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The Effects of Sensory Marketing on Clothing-Buying Behavior

Publicado en línea: 27 Jul 2022
Volumen & Edición: AHEAD OF PRINT
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Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2300-0929
Primera edición
19 Oct 2012
Calendario de la edición
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Abstract

Nowadays, intensive rivalry forces enterprises and brands to strive for differentiation. Use of marketing strategies, which can allure the consumers, effectively is one of the ways of differing oneself from one's rivals. Sensory marketing strategy, which affects the buying behavior and perception of consumers by alluring their senses, is one the marketing strategies whose importance and use have increased in recent years. This strategy also has been intensively used by enterprises that produce and market clothing products, which are one of the basic needs of consumers. In this context, this research study aims to analyze the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior. The research aims to reveal how consumers in Turkey, which is one of the leading global clothing exporters and at the same time which is one of the significant markets, are affected by sensory marketing factors during the clothing purchase process. In accordance with the aim of the research, a survey was conducted of consumers who live in the three biggest cities of Turkey and whose ages are 18 and over. The data, which were obtained from field research, were analyzed statistically and suggestions are made to enterprises and brands that produce clothing products and/or market clothing products, on the basis of the study's findings.

Keywords

Introduction

Nowadays, intensive rivalry forces enterprises/brands into differentiating themselves from their rivals. Enterprises/brands pursue different marketing models, especially to be regarded as different from their rivals in consumers’ minds. Sensory marketing, which is used with this purpose, aims to separate the brand or products of an enterprise from its rivals by revealing the versatile brand experience via the five senses. Sensory marketing is a marketing strategy that aims to affect the senses of consumers’ (vision, audition, olfaction, taste, and tactual) by focusing on consumers’ perceptions. Sensory marketing is used in different fields, and the clothing sector is one of these fields. Sensuous marketing implementations are frequently used in the marketing of clothing products, which are a significant part of individuals’ consumption expenditures. The odors and colors that are used in clothing stores, the music played, and the visual arrangements are chosen according to the consumers’ senses and aims to allure them. In this context, this research study aims to analyze the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior. The research aims to reveal how consumers in Turkey, which is one of the leading global clothing exporters and at the same time one of the significant markets, are affected by sensory marketing factors during the clothing purchase process. In accordance with the aim of the research, a survey was conducted of consumers who live in the three biggest cities in Turkey and whose ages are 18 and over. The data, which are obtained from field research, are analyzed statistically, and suggestions are made to enterprises and brands that produce clothing products and/or market clothing products on the basis of the findings.

In the literature, there are studies about the effects of sensory marketing on buying behavior, customer loyalty, and consumer behavior. Also, there is research that focuses on one of the five senses (odor, sound, etc.) or that takes the five senses into consideration. In addition, there are studies that analyze the textile and/or clothing products within the context of sensory marketing in different countries. In Turkey, the relation between sensory marketing and the textile and/or clothing sector is analyzed within the context of stores. However, there is no study in Turkey that analyzes the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior within the context of consumer behavior. This, we believe, is how this study differs from other studies within the literature.

Sensory marketing and the effects of sensory marketing on buying behavior of consumers

Sense refers to the feelings, visions, auditions, and tastes of people when they are exposed to external stimuli of a specific environment and their visual, audial, and tactual perceptions with regard to the experience are affected [1]. Sensory marketing is a marketing method that affects the perceptions, decisions, and behaviors of consumers and appeals to their senses [2,3,4,5,6,7]. Sensory marketing involves all five senses (vision, audition, olfaction, taste, and tactual) [2,8,9]. It aims to affect the five senses of people much more deeply than mass marketing or relationship marketing. Therefore, it affects individuals from individual and collective perspectives by mutual and multidimensional methods of communication. More importantly, it tries to reach multiple senses like audition, taste, and vision at the same time. In essence, it creates an outstanding sensory experience [4].

Existing research about sensory marketing indicates that the sensory sides of product (vision, audition, olfaction, taste, and tactual) affect consumers’ behavior and their product evaluation (e.g., impulse buying, extension of time that has been spent in store, more exposure to stimuli, more money spent, an increase in consumer numbers within the store) [10]. In sensory marketing, multiple stimuli are used together in order to turn consumer perceptions to positive perceptions or to limit the negative ones [11].

Vision and hearing are the senses that are preferred by traditional marketing. These senses have been pretty much addressed with the use of images and colors in logos, packaging, product design, arrangement of sale areas, lighting of cabinets, special sounds belonging to marketed products, sounds and music in advertisements, promotions, and arrangements in all areas where consumers exist. On the other hand, odor is an old, primitive, instinctive, and brutish sense. However, it has been newly discovered in the marketing field and especially in the entertainment industry and shopping malls. Some enterprises use environmental odor as a differentiating factor by making it compatible with the system behind the presented products. As another option, the tactual sense has always been at the center of sale systems, which try to create a familiarity with a product by letting consumers touch products and materials. Clothes, furniture, furnishings, and automobiles are marketed in this way [11].

If the effects of sensory marketing on consumers’ buying behavior in the clothing sector are analyzed, it can be seen that the related studies are limited. According to the results of a conducted study, the effects of senses on perceptions of textile products and buying behaviors are not high. Besides, the buying behaviors of male consumers cannot be explained with emotional and cognitive variables, unlike the case with women consumers [12]. As stated in another study, the implementation of sensory marketing strategies in clothing stores has increased the sales and customer satisfaction and happiness [13]. Another study reveals that using sensory marketing in home textile stores is an effective method for creating brand loyalty [14]. Other research, which focused on the effects of sensory marketing factors on a specific clothing brand's customers, indicates that this method has a positive effect on consumers; however, it does not have any effect on their final buying decisions [15].

Methods

This research aims to analyze the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior. Its purpose is to reveal how consumers in Turkey one of the leading global clothing exporters, and one of the significant markets) are affected by sensory marketing factors during the clothing purchase process. At the same time, it aims to make suggestions to enterprises and brands that produce clothing products and/or that market clothing products.

In accordance with the goals of the study, a survey was conducted of consumers who live in the three biggest cities in Turkey (İstanbul, Ankara, and İzmir) and whose ages are 18 and over [16]. The age of legal majority is 18 in Turkey, so the Turkish citizens whose ages are 18 and over are incorporated in the research. İstanbul, Ankara, and İzmir were chosen because they can reflect the country as a whole due to their cosmopolitan structures and population densities.

According to data from the Turkish Statistical Institute [17], the population of Turkey was 82,003,882 as of December 31, 2018. The number of individuals whose ages were 18 and over was 59,083,460. Therefore, the sample size was calculated as 384 at 95% confidence interval with a margin of error of 5%. The individuals who constitute the sample were determined by simple random sampling.

The surveys were conducted between March 2020 and August 2020 by using face-to-face interview and remote access (online survey) techniques [16]. The volunteerism principle was applied in survey participation. A survey form, which consisted of 11 main and 30 sub-questions, was used as a data collection tool. Also, the survey has been ethically approved by Ege University's Ethical Board of Social and Human Sciences Scientific Research and Publication on August 29, 2019, with protocol number 352. After the repatriation and evaluation of the returned questionnaires, 402 of them were incorporated in the research. The obtained findings were analyzed via an SPSS program.

Research findings and analysis

At the beginning of the statistical analysis, the reliability of the questionnaire was measured and the reliability coefficient α was found to be 0.810. Accordingly, the scale of the questionnaire was assumed to be highly reliable. If the demographic properties of the participants are analyzed, it can be seen that they are generally well-educated, middle-income, young consumers (Table 1).

Distribution of participants according to their demographic properties.

Demographic Properties Frequency Valid Percent
Age 18–25 106 26.4
26–33 186 46.3
33–41 37 9.2
42–49 25 6.2
50 and over 48 11.9
Gender Women 253 62.9
Men 149 37.1
Education status High school and below 40 10.0
University 276 68,7
Postgraduate 86 21,3
Monthly income $500 and below 211 52.5
$501–$875 131 32.5
$876 and over 60 15.0

When the participants’ residences were evaluated, it was found that 36% live in the İzmir Province, whereas 34% live in the Ankara Province and 30% live in the İstanbul Province. Therefore, the participants were distributed throughout three big, cosmopolitan provinces in a balanced manner. If the properties of participants’ clothing expenditures are analyzed, it is seen that 76% of them separate 20% or less from their monthly budgets for clothing expenditures. In addition, 65% of the participants usually buy their clothing products from physical stores.

45% of the participants indicated that they prefer to hear classical or instrumental music in stores during their clothing shopping, whereas 40% specified that they would rather hear pop music, jazz, or rock (Table 2). 80% of the participants whose preferences were pop music, jazz, or rock, specified that they preferred pop music. Additionally, 59% of the participants indicate that they prefer to see light, bright, and vivid colors in stores where they bought their clothing products (Table 2).

Distribution of participants according to their color and music preferences in stores where they bought their clothing products.

Color and Music Preferences Frequency Valid Percent
Music Classical or instrumental music 182 45.3
Turkish classical music or Turkish folk music 10 2.5
Arabesque 1 0.2
Pop, jazz, rap or rock music 162 40.3
Specific jingle to the brand 41 10.2
Don’t want to hear any music 6 1.5
Color Light colors 150 37.3
Dark colors 93 23.1
Bright and vivid colors 88 21.9
Dull colors 71 17.7

16% of the participants specified that the clothing store that most appealed to their senses was the store that belongs to the Zara brand. On the other hand, 8% of the participants indicated that the Koton brand most appealed to their senses. According to the 3% of the participants, there was not any brand that appeals to their senses, whereas 30% preferred other brands (Tommy Hilfiger, Beymen, Jack & Jones, Adidas, Nike, Oxxo, Network, Lacoste, Kiğılı, Stradivarius, Avva, DeFacto, Levi's, Damat & Tween, Colin's, Marks & Spencer, etc.). Most of the participants’ ages (72%) were between 18 and 33. When the brands that most appealed to the senses are analyzed, it can be seen that participants usually admire the stores where their most favorite clothing products are sold.

The survey offered 20 statements that analyze the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior. All participants were required to choose their agreement levels for each of these statements. In quinary Likert scale, “I absolutely agree” was coded as 5, “I agree” was coded as 4, “I have no idea” was coded as 3, “I don’t agree” was coded as 2, and “I don’t agree absolutely” was coded as 1. First, the averages and standard deviations of the statements were calculated. The obtained findings are given in Table 3. According to the obtained averages, participants indicated that the most important factors were the cleanliness and orderliness of the store from which they bought clothing products. These factors were, respectively, followed by clothing products’ colors, air conditioning of the store, airiness of the store, clothing products’ design, lighting of the store, photograph quality in virtual stores, simpleness and practicableness of virtual stores, product placement within the store, and colors that are used in store design. According to the obtained results, all of the consumers’ senses that are used in sensory marketing strategy were highly affected during clothing buying. In other words, all visual, audial, olfactive and tactual stimuli affected the consumers. The sense of taste cannot be measured due to the nature of clothing products. In addition, consumers were not only affected by these senses one by one, but in combination. For instance, they were mostly affected by the cleanliness, orderliness, and airiness of the store. These factors are related to visual, tactual and olfactive senses.

Results of the exploratory factor analysis on the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior and the descriptive statistics of the statements.

Factors Statements Rotated Loadings Average Standard Deviation Averages of the Factors
Effects of visual, olfactive and tactual stimuli within the store atmosphere The airiness of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.816 4.66 0.561 4,63
The lighting of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.740 4.58 0.599
The cleanliness and orderliness of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.715 4.77 0.453
The air conditioning of the store (temperature, ventilation etc.) where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.700 4.66 0.584
The product placement within the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.654 4.47 0.751
Effects of product visuality The colors of the clothing products that I bought are important for me. 0.800 4.66 0.544 4,54
The design of the clothing products that I bought is important for me. 0.781 4.65 0.554
The accessory visual appeal of clothing products that I bought is important for me. 0.639 4.32 0.896
Effects of store and brand design visuality The logo, colors, and slogan of the brand where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.696 3.86 1.076 4,13
The store window design of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.673 4.15 0.916
The color design of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.513 4.38 0.766
Effects of olfactive and audial stimuli I prefer an unscented clothing store. 0.743 3.37 1.322 4,00
I don’t like the intensive scents in stores where I bought clothing products. 0.670 4.36 0.858
I don’t like the loud music in stores where I bought clothing products. 0.562 4.27 1.002
Effects of olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli I like to smell odors that are specific to the brand in stores during my clothing shopping. 0.684 4.06 0.986 3,94
I like to hear music in the store where I bought clothing products. 0.629 4.16 0.882
I like to hear jingles that are specific to the brand in stores during my clothing shopping. 0.607 3.16 1.286
The feelings that I felt while touching the bought clothing products are important for me. 0.418 4.37 0.759
Effects of virtual store visual appeal The simpleness and practicableness of virtual stores where I bought clothing products are important for me. 0.809 4.50 0.774 4,50
The photograph quality and details in virtual stores where I bought clothing products are important for me. 0.785 4.50 0.800

Furthermore, participants specified that touching the clothing products was very important. Also, they indicated that they did not prefer loud music during the clothing shopping; however, they liked hearing music within the store. They also specified that the design of store windows was significant and that they liked to smell odors specific to the brand in stores during their clothing shopping. On the other hand, consumers were reasonably affected by some factors, such as clothing brands’ logos, colors, and slogans, unscented clothing stores, and the jingles that are played in stores that were specific to the brand.

After the basic assessment, the statements were evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and gathered into six groups. Exploratory factor analysis was performed in order to accomplish compendious and meaningful dissimilarity and similarity tests (hypotheses tests). The results of exploratory factor analysis indicated that the samples were suitable and reliable for factor analysis (Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of sampling was found to be 0.814, and the significance of Bartlett's test of sphericity was found to be 0.000). Principal components extraction is used for extracting factors with eigenvalues over 1, and the rotation of the factor loading matrix is chosen as varimax. The standard loading of 13 statements were higher than 0.50 (they varied between 0.766 and 0.503), and the cumulative variance of six factors was found to be 62.70%. The loadings (scores) of the statements within Table 3 are taken from rotated component matrix (only one loading is lower than 0.50). The six factors, which were obtained as a result of exploratory factor analysis, were renamed (Table 3). Afterwards, the following hypotheses were suggested by considering the results of exploratory factor analysis:

H1: The effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to women and men consumers.

H2: The effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ education levels.

H3: The effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages.

The three main hypotheses include 18 sub-hypotheses due to six factors and three demographic properties. All sub-hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence interval. According to the obtained results, nine hypotheses were accepted, whereas nine hypotheses were rejected.

Two sub-hypotheses belonging to first main hypothesis were accepted (Table 4). According to the obtained results, women consumers’ clothing-buying behaviors have been more affected by the olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli than were men consumers. Similarly, women consumers’ clothing-buying behaviors were more affected by virtual stores’ visual appeal than were men consumers.

Differences between the effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior of women and men consumers.

Hypothesis 1a: The effects of olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli on clothing buying behavior differ with regard to women and men consumers.
Gender N Average Standard Deviation t df p
Women 253 0,265795 0.90929487 3.184 264.265 0.002
Men 149 −0,2149304 1.10803378
Hypothesis 1b: The effects of virtual store visual appeal on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to women and men consumers.
Gender N Average Standard Deviation t df p
Women 253 0,802489 0.91698320 2.002 264.312 0.046
Men 149 −0,1362616 1.11715109

Three sub-hypotheses belonging to second main hypothesis have been accepted (Table 5). According to the obtained results, consumers’ clothing-buying behaviors whose education levels are high school or below, were more affected by the store and brand design visual appeal than were those whose education levels were university or higher. In other words, as the education level increases, the store and brand design visuality effects on consumers clothing-buying behaviors decrease. Similarly, the clothing-buying behaviors of consumers whose education levels are high school or below have been more affected by the olfactive and audial stimuli with regard to consumers whose education levels are university or over. In addition to these, the clothing-buying behaviors of consumers whose education levels are high school or below, have been more affected by olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli than consumers whose education levels are university or over. To sum up, as the education level increases, olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli effects on consumers’ clothing-buying behaviors decrease.

Differences between the effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior of consumers at different education levels.

Hypothesis 2a: The effects of store and brand design visuality on clothing buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ education levels.
Education Level N Average Standard Deviation t df p
High school and below 40 0.5447672 0.63386608 5.328 63.695 0.00
University and over 362 −0.0601953 1.01532276
Hypothesis 2b: The effects of olfactive and audial stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ education levels.
Education Level N Average Standard Deviation t df p
High school and below 40 0.4367500 0.70778403 2.938 400 0.003
University and over 362 −0.0482597 1.01647033
Hypothesis 2c: The effects of olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ education levels.
Education Level N Average Standard Deviation t df p
High school and below 40 0.4091076 0.81003956 2.749 400 0.006
University and over 362 −0.0452053 1.00961457

Four sub-hypotheses belonging to third main hypothesis have been accepted (Table 6). According to the obtained results, product visual appeal most affects the clothing-buying behaviors of consumers whose ages are between 18 and 25. However, store and brand design visual appeal most affect the clothing-buying behaviors of consumers whose ages are 50 or above. Similarly, olfactive and audial stimuli most affect the clothing-buying behaviors of consumers whose ages are 50 or above. On the other hand, virtual store visual appeal most affects the clothing-buying behaviors of consumers whose ages are between 34 and 41. Therefore, it cannot be said that as the age increases or decreases, effects of a specific sensory marketing stimulus increase or decrease.

Differences between the effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior of consumers at different age groups.

Hypothesis 3a: Effects of product visual appeal on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages
Age N Average Standard Deviation F df1 df2 p
18–25 106 0.2425761 0.90783611 2.763 4 397 0.027
26–33 186 −0.1015183 1.06750175
34–41 37 −0.2550551 1.13005891
42–49 25 0.1095814 0.78131794
50 and over 48 −0.0027743 0.82717068
Hypothesis 3b: Effects of store and brand design visuality on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages
Age N Average Standard Deviation F df1 df2 p
18–25 106 −0.1858910 0.97720182 3.495 4 397 0.008
26–33 186 −0.102376 1.05326961
34–41 37 −0.1191738 0.91515917
42–49 25 0.2914029 0.93959049
50 and over 48 0.3902708 0.80580490
Hypothesis 3c: Effects of olfactive and audial stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages
Age N Average Standard Deviation F df1 df2 p
18–25 106 −0.2343306 0.83826872 8.888 4 397 0.000
26–33 186 −0.1108308 1.13504192
34–41 37 0.2919078 0.94136710
42–-49 25 0.1031042 0.66588335
50 and over 48 0.6682371 0.53348075
Hypothesis 3d: Effects of virtual store visual appeal on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages
Age N Average Standard Deviation F df1 df2 p
18–25 106 0.1866845 0.78763782 2.680 4 397 0.031
26–33 186 −0.1124999 1.07221170
34–41 37 0.2271423 0.78055760
42–49 25 −0.3208841 1.57204116
50 and over 48 0.0157137 0.81722515
General evaluation and suggestions

The significant results that have been obtained within the scope of this research, which analyzes the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behaviors, and the suggestions that can be made on the basis of these results, can be summarized as:

Consumers usually admire the stores where their most favorite clothing products are sold. In other words, consumers sense and evaluate the brand, clothing products, service, and store atmosphere as a whole. Therefore, the brands, which want to increase their value in the presence of consumers, should effectively use the sensory marketing stimuli both in their products and in their stores.

Consumers are highly affected by all of the senses that are used in sensory marketing strategy during clothing buying. In other words, all visual, audial, olfactive and tactual stimuli affect consumers. The sense of taste cannot be used due to the nature of clothing products. If the sensory stimuli that most affect consumers are analyzed, it is once more determined that consumers sense and evaluate the brand, clothing products, service, and store atmosphere as a whole. Therefore, the clothing brands and enterprises should use sensory marketing stimuli, which can attract the attention and relevance of targeted consumer groups, both in their products and in their stores.

The sensory stimuli that most affect consumers during their clothing shopping can be listed as: cleanliness and orderliness of the store, clothing products’ colors, air conditioning of the store, airiness of the store, clothing products’ design, and lighting of the store. As can be seen, consumers are highly affected by sensory marketing stimuli, which are both used in products and store atmosphere during their clothing shopping experience. Another notable factor is that these stimuli can be effective both separately and jointly. Therefore, clothing brands and enterprises should jointly use all sensory stimuli (visual, olfactive, audial, and tactual) that they can possibly use.

Consumers are highly affected by audial stimuli during their clothing shopping. They are positively affected by hearing music within the store where they bought their clothing products. However, the played music should not be loud. Additionally, if it is possible, it should be wordless music (classical or instrumental) or pop music. Therefore, clothing brands and enterprises should constitute playlists according to the pleasures of their targeted consumer groups and enable their customers to hear music during their clothing shopping. However, the tone and sound level of played music should not be loud.

Consumers are also highly affected by olfactive stimuli during their clothing shopping. They are positively affected by smelling pleasant odors within the store where they bought their clothing products. However, the odor of the store's atmosphere should not be too intense. If it is possible, an odor that is specific to the brand should be chosen. Therefore, clothing brands and enterprises should determine an odor according to the pleasures of their targeted consumer groups and use this odor in their stores non-intensively.

Consumers are highly affected by visual stimuli during their clothing shopping. Consumers are both affected by clothing products’ visual appeal and that of both physical and virtual stores where they bought their clothing products. Consumers prefer light, bright and vivid colors in store decoration. In addition, the design, colors, and accessories’ visual appeal of the clothing products should be proper to the attention and relevance of the targeted consumer groups. The brand and enterprise will gain serious advantages if the store is brightened and store colors and design are planned with light and vivid colors according to the visual preferences of consumers.

Consumers are also highly affected by tactual stimuli during their clothing shopping. They give great importance to their feelings while touching the clothing products. Therefore, cloth handling of the clothing products should be proper to the expectations of targeted consumer groups. In addition, consumers are also highly affected by the tactual stimuli within the stores. Clean, well-ordered, and spacious stores positively affect the consumers’ clothing-buying decisions. Therefore, brands and enterprises should give necessary importance to designing clean, well-ordered, and spacious stores.

Online shopping, whose importance has increased in recent years, is also extensively used in the clothing sector. The use of sensory stimuli in virtual stores is limited; however it is still very important. According to the obtained results, the consumers give great importance to the simpleness and practicality of the virtual store and to the photographic quality and details in the virtual store. Therefore, clothing brands and enterprises should simply and practically design their virtual stores accordingly and give importance to virtual store visual effects. Visual stimuli used in a virtual store should be attractive and remarkable.

Women consumers’ clothing-buying behaviors are more affected by some sensory marketing stimuli than are men consumers. In this context, the clothing brands and enterprises, especially whose targeted consumer groups consist of women, should use olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli in their products and stores. They should give great importance to virtual stores’ visual appeal because women consumers’ clothing-buying behaviors have been more affected by these sensory marketing stimuli than are men consumers.

As the education level increases, olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli effects on consumers clothing-buying behaviors decrease. Therefore, clothing brands and enterprises whose targeted consumer groups consist of well-educated individuals (university and over), should not exaggerate the use of olfactive, audial, and tactual stimuli in their products and stores. These stimuli should be used and placed out of consumers’ way so that consumers can be affected without even noticing them.

Different age groups are affected by different sensory marketing stimuli at different levels. According to the obtained results, the visual appeal of products affects the clothing-buying behaviors of consumers whose ages are between 18 and 25. However, store and brand design visual appeal most affect the clothing buying behaviors of consumers, whose ages are 50 or above. Similarly, olfactive and audial stimuli mostly affect the clothing-buying behaviors of consumers whose ages are 50 or above. On the other hand, virtual stores’ visual appeal mostly affects the clothing buying behaviors of consumers whose ages are between 34 and 41. Therefore, the clothing brands and enterprises should use sensory stimuli that are proper to the age range of their targeted consumer groups.

Differences between the effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior of women and men consumers.

Hypothesis 1a: The effects of olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli on clothing buying behavior differ with regard to women and men consumers.
Gender N Average Standard Deviation t df p
Women 253 0,265795 0.90929487 3.184 264.265 0.002
Men 149 −0,2149304 1.10803378
Hypothesis 1b: The effects of virtual store visual appeal on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to women and men consumers.
Gender N Average Standard Deviation t df p
Women 253 0,802489 0.91698320 2.002 264.312 0.046
Men 149 −0,1362616 1.11715109

Differences between the effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior of consumers at different age groups.

Hypothesis 3a: Effects of product visual appeal on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages
Age N Average Standard Deviation F df1 df2 p
18–25 106 0.2425761 0.90783611 2.763 4 397 0.027
26–33 186 −0.1015183 1.06750175
34–41 37 −0.2550551 1.13005891
42–49 25 0.1095814 0.78131794
50 and over 48 −0.0027743 0.82717068
Hypothesis 3b: Effects of store and brand design visuality on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages
Age N Average Standard Deviation F df1 df2 p
18–25 106 −0.1858910 0.97720182 3.495 4 397 0.008
26–33 186 −0.102376 1.05326961
34–41 37 −0.1191738 0.91515917
42–49 25 0.2914029 0.93959049
50 and over 48 0.3902708 0.80580490
Hypothesis 3c: Effects of olfactive and audial stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages
Age N Average Standard Deviation F df1 df2 p
18–25 106 −0.2343306 0.83826872 8.888 4 397 0.000
26–33 186 −0.1108308 1.13504192
34–41 37 0.2919078 0.94136710
42–-49 25 0.1031042 0.66588335
50 and over 48 0.6682371 0.53348075
Hypothesis 3d: Effects of virtual store visual appeal on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ ages
Age N Average Standard Deviation F df1 df2 p
18–25 106 0.1866845 0.78763782 2.680 4 397 0.031
26–33 186 −0.1124999 1.07221170
34–41 37 0.2271423 0.78055760
42–49 25 −0.3208841 1.57204116
50 and over 48 0.0157137 0.81722515

Distribution of participants according to their demographic properties.

Demographic Properties Frequency Valid Percent
Age 18–25 106 26.4
26–33 186 46.3
33–41 37 9.2
42–49 25 6.2
50 and over 48 11.9
Gender Women 253 62.9
Men 149 37.1
Education status High school and below 40 10.0
University 276 68,7
Postgraduate 86 21,3
Monthly income $500 and below 211 52.5
$501–$875 131 32.5
$876 and over 60 15.0

Distribution of participants according to their color and music preferences in stores where they bought their clothing products.

Color and Music Preferences Frequency Valid Percent
Music Classical or instrumental music 182 45.3
Turkish classical music or Turkish folk music 10 2.5
Arabesque 1 0.2
Pop, jazz, rap or rock music 162 40.3
Specific jingle to the brand 41 10.2
Don’t want to hear any music 6 1.5
Color Light colors 150 37.3
Dark colors 93 23.1
Bright and vivid colors 88 21.9
Dull colors 71 17.7

Results of the exploratory factor analysis on the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior and the descriptive statistics of the statements.

Factors Statements Rotated Loadings Average Standard Deviation Averages of the Factors
Effects of visual, olfactive and tactual stimuli within the store atmosphere The airiness of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.816 4.66 0.561 4,63
The lighting of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.740 4.58 0.599
The cleanliness and orderliness of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.715 4.77 0.453
The air conditioning of the store (temperature, ventilation etc.) where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.700 4.66 0.584
The product placement within the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.654 4.47 0.751
Effects of product visuality The colors of the clothing products that I bought are important for me. 0.800 4.66 0.544 4,54
The design of the clothing products that I bought is important for me. 0.781 4.65 0.554
The accessory visual appeal of clothing products that I bought is important for me. 0.639 4.32 0.896
Effects of store and brand design visuality The logo, colors, and slogan of the brand where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.696 3.86 1.076 4,13
The store window design of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.673 4.15 0.916
The color design of the store where I bought clothing products is important for me. 0.513 4.38 0.766
Effects of olfactive and audial stimuli I prefer an unscented clothing store. 0.743 3.37 1.322 4,00
I don’t like the intensive scents in stores where I bought clothing products. 0.670 4.36 0.858
I don’t like the loud music in stores where I bought clothing products. 0.562 4.27 1.002
Effects of olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli I like to smell odors that are specific to the brand in stores during my clothing shopping. 0.684 4.06 0.986 3,94
I like to hear music in the store where I bought clothing products. 0.629 4.16 0.882
I like to hear jingles that are specific to the brand in stores during my clothing shopping. 0.607 3.16 1.286
The feelings that I felt while touching the bought clothing products are important for me. 0.418 4.37 0.759
Effects of virtual store visual appeal The simpleness and practicableness of virtual stores where I bought clothing products are important for me. 0.809 4.50 0.774 4,50
The photograph quality and details in virtual stores where I bought clothing products are important for me. 0.785 4.50 0.800

Differences between the effects of sensory marketing stimuli on clothing-buying behavior of consumers at different education levels.

Hypothesis 2a: The effects of store and brand design visuality on clothing buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ education levels.
Education Level N Average Standard Deviation t df p
High school and below 40 0.5447672 0.63386608 5.328 63.695 0.00
University and over 362 −0.0601953 1.01532276
Hypothesis 2b: The effects of olfactive and audial stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ education levels.
Education Level N Average Standard Deviation t df p
High school and below 40 0.4367500 0.70778403 2.938 400 0.003
University and over 362 −0.0482597 1.01647033
Hypothesis 2c: The effects of olfactive, audial and tactual stimuli on clothing-buying behavior differ with regard to consumers’ education levels.
Education Level N Average Standard Deviation t df p
High school and below 40 0.4091076 0.81003956 2.749 400 0.006
University and over 362 −0.0452053 1.00961457

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