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Support design of main retracement passage in fully mechanised coal mining face based on numerical simulation

Publicado en línea: 15 Dec 2021
Volumen & Edición: AHEAD OF PRINT
Páginas: -
Recibido: 16 Jun 2021
Aceptado: 24 Sep 2021
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2444-8656
Primera edición
01 Jan 2016
Calendario de la edición
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Abstract

For the comprehensive mechanised coal mining technology, the support design of the main withdrawal passage in the working face is an important link to achieve high yield and efficiency. Due to the impact of mining, the roof movement of the withdrawal passage is obvious, the displacement of the coal body will increase significantly, and it is easy to cause roof caving and serious lamination problems, and even lead to collapse accidents, which will affect the normal production of the mine. In this paper, the mining pressure development law of the main withdrawal passage support under the influence of dynamic pressure is designed, the most favourable roof failure form of the withdrawal passage is determined, and the action mechanism and applicable conditions of different mining pressure control measures are studied. The pressure appearance and stress distribution in the final mining stage of fully mechanised coal face are studied by numerical simulation. The deformation and failure characteristics and control measures of roof overburden in the last mining stage of fully mechanised coal face are analysed theoretically. Due to the fact that periodic pressure should be avoided as far as possible after the full-mechanised mining face is connected with the retracement passage, some auxiliary measures such as mining height control and forced roof blasting are put forward on this basis. The relative parameters of the main supporting forms are calculated. The main retracement of a fully mechanised working face in a coal mine channel is put forward to spread the surrounding rock grouting reinforcement, reinforcing roof, and help support and improve the bolt anchoring force, the main design retracement retracement channels in the channel near the return air along the trough for supporting reinforcing surrounding rock control optimisation measures, such as through the numerical simulation analysis, the optimisation measures for coal mine fully mechanised working face of surrounding rock is feasible. Numerical simulation results also show that the surrounding rock control of fully mechanised working face of coal mine design improvements, its main retreat channel under the roof subsidence, cribbing shrank significantly lower, and closer, to better control the deformation of surrounding rock, achieved significant effect, to ensure the safety of coal mine main retracement channel of fully mechanised working face support.

Keywords

MSC 2010

Introduction

As a major energy consumer, fossil energy occupies an important position in China’s energy structure, among which coal energy accounts for 75% of China’s fossil energy consumption. With the continuous development of China’s industrial upgrading and energy diversification, the proportion of coal in the whole energy structure will decline, but for a period of time to come, coal will still play an irreplaceable role in the manufacturing, chemical and other industries [1]. Being China’s strategic energy, to maintain the stable development of China’s coal has important safety and economic significance; the relevant data shows that China’s coal has proven total reserves of >900 billion tons; with the rapid development of the market economy, China’s coal output accounts for more than one-quarter of the world’s coal output. In order to better adapt to the requirements of the rapidly developing market economy, China’s coal enterprises take the initiative to seek change and actively carry out technological innovation. In the process of continuous development of coal mining technology, comprehensive mechanised coal mining technology has been gradually replaced in order to meet the limitations of different mining conditions. Comprehensive mechanised coal mining technology, referred to as fully mechanised mining, refers to the coal breaking, loading, transporting, supporting and other construction in coal mining operations on the working face [2]. The adoption of fully mechanised mining construction technology can greatly improve the coal mining rate. Fully mechanised mining face moving face is an important link in mine production, but also an important determinant of mine production efficiency. However, due to the loss mechanism of the main retracement channel supporting the design and mining stage at the end of the pressure control measures are of insufficient understanding. The existing coal mining stage at the end of the process design of fully mechanised working face there are many unreasonable factors, and these may cause instability of roadway, crushing accidents, and so moving the job not only leads to high cost, low working efficiency, but also hidden danger of big security, leading to great restriction in the coal mine production [3]. With improvement in the overall coal mining technology, this kind of constraint is becoming more and more obvious. In order to give full play to the superiority of fully mechanised coal mining technology and realise the maximisation of coal mining benefit, it is necessary to fully guarantee the stability and safety of the withdrawal passage. For the fully mechanised coal mining technology, the main backout passage in the working face is a necessary link and an important preparation for mine production, which is of great significance to realise safe and efficient production. In order to give full play to the technical advantages of a fully mechanised caving coal mine, so that the work efficiency and mine benefits are steadily improved, it is necessary to ensure the stability of the surrounding rock of the main withdrawal channel, make the moving face smooth and safe. Combined with the characteristics of roof breaking in the final mining stage and the numerical simulation technology of the withdrawal passage, an optimisation scheme for the support design of the withdrawal passage in the fully mechanised top-coal caving face is put forward, based on the actual geological conditions of the coal mine.

Methods
Numerical simulation analysis – Numerical modelling of the main retracement channel

Based on the simulation purpose and model construction, the ground stress conditions were set, and the coal rock surrounding rock conditions were combined to carry out the parameters [4]. Given or limited boundary mechanics conditions and displacement conditions, and completing the initial stress field (unexcavated disturbance) calculation balance, to ensure the authenticity of the calculation results, arrange and excavate the retreating roadway, simulate the surrounding rock deformation and failure process and evolution of the retreating roadway, which then simulates the progressive influence of the working face and studies the supporting design of the main withdrawal passage under dynamic pressure mining, including the process and evolution of surrounding rock deformation and failure.

The pressure step of the main roof is a key parameter to describe the motion state of the rock beam. In the mechanical model of the pressure step of the main roof, the hinged rock beam is composed of fractured rock mass [5]. The composition of the rock mass can be approximated as being under force on a cantilever beam, regardless of the deflection of the beam. Then the structural forces on the rock mass include the dead weight of the rock beam as:

G1=mEγEL {G_1} = {m_E}{\gamma _E}L

The thrust pressure and the corresponding friction force at the hinge point of the fractured rock mass are:

F=Pf F = Pf

The couple moment generated by shifting the force at the hinge point to the centre of the rock beam is as:

MP=PmE/2 {M_P} = P{m_E}/2

The support reaction force is not considered before the end of the rock beam is not fractured. If the fractured part of the rock beam is in equilibrium, the couple moment of the rock beam at the point is zero:

MA=0G0L02cosβ=PL0sinβ+FL0cosβ2Ptanβ+2F=G0 \matrix{ {\sum {M_A} = 0} \hfill \cr {{G_0}{{{L_0}} \over 2}\cos \beta = P{L_0}\sin \beta + F{L_0}\cos \beta } \hfill \cr {2P\tan \beta + 2F = {G_0}} \hfill \cr }

In the limit condition, the formula can be substituted into:

{P=G2f+2tanβF=Pf=fG02f+2tanβ \left\{ {\matrix{ {P = {G \over {2f + 2\tan \beta }}} \hfill \cr {F = Pf = {{f{G_0}} \over {2f + 2\tan \beta }}} \hfill \cr } } \right.

When the working face comes under periodic pressure, the mechanical conditions of rock beam cracking from the end under the action of structural forces are as follows:

σ1=MBWBσ2=PmE=γEL02f \matrix{ {{\sigma _1} = {{{M_B}} \over {{W_B}}}} \hfill \cr {{\sigma _2} = {P \over {{m_E}}} = {{{\gamma _E}{L_0}} \over {2f}}} \hfill \cr }

The bending moment value at the end of the beam is:

MB=Mq+MF+MP=mEγEL22+mEγELL02+mE2γEL04fWB=mE26 \matrix{ {{M_B} = {M_q} + {M_F} + {M_P} = {{{m_E}{\gamma _E}{L^2}} \over 2} + {{{m_E}{\gamma _E}L{L_0}} \over 2} + {{m_E^2{\gamma _E}{L_0}} \over {4f}}} \hfill \cr {{W_B} = {{m_E^2} \over 6}} \hfill \cr }

The actual tensile stress is:

σ=σ1σ2=3γEL2mE+3γELL0mE+γEL0f \sigma = {\sigma _1} - {\sigma _2} = {{3{\gamma _E}{L^2}} \over {{m_E}}} + {{3{\gamma _E}L{L_0}} \over {{m_E}}} + {{{\gamma _E}{L_0}} \over f}

According to σ = [σt], it can be concluded that the pressing distance in the support design of the main withdrawal passage is as shown in Figure 1:

L=3fγEL0+9f2γE2L0212fγE2mEL0+12f2γ2mE[στ]6fγE=L=12L0+12L02+4mE[στ]3fγE \matrix{ {L = {{ - 3f{\gamma _E}{L_0} + \sqrt {9{f^2}\gamma _E^2L_0^2 - 12f\gamma _E^2{m_E}{L_0} + 12{f^2}{\gamma ^2}{m_E}\left[ {{\sigma _\tau }} \right]} } \over {6f{\gamma _E}}}} \hfill \cr { = L = - {1 \over 2}{L_0} + {1 \over 2}\sqrt {L_0^2 + {{4{m_E}\left[ {{\sigma _\tau }} \right]} \over {3f{\gamma _E}}}} } \hfill \cr }

Fig. 1

Support design of main retracement passage

Above the retracement passage, when the suspension length of the main roof reaches the period to press the step distance, the main roof may be above the roadway it ruptures and turns down. In this case, the motion state of the rock block has obvious influence on the stability of the surrounding rock of the main retractable passage, and the length of the rock block is the periodic pressure step of the support design of the main retractable passage [6].

L shall be designed to be in the cantilever beam state as:

L=mE[στ]3γE L = \sqrt {{{{m_E}\left[ {{\sigma _\tau }} \right]} \over {3{\gamma _E}}}}

Numerical simulation analysis of the surrounding rock stress failure under the influence of dynamic pressure is as shown in Figure 2A. With the gradual progress of the working surface, vertical stress concentration of the surrounding rock of withdrawn roadway increases significantly. Stress redistribution of the surrounding rock of multiple roadway is superimposed with the influence of mining dynamic pressure of working face, and supporting load of bearing structure of surrounding rock of main withdrawal passage is severe. Position the face to stop mining line between retracement channels for vertical stress concentration of surrounding rock and dynamic pressure in the working face vertical peak should focus entirely overlay, the retracement help department between surrounding rock of roadway vertical stress concentration peak 16.2 MPa, and in the central word retracement lord bearing stress distribution of surrounding rock is most prominent, surrounding rock bearing burden that lane position is located in the main retracement channel which department of surrounding rock, the location of the main retreat for skiving of surrounding rock and deformation of roof and floor is most severe, so optimisation design, it is necessary to improve the support load of support strength in order to maintain the stability of surrounding rock during the retreat [7] as 9.5247e+006to9.0000e+0069.0000e+006to8.0000e+0068.0000e+006to7.0000e+0067.0000e+006to6.0000e+0066.0000e+006to5.0000e+0065.0000e+006to4.0000e+0064.0000e+006to3.0000e+0063.0000e+006to2.0000e+0062.0000e+006to1.0000e+006 \matrix{ { - 9.5247e + 006to - 9.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 9.0000e + 006to - 8.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 8.0000e + 006to - 7.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 7.0000e + 006to - 6.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 6.0000e + 006to - 5.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 5.0000e + 006to - 4.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 4.0000e + 006to - 3.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 3.0000e + 006to - 2.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 2.0000e + 006to - 1.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr } 1.6215e+007to1.6000e+0071.6000e+007to1.4000e+0071.4000e+007to1.2000e+0071.2215e+007to1.0000e+0076.0000e+006to4.0000e+0065.0000e+006to4.0000e+0064.0000e+006to2.0000e+0063.0000e+006to2.0000e+0062.0000e+006to2.7734e+005 \matrix{ { - 1.6215e + 007to - 1.6000e + 007} \hfill \cr { - 1.6000e + 007to - 1.4000e + 007} \hfill \cr { - 1.4000e + 007to - 1.2000e + 007} \hfill \cr { - 1.2215e + 007to - 1.0000e + 007} \hfill \cr { - 6.0000e + 006to - 4.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 5.0000e + 006to - 4.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 4.0000e + 006to - 2.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 3.0000e + 006to - 2.0000e + 006} \hfill \cr { - 2.0000e + 006to - 2.7734e + 005} \hfill \cr }

Fig. 2

(A) Stress distribution in surrounding rock. (B) Plastic distribution.

Dynamic pressure under the influence of roadway surrounding rock stress redistribution and the mining face more pressure superposition effect, the main vertical stress concentration effect of surrounding rock are the most significant retreat channel up to 16.3 MPa, the level of surrounding rock stress concentration up to 9.05 MPa, shows that dynamic pressure under the influence of vertical stress superposition effect on roadway and its corresponding main retracement retracement tunnel surrounding rock of mine pressure appear ‘deepening’ role, and its bearing structure of roadway surrounding rock stability is the key to the retreat channel lane to help the broken ends and the working face of coal wall rock shallow position, the position is at the end of the fully mechanised working face of coal mine mining period for most prominent position and horizontal deformation [8]. In order to maintain the bearing capacity of the surrounding rock in the broken roadway, more attention should be paid to the maintenance of surrounding rock and the improvement of supporting strength of roof and floor. In a retreat on the distribution of damage evolution of roadway surrounding rock, with face advance to stop mining line, retreat of surrounding rock of roadway affected by dynamic pressure under the influence of vertical stress superposition of roadway and its corresponding main retracement retracement tunnel surrounding rock pressure appeared violently, between surrounding rock destruction through most affected. This also causes the retracement bearing structure to be one of the reasons for the instability of surrounding rock of roadway. Combined with numerical value in the face to stop mining line position, the main retracement channel vertical stress concentration with the help of between surrounding rock dynamic pressure of working face of vertical peak should focus entirely on the overlay, surrounding rock damage, since the shear failure of overburden rock roadway surrounding rock damage fracture and retreat, at the same time between retracement coupon lane surround rock bearing structure since central gradual destruction, eventually go against the main retreat channel bearing structure stability of surrounding rock, Figure 2B is the surrounding rock stress distribution and shape distribution [9].

Build a numerical model

According to the study of regional geological conditions established for the numerical simulation model, studying the retracement channel is affected by face abutment pressure in the model first excavation main retreat channel and retracement auxiliary lane, three-dimensional calculation by pillar between two roadways model size 40 m × 150 m × width direction long direction high direction 50 m model a hexahedral unit divided into 97419 grid nodes. Mohr criterion is used in model calculation. Coal pillars are left on the left side of the model during excavation. When the working face is far from the stop-mining line, each 10-m excavation step is pushed to the retracement passage. Every 5 m of excavation is when the working face is separated from the stop-mining line. When the working face is away from the stop-mining line, each 1 m excavation step will be excavated for a total of 70 m. Based on the above mechanical formulas and data values, the support design optimisation of the numerical three-dimensional model of the main retracement passage is as follows.

Experiment
Model practice

When the distance between the working face and the main retracement passage is >30 m, the axial force and borehole stress of the bolt are always at a low level and hardly change with mining of the working face. The roof subsidence of the retracement passage, the subsidence of the column of the stacking support and the wall moving close of the roadway increase, but the change is small. The maximum principal stress, vertical stress, plastic zone and displacement deformation of surrounding rock have little change in the process of pushing and mining in the main retracement channel. This shows that the surrounding rocks of the main withdrawal passage in this range are relatively stable and the deformation is small, and the ore pressure is not obvious, so it can be used normally. When the distance between the fully mechanised coal mining face and the main withdrawal passage is <30 m, the axial force and borehole stress of the bolt increase significantly. As shown in Figure 3, the roof subsidence, the stacking support column subsidence and the change rate of the roadway wall proximity in the main withdrawal passage all increase significantly. Master retreat channel within the maximum principal stress and vertical stress of surrounding rock were significantly increased, in the main between retracement channel and working face has significant effects in the coal pillar stress, high in advance, the Lord retreat channel increase significantly vertical settlement deformation rate and deformation, face the plastic zone and the main retreat channel, forming a continuous plastic damage area, see Table 1.

Fig. 3

Vertical stress result of main retracement passage

Statistical table of roof settlement of working face

Change of roadway wall stress in main retracement passage of working face/(Mpa) Distance from the main retracement passage (m)
50 40 30 20 10 0
Mining help The vertical stress 4.61 10.02 11.41 11.05 2.36 -
Maximum principal stress 9.68 10.36 11.80 11.05 2.43 -
Minimum principal stress 3.53 3.77 4.31 4.11 0.79 -
Non-mining side The vertical stress 8.99 9.35 11.06 12.36 11.65 3.94
Maximum principal stress 9.04 9.38 11.09 12.43 11.75 4.29
Minimum principal stress 3.32 3.44 4.11 4.11 4.34 1.50
Support design practice

Combined with coal mine retracement of fully mechanised working face, the failure characteristics of surrounding rock support design of the numerical simulation analysis, put forward retracement of fully mechanised working face of roadway surrounding rock anchor + double metal net + + anchor plate of shotcrete support improved design scheme: the deputy retreat channel and its retreat coupon lane roof and the two sides adopt phi 000 18 mm × 2 mm metal bolt, row spacing between 1,000 mm × 1,000 mm, and tightening torque should reach 100 n. m. The roof of the main and auxiliary roadway is arranged with a row of anchor cables (three sets), and the two sides and the roof of the 308 retraction-joint roadway are arranged with a row of anchor cables (two sets), which all adopt 15.24 mm × 7600 mm pre-stressed steel hinge line for reinforcement support. At the same time, the top is supported by a steel ladder beam with a diameter of 14 mm, and the top is supported by a steel ladder beam with a diameter of 12 mm for reinforcement. The surrounding rocks of the withdrawal link roadway are all supported by double-layer metal mesh. The specification of the metal mesh is 5,500 mm × 1,200 mm, the mesh is 50 mm × 50 mm, and the spacing is 200 mm. Anchor force of bolt shall be no <50 kN, and torque shall be no <100 N m. The bottom plate is made of C30 concrete, 150 mm thick. In the final mining period, the decision should be made according to the actual situation. If necessary, the single hydraulic prop should be taken to cooperate with the active supporting measures.

The design optimisation is summarised as follows

Working face area average pressure continuous step distance 4.12 m, area average cycle pressure step distance 13.2 m; The bolt anchorage force in the main retracting passage of working face is insufficient, and the stress of the bolt in some areas has exceeded the design value of the bolt anchorage force in this mine. The ore pressure in the middle area of the main withdrawal passage (50–200 m) is more serious than that at both ends. The ore pressure of auxiliary retracement channel is not obvious, the surrounding rock is relatively stable and the deformation is small, so it can be used normally. When the distance between the fully mechanised mining face and the main withdrawal passage is <30 m, the main withdrawal passage is significantly affected by the mining movement of the working face at the beginning, and the on-site ore pressure is severe. The surrounding rock failure and deformation amount are large, and the deformation rate is significantly increased. The surrounding rock stress of the main withdrawal passage gradually concentrates and reaches its peak value. The vertical settlement deformation rate and deformation amount of the main withdrawal passage increase significantly. The plastic zone of the main withdrawal passage is connected with the plastic zone of the working face to form a continuous plastic failure zone. It shows that the stability of surrounding rock is obviously affected by mining in this range. In coal mine retracement auxiliary channel of fully mechanised working face and its retreat sanlian lane roadway position as an engineering test section, can be seen from Figure 4, tunnelling advance good Lord retreat channel combination supporting scheme and layout, eventually retreat of fully mechanised working face roof and floor of roadway surrounding rock deformation in 150~ 185 mm, the deformation of surrounding rock of two sides in the 160~ 180 mm, The design effect of shotcrete support of anchor cable and bimetal mesh and bolt plate is remarkable.

Fig. 4

Field measurement and analysis

Conclusion

In conclusion, through to the coal mine fully mechanised working face mining control effect and surrounding rock deformation and failure laws of surrounding rock during field measurement analysis and improvement by using numerical simulation methods to analyse the main retracement channel supporting design, including the existing supporting conditions of fully mechanised working face of coal mine main retracement channel when affected by mining move pressure of surrounding rock stress distribution, plastic zone and displacement deformation.

Fig. 1

Support design of main retracement passage
Support design of main retracement passage

Fig. 2

(A) Stress distribution in surrounding rock. (B) Plastic distribution.
(A) Stress distribution in surrounding rock. (B) Plastic distribution.

Fig. 3

Vertical stress result of main retracement passage
Vertical stress result of main retracement passage

Fig. 4

Field measurement and analysis
Field measurement and analysis

Statistical table of roof settlement of working face

Change of roadway wall stress in main retracement passage of working face/(Mpa) Distance from the main retracement passage (m)
50 40 30 20 10 0
Mining help The vertical stress 4.61 10.02 11.41 11.05 2.36 -
Maximum principal stress 9.68 10.36 11.80 11.05 2.43 -
Minimum principal stress 3.53 3.77 4.31 4.11 0.79 -
Non-mining side The vertical stress 8.99 9.35 11.06 12.36 11.65 3.94
Maximum principal stress 9.04 9.38 11.09 12.43 11.75 4.29
Minimum principal stress 3.32 3.44 4.11 4.11 4.34 1.50

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