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Thermal Resistance of Gray Modal and Micromodal Socks

Publicado en línea: 01 Oct 2022
Volumen & Edición: AHEAD OF PRINT
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Detalles de la revista
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Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-0929
Primera edición
19 Oct 2012
Calendario de la edición
4 veces al año
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Inglés
Introduction

Socks, in dependence on environmental exposures (neutral/cold/warm) and level of activity (rest, walk, exercise, run, recovery) are primarily worn to provide: 1) insulation in order to maintain foot skin temperature for comfort and cold-related injury 2) to reduce frictional forces as a major determinant of blister formation, and 3) to mediate buil-up moisture within the layers (air and textile) between the skin and footwear [1]. Socks used in everyday life that adhere to the skin are made of knitted fabrics, as their specific structure and stretchability allow them to adapt well to the body and provide a high level of wearer comfort. The properties and structure of socks are predominantly defined by: type of raw material and its parameters (cotton, modal, blends, Polyamide, elastane), type of yarn (ring, rotor, air jet, filament, etc.), yarn fineness and socks pattern. Textile fibres as polymeric materials are widely used in various engineering fields from the field of clothing (including socks) to the technical field such as fibre-reinforced composites [2]. Today, cotton is the predominant fibre used to it make socks. Cotton fibre production will not be sufficient in the future to meet the needs of the earth's population growth due to limited cotton acreage. Therefore, regenerated cellulose fibres such as modal, viscose and Lyocell are used to meet people's needs in garment production. The share of regenerated cellulose fibres in global fibre consumption increased to more than 7 million tonnes (more than 6%) in 2019 compared to the previous year [3]. Modal fibres (CMD) are obtained using a viscous technological process of spinning from a solution, but from higher quality wood pulp and with different process parameters [4]. Compared to viscose fibres, modal fibers are characterised by a higher dry and wet strength and a lower elongation at break. The most common products made of modal fibres are underwear, pyjamas, socks and household linen. As modal fibres are expensive than cotton, they are often blended with cotton in the form of fibres or in the manufacture of garments in the form of yarn. Socks made of modal fibres have a stronger lustre, feel soft and are more expensive than products of the same structure made of cotton or viscose fibres.

One of the properties of socks is certainly thermal comfort, which is also determined by the amount of thermal resistance. The thermal resistance of socks, to a certain level of human load and certain environmental conditions depends largely on the type of raw material, the structure of the knitted fabric and sewing patterns. The wearing comfort of socks, is determined by objective and/or subjective methods [5]. Thermal and water-vapour resistance of textile fabrics is usually determined on the basis of the sweating guarded hotplate test according to ISO 11092 [6], while thermal and water-vapour resistance of garments, resp. socks is determined using the so-called Thermal manikins, resp. the Thermal Foot”. More specifically, Kuklane [7] states that the thermal foot method is more advanced compared to the existing prEN-344 1999 standard (withdrawn from 08.11.2004.).

There are several published papers dealing with the wearing comfort of knitted fabrics and garments that do or do not adhere directly to the skin, while the number of published papers dealing with the wearing comfort of socks is nevertheless smaller. Kuklane [8] investigated the thermal resistance of boots (without socks) made of different materials using the thermal foot as well as the subjective well-being of test persons. He states, among other things, that the physiological parameters of the human being and the insulation values of shoes and socks are decisive in certain activities and environmental conditions in order to achieve a balance between the heat generated by the blood circulation and heat loss. Kuklane [9] also studied the comfort of footwear combined with socks in a cold environment. I Insulation (thermal resistance) values were determined with the thermal foot models (F2 and F3) placed on a copper/zinc alloy plate. He found that thick socks add overall foot thermal resistance compared to thin ones (by 5 to 11%). Vasanth Kumar and Raja [10] investigated the thermal comfort of socks knitted in single jersey structure from PES, cotton and their blends. They used the Alambeta Textile Tester (Sensora Instruments, Czech Republic). They concluded that polyester (recycled) fibre socks achieve higher thermal resistance than cotton socks. Özdil [11] investigated the thermal comfort of socks made of different raw materials (wool, PAN, Cotton, PA, some blends), by measuring the thermal resistance with the Alambeta instrument. They concluded, among others, that socks containing PA fibers give high values of thermal conductivity and heat absorption. Chiukas et al., in their papers [12, 13], investigated the thermal comfort properties (air permeability, thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal resistance) of platted knitted fabrics with different basic materials with the addition of textured PA and elastane (Lycra). Thermal conductivity was measured with a measuring device which operating pripciple was described in their first paper. They concluded, among others, that using two or three yarns in the knit allows to control air permeability, the thermal conductivity coeffiecient and thermal resistance. Cimili and Özdemir [14] investigated the thermal properties of socks made of different types of fibers (Cotton, Modal, Viscose, Micro modal, Bamboo, Chitosan and Soybean), and used a “special experimental setup” for measuring thermal resistance. They concluded that the fiber type seems to markedly affect the comfort properties. Van Amber and et al.[15] state that the most thermal and moisture transfer properties of sock are affected by fabric variables via two different mechanisms: fabric thickness, and the density and arrangement of fiber and yarns. Rogina-Car et al [16, 17] investigated the thermal resistance of socks made of viscose (ring) and tencel (ring, rotor and air-jet) base yarn with the addition of PA multifilament yarn or cotton yarn of the same knitted structure, using a thermal foot.

As socks today are mainly made of cotton yarn with a small addition of multifilament polyamide yarn and elastane, this paper will investigate the thermal resistance of socks containing modal / micromodal yarn (as a basic yarn) of the same fineness with the addition of PA. multifilament yarn of different fineness and coarser cotton yarn, using a thermal foot [8, 19]. By selecting a larger number of basic modal and micromodal yarns, which is less common for commercial sock samples, the aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of modal fibers and their fineness (1.3 dtex and 1 dtex) as well as the type of basic yarn (ring, rotor, air-jet) on thermal resistance of socks.

Experimental
Materials

20 tex modal and micromodal ring spun yarns (tricot) were produced on a Zinser 351 ring spinning machine with a ring diameter of 42 mm, 20 tex modal and micromodal rotor spun yarns (tricot) were made on a Schlafhorst A8 rotor spinning machine with a rotor diameter of 33 mm, whereas 20 tex modal and micromodal air-jet spun yarns (tricot) were made on a Rieter J20 air-jet spinning machine with an inner spindle diameter of 1.2 mm. A 25 tex cotton ring-spun yarn (tricot) was made using the combing process and was commercially purchased. A 156 dtex and 220 dtex multifilament PA yarn was also commercially purchased. A 500 dtex elastane yarn was inserted into the sock cuff.

The size of the socks is adjusted to the size of the thermal. The size of the thermal foot is adjusted to fit in shoes of the standard 42 EU size [18]. Samples of sock size 42 (EU size) were made on a Lonati automatic sock knitting machine with a cylinder diameter of 95 mm with 108 needles. The designations of the sock and yarn as well as mass, thickness and square mass (GSM) of all samples are given in Table 1 and the structure of the sock samples is shown in Figure 1.

Designation and description of the sock patterns and the yarns used; 4 yarns per course were used, plus an elastane yarn in the cuff

Sock group Sock combination Yarns Yarn label Mass (g/sock) p = 0.05 Thickenss (mm) p = 0.05 GSM (g/m2)
MR MR_A Modal and polyamide yarns M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68 19.0 ± 0.0 1.24 ± 0.01 215.4
MR_B M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 21.4 ± 0.0 1.29 ± 0.01 242.7
MR_C Modal, cotton and polyamide yarns M 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 f68 dtex 23.0 ± 0.0 1.40 ± 0.02 260.8
MR Average 21,1 1.31 239.3
MRO MRO_A Modal and polyamide yarns M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68 19.2 ± 0.0 1.21 ± 0.01 217.7
MRO_B M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 21.4 ± 0.0 1.30 ± 0.01 242.7
MRO_C Modal, cotton and polyamide yarns M 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 22.8 ± 0.0 1.41 ± 0.01 258.5
MRO Average 21.1 1.31 239.3
MAJ MAJ_A Modal and polyamide yarns M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68 19.4 ± 0.0 1.25 ± 0.01 220.0
MAJ_B M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 21.7 ± 0.0 1.36 ± 0.02 246.1
MAJ_C Modal, cotton and polyamide yarns M 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 23.0 ± 0.1 1.44 ± 0.02 260.8
MAJ Average 21.4 1.35 242.7
MMR MMR_A Micromodal and polyamide yarns MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68 19.0 ± 0.0 1.25 ± 0.01 215.4
MMR_B MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 21.3 ± 0.0 1.30 ± 0.02 241.5
MMR_C Micromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns MM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 22.9 ± 0.0 1.39 ± 0.01 259.7
MMR Average 21.1 1.31 239.3
MMRO MMRO_A Micromodal and polyamide yarns MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68 19.2 ± 0.3 1.20 ± 0.02 217.7
MMRO_B MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 21.7 ± 0.0 1.31 ± 0.01 246.1
MMRO_C Micromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns MM 20 tex ×2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 23.1 ± 0.1 1.42 ± 0.02 261.9
MMRO Average 21.3 1.31 241.5
MMAJ MMAJ_A Micromodal and polyamide yarns MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68 19.4 ± 0.0 1.23 ± 0.01 220.0
MMAJ_B MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 21.6 ± 0.0 1.32 ± 0.02 244.9
MMAJ_C Micromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns MM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68 22.9 ± 0.0 1.39 ± 0.03 259.7
MMAJ Average 21.3 1.31 241.5
Overall Average 21.2 1.32 240.4

M – Modal; MM – Micromodal; Cot – cotton, R - ring spun yarn; RO - rotor spun yarn; AJ – air-jet spun yarn; PA – polyamide; A, B, C combinations of different types of yarn in the structure of knitted fabric

Figure 1

Sock structure of leg and cuff

The main physical-mechanical parameters of the basic modal and basic micro modal yarns (linear density, unevenness, faults, hairiness, and spectrograms) are provided in the earlier published paper [20]. Nominal values were used for the linear density of cotton yarn, PA yarn and elastane. The surface mass of the sock is determined from the ratio of the mass of the sock and the measuring surface of the thermal foot. The total area of the thermal foot is 96,450 mm2, and as the 2 upper upper segments were excluded from the measurement, the total measuring area on the thermal foot was 88,190 mm2. Dividing the mass of a sock by the measuring surface provides the real surface mass of the sock in the wear simulation. Therefore, the surface mass of unstretched socks was not determined.

Methods
Dimensions of the unstretched socks, mass and thickness

The following dimensions of unstretched socks were determined: sock leg length Ll, foot length Lf, half foot circumference B1, half circumference of sock leg length B2 and half circumference of cuff width B3 (Fig. 2). The dimensions of the socks were determined using a flexible length meter with a reading accuracy of 1 mm. Five test specimens (socks) were used for each combination of 18 samples, and the average value was determined.

Figure 2

Sock shape and main dimensions [17]

The dimensions of the unstretched sock samples (according to Fig. 1) are given in Tab. 2. The range of mean deviations was determined with 95% confidence.

Dimensions of unstretched sock samples

Sock group Sock abbreviation Leg length Ll (mm) Foot length Lf (mm) B1 (mm) B2 (mm) B3 (mm)
MR MR_A 242 ± 4 275 ± 2 90 ± 1 85 ± 1 84 ± 1
MR_B 245 ± 3 279 ± 2 93 ± 1 89 ± 1 85 ± 1
MR_C 249 ± 1 278 ± 2 95 ± 1 90 ± 0 86 ± 1
MR Average 245 277 93 88 85
MRO MRO_A 249 ± 3 270 ± 60 93 ± 1 87 ± 1 84 ± 0
MRO_B 250 ± 4 273 ± 3 94 ± 1 89 ± 1 85 ± 1
MRO_C 249 ± 2 274 ± 2 95 ± 1 90 ± 2 86 ± 1
MRO Average 249 272 94 89 85
MAJ MAJ_A 255 ± 3 280 ± 5 92 ± 1 89 ± 1 85 ± 1
MAJ_B 251 ± 2 275 ± 7 94 ± 1 90 ± 1 85 ± 0
MAJ_C 250 ± 3 277 ± 3 94 ± 2 91 ± 1 86 ± 1
MAJ Average 252 277 90 85
MMR MMR_A 239 ± 1 272 ± 2 91 ± 1 85 ± 0 83 ± 1
MMR_B 241 ± 2 270 ± 4 93 ± 1 88 ± 1 85 ± 1
MMR_C 246 ± 2 272 ± 1 94 ± 1 89 ± 1 85 ± 0
MMR Average 242 271 93 87 84
MMRO MMRO_A 249 ± 3 276 ± 3 91 ± 1 88 ± 1 84 ± 1
MMRO_B 253 ± 1 279 ± 5 93 ± 2 90 ± 1 85 ± 1
MMRO_C 249 ± 2 275 ± 2 93 ± 1 93 ± 1 86 ± 1
MMRO Average 250 277 92 90 85
MMAJ MMAJ_A 248 ± 3 276 ± 2 91 ± 1 87 ± 1 84 ± 1
MMAJ_B 250 ± 1 277 ± 3 92 ± 2 89 ± 1 84 ± 1
MMAJ_C 249 ± 1 273 ± 6 93 ± 1 90 ± 1 85 ± 0
MMAJ Average 249 275 92 89 84

The mass of the socks was determined using the analytical balance. One mass measurement of each sample combination was carried out on 5 different test specimens. Sock thickness was measured at 10 different points of each test specimen on a HESS model 2000-U thickness measuring gauge according to standard ISO 9073-2.

The results for the mass and thickness of the unstretched socks are shown in Table 1. The range of deviation from the mean value was determined with 95 % confidence.

The procedure for determining the dimensions of stretched socks

The shape of the stretched sock after placement on the thermal foot is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3

Dimensions of the unstretched and stretched sock along the curve on thermal foot [17]

The elongation of the socks in the wale direction εl (%) in the sock leg after placement on the thermal foot was determined by the equation: εl=L1lL0lL0l100=ΔLlLol100 {\varepsilon _l} = {{{L_{1l}} - {L_{0l}}} \over {{L_{0l}}}} \cdot 100 = {{\Delta {L_l}} \over {{L_{ol}}}} \cdot 100

The elongation of the socks in the wale direction in the section of the foot εf after placement on the thermal foot (%) was determined by the equation: εf=L1fL0fL0f100=ΔLfLof100 {\varepsilon _f} = {{{L_{1f}} - {L_{0f}}} \over {{L_{0f}}}} \cdot 100 = {{\Delta {L_f}} \over {{L_{of}}}} \cdot 100 where: L1l, L1f values measured along the thermal foot curve (mm), L0l, L0f the actual length of the part of the unstretched sock of the unstretched sock (L0l = 150 mm, L0f = 200 mm), ΔLl, ΔLf elongation of the sock in the the actual length of the part of the unstretched sock leg or foot (mm).

Stretching the actual length of the part of unstretched sock on the Thermal Foot was determined according to equations 1 and 2, and it is shown in Table 3.

Stretching the actual length of the part of socks on the Thermal Foot

Sock group Sock abbreviation L1l (mm) SD (mm) CV (%) Ɛl (%) L1f (mm) SD (mm) CV (%) Ɛf (%)
MR MR_A 153.7 0.78 5.05 2.47 209.7 0.25 1.20 4.85
MR_B 158.7 0.23 1.46 5.80 213.7 0.35 1.64 6.85
MR_C 149.7 0.92 6.17 0.1 195.7 0.49 2.52 0.5
Average 154.0 0.64 4.23 2.79 206.4 0.36 1.80 4.07
MRO MRO_A 150.7 0.51 3.41 0.47 208.7 0.64 3.04 4.35
MRO_B 153.7 0.72 4.71 2.47 202.3 0.25 1.24 1.15
MRO_C 152.3 0.25 1.65 1.53 199.3 0.23 1.16 0.2
Average 152.2 0.49 3.26 1.49 203.4 0.37 1.81 1.90
MAJ MAJ_A 157.3 0.46 2.94 4.87 205.0 0.56 2.72 2.50
MAJ_B 156.0 0.36 2.31 4.00 200.7 0.25 1.25 0.35
MAJ_C 156.3 0.32 2.06 4.20 205.3 0.15 0.74 2.65
Average 156.5 0.38 2.44 4.36 203.7 0.32 1.57 1.83
MMR MMR_A 154.3 0.12 0.75 2.87 209.0 0.36 1.73 4.50
MMR_B 155.3 0.25 1.62 3.53 206.3 0.32 1.56 3.15
MMR_C 152.3 0.40 2.65 1.53 205.7 0.60 2.93 2.85
Average 154.0 0.26 1.67 2.64 207.0 0.43 2.07 3.50
MMRO MMRO_A 154.7 0.25 1.63 3.13 214.3 0.40 1.89 7.15
MMRO_B 154.7 0.25 1.63 3.13 206.3 0.40 1.96 3.15
MMRO_C 156.7 0.51 3.28 4.47 201.0 0.53 2.63 0.50
Average 155.4 0.34 2.18 3.58 207.2 0.44 2.16 3.60
MMAJ MMAJ_A 153.7 0.21 1.35 2.47 201.0 0.17 0.86 0.50
MMAJ_B 148.3 0.29 1.95 0.1 205.3 0.45 2.20 2.65
MMAJ_C 153.0 0.82 5.35 2.00 201.3 0.15 0.03 0.65
Average 151.7 0.44 2.88 1.52 202.5 0.26 1.03 1.27
Thermal resistance measurement procedure on thermal foot

The thermal foot (Fig. 4a) consists of 13 segments of different surface, each of which can be heated separately at different temperatures or switched off [18]. In order to place the sock samples as evenly as possible on the thermal foot relating to their partially different heights, for the purpose of this work the upper segments No. 9 and 13 of the thermal foot were switched off (Figs. 4a, 4b). On the bare foot, a basic cotton sock was used in this work, which is placed on the thermal foot when measuring the values of Rct0 and Rct. When measuring the Rct0 value, a certain period of system stabilization was required, and the start of measurement was determined at the moment when the power of the heater (W) was constant (steady state), which was observed at the interface of the control unit (Fig. 4c). Measuring the Rct0 value takes 20 minutes. Upon completing the measurement of Rct0 the sock test specimen is placed on the thermal foot with the basic sock. System stabilisation is restored and the state of equilibrium is expected. Measuring the total resistance Rct of the thermal foot with the basic sock and the sock test specimen also takes 20 minutes (Fig. 4b). The value of thermal resistance Rct0 was determined by one measurement per sock test specimen. The measurement conditions were: thermal foot temperature 35 ºC, ambient temperature 20 ± 2 ºC, relative humidity 65 ± 5% and air flow rate 0.2 – 0.3 m/s (natural convection). For each sample combination, three thermal resistance measurements were made with the thermal foot.

Figure 4

Termal Foot and elements of interface of control unit

The general equation according to which the thermal foot measures thermal resistance has the following form [18]: Rct=Am(TmTa)P {R_{ct}} = {{{A_m}\left( {{T_m} - {T_a}} \right)} \over P} where: Rct thermal resistance (m2 °C W−1), Am measuring surface of the thermal foot (m2), Tm ttemperature of the measuring surface of the thermal foot (ºC), Ta ambient temperature (20 ± 2ºC); P total heater power of all thermal foot segments (W).

The thermal resistance of the thermal foot Rct is determined in this paper by the equation (Fig. 4) [18]: Rct=(TinTa)AiPi {R_{ct}} = {{\left( {{{\sum {{T_i}} } \over n}{T_a}} \right)\sum {{A_i}} } \over {\sum {{P_i}} }} where: Ti average temperature of the i-th segment (°C), n number of segments switched on, Ai total measuring surface of the switched-on segments (m2), Pi total power of the switched-on segments (W).

The thermal resistance of the sample is determined by the equation: Rcts=RctRct0 {R_{cts}} = {R_{ct}} - {R_{ct0}} where: Rcts thermal resistance of the sock sample (m2 °C W−1), Rct total thermal resistance of the thermal foot + basic sock + sock sample (m2 °C W−1), Rct0 thermal resistance of the thermal foot + basic sock (m2 °C W−1).

The thermal resistance of the sock depends on the sample thickness d (mm) and the thermal conductivity of the material of which the sample is made λ (W °C m−1), and it can be determined by the following equation if the thermal conductivity of the material and its thickness are known:

Rct=dλ {R_{ct}} = {d \over \lambda }
Results and discussion
<sec id="j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001_s_001"><div>Dimensions of unstretched socks</div> <p>The length of the sock leg <italic>L<sub>l</sub></italic> of all sample combinations ranges from 239 mm (sample MMR_A) to 255 mm (sample MAJ_A) (<a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005">Fig. 5</a>, <a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_002">Tab. 2</a>,). The difference is 16 mm, i.e. 6.7 %. The length of the sock leg <italic>L<sub>l</sub></italic> in the samples knitted from basic modal yarns (245, 249, 252 mm) is not significantly different from the samples knitted from micromodal yarns (242, 250, 249 mm). Moreover, samples of basic modal ring and basic micro modal ring yarns have a slightly shorter average leg length (245, 242 mm) than basic modal and micro modal rotor yarns (249, 250 mm) and air-jet spun basic modal and micro modal yarns (252, 249 mm). Differences in the leg length <italic>L<sub>l</sub></italic> per sample groups are nevertheless small and can be attributed to differences in the structure of the ring, rotor and air-jet spun yarn and the difference in the fineness of the added yarns in the samples under equal knitting conditions. The values for the foot length Lf of all sample combinations range from 270 mm (sample MRO_A) to 280 mm (sample MAJ_A), and the difference is 10 mm, i.e. 3.7 %, which is still probable marginal. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between samples of basic modal and basic micromodal yarns.</p> <figure id="j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 5</h2> <figCaption><p>Dimensions of unstretched socks</p></figCaption> <img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=04ca4fe0da87bf3740f6f63b937e5ca413ccd5f0b56a0d9aa684e97cb66d80fd" class="mw-100"></img> </figure> <p>Although the largest differences in the leg length of the samples <italic>L<sub>l</sub></italic> (16 mm) and the foot length <italic>L<sub>f</sub></italic> (10 mm) are small, they can be significant for complete and uniform covering of the measuring surface of the thermal foot. When measuring unstretched and stretched socks on the thermal foot, the unavoidable subjective error is also taken into account to a lesser extent due to straightening the socks.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001_s_002"><div>Mass, thickness and GSM of socks</div> <p>The mass of all sample combinations ranges from 19.0 g/sock to 23.1 g/sock (<a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006">Fig. 6</a>, <a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_001">Table 1</a>,). The greatest mass difference among all samples was 21.6 %. As expected, the use of coarser PA and cotton yarns also increases the mass of the socks in each sample group (samples marked B and C). Although the sock masses of each group ranged from 21.1 g/sock to 21.4 g/sock, which makes a difference of 1.4%, it was necessary to consider each sample combination separately.</p> <figure id="j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 6</h2> <figCaption><p>Mass and thickness of unstretched socks</p></figCaption> <img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=0433267b177a8ffc2a7d5fd78e45e2b271540525e1252498d9868fdbdb48f5c1" class="mw-100"></img> </figure> <p>The thickness of the socks of all sample combinations ranges from 1.21 to 1.44 mm, which gives a maximum difference of 19.0% and is significant in percentage terms. By using coarser PA and cotton yarn, the sock thickness is expected to increase. Furthermore, the mean thickness values of individual groups range from 1.31 to 1.35, which makes a difference of 3.1%. This was also the reason for a more detailed analysis of all sample combinations.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001_s_003"><div>Sock foot dimensions and stretching</div> <p>Stretching socks on the Thermal Foot was determined according to <a ref-type="disp-formula" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_eq_001">equations 1</a> and <a ref-type="disp-formula" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_eq_002">2</a>, and it is shown in <a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007">Figs. 7</a> and <a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008">8</a> (from <a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_003">Tab. 3</a>). The stretching of samples of all sample combinations in the wale direction on the selected segments of the leg and foot (150 and 200 mm, resp.) ranges from 0.1 % to 7.15 %. The leg of the sample has a stretch of 0.1 to 5.8 %, while the foot stretches between 0.2 and 7.15 %. The average stretch values in the wale direction on both selected segments of the sample of individual groups lie below 4.07 %, which is relatively low and shows that the socks are well uniformly placed on the surface of the entire basic sock and foot with the upper segments 9 and 13 disconnected (<a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004">Fig. 4b</a>). The average values of the two stretches (<italic>Ɛ<sub>l</sub></italic> and <italic>Ɛ<sub>f</sub></italic>) of the basic modal and micromodal samples amount to 2.9 % and 2.6 % and 2.7 % and 2.8 % respectively. This suggests that the percentage differences are still low.</p> <figure id="j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 7</h2> <figCaption><p>Stretching the sock leg (ε<sub>l</sub>) and foot (ε<sub>f</sub>) of socks of basic modal yarn</p></figCaption> <img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=a8110efb2589e20eab1c93256a3e2d2126dd36110cb9c8d4a80dad5ea37ebcc0" class="mw-100"></img> </figure> <figure id="j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 8</h2> <figCaption><p>Stretching the sock leg (ε<sub>l</sub>) and foot (ε<sub>f</sub>) of socks of basic micromodal yarn</p></figCaption> <img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=d05befb4dc1e5eb8ac23790db2f89f3d064d29bc3c257f35e18e88ba21095bc1" class="mw-100"></img> </figure> </sec> <sec id="j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001_s_004"><div>Thermal resistance</div> <p>Prior to measurement, the samples were kept for 24 hours at standard conditions of 20 ± 2 °C and 65 ± 5 %. The measurement results are shown in <a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004">Tab. 4</a> and in <a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009">Figures 9</a> to <a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012">12</a>.</p> <table-wrap id="j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004" position="float"><label>Table 4</label><caption><p>Thermal resistance of the socks (R<sub>ct</sub>)</p></caption> <table frame="box" rules="all"> <thead> <tr> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock group</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock samle abbreviation</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>R<sub>ct</sub> (m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>CV (%)</bold></th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0125</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">8.1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.01260</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0138</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">6.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MR Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0130</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">6.1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0091</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">14.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0116</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0122</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">14.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MRO Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0109</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>11.2</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0128</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0119</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">12.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0148</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">9.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ average</td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle">0.0132</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">9.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">M</td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0124</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">8,8</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0119</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">14.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0129</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.8</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0148</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">12.6</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR Average</td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle">0.0132</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">10.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0105</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">28.6</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0130</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">16.1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0156</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MMRO Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0130</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">16.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0104</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">22.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0102</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0092</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">15.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MMAJ Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0099</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">19.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM</td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0121</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">15,6</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">M and MM</td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Overall Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0122</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">12.2</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </table-wrap> <figure id="j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 9</h2> <figCaption><p>Thermal resistance Rct of basic modal socks</p></figCaption> <img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=d6118bae605d4f16e09442e7b0b38f2e04ae870ef9795fa22287f21253fdfd72" class="mw-100"></img> </figure> <figure id="j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 10</h2> <figCaption><p>Thermal resistance Rct of basic micromodal socks</p></figCaption> <img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=73a28e941276c840da96e5feb8aad378468294fec1cc309d29017003c05abb0f" class="mw-100"></img> </figure> <figure id="j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 11</h2> <figCaption><p>Relation between thermal resistance and square mass (GSM) of stretched samples</p></figCaption> <img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=9a533779382bcbe9e6637cf56ffff04f93a3ba026f608f01d4dfffae8248ee80" class="mw-100"></img> </figure> <figure id="j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012" position="float" fig-type="figure"><h2>Figure 12</h2> <figCaption><p>Thermal resistance of sock samples group according to type of yarn: ring, rotor and air-jet</p></figCaption> <img xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012.jpg" src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=af479bc1a272fa0262ccb43a377703dc1bef843a3d2dfadb9e5067cc4ca1fcc5" class="mw-100"></img> </figure> <p>As no significant differences were obtained between unstretched socks in the foot length (Ll) and foot length (Lf) parameters (<a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_002">Table 2</a>), no significant differences were obtained in stretching (Ɛ<sub>l</sub> and Ɛ<sub>f</sub>).) (<a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_003">Table 3</a>), the discussion of thermal resistance results was carried out as a function of the thickness of the unstretched sock and the surface mass of the stretched sock on the thermal foot.</p> <p>Thermal resistance values for all samples range from 0.0091 to 0.01586 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> (<a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004">Tab. 4</a>). The thermal resistance values of all sample combinations of modal basic fibres range between 0.0091 (sample MRO_A) and 0.0148 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> (sample MAJ_C) (<a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009">Fig. 9</a>), while the values of thermal resistance of all sample combinations of basic micro modal fibres range from 0.0092 (sample MMAJ_C) to 0, 0156 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> (sample MMRO_C) (<a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010">Fig. 10</a>). The trend of increasing thermal resistance was observed by decreasing the fineness of the additional yarns for both basic types of raw materials in ring and rotor yarn samples (consequently an increase in fabric surface mass) and is more significant in micro-modal yarn samples with a high correlation coefficient of 0.711 (<a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011">Fig. 11</a>). The highest thermal resistance per groups of basic modal fibres was achieved in samples of the airjet spun yarn with 0.0132 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> (group MAJ) and the lowest in samples of the rotor yarn with 0.0109 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−</sup> (group MRO). This is due to the higher sample thickness of the air-spun yarn (1.35 mm) with an average low stretch of the samples on the thermal foot (below 4.07 %). The highest thermal resistance per groups for the basic micro-modal fibres in the group of samples was found in the ring yarn (0.0132 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>, group of samples MMR) and the lowest in the samples of the air-jet spun yarn (group of samples MMAJ, 0.0092 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>). The reason for the lower thermal resistance may be a greater compactness of the air-spun yarn structure of finer micromodal fibres and consequently less air in the space between the yarn in knitted fabric structure. Since modal and other cellulose fibres (e.g. cotton) have a thermal conductivity many times higher than air, the thermal resistance of such samples is consequently lower. In addition, the thickness of this group of samples is lower (MMAJ, 1.31 mm) than the thickness of the sample group of the basic modal fibres (MAJ, 1.35 mm), which further reduces thermal resistance (<a ref-type="disp-formula" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_eq_006">Eq. 6</a>). Comparing the individual samples of basic modal fibres, low thermal resistance was found for the samples of rotor yarn (0.0109 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> compared to the samples of ring yarn (0.0130 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>) by 16.1%, with the same average sock thickness of 1.31 mm, which may be due to differences in the structures of rotor and ring yarns. For micromodal base samples, the difference in thermal resistance between rotor and ring yarns is very small (0.0002 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>) and practically negligible. Comparing the average value of the thermal resistance of all sample combinations of the basic modal yarn (0.0124 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>) with the average value of all sample combinations of the micromodal yarn (0.0121 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>), it is obvious that the differences are small (0.0003 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>) (<a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004">Table 4</a>). Since these are samples of high uniformity of basic modal yarns and uniform structure of the knitted fabric with a low production speed on the knitting machine, the influence of the fineness of modal fibres on thermal resistance is not clearly found.</p> <p>The influence of different yarn types in the samples on thermal resistance should be considered taking into account both the thickness of the samples and the fineness of the modal fibres. Thus, the highest thermal resistance per sample group was found in the samples made of ring yarn (0.0132 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> of the MMR and MAJ sample groups) and the lowest in the samples made of air-spun yarn (0.0099 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>, of the MMAJ) (<a ref-type="table" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004">Tab. 4</a>, <a ref-type="fig" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012">Fig. 12</a>).. The thermal resistance of the sample groups of ring and rotor yarns is 24.4 % and 21.1 % higher, respectively, than the thermal resistance of the group of air-spun yarns. The reason for the lower thermal resistance of the air-jet spun yarns is also due to the higher average thickness of the MAJ sample group (1.35 mm).</p> <p>As the yarns used for the sock samples were predominantly made of cellulose fibres (cotton, modal and micro modal with the addition of the usual percentage of PA multifilament yarns), whose thermal conductivity values vary relatively slightly (cotton 0.461 W/(m °C), viscose 0.289 W/(m °C)), the average thermal resistance value of 0.0122 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> determined on the thermal foot for all sample combinations is comparable to the thermal resistance values of similar sock samples published in other papers. Moreover, thermal comfort, characterised by numerical values of thermal resistance, is high. The sock samples tested have low thermal resistance, which means they conduct heat well, resulting in cooling, which is especially important for wearing in warmer weather. The thickness of the sock and the volume of air held usually determine the thermal resistance under static test conditions, and the effect of the fiber itself is reduced [<a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_015">15</a>]. Thicker socks made of modal and micro modal basic ring and rotor yarns, which contain coarser other added yarns, have a higher thermal resistance as a result of the different compactness of the structure. Furthermore, the greater thickness of the basic modal/micromodal sock samples used allows for better moisture transport from the sock leg, which further increases comfort, especially during heavier sweating.</p> </sec> </sec> </sec> <sec id="j_aut-2022-0022_s_004"><label>4</label><div>CONCLUSIONS</div> <p>Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions can be drawn: <list list-type="custom"> <list-item><label>a)</label><p>The length of the selected section of the leg of the sample L<sub>l</sub> of all sample combinations ranges from 239 mm to 255 mm (difference of 16 mm i.e. 6.7 %). The length L<sub>l</sub> in samples knitted from basic modal yarns is not significantly different from samples knitted from basic micromodal yarns.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>b)</label><p>The length of the selected foot section Lf is between 270 mm and 280 mm for all sample combinations (difference of 10 mm, i.e. 3.7 %) and is nevertheless small.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>c)</label><p>No significant difference was found between the lengths Lt and Lf between samples of basic modal and basic micromodal yarns.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>d)</label><p>The mass of all samples ranges from 19.0 g/sock to 23.1 g/sock. When using coarser additional yarns (cotton and PA multifilament), the mass of the socks in each sample group also increases.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>(e)</label><p>The thickness of the socks of all samples ranges from 1.21 to 1.44 mm, which gives the largest difference of 19.0 %, and the percentage is significant. The mean thickness values of the individual groups range between 1.31 and 1.35 mm.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>f)</label><p>The stretching of the selected section of the sock leg and foot in the wale direction of all sock sample combinations ranges from 0.1 % to 7.15 %, is less than 4.07 % per group.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>(g)</label><p>The thermal resistance values for all samples range from 0.0091 to 0.01586 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>. An increasing trend of thermal resistance was observed by decreasing the fineness of the additional yarns for both basic types of raw materials in samples of ring and rotor yarns, and it is more prominent in samples of micromodal yarn with a correlation coefficient of 0.711.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>h)</label><p>The highest thermal resistance per groups of basic modal fibres was obtained in the samples made of air-jet spun yarn of 0.0132 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup> and the lowest in samples of rotor yarn of 0.0109 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>i)</label><p>The highest thermal resistance in all groups of basic micromodal samples made of ring yarn (0.0132 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>) and the lowest in the samples made of air-spun yarn (0.0099 m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>).</p></list-item> <list-item><label>j)</label><p>The tested sock samples have low thermal resistance, i.e. they can conduct heat well, thus achieving cooling, which is important for wearing socks in warm weather.</p></list-item> <list-item><label>k)</label><p>The greater thickness of the basic modal/micromodal sock samples used allows for better moisture transport from the sock leg, further increasing comfort, especially during heavier sweating.</p></list-item></list></p> </sec> </div></div></div></div><div id="pane-3" class="SeriesTab_card__26XnC SeriesTab_tab-pane__3pc7y card tab-pane" role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="tab-3"><div class="SeriesTab_card-header__1DTAS card-header d-md-none pl-0" role="tab" id="heading-3"><h4 class="mb-0"><a data-toggle="collapse" href="#collapse-3" data-parent="#content" aria-expanded="false" aria-controls="collapse-3" style="padding:24px 0">Figuras y tablas<svg aria-hidden="true" focusable="false" data-prefix="fas" data-icon="chevron-down" class="svg-inline--fa fa-chevron-down fa-w-14 " role="img" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 448 512"><path fill="currentColor" d="M207.029 381.476L12.686 187.132c-9.373-9.373-9.373-24.569 0-33.941l22.667-22.667c9.357-9.357 24.522-9.375 33.901-.04L224 284.505l154.745-154.021c9.379-9.335 24.544-9.317 33.901.04l22.667 22.667c9.373 9.373 9.373 24.569 0 33.941L240.971 381.476c-9.373 9.372-24.569 9.372-33.942 0z"></path></svg></a></h4></div><div id="collapse-3" class="SeriesTab_seriesTabCollapse__2csiF collapse" role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="heading-3" data-parent="#content"><div class="SeriesTab_series-tab-body__1tZ1H SeriesTab_card-body__31JEh card-body Article_figures-tables__2SC5X"><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 1</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_001.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=e8e8881e75a290564e068d3720384931fd2ef73f505fcca34fb4c68ee0d9c908" alt="Sock structure of leg and cuff" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Sock structure of leg and cuff</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 2</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_002.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=1d69938f208bbaef51355d11a710b23ee47f91790194d885b677f9497bd16bdc" alt="Sock shape and main dimensions [17]" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Sock shape and main dimensions [17]</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 3</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_003.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=94f8e295c40e98acad2fe81f65c429d419a5b70f4f0810d26a28c29bebb11ece" alt="Dimensions of the unstretched and stretched sock along the curve on thermal foot [17]" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Dimensions of the unstretched and stretched sock along the curve on thermal foot [17]</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 4</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=02a279da3aba623f8bca50ad8656b7620dbdd97f683431fa1c5e220e77a10caa" alt="Termal Foot and elements of interface of control unit" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Termal Foot and elements of interface of control unit</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 5</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=04ca4fe0da87bf3740f6f63b937e5ca413ccd5f0b56a0d9aa684e97cb66d80fd" alt="Dimensions of unstretched socks" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Dimensions of unstretched socks</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 6</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=0433267b177a8ffc2a7d5fd78e45e2b271540525e1252498d9868fdbdb48f5c1" alt="Mass and thickness of unstretched socks" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Mass and thickness of unstretched socks</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 7</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=a8110efb2589e20eab1c93256a3e2d2126dd36110cb9c8d4a80dad5ea37ebcc0" alt="Stretching the sock leg (εl) and foot (εf) of socks of basic modal yarn" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Stretching the sock leg (εl) and foot (εf) of socks of basic modal yarn</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 8</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=d05befb4dc1e5eb8ac23790db2f89f3d064d29bc3c257f35e18e88ba21095bc1" alt="Stretching the sock leg (εl) and foot (εf) of socks of basic micromodal yarn" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Stretching the sock leg (εl) and foot (εf) of socks of basic micromodal yarn</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 9</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=d6118bae605d4f16e09442e7b0b38f2e04ae870ef9795fa22287f21253fdfd72" alt="Thermal resistance Rct of basic modal socks" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Thermal resistance Rct of basic modal socks</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 10</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=73a28e941276c840da96e5feb8aad378468294fec1cc309d29017003c05abb0f" alt="Thermal resistance Rct of basic micromodal socks" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Thermal resistance Rct of basic micromodal socks</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 11</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=9a533779382bcbe9e6637cf56ffff04f93a3ba026f608f01d4dfffae8248ee80" alt="Relation between thermal resistance and square mass (GSM) of stretched samples" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Relation between thermal resistance and square mass (GSM) of stretched samples</figcaption></figure><figure><h4 class="mb-4">Figure 12</h4><img src="https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=18000&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=af479bc1a272fa0262ccb43a377703dc1bef843a3d2dfadb9e5067cc4ca1fcc5" alt="Thermal resistance of sock samples group according to type of yarn: ring, rotor and air-jet" class="mw-100"/><figcaption class="fw-500">Thermal resistance of sock samples group according to type of yarn: ring, rotor and air-jet</figcaption></figure><h4 class="mb-4 mt-4">Thermal resistance of the socks (Rct)</h4><table frame="box" rules="all"> <thead> <tr> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock group</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock samle abbreviation</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>R<sub>ct</sub> (m<sup>2</sup> °C W<sup>−1</sup>)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>CV (%)</bold></th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0125</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">8.1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.01260</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0138</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">6.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MR Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0130</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">6.1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0091</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">14.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0116</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0122</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">14.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MRO Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0109</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>11.2</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0128</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0119</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">12.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0148</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">9.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ average</td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle">0.0132</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">9.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">M</td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0124</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">8,8</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0119</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">14.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0129</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.8</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0148</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">12.6</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR Average</td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle">0.0132</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">10.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0105</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">28.6</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0130</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">16.1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0156</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MMRO Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0130</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">16.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0104</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">22.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0102</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.0092</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">15.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MMAJ Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0099</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">19.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM</td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0121</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">15,6</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">M and MM</td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Overall Average</bold></td> <td style="background-color: #DBDAD8" align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.0122</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle">12.2</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h4 class="mb-4 mt-4">Designation and description of the sock patterns and the yarns used; 4 yarns per course were used, plus an elastane yarn in the cuff</h4><table frame="box" rules="all"> <thead> <tr> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock group</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock combination</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Yarns</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Yarn label</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Mass (g/sock) p = 0.05</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Thickenss (mm) p = 0.05</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>GSM (g/m<sup>2</sup>)</bold></th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="2">Modal and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">19.0 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.24 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">215.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.4 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.29 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">242.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">Modal, cotton and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 f68 dtex</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">23.0 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.40 ± 0.02</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">260.8</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" colspan="3">MR Average</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21,1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.31</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">239.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="2">Modal and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">19.2 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.21 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">217.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.4 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.30 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">242.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">Modal, cotton and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">22.8 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.41 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">258.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" colspan="3">MRO Average</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.31</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">239.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="2">Modal and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">19.4 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.25 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">220.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.7 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.36 ± 0.02</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">246.1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">Modal, cotton and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">M 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">23.0 ± 0.1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.44 ± 0.02</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">260.8</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" colspan="3">MAJ Average</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.4</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.35</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">242.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="2">Micromodal and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">19.0 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.25 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">215.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.3 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.30 ± 0.02</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">241.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">Micromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">22.9 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.39 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">259.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" colspan="3">MMR Average</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.31</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">239.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="2">Micromodal and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">19.2 ± 0.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.20 ± 0.02</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">217.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.7 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.31 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">246.1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">Micromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex ×2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">23.1 ± 0.1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.42 ± 0.02</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">261.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" colspan="3">MMRO Average</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.31</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">241.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="2">Micromodal and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">19.4 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.23 ± 0.01</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">220.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.6 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.32 ± 0.02</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">244.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">Micromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">22.9 ± 0.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.39 ± 0.03</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">259.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" colspan="3">MMAJ Average</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.31</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">241.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" colspan="4">Overall Average</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">21.2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.32</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">240.4</td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h4 class="mb-4 mt-4">Stretching the actual length of the part of socks on the Thermal Foot</h4><table frame="box" rules="all"> <thead> <tr> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock group</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock abbreviation</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>L<sub>1l</sub> (mm)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>SD (mm)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>CV (%)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Ɛ<sub>l</sub> (%)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>L<sub>1f</sub> (mm)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>SD (mm)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>CV (%)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Ɛ<sub>f</sub> (%)</bold></th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">153.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.78</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">5.05</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.47</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">209.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.25</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.20</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.85</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">158.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.23</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.46</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">5.80</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">213.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.35</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.64</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">6.85</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">149.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.92</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">6.17</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">195.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.49</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.52</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>154.0</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.64</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>4.23</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>2.79</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>206.4</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.36</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.80</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>4.07</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">150.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.51</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.41</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.47</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">208.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.64</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.04</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.35</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">153.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.72</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.71</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.47</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">202.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.25</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.24</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.15</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">152.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.25</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.65</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.53</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">199.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.23</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.16</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.2</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>152.2</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.49</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>3.26</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.49</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>203.4</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.37</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.81</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.90</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">157.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.46</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.94</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.87</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">205.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.56</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.72</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.50</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">156.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.36</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.31</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.00</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">200.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.25</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.25</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.35</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">156.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.32</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.06</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.20</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">205.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.15</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.74</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.65</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>156.5</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.38</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>2.44</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>4.36</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>203.7</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.32</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.57</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.83</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">154.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.12</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.75</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.87</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">209.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.36</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.73</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.50</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">155.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.25</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.62</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.53</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">206.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.32</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.56</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.15</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">152.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.40</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.65</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.53</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">205.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.60</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.93</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.85</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">Average</td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>154.0</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.26</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.67</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>2.64</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>207.0</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.43</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>2.07</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>3.50</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">154.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.25</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.63</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.13</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">214.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.40</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.89</td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>7.15</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">154.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.25</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.63</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.13</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">206.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.40</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.96</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.15</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">156.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.51</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">3.28</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">4.47</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">201.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.53</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.63</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.50</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>155.4</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.34</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>2.18</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>3.58</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>207.2</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.44</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>2.16</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>3.60</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">153.7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.21</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.35</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.47</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">201.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.17</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.86</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.50</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">148.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.29</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">1.95</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">205.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.45</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.20</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.65</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">153.0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.82</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">5.35</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">2.00</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">201.3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.15</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.03</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">0.65</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>151.7</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.44</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>2.88</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.52</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>202.5</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>0.26</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.03</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>1.27</bold></td> </tr> </tbody> </table><h4 class="mb-4 mt-4">Dimensions of unstretched sock samples</h4><table frame="box" rules="all"> <thead> <tr> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock group</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Sock abbreviation</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Leg length L<sub>l</sub> (mm)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>Foot length L<sub>f</sub> (mm)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>B<sub>1</sub> (mm)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>B<sub>2</sub> (mm)</bold></th> <th align="center" valign="middle"><bold>B<sub>3</sub> (mm)</bold></th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">242 ± 4</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">275 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">90 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">84 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">245 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">279 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">93 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">89 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">249 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">278 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">95 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">90 ± 0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">86 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MR Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>245</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>277</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>93</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>88</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>85</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">249 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">270 ± 60</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">93 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">87 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">84 ± 0</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">250 ± 4</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">273 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">94 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">89 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">249 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">274 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">95 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">90 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">86 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MRO Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>249</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>272</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>94</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>89</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>85</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">255 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">280 ± 5</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">92 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">89 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">251 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">275 ± 7</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">94 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">90 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 0</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">250 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">277 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">94 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">91 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">86 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MAJ Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>252</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>277</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"/> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>90</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>85</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMR</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">239 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">272 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">91 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 0</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">83 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">241 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">270 ± 4</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">93 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">88 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMR_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">246 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">272 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">94 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">89 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 0</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MMR Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>242</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>271</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>93</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>87</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>84</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMRO</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">249 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">276 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">91 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">88 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">84 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">253 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">279 ± 5</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">93 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">90 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMRO_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">249 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">275 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">93 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">93 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">86 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MMRO Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>250</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>277</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>92</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>90</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>85</bold></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle" rowspan="4">MMAJ</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_A</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">248 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">276 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">91 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">87 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">84 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_B</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">250 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">277 ± 3</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">92 ± 2</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">89 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">84 ± 1</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle">MMAJ_C</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">249 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">273 ± 6</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">93 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">90 ± 1</td> <td align="center" valign="middle">85 ± 0</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>MMAJ Average</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>249</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>275</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>92</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>89</bold></td> <td align="center" valign="middle"><bold>84</bold></td> </tr> </tbody> </table></div></div></div><div id="reference" class="SeriesTab_card__26XnC SeriesTab_tab-pane__3pc7y card tab-pane" role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="tab-4"><div class="SeriesTab_card-header__1DTAS card-header d-md-none pl-0" role="tab" id="heading-4"><h4 class="mb-0"><a data-toggle="collapse" href="#collapse-4" data-parent="#content" aria-expanded="false" aria-controls="collapse-4" style="padding:24px 0">Referencias<svg aria-hidden="true" focusable="false" data-prefix="fas" data-icon="chevron-down" class="svg-inline--fa fa-chevron-down fa-w-14 " role="img" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 448 512"><path 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Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eVice-Editors\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eIzabella Ciesielska-Wróbel, Ph.D. - Department of Textiles, Fashion Merchandising and Design, University of Rhode Island, United States\u003cBR\u003eMagdalena Tokarska, Ph.D., D.Sc. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditors\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eAssoc. Prof. Ma³gorzata Koszewska, Ph.D., D.Sc. - Faculty of Management and Production Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Poland\u003cBR\u003eElżbieta Sąsiadek, Ph.D. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland\u003cBR\u003eMalwina Jaszczak, Ph.D. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eFinancial Assistant\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eM.Sc. Magdalena Kołcz - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003ePublic Relation Officer\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eM.Sc. Ewelina Pabjańczyk-Wlazło - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eTypesetting\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eAssoc. Prof. Zbigniew Stempień, Ph.D., D.Sc. - Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Poland \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eContact\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:katarzyna.grabowska@p.lodz.pl\"\u003ekatarzyna.grabowska@p.lodz.pl\u003c/A\u003e\u003cBR\u003e\u003cA href=\"http://www.autexrj.com/\"\u003ewww.autexrj.com/\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditorial Advisory Board\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eProf. Mirela Blaga - Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, ROMANIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. Vladan Koncar - ENSAIT, Roubaix, FRANCE\u003cBR\u003eProf. Paul Kiekens - University of Ghent, BELGIUM\u003cBR\u003eProf. M. Neznakomova - Technical University Sofia - Department of Textile Engineering, BULGARIA\u003cBR\u003eProf. J. Militky - Technical University of Liberec - Textile Faculty - Department of Textile Materials, CZECH REPUBLIC\u003cBR\u003eProf. P. 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Kadoglu Ege University - Faculty of Engineering - Textile Engineering Department, TURKEY\u003cBR\u003eProf. Bulent Ozipek - Istanbul Technical University - School of Textile Technologies and Design, TURKEY\u003cBR\u003eProf. Sükriye Ülkü / Prof. Recep Eren Uludag - University - Faculty of Engineering and Architecture -Textile Engineering Department, TURKEY\u003cBR\u003eProf. Victoria Vlasenko - Kiev National University of Technologies and Design, UKRAINE\u003cBR\u003eProf. Jarosław Janicki, Ph.D., D.Sc. - University of Bielsko-Biała, POLAND\u003cBR\u003eProf. W. Oxenham / Prof. D. Buchanan / Dr. B. 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Thermophysiological wear comfort of viscose and tencel socks, Koža \u0026amp; Obuća, 68(4), 22–29.\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eRogina-Car\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eB.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eSkenderi\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eZ.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cetal/\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2019\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003carticle-title\u003eThermophysiological wear comfort of viscose and tencel socks\u003c/article-title\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eKoža \u0026amp; Obuća\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cvolume\u003e68\u003c/volume\u003e\n\u003cissue\u003e4\u003c/issue\u003e\n\u003cfpage\u003e22\u003c/fpage\u003e\n\u003clpage\u003e29\u003c/lpage\u003e\n\u003cdgdoi:pub-id xmlns:dgdoi=\"http://degruyter.com/resources/doi-from-crossref\" pub-id-type=\"doi\"\u003e10.34187/ko.68.4.3\u003c/dgdoi:pub-id\u003e\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e"},{"refId":"j_aut-2022-0022_ref_018","citeString":"Foot Manikin, Technical Specifications, Model FM 005-08, Version 1.0, March 2010, UCS, Slovenia.","doi":null,"mixed-citation":"\u003cref id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_ref_018\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[18]\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eFoot Manikin, Technical Specifications, Model FM 005-08, Version 1.0, March 2010, UCS, Slovenia.\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003ccollab\u003eFoot Manikin\u003c/collab\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eTechnical Specifications, Model FM 005-08, Version 1.0\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cmonth\u003eMarch\u003c/month\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2010\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-name\u003eUCS\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-loc\u003eSlovenia\u003c/publisher-loc\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e"},{"refId":"j_aut-2022-0022_ref_019","citeString":"Mekjavic, I. B., Lenart, B., et al. (2005). Static and dynamic evaluation of biophysical properties of footwear: The Jozef Stefan Institute sweating thermal foot manikin system, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, Holmér I., Kuklane K., Gao C. (Ed.), Ystad, 290–292.","doi":null,"mixed-citation":"\u003cref id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_ref_019\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[19]\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eMekjavic, I. B., Lenart, B., et al. (2005). Static and dynamic evaluation of biophysical properties of footwear: The Jozef Stefan Institute sweating thermal foot manikin system, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, Holmér I., Kuklane K., Gao C. (Ed.), Ystad, 290–292.\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"confproc\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eMekjavic\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eI. B.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eLenart\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eB.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cetal/\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2005\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eStatic and dynamic evaluation of biophysical properties of footwear: The Jozef Stefan Institute sweating thermal foot manikin system\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cconf-name\u003eProceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics\u003c/conf-name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eHolmér\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eI.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eKuklane\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eK.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eGao\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eC.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e(Ed.),\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003cconf-loc\u003eYstad\u003c/conf-loc\u003e\n\u003cfpage\u003e290\u003c/fpage\u003e\n\u003clpage\u003e292\u003c/lpage\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e"},{"refId":"j_aut-2022-0022_ref_020","citeString":"Skenderi Z., Kopitar D., Ercegović Ražić S., Iveković G.: Study on Physical-mechanical Parameters of Ring- and Air-jet-spun Modal and Micro Modal Yarns, Tekstilec 62 (2019), 42–53","doi":null,"mixed-citation":"\u003cref id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_ref_020\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e[20]\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eSkenderi Z., Kopitar D., Ercegović Ražić S., Iveković G.: Study on Physical-mechanical Parameters of Ring- and Air-jet-spun Modal and Micro Modal Yarns, Tekstilec 62 (2019), 42–53\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eSkenderi\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eZ.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eKopitar\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eD.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eErcegović Ražić\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eS.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eIveković\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eG.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003carticle-title\u003eStudy on Physical-mechanical Parameters of Ring- and Air-jet-spun Modal and Micro Modal Yarns\u003c/article-title\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eTekstilec\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cvolume\u003e62\u003c/volume\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2019\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003cfpage\u003e42\u003c/fpage\u003e\n\u003clpage\u003e53\u003c/lpage\u003e\n\u003cdgdoi:pub-id xmlns:dgdoi=\"http://degruyter.com/resources/doi-from-crossref\" pub-id-type=\"doi\"\u003e10.14502/Tekstilec2019.62.42-53\u003c/dgdoi:pub-id\u003e\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e"}],"pdfUrl":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/10.2478_aut-2022-0022.pdf?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=290cfa622a9717393e63486ded52d7d5d3520d4ea213ef68978f65d7687885b8","authorNotes":null,"publishMonth":"10","publishYear":"2022","receivedDate":null,"acceptedDate":null,"ePubDate":"2022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00","ePubDateText":"01 October 2022","pPubDate":null,"pPubDateText":null,"issueDate":null,"coverDate":null,"tableCount":null,"figureCount":null,"refCount":null,"articleCategories":"","titleGroup":"{\"article-title\":\"Thermal Resistance of Gray Modal and Micromodal Socks\"}","fundingGroup":null,"abstractContent":[{"title":"Abstract","language":"English","content":"\u003cabstract\u003e\n\u003ctitle style='display:none'\u003eAbstract\u003c/title\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eMen's socks were produced on a Lonati circular knitting machine in 18 different combinations in multi-plated plain jersey from basic modal and basic micro modal yarn with the addition of cotton or PA multifilament yarn and elastane yarn in the sock cuff. The modal and micromodal yarns were ring-spun, rotor-spun and air-spun; they consist of 38 mm long staple fibres with a fineness of 1.3 and 1.0 dtex respectively. Thermal resistance was determined by use of the thermal foot. The thermal resistance values for all socks samples range from 0.0091 to 0.01586 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e. The highest thermal resistance per groups of basic modal fibres was obtained in the samples made of air-jet spun yarn of 0.0132 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e and the lowest in samples of rotor yarn of 0.0109 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e. The highest thermal resistance in all groups of basic micromodal samples made of ring yarn (0.0132 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e) and the lowest in the samples made of air-spun yarn (0.0099 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e). At low levels of thermal resistance, as the thickness of the sample of basic modal and micro modal fibres of ring and rotor yarns increases, the thermal resistance of socks increases with a correlation coefficient of 0.711. The tested sock samples have low thermal resistance, i.e. they can conduct heat better than the sock leg, thus achieving cooling and comfort, which is important for wearing socks in warm weather.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/abstract\u003e"}],"figures":[{"label":"Figure 1","caption":"Sock structure of leg and cuff","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_001.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=e8e8881e75a290564e068d3720384931fd2ef73f505fcca34fb4c68ee0d9c908"},{"label":"Figure 2","caption":"Sock shape and main dimensions [17]","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_002.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=1d69938f208bbaef51355d11a710b23ee47f91790194d885b677f9497bd16bdc"},{"label":"Figure 3","caption":"Dimensions of the unstretched and stretched sock along the curve on thermal foot [17]","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_003.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=94f8e295c40e98acad2fe81f65c429d419a5b70f4f0810d26a28c29bebb11ece"},{"label":"Figure 4","caption":"Termal Foot and elements of interface of control unit","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=02a279da3aba623f8bca50ad8656b7620dbdd97f683431fa1c5e220e77a10caa"},{"label":"Figure 5","caption":"Dimensions of unstretched socks","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=04ca4fe0da87bf3740f6f63b937e5ca413ccd5f0b56a0d9aa684e97cb66d80fd"},{"label":"Figure 6","caption":"Mass and thickness of unstretched socks","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=0433267b177a8ffc2a7d5fd78e45e2b271540525e1252498d9868fdbdb48f5c1"},{"label":"Figure 7","caption":"Stretching the sock leg (εl) and foot (εf) of socks of basic modal yarn","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=a8110efb2589e20eab1c93256a3e2d2126dd36110cb9c8d4a80dad5ea37ebcc0"},{"label":"Figure 8","caption":"Stretching the sock leg (εl) and foot (εf) of socks of basic micromodal yarn","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=d05befb4dc1e5eb8ac23790db2f89f3d064d29bc3c257f35e18e88ba21095bc1"},{"label":"Figure 9","caption":"Thermal resistance Rct of basic modal socks","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=d6118bae605d4f16e09442e7b0b38f2e04ae870ef9795fa22287f21253fdfd72"},{"label":"Figure 10","caption":"Thermal resistance Rct of basic micromodal socks","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=73a28e941276c840da96e5feb8aad378468294fec1cc309d29017003c05abb0f"},{"label":"Figure 11","caption":"Relation between thermal resistance and square mass (GSM) of stretched samples","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=9a533779382bcbe9e6637cf56ffff04f93a3ba026f608f01d4dfffae8248ee80"},{"label":"Figure 12","caption":"Thermal resistance of sock samples group according to type of yarn: ring, rotor and air-jet","imageLink":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=af479bc1a272fa0262ccb43a377703dc1bef843a3d2dfadb9e5067cc4ca1fcc5"}],"tableContent":{"Thermal resistance of the socks (Rct)":"\u003ctable frame=\"box\" rules=\"all\"\u003e\n\u003cthead\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock group\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock samle abbreviation\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eR\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e (m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eCV (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/thead\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0125\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e8.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.01260\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0138\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e6.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMR Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0130\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e6.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0091\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e14.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0116\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0122\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e14.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMRO Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0109\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e11.2\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0128\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0119\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e12.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0148\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0132\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0124\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e8,8\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0119\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e14.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0129\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.8\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0148\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e12.6\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0132\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e10.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0105\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e28.6\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0130\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e16.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0156\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMRO Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0130\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e16.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0104\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e22.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0102\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0092\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e15.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMAJ Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0099\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0121\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e15,6\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM and MM\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eOverall Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0122\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e12.2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/tbody\u003e\n\u003c/table\u003e","Designation and description of the sock patterns and the yarns used; 4 yarns per course were used, plus an elastane yarn in the cuff":"\u003ctable frame=\"box\" rules=\"all\"\u003e\n\u003cthead\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock group\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock combination\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eYarns\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eYarn label\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMass (g/sock) p = 0.05\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eThickenss (mm) p = 0.05\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eGSM (g/m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/thead\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eModal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.0 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.24 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e215.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.4 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.29 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e242.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eModal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 f68 dtex\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e23.0 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.40 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e260.8\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMR Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21,1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e239.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eModal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.2 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.21 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e217.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.4 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.30 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e242.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eModal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e22.8 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.41 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e258.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMRO Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e239.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eModal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.4 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.25 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e220.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.7 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.36 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e246.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eModal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e23.0 ± 0.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.44 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e260.8\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMAJ Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e242.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eMicromodal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.0 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.25 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e215.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.3 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.30 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e241.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMicromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e22.9 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.39 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e259.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMMR Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e239.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eMicromodal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.2 ± 0.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.20 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e217.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.7 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e246.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMicromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex ×2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e23.1 ± 0.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.42 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e261.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMMRO Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e241.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eMicromodal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.4 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.23 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e220.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.6 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.32 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e244.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMicromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e22.9 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.39 ± 0.03\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e259.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMMAJ Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e241.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"4\"\u003eOverall Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.32\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e240.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/tbody\u003e\n\u003c/table\u003e","Stretching the actual length of the part of socks on the Thermal Foot":"\u003ctable frame=\"box\" rules=\"all\"\u003e\n\u003cthead\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock group\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock abbreviation\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eL\u003csub\u003e1l\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSD (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eCV (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eƐ\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eL\u003csub\u003e1f\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSD (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eCV (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eƐ\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/thead\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e153.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.78\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e5.05\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e209.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.20\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.85\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e158.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.23\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.46\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e5.80\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e213.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.64\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e6.85\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e149.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.92\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e6.17\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e195.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.49\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.52\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e154.0\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.64\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e4.23\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.79\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e206.4\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.36\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.80\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e4.07\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e150.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.51\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.41\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e208.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.64\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.04\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e153.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.72\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.71\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e202.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.24\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e152.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.53\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e199.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.23\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.16\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e152.2\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.49\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e3.26\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.49\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e203.4\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.37\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.81\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.90\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e157.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.46\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.94\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.87\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e205.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.56\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.72\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.50\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e156.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.36\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.00\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e200.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e156.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.32\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.06\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.20\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e205.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.74\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e156.5\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.38\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.44\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e4.36\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e203.7\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.32\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.57\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.83\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e154.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.12\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.75\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.87\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e209.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.36\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.73\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.50\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e155.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.62\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.53\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e206.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.32\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.56\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e152.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.40\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.53\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e205.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.60\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.93\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.85\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eAverage\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e154.0\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.26\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.67\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.64\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e207.0\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.43\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.07\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e3.50\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e154.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.63\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.13\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e214.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.40\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.89\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e7.15\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e154.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.63\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.13\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e206.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.40\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.96\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e156.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.51\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.28\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e201.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.53\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.63\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.50\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e155.4\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.34\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.18\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e3.58\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e207.2\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.44\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.16\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e3.60\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e153.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.21\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e201.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.17\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.86\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.50\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e148.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.29\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.95\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e205.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.45\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.20\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e153.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.82\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e5.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.00\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e201.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.03\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e151.7\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.44\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.88\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.52\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e202.5\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.26\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.03\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.27\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/tbody\u003e\n\u003c/table\u003e","Dimensions of unstretched sock samples":"\u003ctable frame=\"box\" rules=\"all\"\u003e\n\u003cthead\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock group\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock abbreviation\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eLeg length L\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eFoot length L\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eB\u003csub\u003e1\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eB\u003csub\u003e2\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eB\u003csub\u003e3\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/thead\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e242 ± 4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e275 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e245 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e279 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e278 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e95 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e86 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMR Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e245\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e277\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e93\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e88\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e85\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e270 ± 60\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e87 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e250 ± 4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e273 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e94 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e274 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e95 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e86 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMRO Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e249\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e272\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e94\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e89\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e85\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e255 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e280 ± 5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e92 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e251 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e275 ± 7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e94 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e250 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e277 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e94 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e91 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e86 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMAJ Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e252\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e277\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"/\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e90\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e85\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e239 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e272 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e91 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e83 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e241 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e270 ± 4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e88 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e246 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e272 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e94 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMR Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e242\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e271\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e93\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e87\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e84\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e276 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e91 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e88 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e253 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e279 ± 5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e275 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e86 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMRO Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e250\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e277\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e92\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e90\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e85\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e248 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e276 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e91 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e87 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e250 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e277 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e92 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e273 ± 6\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMAJ Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e249\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e275\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e92\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e89\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e84\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/tbody\u003e\n\u003c/table\u003e"},"tables":null,"articleContent":"\n\u003cdiv\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_001\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e1\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eIntroduction\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSocks, in dependence on environmental exposures (neutral/cold/warm) and level of activity (rest, walk, exercise, run, recovery) are primarily worn to provide: 1) insulation in order to maintain foot skin temperature for comfort and cold-related injury 2) to reduce frictional forces as a major determinant of blister formation, and 3) to mediate buil-up moisture within the layers (air and textile) between the skin and footwear [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_001\"\u003e1\u003c/a\u003e]. Socks used in everyday life that adhere to the skin are made of knitted fabrics, as their specific structure and stretchability allow them to adapt well to the body and provide a high level of wearer comfort. The properties and structure of socks are predominantly defined by: type of raw material and its parameters (cotton, modal, blends, Polyamide, elastane), type of yarn (ring, rotor, air jet, filament, etc.), yarn fineness and socks pattern. Textile fibres as polymeric materials are widely used in various engineering fields from the field of clothing (including socks) to the technical field such as fibre-reinforced composites [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_002\"\u003e2\u003c/a\u003e]. Today, cotton is the predominant fibre used to it make socks. Cotton fibre production will not be sufficient in the future to meet the needs of the earth's population growth due to limited cotton acreage. Therefore, regenerated cellulose fibres such as modal, viscose and Lyocell are used to meet people's needs in garment production. The share of regenerated cellulose fibres in global fibre consumption increased to more than 7 million tonnes (more than 6%) in 2019 compared to the previous year [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_003\"\u003e3\u003c/a\u003e]. Modal fibres (CMD) are obtained using a viscous technological process of spinning from a solution, but from higher quality wood pulp and with different process parameters [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_004\"\u003e4\u003c/a\u003e]. Compared to viscose fibres, modal fibers are characterised by a higher dry and wet strength and a lower elongation at break. The most common products made of modal fibres are underwear, pyjamas, socks and household linen. As modal fibres are expensive than cotton, they are often blended with cotton in the form of fibres or in the manufacture of garments in the form of yarn. Socks made of modal fibres have a stronger lustre, feel soft and are more expensive than products of the same structure made of cotton or viscose fibres.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eOne of the properties of socks is certainly thermal comfort, which is also determined by the amount of thermal resistance. The thermal resistance of socks, to a certain level of human load and certain environmental conditions depends largely on the type of raw material, the structure of the knitted fabric and sewing patterns. The wearing comfort of socks, is determined by objective and/or subjective methods [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_005\"\u003e5\u003c/a\u003e]. Thermal and water-vapour resistance of textile fabrics is usually determined on the basis of the sweating guarded hotplate test according to ISO 11092 [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_006\"\u003e6\u003c/a\u003e], while thermal and water-vapour resistance of garments, resp. socks is determined using the so-called Thermal manikins, resp. the Thermal Foot”. More specifically, Kuklane [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_007\"\u003e7\u003c/a\u003e] states that the thermal foot method is more advanced compared to the existing prEN-344 1999 standard (withdrawn from 08.11.2004.).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere are several published papers dealing with the wearing comfort of knitted fabrics and garments that do or do not adhere directly to the skin, while the number of published papers dealing with the wearing comfort of socks is nevertheless smaller. Kuklane [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_008\"\u003e8\u003c/a\u003e] investigated the thermal resistance of boots (without socks) made of different materials using the thermal foot as well as the subjective well-being of test persons. He states, among other things, that the physiological parameters of the human being and the insulation values of shoes and socks are decisive in certain activities and environmental conditions in order to achieve a balance between the heat generated by the blood circulation and heat loss. Kuklane [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_009\"\u003e9\u003c/a\u003e] also studied the comfort of footwear combined with socks in a cold environment. I Insulation (thermal resistance) values were determined with the thermal foot models (F2 and F3) placed on a copper/zinc alloy plate. He found that thick socks add overall foot thermal resistance compared to thin ones (by 5 to 11%). Vasanth Kumar and Raja [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_010\"\u003e10\u003c/a\u003e] investigated the thermal comfort of socks knitted in single jersey structure from PES, cotton and their blends. They used the Alambeta Textile Tester (Sensora Instruments, Czech Republic). They concluded that polyester (recycled) fibre socks achieve higher thermal resistance than cotton socks. Özdil [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_011\"\u003e11\u003c/a\u003e] investigated the thermal comfort of socks made of different raw materials (wool, PAN, Cotton, PA, some blends), by measuring the thermal resistance with the Alambeta instrument. They concluded, among others, that socks containing PA fibers give high values of thermal conductivity and heat absorption. Chiukas et al., in their papers [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_012\"\u003e12\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_013\"\u003e13\u003c/a\u003e], investigated the thermal comfort properties (air permeability, thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal resistance) of platted knitted fabrics with different basic materials with the addition of textured PA and elastane (Lycra). Thermal conductivity was measured with a measuring device which operating pripciple was described in their first paper. They concluded, among others, that using two or three yarns in the knit allows to control air permeability, the thermal conductivity coeffiecient and thermal resistance. Cimili and Özdemir [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_014\"\u003e14\u003c/a\u003e] investigated the thermal properties of socks made of different types of fibers (Cotton, Modal, Viscose, Micro modal, Bamboo, Chitosan and Soybean), and used a “special experimental setup” for measuring thermal resistance. They concluded that the fiber type seems to markedly affect the comfort properties. Van Amber and et al.[\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_015\"\u003e15\u003c/a\u003e] state that the most thermal and moisture transfer properties of sock are affected by fabric variables via two different mechanisms: fabric thickness, and the density and arrangement of fiber and yarns. Rogina-Car et al [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_016\"\u003e16\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_017\"\u003e17\u003c/a\u003e] investigated the thermal resistance of socks made of viscose (ring) and tencel (ring, rotor and air-jet) base yarn with the addition of PA multifilament yarn or cotton yarn of the same knitted structure, using a thermal foot.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAs socks today are mainly made of cotton yarn with a small addition of multifilament polyamide yarn and elastane, this paper will investigate the thermal resistance of socks containing modal / micromodal yarn (as a basic yarn) of the same fineness with the addition of PA. multifilament yarn of different fineness and coarser cotton yarn, using a thermal foot [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_008\"\u003e8\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_019\"\u003e19\u003c/a\u003e]. By selecting a larger number of basic modal and micromodal yarns, which is less common for commercial sock samples, the aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of modal fibers and their fineness (1.3 dtex and 1 dtex) as well as the type of basic yarn (ring, rotor, air-jet) on thermal resistance of socks.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_002\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e2\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eExperimental\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_002_s_001\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e1.1\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eMaterials\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e20 tex modal and micromodal ring spun yarns (tricot) were produced on a Zinser 351 ring spinning machine with a ring diameter of 42 mm, 20 tex modal and micromodal rotor spun yarns (tricot) were made on a Schlafhorst A8 rotor spinning machine with a rotor diameter of 33 mm, whereas 20 tex modal and micromodal air-jet spun yarns (tricot) were made on a Rieter J20 air-jet spinning machine with an inner spindle diameter of 1.2 mm. A 25 tex cotton ring-spun yarn (tricot) was made using the combing process and was commercially purchased. A 156 dtex and 220 dtex multifilament PA yarn was also commercially purchased. A 500 dtex elastane yarn was inserted into the sock cuff.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe size of the socks is adjusted to the size of the thermal. The size of the thermal foot is adjusted to fit in shoes of the standard 42 EU size [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_018\"\u003e18\u003c/a\u003e]. Samples of sock size 42 (EU size) were made on a Lonati automatic sock knitting machine with a cylinder diameter of 95 mm with 108 needles. The designations of the sock and yarn as well as mass, thickness and square mass (GSM) of all samples are given in \u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_001\"\u003eTable 1\u003c/a\u003e and the structure of the sock samples is shown in \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_001\"\u003eFigure 1\u003c/a\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ctable-wrap id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_tab_001\" position=\"float\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003eTable 1\u003c/label\u003e\u003ccaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eDesignation and description of the sock patterns and the yarns used; 4 yarns per course were used, plus an elastane yarn in the cuff\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/caption\u003e\n\u003ctable frame=\"box\" rules=\"all\"\u003e\n\u003cthead\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock group\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock combination\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eYarns\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eYarn label\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMass (g/sock) p = 0.05\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eThickenss (mm) p = 0.05\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eGSM (g/m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/thead\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eModal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.0 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.24 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e215.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.4 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.29 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e242.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eModal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 f68 dtex\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e23.0 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.40 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e260.8\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMR Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21,1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e239.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eModal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.2 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.21 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e217.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.4 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.30 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e242.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eModal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e22.8 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.41 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e258.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMRO Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e239.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eModal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.4 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.25 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e220.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.7 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.36 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e246.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eModal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e23.0 ± 0.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.44 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e260.8\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMAJ Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e242.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eMicromodal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.0 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.25 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e215.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.3 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.30 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e241.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMicromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e22.9 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.39 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e259.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMMR Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e239.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eMicromodal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.2 ± 0.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.20 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e217.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.7 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e246.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMicromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex ×2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e23.1 ± 0.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.42 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e261.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMMRO Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e241.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"2\"\u003eMicromodal and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 156 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.4 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.23 ± 0.01\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e220.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 3 + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.6 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.32 ± 0.02\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e244.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMicromodal, cotton and polyamide yarns\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM 20 tex × 2 + Cot 25 tex + PA 6.6 220 dtex f68\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e22.9 ± 0.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.39 ± 0.03\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e259.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"3\"\u003eMMAJ Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e241.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" colspan=\"4\"\u003eOverall Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.32\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e240.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/tbody\u003e\n\u003c/table\u003e\n\u003ctable-wrap-foot\u003e\n\u003cfn-group\u003e\n\u003cfn\u003e\u003cp\u003eM – Modal; MM – Micromodal; Cot – cotton, R - ring spun yarn; RO - rotor spun yarn; AJ – air-jet spun yarn; PA – polyamide; A, B, C combinations of different types of yarn in the structure of knitted fabric\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e\n\u003c/fn-group\u003e\n\u003c/table-wrap-foot\u003e\n\u003c/table-wrap\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_001\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 1\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eSock structure of leg and cuff\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_001.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_001.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=e8e8881e75a290564e068d3720384931fd2ef73f505fcca34fb4c68ee0d9c908\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe main physical-mechanical parameters of the basic modal and basic micro modal yarns (linear density, unevenness, faults, hairiness, and spectrograms) are provided in the earlier published paper [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_020\"\u003e20\u003c/a\u003e]. Nominal values were used for the linear density of cotton yarn, PA yarn and elastane. The surface mass of the sock is determined from the ratio of the mass of the sock and the measuring surface of the thermal foot. The total area of the thermal foot is 96,450 mm\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e, and as the 2 upper upper segments were excluded from the measurement, the total measuring area on the thermal foot was 88,190 mm\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e. Dividing the mass of a sock by the measuring surface provides the real surface mass of the sock in the wear simulation. Therefore, the surface mass of unstretched socks was not determined.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_002_s_002\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e1.2\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eMethods\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_002_s_002_s_001\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eDimensions of the unstretched socks, mass and thickness\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe following dimensions of unstretched socks were determined: sock leg length L\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e, foot length L\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e, half foot circumference B\u003csub\u003e1\u003c/sub\u003e, half circumference of sock leg length B\u003csub\u003e2\u003c/sub\u003e and half circumference of cuff width B\u003csub\u003e3\u003c/sub\u003e (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_002\"\u003eFig. 2\u003c/a\u003e). The dimensions of the socks were determined using a flexible length meter with a reading accuracy of 1 mm. Five test specimens (socks) were used for each combination of 18 samples, and the average value was determined.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_002\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 2\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eSock shape and main dimensions [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_017\"\u003e17\u003c/a\u003e]\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_002.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_002.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=1d69938f208bbaef51355d11a710b23ee47f91790194d885b677f9497bd16bdc\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe dimensions of the unstretched sock samples (according to \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_001\"\u003eFig. 1\u003c/a\u003e) are given in \u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_002\"\u003eTab. 2\u003c/a\u003e. The range of mean deviations was determined with 95% confidence.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ctable-wrap id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_tab_002\" position=\"float\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003eTable 2\u003c/label\u003e\u003ccaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eDimensions of unstretched sock samples\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/caption\u003e\n\u003ctable frame=\"box\" rules=\"all\"\u003e\n\u003cthead\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock group\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock abbreviation\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eLeg length L\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eFoot length L\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eB\u003csub\u003e1\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eB\u003csub\u003e2\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eB\u003csub\u003e3\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/thead\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e242 ± 4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e275 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e245 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e279 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e278 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e95 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e86 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMR Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e245\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e277\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e93\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e88\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e85\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e270 ± 60\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e87 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e250 ± 4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e273 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e94 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e274 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e95 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e86 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMRO Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e249\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e272\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e94\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e89\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e85\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e255 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e280 ± 5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e92 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e251 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e275 ± 7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e94 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e250 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e277 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e94 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e91 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e86 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMAJ Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e252\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e277\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"/\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e90\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e85\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e239 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e272 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e91 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e83 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e241 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e270 ± 4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e88 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e246 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e272 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e94 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMR Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e242\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e271\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e93\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e87\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e84\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e276 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e91 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e88 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e253 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e279 ± 5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e275 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e86 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMRO Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e250\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e277\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e92\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e90\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e85\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e248 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e276 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e91 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e87 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e250 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e277 ± 3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e92 ± 2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e89 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e84 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e249 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e273 ± 6\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e93 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e90 ± 1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e85 ± 0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMAJ Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e249\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e275\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e92\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e89\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e84\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/tbody\u003e\n\u003c/table\u003e\n\u003c/table-wrap\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe mass of the socks was determined using the analytical balance. One mass measurement of each sample combination was carried out on 5 different test specimens. Sock thickness was measured at 10 different points of each test specimen on a HESS model 2000-U thickness measuring gauge according to standard ISO 9073-2.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe results for the mass and thickness of the unstretched socks are shown in \u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_001\"\u003eTable 1\u003c/a\u003e. The range of deviation from the mean value was determined with 95 % confidence.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_002_s_002_s_002\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eThe procedure for determining the dimensions of stretched socks\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe shape of the stretched sock after placement on the thermal foot is shown in \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_003\"\u003eFigure 3\u003c/a\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_003\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 3\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eDimensions of the unstretched and stretched sock along the curve on thermal foot [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_017\"\u003e17\u003c/a\u003e]\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_003.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_003.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=94f8e295c40e98acad2fe81f65c429d419a5b70f4f0810d26a28c29bebb11ece\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe elongation of the socks in the wale direction \u003citalic\u003eε\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e (%) in the sock leg after placement on the thermal foot was determined by the equation:\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_eq_001\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(1)\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003calternatives\u003e\n\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_eq_001.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\n\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" display=\"block\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eε\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003el\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmn\u003e1\u003c/mn\u003e\u003cmi\u003el\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e−\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmn\u003e0\u003c/mn\u003e\u003cmi\u003el\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmn\u003e0\u003c/mn\u003e\u003cmi\u003el\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003cmo\u003e⋅\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmn\u003e100\u003c/mn\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003eΔ\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003el\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi mathvariant=\"italic\"\u003eol\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003cmo\u003e⋅\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmn\u003e100\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\n\u003ctex-math\u003e{\\varepsilon _l} = {{{L_{1l}} - {L_{0l}}} \\over {{L_{0l}}}} \\cdot 100 = {{\\Delta {L_l}} \\over {{L_{ol}}}} \\cdot 100 \u003c/tex-math\u003e\n\u003c/alternatives\u003e\n\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\n\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe elongation of the socks in the wale direction in the section of the foot \u003citalic\u003eε\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e after placement on the thermal foot (%) was determined by the equation:\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_eq_002\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(2)\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003calternatives\u003e\n\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_eq_002.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\n\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" display=\"block\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eε\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003ef\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmn\u003e1\u003c/mn\u003e\u003cmi\u003ef\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e−\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmn\u003e0\u003c/mn\u003e\u003cmi\u003ef\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmn\u003e0\u003c/mn\u003e\u003cmi\u003ef\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003cmo\u003e⋅\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmn\u003e100\u003c/mn\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003eΔ\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003ef\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eL\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi mathvariant=\"italic\"\u003eof\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003cmo\u003e⋅\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmn\u003e100\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\n\u003ctex-math\u003e{\\varepsilon _f} = {{{L_{1f}} - {L_{0f}}} \\over {{L_{0f}}}} \\cdot 100 = {{\\Delta {L_f}} \\over {{L_{of}}}} \\cdot 100\u003c/tex-math\u003e\n\u003c/alternatives\u003e\n\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\nwhere: \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003e1l\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003e1f\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e values measured along the thermal foot curve (mm), \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003e0l\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003e0f\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e the actual length of the part of the unstretched sock of the unstretched sock (\u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003e0l\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e = 150 mm, \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003e0f\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e = 200 mm), \u003citalic\u003eΔL\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eΔL\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e elongation of the sock in the the actual length of the part of the unstretched sock leg or foot (mm).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eStretching the actual length of the part of unstretched sock on the Thermal Foot was determined according to \u003ca ref-type=\"disp-formula\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_eq_001\"\u003eequations 1\u003c/a\u003e and \u003ca ref-type=\"disp-formula\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_eq_002\"\u003e2\u003c/a\u003e, and it is shown in \u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_003\"\u003eTable 3\u003c/a\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ctable-wrap id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_tab_003\" position=\"float\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003eTable 3\u003c/label\u003e\u003ccaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eStretching the actual length of the part of socks on the Thermal Foot\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/caption\u003e\n\u003ctable frame=\"box\" rules=\"all\"\u003e\n\u003cthead\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock group\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock abbreviation\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eL\u003csub\u003e1l\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSD (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eCV (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eƐ\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eL\u003csub\u003e1f\u003c/sub\u003e (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSD (mm)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eCV (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eƐ\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/thead\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e153.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.78\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e5.05\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e209.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.20\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.85\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e158.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.23\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.46\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e5.80\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e213.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.64\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e6.85\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e149.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.92\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e6.17\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e195.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.49\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.52\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e154.0\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.64\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e4.23\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.79\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e206.4\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.36\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.80\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e4.07\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e150.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.51\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.41\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e208.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.64\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.04\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e153.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.72\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.71\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e202.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.24\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e152.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.53\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e199.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.23\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.16\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e152.2\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.49\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e3.26\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.49\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e203.4\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.37\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.81\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.90\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e157.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.46\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.94\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.87\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e205.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.56\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.72\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.50\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e156.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.36\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.31\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.00\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e200.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e156.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.32\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.06\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.20\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e205.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.74\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e156.5\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.38\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.44\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e4.36\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e203.7\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.32\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.57\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.83\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e154.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.12\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.75\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.87\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e209.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.36\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.73\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.50\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e155.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.62\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.53\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e206.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.32\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.56\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e152.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.40\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.53\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e205.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.60\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.93\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.85\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eAverage\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e154.0\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.26\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.67\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.64\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e207.0\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.43\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.07\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e3.50\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e154.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.63\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.13\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e214.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.40\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.89\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e7.15\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e154.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.25\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.63\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.13\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e206.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.40\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.96\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e156.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.51\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.28\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e201.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.53\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.63\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.50\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e155.4\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.34\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.18\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e3.58\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e207.2\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.44\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.16\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e3.60\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e153.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.21\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.47\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e201.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.17\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.86\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.50\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e148.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.29\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e1.95\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e205.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.45\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.20\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e153.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.82\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e5.35\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e2.00\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e201.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.15\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.03\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.65\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e151.7\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.44\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e2.88\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.52\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e202.5\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.26\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.03\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e1.27\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/tbody\u003e\n\u003c/table\u003e\n\u003c/table-wrap\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_002_s_002_s_003\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eThermal resistance measurement procedure on thermal foot\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe thermal foot (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004\"\u003eFig. 4a\u003c/a\u003e) consists of 13 segments of different surface, each of which can be heated separately at different temperatures or switched off [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_018\"\u003e18\u003c/a\u003e]. In order to place the sock samples as evenly as possible on the thermal foot relating to their partially different heights, for the purpose of this work the upper segments No. 9 and 13 of the thermal foot were switched off (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004\"\u003eFigs. 4a\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004\"\u003e4b\u003c/a\u003e). On the bare foot, a basic cotton sock was used in this work, which is placed on the thermal foot when measuring the values of R\u003csub\u003ect0\u003c/sub\u003e and R\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e. When measuring the R\u003csub\u003ect0\u003c/sub\u003e value, a certain period of system stabilization was required, and the start of measurement was determined at the moment when the power of the heater (W) was constant (steady state), which was observed at the interface of the control unit (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004\"\u003eFig. 4c\u003c/a\u003e). Measuring the R\u003csub\u003ect0\u003c/sub\u003e value takes 20 minutes. Upon completing the measurement of R\u003csub\u003ect0\u003c/sub\u003e the sock test specimen is placed on the thermal foot with the basic sock. System stabilisation is restored and the state of equilibrium is expected. Measuring the total resistance Rct of the thermal foot with the basic sock and the sock test specimen also takes 20 minutes (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004\"\u003eFig. 4b\u003c/a\u003e). The value of thermal resistance Rct0 was determined by one measurement per sock test specimen. The measurement conditions were: thermal foot temperature 35 ºC, ambient temperature 20 ± 2 ºC, relative humidity 65 ± 5% and air flow rate 0.2 – 0.3 m/s (natural convection). For each sample combination, three thermal resistance measurements were made with the thermal foot.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 4\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eTermal Foot and elements of interface of control unit\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=02a279da3aba623f8bca50ad8656b7620dbdd97f683431fa1c5e220e77a10caa\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe general equation according to which the thermal foot measures thermal resistance has the following form [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_018\"\u003e18\u003c/a\u003e]:\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_eq_003\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(3)\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003calternatives\u003e\n\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_eq_003.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\n\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" display=\"block\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi mathvariant=\"italic\"\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eA\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003em\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e(\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eT\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003em\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e−\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eT\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003ea\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e)\u003c/mo\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmi\u003eP\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\n\u003ctex-math\u003e{R_{ct}} = {{{A_m}\\left( {{T_m} - {T_a}} \\right)} \\over P} \u003c/tex-math\u003e\n\u003c/alternatives\u003e\n\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\nwhere: R\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e thermal resistance (m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e), A\u003csub\u003em\u003c/sub\u003e measuring surface of the thermal foot (m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e), T\u003csub\u003em\u003c/sub\u003e ttemperature of the measuring surface of the thermal foot (ºC), T\u003csub\u003ea\u003c/sub\u003e ambient temperature (20 ± 2ºC); P total heater power of all thermal foot segments (W).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe thermal resistance of the thermal foot \u003citalic\u003eRct\u003c/italic\u003e is determined in this paper by the equation (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004\"\u003eFig. 4\u003c/a\u003e) [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_018\"\u003e18\u003c/a\u003e]:\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_eq_004\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(4)\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003calternatives\u003e\n\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_eq_004.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\n\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" display=\"block\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi mathvariant=\"italic\"\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e(\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmstyle displaystyle=\"true\"\u003e\u003cmo\u003e∑\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eT\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003ei\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mstyle\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmi\u003en\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eT\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003ea\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmo\u003e)\u003c/mo\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmstyle displaystyle=\"true\"\u003e\u003cmo\u003e∑\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eA\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003ei\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mstyle\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmstyle displaystyle=\"true\"\u003e\u003cmo\u003e∑\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eP\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003ei\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mstyle\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\n\u003ctex-math\u003e{R_{ct}} = {{\\left( {{{\\sum {{T_i}} } \\over n}{T_a}} \\right)\\sum {{A_i}} } \\over {\\sum {{P_i}} }} \u003c/tex-math\u003e\n\u003c/alternatives\u003e\n\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\nwhere: \u003citalic\u003eT\u003csub\u003ei\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e average temperature of the i-th segment (°C), n number of segments switched on, \u003citalic\u003eA\u003csub\u003ei\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e total measuring surface of the switched-on segments (m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e), \u003citalic\u003eP\u003csub\u003ei\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e total power of the switched-on segments (W).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe thermal resistance of the sample is determined by the equation:\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_eq_005\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(5)\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003calternatives\u003e\n\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_eq_005.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\n\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" display=\"block\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi mathvariant=\"italic\"\u003ects\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi mathvariant=\"italic\"\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e−\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi mathvariant=\"italic\"\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmn\u003e0\u003c/mn\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\n\u003ctex-math\u003e{R_{cts}} = {R_{ct}} - {R_{ct0}} \u003c/tex-math\u003e\n\u003c/alternatives\u003e\n\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\nwhere: R\u003csub\u003ects\u003c/sub\u003e thermal resistance of the sock sample (m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e), R\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e total thermal resistance of the thermal foot + basic sock + sock sample (m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e), R\u003csub\u003ect0\u003c/sub\u003e thermal resistance of the thermal foot + basic sock (m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe thermal resistance of the sock depends on the sample thickness d (mm) and the thermal conductivity of the material of which the sample is made λ (W °C m\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e), and it can be determined by the following equation if the thermal conductivity of the material and its thickness are known:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cdisp-formula id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_eq_006\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(6)\u003c/label\u003e\n\u003calternatives\u003e\n\u003cgraphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_eq_006.png\"\u003e\u003c/graphic\u003e\n\u003cmath xmlns:mml=\"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML\" display=\"block\"\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmsub\u003e\u003cmi\u003eR\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmrow\u003e\u003cmi mathvariant=\"italic\"\u003ect\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/msub\u003e\u003cmo\u003e=\u003c/mo\u003e\u003cmfrac\u003e\u003cmi\u003ed\u003c/mi\u003e\u003cmi\u003eλ\u003c/mi\u003e\u003c/mfrac\u003e\u003c/mrow\u003e\u003c/math\u003e\n\u003ctex-math\u003e{R_{ct}} = {d \\over \\lambda } \u003c/tex-math\u003e\n\u003c/alternatives\u003e\n\u003c/disp-formula\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_003\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e3\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eResults and discussion\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001\"\u003e\u003ctitle/\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001_s_001\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eDimensions of unstretched socks\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe length of the sock leg \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e of all sample combinations ranges from 239 mm (sample MMR_A) to 255 mm (sample MAJ_A) (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005\"\u003eFig. 5\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_002\"\u003eTab. 2\u003c/a\u003e,). The difference is 16 mm, i.e. 6.7 %. The length of the sock leg \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e in the samples knitted from basic modal yarns (245, 249, 252 mm) is not significantly different from the samples knitted from micromodal yarns (242, 250, 249 mm). Moreover, samples of basic modal ring and basic micro modal ring yarns have a slightly shorter average leg length (245, 242 mm) than basic modal and micro modal rotor yarns (249, 250 mm) and air-jet spun basic modal and micro modal yarns (252, 249 mm). Differences in the leg length \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e per sample groups are nevertheless small and can be attributed to differences in the structure of the ring, rotor and air-jet spun yarn and the difference in the fineness of the added yarns in the samples under equal knitting conditions. The values for the foot length Lf of all sample combinations range from 270 mm (sample MRO_A) to 280 mm (sample MAJ_A), and the difference is 10 mm, i.e. 3.7 %, which is still probable marginal. Furthermore, no significant difference was found between samples of basic modal and basic micromodal yarns.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 5\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eDimensions of unstretched socks\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_005.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=04ca4fe0da87bf3740f6f63b937e5ca413ccd5f0b56a0d9aa684e97cb66d80fd\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAlthough the largest differences in the leg length of the samples \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e (16 mm) and the foot length \u003citalic\u003eL\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e (10 mm) are small, they can be significant for complete and uniform covering of the measuring surface of the thermal foot. When measuring unstretched and stretched socks on the thermal foot, the unavoidable subjective error is also taken into account to a lesser extent due to straightening the socks.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001_s_002\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eMass, thickness and GSM of socks\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe mass of all sample combinations ranges from 19.0 g/sock to 23.1 g/sock (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006\"\u003eFig. 6\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_001\"\u003eTable 1\u003c/a\u003e,). The greatest mass difference among all samples was 21.6 %. As expected, the use of coarser PA and cotton yarns also increases the mass of the socks in each sample group (samples marked B and C). Although the sock masses of each group ranged from 21.1 g/sock to 21.4 g/sock, which makes a difference of 1.4%, it was necessary to consider each sample combination separately.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 6\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eMass and thickness of unstretched socks\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_006.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=0433267b177a8ffc2a7d5fd78e45e2b271540525e1252498d9868fdbdb48f5c1\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe thickness of the socks of all sample combinations ranges from 1.21 to 1.44 mm, which gives a maximum difference of 19.0% and is significant in percentage terms. By using coarser PA and cotton yarn, the sock thickness is expected to increase. Furthermore, the mean thickness values of individual groups range from 1.31 to 1.35, which makes a difference of 3.1%. This was also the reason for a more detailed analysis of all sample combinations.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001_s_003\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eSock foot dimensions and stretching\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eStretching socks on the Thermal Foot was determined according to \u003ca ref-type=\"disp-formula\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_eq_001\"\u003eequations 1\u003c/a\u003e and \u003ca ref-type=\"disp-formula\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_eq_002\"\u003e2\u003c/a\u003e, and it is shown in \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007\"\u003eFigs. 7\u003c/a\u003e and \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008\"\u003e8\u003c/a\u003e (from \u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_003\"\u003eTab. 3\u003c/a\u003e). The stretching of samples of all sample combinations in the wale direction on the selected segments of the leg and foot (150 and 200 mm, resp.) ranges from 0.1 % to 7.15 %. The leg of the sample has a stretch of 0.1 to 5.8 %, while the foot stretches between 0.2 and 7.15 %. The average stretch values in the wale direction on both selected segments of the sample of individual groups lie below 4.07 %, which is relatively low and shows that the socks are well uniformly placed on the surface of the entire basic sock and foot with the upper segments 9 and 13 disconnected (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_004\"\u003eFig. 4b\u003c/a\u003e). The average values of the two stretches (\u003citalic\u003eƐ\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e and \u003citalic\u003eƐ\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e\u003c/italic\u003e) of the basic modal and micromodal samples amount to 2.9 % and 2.6 % and 2.7 % and 2.8 % respectively. This suggests that the percentage differences are still low.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 7\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eStretching the sock leg (ε\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e) and foot (ε\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e) of socks of basic modal yarn\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_007.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=a8110efb2589e20eab1c93256a3e2d2126dd36110cb9c8d4a80dad5ea37ebcc0\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 8\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eStretching the sock leg (ε\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e) and foot (ε\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e) of socks of basic micromodal yarn\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_008.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=d05befb4dc1e5eb8ac23790db2f89f3d064d29bc3c257f35e18e88ba21095bc1\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_003_s_001_s_004\"\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eThermal resistance\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePrior to measurement, the samples were kept for 24 hours at standard conditions of 20 ± 2 °C and 65 ± 5 %. The measurement results are shown in \u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004\"\u003eTab. 4\u003c/a\u003e and in \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009\"\u003eFigures 9\u003c/a\u003e to \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012\"\u003e12\u003c/a\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003ctable-wrap id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004\" position=\"float\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003eTable 4\u003c/label\u003e\u003ccaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eThermal resistance of the socks (R\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e)\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/caption\u003e\n\u003ctable frame=\"box\" rules=\"all\"\u003e\n\u003cthead\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock group\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eSock samle abbreviation\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eR\u003csub\u003ect\u003c/sub\u003e (m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003cth align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eCV (%)\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/th\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/thead\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0125\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e8.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.01260\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e3.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0138\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e6.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMR Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0130\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e6.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0091\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e14.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0116\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0122\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e14.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMRO Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0109\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e11.2\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0128\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0119\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e12.9\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0148\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMAJ average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0132\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e9.0\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0124\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e8,8\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMR\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0119\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e14.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0129\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.8\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0148\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e12.6\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMR Average\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0132\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e10.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMRO\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0105\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e28.6\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0130\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e16.1\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMRO_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0156\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e4.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMRO Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0130\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e16.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\" rowspan=\"4\"\u003eMMAJ\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_A\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0104\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e22.3\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_B\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0102\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e21.5\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMMAJ_C\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e0.0092\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e15.4\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eMMAJ Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0099\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e19.7\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eMM\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eAverage\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0121\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e15,6\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003eM and MM\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003eOverall Average\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd style=\"background-color: #DBDAD8\" align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e\u003cbold\u003e0.0122\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003ctd align=\"center\" valign=\"middle\"\u003e12.2\u003c/td\u003e\n\u003c/tr\u003e\n\u003c/tbody\u003e\n\u003c/table\u003e\n\u003c/table-wrap\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 9\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eThermal resistance Rct of basic modal socks\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=d6118bae605d4f16e09442e7b0b38f2e04ae870ef9795fa22287f21253fdfd72\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 10\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eThermal resistance Rct of basic micromodal socks\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=73a28e941276c840da96e5feb8aad378468294fec1cc309d29017003c05abb0f\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 11\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eRelation between thermal resistance and square mass (GSM) of stretched samples\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=9a533779382bcbe9e6637cf56ffff04f93a3ba026f608f01d4dfffae8248ee80\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cfigure id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012\" position=\"float\" fig-type=\"figure\"\u003e\u003ch2\u003eFigure 12\u003c/h2\u003e\n\u003cfigCaption\u003e\u003cp\u003eThermal resistance of sock samples group according to type of yarn: ring, rotor and air-jet\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/figCaption\u003e\n\u003cimg xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012.jpg\" src=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026amp;X-Amz-Date=20221201T180551Z\u0026amp;X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026amp;X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026amp;X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221201%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026amp;X-Amz-Signature=af479bc1a272fa0262ccb43a377703dc1bef843a3d2dfadb9e5067cc4ca1fcc5\" class=\"mw-100\"\u003e\u003c/img\u003e\n\u003c/figure\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAs no significant differences were obtained between unstretched socks in the foot length (Ll) and foot length (Lf) parameters (\u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_002\"\u003eTable 2\u003c/a\u003e), no significant differences were obtained in stretching (Ɛ\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e and Ɛ\u003csub\u003ef\u003c/sub\u003e).) (\u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_003\"\u003eTable 3\u003c/a\u003e), the discussion of thermal resistance results was carried out as a function of the thickness of the unstretched sock and the surface mass of the stretched sock on the thermal foot.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThermal resistance values for all samples range from 0.0091 to 0.01586 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e (\u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004\"\u003eTab. 4\u003c/a\u003e). The thermal resistance values of all sample combinations of modal basic fibres range between 0.0091 (sample MRO_A) and 0.0148 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e (sample MAJ_C) (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_009\"\u003eFig. 9\u003c/a\u003e), while the values of thermal resistance of all sample combinations of basic micro modal fibres range from 0.0092 (sample MMAJ_C) to 0, 0156 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e (sample MMRO_C) (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_010\"\u003eFig. 10\u003c/a\u003e). The trend of increasing thermal resistance was observed by decreasing the fineness of the additional yarns for both basic types of raw materials in ring and rotor yarn samples (consequently an increase in fabric surface mass) and is more significant in micro-modal yarn samples with a high correlation coefficient of 0.711 (\u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_011\"\u003eFig. 11\u003c/a\u003e). The highest thermal resistance per groups of basic modal fibres was achieved in samples of the airjet spun yarn with 0.0132 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e (group MAJ) and the lowest in samples of the rotor yarn with 0.0109 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−\u003c/sup\u003e (group MRO). This is due to the higher sample thickness of the air-spun yarn (1.35 mm) with an average low stretch of the samples on the thermal foot (below 4.07 %). The highest thermal resistance per groups for the basic micro-modal fibres in the group of samples was found in the ring yarn (0.0132 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e, group of samples MMR) and the lowest in the samples of the air-jet spun yarn (group of samples MMAJ, 0.0092 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e). The reason for the lower thermal resistance may be a greater compactness of the air-spun yarn structure of finer micromodal fibres and consequently less air in the space between the yarn in knitted fabric structure. Since modal and other cellulose fibres (e.g. cotton) have a thermal conductivity many times higher than air, the thermal resistance of such samples is consequently lower. In addition, the thickness of this group of samples is lower (MMAJ, 1.31 mm) than the thickness of the sample group of the basic modal fibres (MAJ, 1.35 mm), which further reduces thermal resistance (\u003ca ref-type=\"disp-formula\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_eq_006\"\u003eEq. 6\u003c/a\u003e). Comparing the individual samples of basic modal fibres, low thermal resistance was found for the samples of rotor yarn (0.0109 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e compared to the samples of ring yarn (0.0130 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e) by 16.1%, with the same average sock thickness of 1.31 mm, which may be due to differences in the structures of rotor and ring yarns. For micromodal base samples, the difference in thermal resistance between rotor and ring yarns is very small (0.0002 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e) and practically negligible. Comparing the average value of the thermal resistance of all sample combinations of the basic modal yarn (0.0124 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e) with the average value of all sample combinations of the micromodal yarn (0.0121 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e), it is obvious that the differences are small (0.0003 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e) (\u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004\"\u003eTable 4\u003c/a\u003e). Since these are samples of high uniformity of basic modal yarns and uniform structure of the knitted fabric with a low production speed on the knitting machine, the influence of the fineness of modal fibres on thermal resistance is not clearly found.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe influence of different yarn types in the samples on thermal resistance should be considered taking into account both the thickness of the samples and the fineness of the modal fibres. Thus, the highest thermal resistance per sample group was found in the samples made of ring yarn (0.0132 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e of the MMR and MAJ sample groups) and the lowest in the samples made of air-spun yarn (0.0099 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e, of the MMAJ) (\u003ca ref-type=\"table\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_tab_004\"\u003eTab. 4\u003c/a\u003e, \u003ca ref-type=\"fig\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_fig_012\"\u003eFig. 12\u003c/a\u003e).. The thermal resistance of the sample groups of ring and rotor yarns is 24.4 % and 21.1 % higher, respectively, than the thermal resistance of the group of air-spun yarns. The reason for the lower thermal resistance of the air-jet spun yarns is also due to the higher average thickness of the MAJ sample group (1.35 mm).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAs the yarns used for the sock samples were predominantly made of cellulose fibres (cotton, modal and micro modal with the addition of the usual percentage of PA multifilament yarns), whose thermal conductivity values vary relatively slightly (cotton 0.461 W/(m °C), viscose 0.289 W/(m °C)), the average thermal resistance value of 0.0122 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e determined on the thermal foot for all sample combinations is comparable to the thermal resistance values of similar sock samples published in other papers. Moreover, thermal comfort, characterised by numerical values of thermal resistance, is high. The sock samples tested have low thermal resistance, which means they conduct heat well, resulting in cooling, which is especially important for wearing in warmer weather. The thickness of the sock and the volume of air held usually determine the thermal resistance under static test conditions, and the effect of the fiber itself is reduced [\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_aut-2022-0022_ref_015\"\u003e15\u003c/a\u003e]. Thicker socks made of modal and micro modal basic ring and rotor yarns, which contain coarser other added yarns, have a higher thermal resistance as a result of the different compactness of the structure. Furthermore, the greater thickness of the basic modal/micromodal sock samples used allows for better moisture transport from the sock leg, which further increases comfort, especially during heavier sweating.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_aut-2022-0022_s_004\"\u003e\u003clabel\u003e4\u003c/label\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eCONCLUSIONS\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eBased on the results obtained, the following conclusions can be drawn:\n\u003clist list-type=\"custom\"\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003ea)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe length of the selected section of the leg of the sample L\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e of all sample combinations ranges from 239 mm to 255 mm (difference of 16 mm i.e. 6.7 %). The length L\u003csub\u003el\u003c/sub\u003e in samples knitted from basic modal yarns is not significantly different from samples knitted from basic micromodal yarns.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003eb)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe length of the selected foot section Lf is between 270 mm and 280 mm for all sample combinations (difference of 10 mm, i.e. 3.7 %) and is nevertheless small.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003ec)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eNo significant difference was found between the lengths Lt and Lf between samples of basic modal and basic micromodal yarns.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003ed)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe mass of all samples ranges from 19.0 g/sock to 23.1 g/sock. When using coarser additional yarns (cotton and PA multifilament), the mass of the socks in each sample group also increases.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(e)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe thickness of the socks of all samples ranges from 1.21 to 1.44 mm, which gives the largest difference of 19.0 %, and the percentage is significant. The mean thickness values of the individual groups range between 1.31 and 1.35 mm.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003ef)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe stretching of the selected section of the sock leg and foot in the wale direction of all sock sample combinations ranges from 0.1 % to 7.15 %, is less than 4.07 % per group.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003e(g)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe thermal resistance values for all samples range from 0.0091 to 0.01586 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e. An increasing trend of thermal resistance was observed by decreasing the fineness of the additional yarns for both basic types of raw materials in samples of ring and rotor yarns, and it is more prominent in samples of micromodal yarn with a correlation coefficient of 0.711.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003eh)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe highest thermal resistance per groups of basic modal fibres was obtained in the samples made of air-jet spun yarn of 0.0132 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e and the lowest in samples of rotor yarn of 0.0109 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003ei)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe highest thermal resistance in all groups of basic micromodal samples made of ring yarn (0.0132 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e) and the lowest in the samples made of air-spun yarn (0.0099 m\u003csup\u003e2\u003c/sup\u003e °C W\u003csup\u003e−1\u003c/sup\u003e).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003ej)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe tested sock samples have low thermal resistance, i.e. they can conduct heat well, thus achieving cooling, which is important for wearing socks in warm weather.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003clabel\u003ek)\u003c/label\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe greater thickness of the basic modal/micromodal sock samples used allows for better moisture transport from the sock leg, further increasing comfort, especially during heavier sweating.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\u003c/list\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003c/div\u003e","keywords":[{"title":"Keywords","language":null,"keywords":["socks","modal","thermal resistance","thermal foot","comfort"]}],"recentIssues":{"10.2478/aut-2021-0054":"\u003carticle-title\u003eAutomatic 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