levels be age related? Sports Medicine, 20(2), 59–64. Baxter-Jones A. D.. 1995 Growth and development of young athletes Should competition levels be age related? Sports Medicine 202 59 6410.2165/00007256-199520020-000017481282Search in Google Scholar

Bjørndal, C. T., Andersen, S. S., & Ronglan, L. T. (2018a). Successful and unsuccessful transitions to the elite level : The youth national team pathways in Norwegian handball. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13(4), 533–544. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954117740014 Bjørndal C. T. Andersen S. S. & Ronglan L. T. 2018a Successful and unsuccessful transitions to the elite level : The youth national team pathways in Norwegian handball International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 134 533 544 10.1177/17479541177400141Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Bjørndal, C. T., Luteberget, L., Till, K., & Holm, S. (2018b). The relative age effect in selection to international team matches in Norwegian handball. PLoS ONE, 13(12), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209288 Bjørndal C. T. Luteberget L. Till K. & Holm S. 2018b The relative age effect in selection to international team matches in Norwegian handball PLoS ONE 1312 1 12 10.1371/journal.pone.02092881Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Camacho-Cardenosa, A., Camacho-Cardenosa, M., González-Custodio, A., Martínez-Guardado, I., Timón, R., Olcina, G., & Brazo-Sayavera, J. (2018). Anthropometric and physical performance of youth handball players: The role of the relative age. Sports, 6(47), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6020047 Camacho-Cardenosa A. Camacho-Cardenosa M. González-Custodio A. Martínez-Guardado I. Timón R. Olcina G. & Brazo-Sayavera J. 2018 Anthropometric and physical performance of youth handball players: The role of the relative age Sports 647 1 10 10.3390/sports60200471Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Campos, F. A., Campos, L. C., Pellegrinotti, I. L., & Gomez, M. A. (2017). The relative age effect in soccer: an analysis of the U20 Libertadores Cup. International Journal of Exercise Science, 10(8), 1157–1164. Campos F. A. Campos L. C. Pellegrinotti I. L. & Gomez M. A. 2017 The relative age effect in soccer: an analysis of the U20 Libertadores Cup International Journal of Exercise Science 108 1157 1164Search in Google Scholar

Campos, F. A. D., Pellegrinotti, I. L., Campos, L. C. B., Dias, T. M. R., & Gómez, M. A. (2020). Relative age effect in the girls’ volleyball U-18 World Championship. Journal of Human Kinetics, 72(1), 195–202. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0106 Campos F. A. D. Pellegrinotti I. L. Campos L. C. B. Dias T. M. R. & Gómez M. A. 2020 Relative age effect in the girls’ volleyball U-18 World Championship Journal of Human Kinetics 721 195 202 10.2478/hukin-2019-01061Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Cobley, S. P., Baker, J., Wattie, N., & McKenna, J. (2009). Annual age-grouping and athlete development. A meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport. Sports Medicine, 39(3), 235–256. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939030-00005 Cobley S. P. Baker J. Wattie N. & McKenna J. 2009 Annual age-grouping and athlete development A meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport. Sports Medicine 393 235 256 10.2165/00007256-200939030-000051Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Collins, D., & MacNamara, A. (2012). The rocky road to the top. Why talent needs trauma. Sports Medicine, 42(11), 907–914. Collins D. & MacNamara A. 2012 The rocky road to the top Why talent needs trauma. Sports Medicine 4211 907 91410.1007/BF0326230223013519Search in Google Scholar

de la Rubia, A., Bjørndal, C. T., Sánchez-Molina, J., Yagüe, J. M., Lorenzo, J., & Maroto-Izquierdo, S. (2020a). The relationship between the relative age effect and performance among athletes in World Handball Championships. PLoS ONE, 15(3), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230133 de la Rubia A. Bjørndal C. T. Sánchez-Molina J. Yagüe J. M. Lorenzo J., & Maroto-Izquierdo S. 2020a The relationship between the relative age effect and performance among athletes in World Handball Championships PLoS ONE 153 1 21 10.1371/journal.pone.02301331Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

de la Rubia, A., Lorenzo-Calvo, J., & Lorenzo, A. (2020b). Does the Relative Age Effect Influence Short-Term Performance and Sport Career in Team Sports? A Qualitative Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(September), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01947 de la Rubia A. Lorenzo-Calvo J., & Lorenzo A. 2020b Does the Relative Age Effect Influence Short-Term Performance and Sport Career in Team Sports? A Qualitative Systematic Review Frontiers in Psychology 11September 1 27 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.019471Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Delorme, N., Boiche, J., & Raspaud, M. (2010). Relative age effect in female sport: a diachronic examination of soccer players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(3), 509–515. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00979.x Delorme N. Boiche J. & Raspaud M. 2010 Relative age effect in female sport: a diachronic examination of soccer players Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 203 509 515 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00979.x1Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Delorme, N., & Champely, S. (2015). Relative age effect and chi-squared statistics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50(6), 740–746. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690213493104 Delorme N. & Champely S. 2015 Relative age effect and chi-squared statistics International Review for the Sociology of Sport 506 740 746 10.1177/10126902134931041Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dixon, J., Horton, S., & Weir, P. L. (2011). Relative age effects: implications for leadership development. The International Journal of Sport and Society, 2(2), 1–15. Dixon J. Horton S. & Weir P. L. 2011 Relative age effects: implications for leadership development The International Journal of Sport and Society 22 1 1510.18848/2152-7857/CGP/v02i02/54068Search in Google Scholar

Edgar, S., & O’Donoghue, P. (2005). Season of birth distribution of elite tennis players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(10), 1013–1020. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021468 Edgar S. & O’Donoghue P. 2005 Season of birth distribution of elite tennis players Journal of Sports Sciences 2310 1013 1020 10.1080/026404104000214681Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Figueiredo, L. S., Gantois, P., de Lima-Junior, D., de Sousa Fortes, L., & de Souza Fonseca, F. (2020). The relationship between relative age effects and sex , age categories and playing positions in Brazilian National Handball Teams. Motriz. Revista de Educacao Fisica, 4, 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1980-6574202000040045 Figueiredo L. S. Gantois P. de Lima-Junior D. de Sousa Fortes L. & de Souza Fonseca F. 2020 The relationship between relative age effects and sex , age categories and playing positions in Brazilian National Handball Teams Motriz. Revista de Educacao Fisica 4 18 10.1590/S1980-65742020000400451Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Fonseca, F. S., Figueiredo, L. S., Gantois, P., de Lima-Junior, D., & Fortes, L. S. (2019). Relative age effect is modulated by playing position but is not related to competitive success in elite under-19 handball athletes. Sports, 7(91), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7040091 Fonseca F. S. Figueiredo L. S. Gantois P. de Lima-Junior D. & Fortes L. S. 2019 Relative age effect is modulated by playing position but is not related to competitive success in elite under-19 handball athletes Sports 791 1 10 10.3390/sports70400911Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Fumarco, L., Gibbs, B. G., Jarvis, J. A., & Rossi, G. (2017). The relative age effect reversal among the National Hockey League elite. PLoS ONE, 12(8), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182827 Fumarco L. Gibbs B. G. Jarvis J. A. & Rossi G. 2017 The relative age effect reversal among the National Hockey League elite PLoS ONE 128 1 16 10.1371/journal.pone.01828271Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gibbs, B. G., Jarvis, J. A., & Dufur, M. J. (2012). The rise of the underdog? The relative age effect reversal among Canadian-born NHL hockey players: A reply to Nolan and Howell. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 47(5), 644–649. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690211414343 Gibbs B. G. Jarvis J. A. & Dufur M. J. 2012 The rise of the underdog? The relative age effect reversal among Canadian-born NHL hockey players: A reply to Nolan and Howell International Review for the Sociology of Sport 475 644 649 10.1177/10126902114143431Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gómez-López, M., Granero-gallegos, A., Feu-Molina, S., & Luis, J. (2017). Relative age effect during the selection of young handball player. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(1), 418–423. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2017.01062 Gómez-López M. Granero-gallegos A. Feu-Molina S. & Luis J. 2017 Relative age effect during the selection of young handball player Journal of Physical Education and Sport 171 418 423 10.7752/jpes.2017.010621Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Güllich, A., & Emrich, E. (2014). Considering long-term sustainability in the development of world class success. European Journal of Sport Science, 14(SUPPL.1), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2012.706320 Güllich A. & Emrich E. 2014 Considering long-term sustainability in the development of world class success European Journal of Sport Science 14SUPPL.1 37 41 10.1080/17461391.2012.7063201Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hancock, D. J., Adler, A. L., & Côté, J. (2013). A proposed theoretical model to explain relative age effects in sport. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(6), 630–637. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.775352 Hancock D. J. Adler A. L. & Côté J. 2013 A proposed theoretical model to explain relative age effects in sport European Journal of Sport Science 136 630 637 10.1080/17461391.2013.7753521Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Helsen, W. F., Van Winckel, J., & Williams, A. M. (2005). The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(6), 629–636. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021310 Helsen W. F. Van Winckel J. & Williams A. M. 2005 The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe Journal of Sports Sciences 236 629 636 10.1080/026404104000213101Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ibañez, S. J., Mazo, A., Nascimento, J., & Garcıa-Rubio, J. (2018). The relative age effect in under-18 basketball : Effects on performance according to playing position. PLoS ONE, 13(7), 1–11. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200408 Ibañez S. J. Mazo A. Nascimento J. & Garcıa-Rubio J. 2018 The relative age effect in under-18 basketball : Effects on performance according to playing position PLoS ONE 137 1 11 10.1371/journal.pone.02004081Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Krahenbühl, T., & Leonardo, L. (2020). The relative age effect: coaches’ choices as evidence of social influence on youth handball. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(5), 2460–2467. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2020.05337 Krahenbühl T. & Leonardo L. 2020 The relative age effect: coaches’ choices as evidence of social influence on youth handball Journal of Physical Education and Sport 205 2460 2467 10.7752/jpes.2020.053371Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kruger, K., Pilat, C., Uckert, K., Frech, T., & Mooren, F. C. (2014). Physical performance profile of handball players is related to playing position and playing class. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(1), 117–125. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318291b713 Kruger K. Pilat C. Uckert K. Frech T. & Mooren F. C. 2014 Physical performance profile of handball players is related to playing position and playing class Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 281 117 125 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318291b7131Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Lago-Fuentes, C., Rey, E., Padrón-Cabo, A., Prieto-Troncoso, J., & García-Nuñez, J. (2019). The relative age effect in professional futsal players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 72(1), 173–183. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0105 Lago-Fuentes C. Rey E. Padrón-Cabo A. Prieto-Troncoso J. & García-Nuñez J. 2019 The relative age effect in professional futsal players Journal of Human Kinetics 721 173 183 10.2478/hukin-2019-01051Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

López de Subijana, C., & Lorenzo, J. (2019). Relative Age Effect and Long-Term Success in the Spanish Soccer and Basketball National Teams. Journal of Human Kinetics, 65(1), 197–204. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0027 López de Subijana C. & Lorenzo J. 2019 Relative Age Effect and Long-Term Success in the Spanish Soccer and Basketball National Teams Journal of Human Kinetics 651 197 204 10.2478/hukin-2018-00271Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Matthys, S., Fransen, J., Vaeyens, R., & Philippaerts, R. M. (2013). Differences in biological maturation, anthropometry and physical performance between playing positions in youth team handball. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(12), 1344–1352. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.781663 Matthys S. Fransen J. Vaeyens R. & Philippaerts R. M. 2013 Differences in biological maturation, anthropometry and physical performance between playing positions in youth team handball Journal of Sports Sciences 3112 1344 1352 10.1080/02640414.2013.7816631Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

McCarthy, N., & Collins, D. (2014). Initial identification & selection bias versus the eventual confirmation of talent: Evidence for the benefits of a rocky road? Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(17), 1604–1610. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.908322 McCarthy N. & Collins D. 2014 Initial identification & selection bias versus the eventual confirmation of talent: Evidence for the benefits of a rocky road? Journal of Sports Sciences 3217 1604 1610 10.1080/02640414.2014.9083221Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Michalsik, L., Aagaard, P., & Madsen, K. (2015). Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(4), 1126–1138. https://doi.org/doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000735 Michalsik L. Aagaard P. & Madsen K. 2015 Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 294 1126 1138 10.1519/JSC.00000000000007351Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Mon-López, D., Tejero-González, C. M., de la Rubia Riaza, A., & Calvo, J. L. (2020). Pistol and Rifle Performance: Gender and Relative Age Effect Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4), 1365. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041365 Mon-López D. Tejero-González C. M. de la Rubia Riaza A. & Calvo J. L. 2020 Pistol and Rifle Performance: Gender and Relative Age Effect Analysis International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 174 1365 10.3390/ijerph170413651Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Musch, J., & Grondin, S. (2001). Unequal competition as an impediment to personal development: A review of the relative age effect in sport. Developmental Review, 21(2), 147–167. https://doi.org/10.1006/drev.2000.0516 Musch J. & Grondin S. 2001 Unequal competition as an impediment to personal development: A review of the relative age effect in sport Developmental Review 212 147 167 10.1006/drev.2000.05161Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Nikolaidis, P. T., Ingebrigtsen, J., Povoas, S. C., Moss, S., & Torres-Luque, G. (2015). Physical and physiological characteristics in male team handball players by playing position - Does age matter? The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 55(4), 297–304. Nikolaidis P. T. Ingebrigtsen J. Povoas S. C. Moss S. & Torres-Luque G. 2015 Physical and physiological characteristics in male team handball players by playing position - Does age matter? The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 554 297 304Search in Google Scholar

Rea, L. M., & Parker, R. A. (1992). Design and conducting survey research. A comprehensive guide (Jossey-Bass Publishers (ed.)). Rea L. M. & Parker R. A. 1992 Design and conducting survey research. A comprehensive guide (Jossey-Bass Publishers (ed.))Search in Google Scholar

Sá, P., Resende, R., Rui Gomes, A., Saavedra, M., & Fernández, J. J. (2020). The relative age in handball players in Portugal. E-Balonmano.Com: Revista de Ciencias Del Deporte, 16(2), 93–102. P. Resende R. Rui Gomes A. Saavedra M., & Fernández J. J. 2020 The relative age in handball players in Portugal E-Balonmano.Com: Revista de Ciencias Del Deporte 162 93 102Search in Google Scholar

Saavedra-García, M., Gutiérrez-Aguilar, O., Sa-Marques, P., & Fernández-Romero, J. (2016). Efecto de la edad relativa en el atletismo Español. Cuadernos de Psicologia Del Deporte, 16(1), 275–286. Saavedra-García M. Gutiérrez-Aguilar O. Sa-Marques P. & Fernández-Romero J. 2016 Efecto de la edad relativa en el atletismo Español Cuadernos de Psicologia Del Deporte 161 275 286Search in Google Scholar

Saavedra, Y., & Saavedra, J. M. (2020). The Association between relative age effect, goals scored, shooting effectiveness and the player’s position, and her team’s final classification in international level Women’s Youth Handball. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.26773/mjssm Saavedra Y. & Saavedra J. M. 2020 The Association between relative age effect, goals scored, shooting effectiveness and the player’s position, and her team’s final classification in international level Women’s Youth Handball Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 91 1 7 10.26773/mjssm.1Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sarvestan, J., Riedel, V., Gonosová, Z., Linduška, P., & Přidalová, M. (2019). Relationship between anthropometric and strength variables and maximal throwing velocity in female junior handball players - a pilot study. Acta Gymnica, 49(3), 132–137. https://doi.org/10.5507/ag.2019.012 Sarvestan J. Riedel V. Gonosová Z. Linduška P. & Přidalová M. 2019 Relationship between anthropometric and strength variables and maximal throwing velocity in female junior handball players - a pilot study Acta Gymnica 493 132 137 10.5507/ag.2019.0121Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Schorer, J., Cobley, S., Büsch, D., Bräutigam, H., & Baker, J. (2009). Influences of competition level, gender, player nationality, career stage and playing position on relative age effects. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 19(5), 720–730. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00838.x Schorer J. Cobley S. Büsch D. Bräutigam H. & Baker J. 2009 Influences of competition level, gender, player nationality, career stage and playing position on relative age effects Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 195 720 730 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00838.x1Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Schwesig, R., Hermassi, S., Fieseler, G., Irlenbusch, L., Noack, F., Delank, K. S., Shephard, R. J., & Chelly, M. S. (2017). Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional handball players: Influence of playing position. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 57(11), 1471–1478. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06413-6 Schwesig R. Hermassi S. Fieseler G. Irlenbusch L. Noack F. Delank K. S. Shephard R. J. & Chelly M. S. 2017 Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional handball players: Influence of playing position The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 5711 1471 1478 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06413-61Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Smith, K. L., Weir, P. L., Till, K., Romann, M., & Cobley, S. P. (2018). Relative age effects across and within female sport contexts: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(6), 1451–1478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0890-8 Smith K. L. Weir P. L. Till K. Romann M. & Cobley S. P. 2018 Relative age effects across and within female sport contexts: A systematic review and meta-analysis Sports Medicine 486 1451 1478 10.1007/s40279-018-0890-81Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sprietsma, M. (2010). Effect of relative age in the first grade of primary school on long-term scholastic results: International comparative evidence using PISA 2003. In Education Economics (Vol. 18, Issue 1). https://doi.org/10.1080/09645290802201961 Sprietsma M. 2010 Effect of relative age in the first grade of primary school on long-term scholastic results: International comparative evidence using PISA 2003 In Education Economics Vol. 18 Issue 1 10.1080/096452908022019611Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Torres-Unda, J., Zarrazquin, I., Gil, J., Ruiz, F., Irazusta, A., Kortajarena, M., Seco, J., & Irazusta, J. (2013). Anthropometric, physiological and maturational characteristics in selected elite and non-elite male adolescent basketball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(2), 196–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.725133 Torres-Unda J. Zarrazquin I. Gil J. Ruiz F. Irazusta A. Kortajarena M. Seco J. & Irazusta J. 2013 Anthropometric, physiological and maturational characteristics in selected elite and non-elite male adolescent basketball players Journal of Sports Sciences 312 196 203 10.1080/02640414.2012.7251331Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Torres-Unda, J., Zarrazquin, I., Gravina, L., Zubero, J., Seco, J., Gil, S. M., Gil, J., & Irazusta, J. (2016). Basketball performance is related to maturity and relative age in elite adolescent players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(5), 1325–1332. https://doi.org/doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001224 Torres-Unda J. Zarrazquin I. Gravina L. Zubero J. Seco J. Gil S. M. Gil J. & Irazusta J. 2016 Basketball performance is related to maturity and relative age in elite adolescent players Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 305 1325 1332 10.1519/JSC.000000000000122410.1519/JSC.000000000000122426439783Search in Google Scholar

Vegara-Ferri, J. M., García-Mayor, J., Pérez, A. M., & Cabezos, H. (2019). Effect of relative age in the basketball world championships sub-17, sub-19 and Olympic Games of Brazil 2016. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 11(1), 33–42. Vegara-Ferri J. M. García-Mayor J. Pérez A. M. & Cabezos H. 2019 Effect of relative age in the basketball world championships sub-17, sub-19 and Olympic Games of Brazil 2016 Journal of Sport and Health Research 111 33 42Search in Google Scholar

Vincent, J., & Glamser, F. (2006). Gender differences in the relative age effect among US olympic development program youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(4), 405–413. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500244655 Vincent J. & Glamser F. 2006 Gender differences in the relative age effect among US olympic development program youth soccer players Journal of Sports Sciences 244 405 413 10.1080/026404105002446551Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Vogelbein, M., Nopp, S., & Hökelmann, A. (2014). Defensive transition in soccer - are prompt possession regains a measure of success? A quantitative analysis of German Fußball-Bundesliga 2010/2011. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(11), 1076–1083. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.879671 Vogelbein M. Nopp S. & Hökelmann A. 2014 Defensive transition in soccer - are prompt possession regains a measure of success? A quantitative analysis of German Fußball-Bundesliga 2010/2011 Journal of Sports Sciences 3211 1076 1083 10.1080/02640414.2013.8796711Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wattie, N., Schorer, J., & Baker, J. (2015). The relative age effect in sport: A developmental systems model. Sports Medicine, 45(1), 83–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0248-9 Wattie N. Schorer J. & Baker J. 2015 The relative age effect in sport: A developmental systems model Sports Medicine 451 83 94 10.1007/s40279-014-0248-91Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wrang, C. M., Rossing, N. N., Diernæs, R. M., Hansen, C. G., Dalgaard-Hansen, C., & Karbing, D. S. (2018). Relative age effect and the re-selection of Danish male handball players for national teams. Journal of Human Kinetics, 63(1), 33–41. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0004 Wrang C. M. Rossing N. N. Diernæs R. M. Hansen C. G. Dalgaard-Hansen C. & Karbing D. S. 2018 Relative age effect and the re-selection of Danish male handball players for national teams Journal of Human Kinetics 631 33 41 10.2478/hukin-2018-00041Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Zimmermann de Oliveira, H., Borges Ribeiro Junior, D., Macedo Vianna, J., & Werneck, F. Z. (2017). Relative age effect in Brazilian Basketball Championship: under 15 players. Brazilian Journal of Kineanthropometry & Human Performance, 19(5), 526–534. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n5p526 Zimmermann de Oliveira H. Borges Ribeiro Junior D. Macedo Vianna J. & Werneck F.Z. 2017 Relative age effect in Brazilian Basketball Championship: under 15 players Brazilian Journal of Kineanthropometry & Human Performance 195 526 534 10.5007/1980-00371Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Artículos recomendados de Trend MD

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo