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Volumen 21 (2021): Heft 3 (September 2021)

Volumen 21 (2021): Heft 2 (June 2021)

Volumen 21 (2021): Heft 1 (March 2021)

Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 4 (December 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 3 (September 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 2 (June 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 1 (March 2020)

Volumen 19 (2019): Heft 4 (December 2019)

Volumen 19 (2019): Heft 3 (September 2019)

Volumen 19 (2019): Heft 2 (June 2019)

Volumen 19 (2019): Heft 1 (March 2019)

Volumen 18 (2018): Heft 4 (December 2018)

Volumen 18 (2018): Heft 3 (September 2018)

Volumen 18 (2018): Heft 2 (June 2018)

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Volumen 17 (2017): Heft 4 (December 2017)

Volumen 17 (2017): Heft 3 (September 2017)

Volumen 17 (2017): Heft 2 (June 2017)

Volumen 17 (2017): Heft 1 (March 2017)

Volumen 16 (2016): Heft 4 (December 2016)

Volumen 16 (2016): Heft 3 (September 2016)

Volumen 16 (2016): Heft 2 (June 2016)

Volumen 16 (2016): Heft 1 (March 2016)

Volumen 15 (2015): Heft 4 (December 2015)

Volumen 15 (2015): Heft 3 (September 2015)

Volumen 15 (2015): Heft 2 (June 2015)

Volumen 15 (2015): Heft 1 (March 2015)

Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 4 (December 2014)

Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 3 (September 2014)

Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 2 (June 2014)

Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 1 (March 2014)

Volumen 13 (2013): Heft 4 (December 2013)

Volumen 13 (2013): Heft 3 (September 2013)

Volumen 13 (2013): Heft 2 (June 2013)

Volumen 13 (2013): Heft 1 (March 2013)

Volumen 12 (2012): Heft 4 (December 2012)

Volumen 12 (2012): Heft 3 (September 2012)

Volumen 12 (2012): Heft 2 (June 2012)

Volumen 12 (2012): Heft 1 (March 2012)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-0929
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Oct 2012
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 21 (2021): Heft 4 (December 2021)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-0929
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Oct 2012
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

16 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

AUTEX 2022 – 21st World Textile Conference Announcement

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Feb 2022
Seitenbereich: I - III

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article is an invitation to the Autex 2022 - 21st World Textile Conference, which is organized by the Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland. The conference will be held ONLINE on the 7th to the 10th June 2022, under the motto Passion for innovation. The conference will be focused on the latest scientific and technical achievements in the field of textiles.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AUTEX
  • Autex conference
  • international conference
  • online conference
  • textiles conference
  • conference announcement
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Design and Development of a Novel Mechanism for the Removal of False Selvedge and Minimization of its Associated Yarn Wastage in Shuttleless Looms

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Aug 2020
Seitenbereich: 352 - 362

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A novel mechanism for the elimination of false selvedge in rapier looms was successfully designed and developed, which functions to grip the protruding weft ends after each pick insertion during the weaving process, with subsequent cutting and suction of the protruding ends. The task is otherwise, presently performed by the formation of dummy or false selvedges in the fabric, requiring additional yarn other than that required for the actual fabric. A significant amount of yarn is wasted to form false selvedges, as they are removed and disposed as hard waste post weaving, which consequently increases the cost of fabric and narrows the profit margins. The developed mechanism was successfully installed and commissioned on an indigenous rapier loom leading to a reduction in the amount of hard waste otherwise generated, without affecting the normal functioning of the loom and the weaving process. The amount of reduction in hard waste was estimated and the quality of fabric manufactured before and after the installation was tested and analyzed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Rapier loom
  • false selvedge
  • novel mechanism
  • hard waste
  • quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Empirical Analysis of the Impact Strength of Textile Knitted Barrier Meshes

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Dec 2020
Seitenbereich: 363 - 378

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The assumptions of instrumental methodology for measuring dynamic loads of knitted barrier meshes were defined. A test stand was built, original in terms of both mechanical construction and electronic measuring system, connected to a computer data analysis system. Maximum values of dynamic forces in the mesh fastening strings were determined. The correctness of the strain gauges construction and measurement data transmission systems was confirmed. Tests of multidirectional resistance to dynamic loads in the mesh fastening strings were carried out. The experiment involved dropping a ball with a mass of 5 kg and a diameter of 10 cm, from a height of 1 m and 2 m onto the mesh surface. The potential impact energy equaled Ep1 = 49.05 J and Ep2 = 98.1 J. The tests showed that the highest force values were observed for meshes with square-shaped a-jour structure, and for mesh with diamond-shaped a-jour geometry the force values were lower. A symmetrical forces distribution was observed in all the strings. The highest forces were recorded in the middle strings and the lowest in the outer ones. The conducted tests confirmed the correctness of the adopted constructional solutions of test stand for identification of dynamic stress distribution in mesh fastening strings. The developed method is a useful verification tool for numerical analysis of mechanical properties of barrier meshes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Knitted barrier meshes
  • measurement methods of stresses in meshes
  • test stand of meshes
  • computer simulation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Characteristics of Laminates for Car Seats

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 379 - 392

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the presented research, 11 different laminates were compared, 8 of them were two-layered 3 of them were three-layered laminates. The laminates that were analyzed vary by the type of face-side textile material (knitted and nonwoven textiles), density and thickness of the foam, and specific properties (higher air permeability and low-emission foam). Depending on the different types of laminates, different laminating processes are used: hot-melt, flame, and powder laminations. The purpose of the presented research is to analyze the basic characteristics of the different laminate structures. Properties that are important for these types of laminates are the number of layers, areal density, thickness, resistance to rubbing, fire resistance, water vapor permeability, air permeability, breaking force and extension, thermal conductivity, and stratification. We found that the properties of laminates were not affected by the density and thickness of the foam. Nonwovens and other laminate components do not perform because they have lower abrasion resistance and lower tensile strength than knitted fabrics as the face layer. Knit laminates have good abrasion resistance, high air permeability, and water vapor permeability. Both are self-extinguishing to the first or second mark. Three-layered laminates have lower thermal conductivity and air permeability than two-layered laminates.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Automotive laminates
  • resistance to rubbing
  • fire resistance
  • permeability of laminates
  • tensile properties of laminates
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Methodology of Optimum Selection of Material and Semi-Folded Products for Rotors of Open-End Spinning Machine

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 393 - 402

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents the methodology of optimal selection of material and the form of semi-product for the rotors of the spindle-less spinning machine. The multicriteria approach was utilized taking into account versatile criteria. The applied procedure consists of two stages: the optimum method in the Pareto sense and the method of distance function. Based on the analysis of the spinning head work, rotor and availability function, six different materials and three forms of semifinished products (extruded bar, forged element, and cast element) were considered. In consequence, the admissible set consisting of nine elements was obtained. For the evaluation of technological quality of the rotor, the following criteria were proposed: index of functionality of the material σf/ρ, maximum height of the surface peaks, Sp, and maximal hardness on surface of oxide layer μHV0,1. Finally, taking into account the economical criterion (unit cost), the Pareto-optimal set of solutions was determined based on four criteria. Due to the fact that this set contained five variants, the distance function was utilized for choosing the best final variant. The optimal material and the semi-product (because of the assumed criteria) chosen were as follows: alloy AlSi1MgMn and the forged element—because in this case the value of distance function was minimal.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pareto optimum
  • manufacturing cost
  • technological quality
  • rotor of the open-end spinner
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fabrication of Multifunctional Nano Gelatin/Zinc Oxide Composite Fibers

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 403 - 407

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

According to health studies, reinforcing gelatin is necessary in order to obtain the multifunctional material. In this study, nano zinc oxide (ZnO; at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) was doped with gelatin and the solution was electrospun under specific conditions to obtain multifunctional gelatin/ZnO nanofibers. The morphology of the nanofibers was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) analysis indicated the presence of nano Zn on the surface of gelatin fibers. On the contrary, elemental mapping analysis proved the distribution of nano material along the nano gelatin fibers. The results show that the produced nano gelatin/ZnO composite increases the ultraviolet (UV) blocking of fabric significantly. It is also observed that electrospun gelatin/ZnO nanofibers have excellent bactericidal property against both Bacillus cereus (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) bacteria.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Gelatin
  • zinc oxide
  • electrospinning
  • bactericide
  • UV blocking
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

3D Design of Clothing in Medical Applications

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 408 - 412

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, we present a new methodology of clothing engineering construction for the medical application. Project “BIOAKOD” intends to propose clothing solutions for elderly people with dermatological defects. This purpose requires a particular concept of clothing because of the additional functionality expected in the clothing. It means that the proposed clothing needs to cover a human body in an aesthetic way and gives comfort of use it, and it should also bring an adding value in health treatment of people with dermatosis (psoriasis)..

Schlüsselwörter

  • 3D fitting
  • personalization
  • clothing functionality
  • medical application
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Development of Subcontractor Selection Models Using Fuzzy and AHP Methods in the Apparel Industry Supply Chain

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 413 - 427

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The subcontractor selection decision is inherently a multicriterion problem. It is a decision of strategic importance for companies. The nature of this decision is usually complex and unstructured. Management science techniques might be helpful tools for solving these kinds of decision-making problems. In this research, the fuzzy logic method and the analytic hierarchy process were applied for the selection of suitable subcontractors in an apparel supply chain.

In general, many factors, such as quality level, price offer, and delivery delay, were considered to determine the most suitable and reliable subcontractors that fit the company's strategy. This survey is carried out using the database of an apparel company manufacturing denim products.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Fuzzy model
  • analytic hierarchy process
  • apparel industry supply chain
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of Thermal Properties of Certain Flame-Retardant Fabrics Modified with a Magnetron Sputtering Method

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 428 - 434

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents the modification of flame-retardant fabric surfaces made of basalt, Nomex®, and cotton fabric to improve their selected thermal comfort properties. The modification consisted of depositing on the fabric surface by magnetron sputtering the metal (aluminum) and ceramic (zirconium (IV) oxide) coatings with a thickness of 1 μm and 5 μm. Flame-retardant fabrics have been chosen because of the desire to apply them to gloves intended for the use in hot-work environments. The article presents the results of testing reference samples and their modifications, which were subjected to the test of resistance to contact heat for contact temperatures of 100°C and 250°C, resistance to thermal radiation and examined their selected thermal comfort parameters, i.e., the thermal conductivity coefficient and heat absorption coefficient. Almost the 1st efficiency level for contact heat was reached for basalt fabric coated with zirconium (IV) oxide with a thickness of 5 μm. The 1st level of protection against heat radiation was obtained for all reference and modified samples. Based on the Kruskal–Wallis test, it was noticed that a significant change in parameter values is caused by the modification with 5 μm thick coating.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Basalt fabric
  • flame-retardant fabric
  • magnetron sputtering
  • thermal properties
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparative Study of Long- and Short-Stretch Woven Compression Bandages

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 435 - 444

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Compression therapy using bandages or socks is the most common treatment for venous leg ulcers and edema. This article aims to compare the compression between long- and short-stretch bandages (LSB and SSB, respectively). Load-elongation curves, cyclic loading, and elastic recovery are investigated for both Cotton/Polyamide/Polyurethane and 100% bleached cotton bandages as LSB and SSB, respectively. Static (resting) and dynamic (working) pressures are measured on seven male legs, 31 ± 3.6 years old, using both two and three layers bandaging. Picopress pressure tests are performed on the ankle and mid-calf positions at gradual decreasing compression from the ankle to the knee. The deviation percentage between the experimental results by Picopress and theoretical calculations using Laplace's law and Al-Khaburi equations is compared. LSB recovered approximately 99% of its original length after stress-relaxation whereas SSB recovered only 93% of its original length after 5 days of cyclic load-relaxation. Moreover, SSB lost approximately 28.6% of its activity after wearing on the human leg for 5 days.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Compression therapy
  • long and short-stretch woven compression bandages
  • Picopress tester
  • stress-relaxation
  • cyclic loading
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Natural Polymers on the Global and European Market - Presentation of Research Results in the Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibers-Case Studies on the Cellulose and Chitosan Fibers

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 445 - 458

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper aims to present the main tendencies on the global and European natural polymer markets in recent years from the point of view of the requirements and achievements of the European Commission that have been expressed in recent programs and Strategies, with special reference to the Circular Economy New Action Plan and the European Green Deal—the EU Strategies for Climate Neutrality. Natural polymers play an important role among biodegradable products whose role in the production and international trade has been systematically increasing, especially since the middle of the last decade of the new century (2015). Natural polymers are also recommended by the EU from the point of view of their specific importance in the group of biodegradable products.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Global market
  • European Union Market
  • circular economy
  • Eco-design
  • European Green Deal
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Fabrication of Cassava Silk Fibroin-Based Composite Film with Graphene Oxide and Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salt as a Biodegradable Membrane Material

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 459 - 466

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A novel and excellent composite film was fabricated by simply casting cassava silk fibroin (CSF), chitosan quaternary ammonium salt (HACC), and graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscope images showed that when GO was dispersed in the composite films, the surface of CSF-based composite film became rough, and a wrinkled GO structure could be found. When the content of GO was 0.8%, the film displayed a higher change with respect to the breaking strength and elongation, respectively, up to 97.69 ± 3.69 and 79.11 ± 1.48 MPa, keeping good thermal properties because of the incorporation of GO and HACC. Furthermore, the novel CSF/HACC/GO composite film demonstrates a lower degradation rate, implying the improvement of the resistance to the enzyme solution. Especially in the film with 0.8 wt% GO, the residual mass arrived at 64.35 ± 1.1% of the primary mass after 21 days compared with the CSF/HACC film. This would reclaim the application of silk-based composite films in the biomaterial field.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CSF-based film
  • thermal properties
  • biodegradation membrane material
  • graphene oxide
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Eco-Fashion Designing to Ensure Corporate Social Responsibility within the Supply Chain in Fashion Industry

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 467 - 481

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Fashion is a widespread cultural phenomenon which supports cultural attitudes and proposes new ways of acting. This study considers how ecological goals can be applied in the fashion industry through an awareness of its effects on the environment with the aim of conducting the process of designing and manufacturing fashion garments. To understand this needs practically, this study investigates on few industries in Hatyai municipality (Thailand) for knowing their practice on eco-fashion approach to support MSW management properly. The study adopts as its methodology a systematic review of relevant literature covering the twin problems of the degradation of the environment and the shortage of natural resources currently caused by the fashion-garment industry, in search of feasible solutions centred on the concept of eco-fashion. The study also addresses how the concept of ecological clothing can generate a new mentality among consumers. The study identifies concepts, techniques and processes which can economically be applied in producing fashion garments from a more ecologically sound starting point. This paper also sheds light on how corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be practiced within the fashion supply chain. This study contributes to the existing literature by assisting the understanding of the current situation of waste in the fashion-garment industry and the methods necessary to ensure eco-fashion designing and a responsible fashion supply chain.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CSR
  • waste management
  • ecological clothing
  • responsible supply chain
  • sustainable clothing
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Phototherapy in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot — A Preliminary Study

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Nov 2021
Seitenbereich: 482 - 490

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The first part of the publication presents a substantively insightful literature study on the essence and effects of light waves on wound healing in living organisms, including the use of phototherapy in the treatment of the diabetic foot. A knitted textile dressing was designed and manufactured for phototherapy of patients with diabetes suffering from diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). The proposed solution is intended for the treatment of dermal tissues within the patient's foot affected because of diabetic disease at an early stage. Thus, the use of a knitted dressing with incorporated fiber optic structures and powered by a semiconductor laser emitting a 405 nm light wave from its entire surface would prevent further anomalies of the patient's tissues and help to avoid surgical intervention.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Phototherapy
  • fiber optics
  • knitted dressing
  • diabetes
  • diabetic foot syndrome
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparison of the Vibration Response of a Rotary Dobby with Cam-Link and Cam-Slider Modulators

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Aug 2020
Seitenbereich: 491 - 500

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article presents the kinematic modeling and analysis of cam profiles of two different types of modulator: a cam-link and a cam-slider modulators. Kinematic and dynamic models of the two different modulators were established based on the motion curves of the main shaft of the rotary dobby. Simulations were carried out in Simulink to analyze the vibration responses under different rotary speeds, and vibration responses of the two mechanisms were compared. The results show that the cam-link modulator vibrates smoothly at speeds of <700 rpm, and theoretically, the speed should not exceed 1,400 rpm. The cam-slider modulator vibrates smoothly at speeds of <500 rpm, and theoretically, the speed should not exceed 1,000 rpm. The cam-slider modulator is more suitable for use at low speeds, whereas the cam-link modulator is more appropriate for high speeds. When both the cam-slider and cam-link modulators operate at high speeds, vibration distortion occurs, leading to bifurcation and chaotic vibration. Further knowledge of the complex behaviors associated with detachment of the follower from the cam can support the design of more sophisticated controllers aimed at avoiding follower detachment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Modulator
  • cam profile
  • dynamic model
  • vibration response
  • bifurcation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Numerical Simulation of Solar Radiation and Conjugate Heat Transfer through Cabin Seat Textile

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 501 - 507

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The solar radiation and the conjugate heat transfer through the cabin seat fabric were investigated numerically with a focus on a comparative analysis of various fabric solar reflectance or reflectivity (SR) and inlet cooling air velocity. For this purpose, 3D compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations with the low Reynolds number turbulence model were utilized to simulate the airflow in the cabin. The discrete ordinate radiation model was adopted to describe the solar radiation. The conjugate heat transfer between the airflow and the fabric seats was included. The airflow temperature, radiative heat flux, and radiative heat transfer through the fabrics in a fixed cross section were studied. The results demonstrate that the increase in fabric SR leads to the increase in energy reflected to the atmosphere, which will bring about a lower temperature on the seat fabric. The decrease in emissivity and the energy absorbed results in the lower heat transfer and heat radiation and leads to the improvement of the cabin thermal environment. The high-temperature gradient near the seat causes the forced air circulation and is beneficial for the improvement of the thermal comfort. However, the cooling effect is not so obvious near the cabin seats when the inflow speed is increased.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cabin textile
  • thermal environment
  • solar radiation
  • heat transfer
  • numerical simulation
16 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

AUTEX 2022 – 21st World Textile Conference Announcement

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Feb 2022
Seitenbereich: I - III

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article is an invitation to the Autex 2022 - 21st World Textile Conference, which is organized by the Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland. The conference will be held ONLINE on the 7th to the 10th June 2022, under the motto Passion for innovation. The conference will be focused on the latest scientific and technical achievements in the field of textiles.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AUTEX
  • Autex conference
  • international conference
  • online conference
  • textiles conference
  • conference announcement
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Design and Development of a Novel Mechanism for the Removal of False Selvedge and Minimization of its Associated Yarn Wastage in Shuttleless Looms

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Aug 2020
Seitenbereich: 352 - 362

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A novel mechanism for the elimination of false selvedge in rapier looms was successfully designed and developed, which functions to grip the protruding weft ends after each pick insertion during the weaving process, with subsequent cutting and suction of the protruding ends. The task is otherwise, presently performed by the formation of dummy or false selvedges in the fabric, requiring additional yarn other than that required for the actual fabric. A significant amount of yarn is wasted to form false selvedges, as they are removed and disposed as hard waste post weaving, which consequently increases the cost of fabric and narrows the profit margins. The developed mechanism was successfully installed and commissioned on an indigenous rapier loom leading to a reduction in the amount of hard waste otherwise generated, without affecting the normal functioning of the loom and the weaving process. The amount of reduction in hard waste was estimated and the quality of fabric manufactured before and after the installation was tested and analyzed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Rapier loom
  • false selvedge
  • novel mechanism
  • hard waste
  • quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Empirical Analysis of the Impact Strength of Textile Knitted Barrier Meshes

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Dec 2020
Seitenbereich: 363 - 378

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The assumptions of instrumental methodology for measuring dynamic loads of knitted barrier meshes were defined. A test stand was built, original in terms of both mechanical construction and electronic measuring system, connected to a computer data analysis system. Maximum values of dynamic forces in the mesh fastening strings were determined. The correctness of the strain gauges construction and measurement data transmission systems was confirmed. Tests of multidirectional resistance to dynamic loads in the mesh fastening strings were carried out. The experiment involved dropping a ball with a mass of 5 kg and a diameter of 10 cm, from a height of 1 m and 2 m onto the mesh surface. The potential impact energy equaled Ep1 = 49.05 J and Ep2 = 98.1 J. The tests showed that the highest force values were observed for meshes with square-shaped a-jour structure, and for mesh with diamond-shaped a-jour geometry the force values were lower. A symmetrical forces distribution was observed in all the strings. The highest forces were recorded in the middle strings and the lowest in the outer ones. The conducted tests confirmed the correctness of the adopted constructional solutions of test stand for identification of dynamic stress distribution in mesh fastening strings. The developed method is a useful verification tool for numerical analysis of mechanical properties of barrier meshes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Knitted barrier meshes
  • measurement methods of stresses in meshes
  • test stand of meshes
  • computer simulation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Characteristics of Laminates for Car Seats

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 379 - 392

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the presented research, 11 different laminates were compared, 8 of them were two-layered 3 of them were three-layered laminates. The laminates that were analyzed vary by the type of face-side textile material (knitted and nonwoven textiles), density and thickness of the foam, and specific properties (higher air permeability and low-emission foam). Depending on the different types of laminates, different laminating processes are used: hot-melt, flame, and powder laminations. The purpose of the presented research is to analyze the basic characteristics of the different laminate structures. Properties that are important for these types of laminates are the number of layers, areal density, thickness, resistance to rubbing, fire resistance, water vapor permeability, air permeability, breaking force and extension, thermal conductivity, and stratification. We found that the properties of laminates were not affected by the density and thickness of the foam. Nonwovens and other laminate components do not perform because they have lower abrasion resistance and lower tensile strength than knitted fabrics as the face layer. Knit laminates have good abrasion resistance, high air permeability, and water vapor permeability. Both are self-extinguishing to the first or second mark. Three-layered laminates have lower thermal conductivity and air permeability than two-layered laminates.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Automotive laminates
  • resistance to rubbing
  • fire resistance
  • permeability of laminates
  • tensile properties of laminates
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Methodology of Optimum Selection of Material and Semi-Folded Products for Rotors of Open-End Spinning Machine

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 393 - 402

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents the methodology of optimal selection of material and the form of semi-product for the rotors of the spindle-less spinning machine. The multicriteria approach was utilized taking into account versatile criteria. The applied procedure consists of two stages: the optimum method in the Pareto sense and the method of distance function. Based on the analysis of the spinning head work, rotor and availability function, six different materials and three forms of semifinished products (extruded bar, forged element, and cast element) were considered. In consequence, the admissible set consisting of nine elements was obtained. For the evaluation of technological quality of the rotor, the following criteria were proposed: index of functionality of the material σf/ρ, maximum height of the surface peaks, Sp, and maximal hardness on surface of oxide layer μHV0,1. Finally, taking into account the economical criterion (unit cost), the Pareto-optimal set of solutions was determined based on four criteria. Due to the fact that this set contained five variants, the distance function was utilized for choosing the best final variant. The optimal material and the semi-product (because of the assumed criteria) chosen were as follows: alloy AlSi1MgMn and the forged element—because in this case the value of distance function was minimal.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pareto optimum
  • manufacturing cost
  • technological quality
  • rotor of the open-end spinner
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fabrication of Multifunctional Nano Gelatin/Zinc Oxide Composite Fibers

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 403 - 407

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

According to health studies, reinforcing gelatin is necessary in order to obtain the multifunctional material. In this study, nano zinc oxide (ZnO; at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) was doped with gelatin and the solution was electrospun under specific conditions to obtain multifunctional gelatin/ZnO nanofibers. The morphology of the nanofibers was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) analysis indicated the presence of nano Zn on the surface of gelatin fibers. On the contrary, elemental mapping analysis proved the distribution of nano material along the nano gelatin fibers. The results show that the produced nano gelatin/ZnO composite increases the ultraviolet (UV) blocking of fabric significantly. It is also observed that electrospun gelatin/ZnO nanofibers have excellent bactericidal property against both Bacillus cereus (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) bacteria.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Gelatin
  • zinc oxide
  • electrospinning
  • bactericide
  • UV blocking
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

3D Design of Clothing in Medical Applications

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 408 - 412

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, we present a new methodology of clothing engineering construction for the medical application. Project “BIOAKOD” intends to propose clothing solutions for elderly people with dermatological defects. This purpose requires a particular concept of clothing because of the additional functionality expected in the clothing. It means that the proposed clothing needs to cover a human body in an aesthetic way and gives comfort of use it, and it should also bring an adding value in health treatment of people with dermatosis (psoriasis)..

Schlüsselwörter

  • 3D fitting
  • personalization
  • clothing functionality
  • medical application
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Development of Subcontractor Selection Models Using Fuzzy and AHP Methods in the Apparel Industry Supply Chain

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 413 - 427

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The subcontractor selection decision is inherently a multicriterion problem. It is a decision of strategic importance for companies. The nature of this decision is usually complex and unstructured. Management science techniques might be helpful tools for solving these kinds of decision-making problems. In this research, the fuzzy logic method and the analytic hierarchy process were applied for the selection of suitable subcontractors in an apparel supply chain.

In general, many factors, such as quality level, price offer, and delivery delay, were considered to determine the most suitable and reliable subcontractors that fit the company's strategy. This survey is carried out using the database of an apparel company manufacturing denim products.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Fuzzy model
  • analytic hierarchy process
  • apparel industry supply chain
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of Thermal Properties of Certain Flame-Retardant Fabrics Modified with a Magnetron Sputtering Method

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 428 - 434

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents the modification of flame-retardant fabric surfaces made of basalt, Nomex®, and cotton fabric to improve their selected thermal comfort properties. The modification consisted of depositing on the fabric surface by magnetron sputtering the metal (aluminum) and ceramic (zirconium (IV) oxide) coatings with a thickness of 1 μm and 5 μm. Flame-retardant fabrics have been chosen because of the desire to apply them to gloves intended for the use in hot-work environments. The article presents the results of testing reference samples and their modifications, which were subjected to the test of resistance to contact heat for contact temperatures of 100°C and 250°C, resistance to thermal radiation and examined their selected thermal comfort parameters, i.e., the thermal conductivity coefficient and heat absorption coefficient. Almost the 1st efficiency level for contact heat was reached for basalt fabric coated with zirconium (IV) oxide with a thickness of 5 μm. The 1st level of protection against heat radiation was obtained for all reference and modified samples. Based on the Kruskal–Wallis test, it was noticed that a significant change in parameter values is caused by the modification with 5 μm thick coating.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Basalt fabric
  • flame-retardant fabric
  • magnetron sputtering
  • thermal properties
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparative Study of Long- and Short-Stretch Woven Compression Bandages

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 435 - 444

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Compression therapy using bandages or socks is the most common treatment for venous leg ulcers and edema. This article aims to compare the compression between long- and short-stretch bandages (LSB and SSB, respectively). Load-elongation curves, cyclic loading, and elastic recovery are investigated for both Cotton/Polyamide/Polyurethane and 100% bleached cotton bandages as LSB and SSB, respectively. Static (resting) and dynamic (working) pressures are measured on seven male legs, 31 ± 3.6 years old, using both two and three layers bandaging. Picopress pressure tests are performed on the ankle and mid-calf positions at gradual decreasing compression from the ankle to the knee. The deviation percentage between the experimental results by Picopress and theoretical calculations using Laplace's law and Al-Khaburi equations is compared. LSB recovered approximately 99% of its original length after stress-relaxation whereas SSB recovered only 93% of its original length after 5 days of cyclic load-relaxation. Moreover, SSB lost approximately 28.6% of its activity after wearing on the human leg for 5 days.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Compression therapy
  • long and short-stretch woven compression bandages
  • Picopress tester
  • stress-relaxation
  • cyclic loading
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Natural Polymers on the Global and European Market - Presentation of Research Results in the Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibers-Case Studies on the Cellulose and Chitosan Fibers

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: 445 - 458

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper aims to present the main tendencies on the global and European natural polymer markets in recent years from the point of view of the requirements and achievements of the European Commission that have been expressed in recent programs and Strategies, with special reference to the Circular Economy New Action Plan and the European Green Deal—the EU Strategies for Climate Neutrality. Natural polymers play an important role among biodegradable products whose role in the production and international trade has been systematically increasing, especially since the middle of the last decade of the new century (2015). Natural polymers are also recommended by the EU from the point of view of their specific importance in the group of biodegradable products.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Global market
  • European Union Market
  • circular economy
  • Eco-design
  • European Green Deal
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Fabrication of Cassava Silk Fibroin-Based Composite Film with Graphene Oxide and Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salt as a Biodegradable Membrane Material

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 459 - 466

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A novel and excellent composite film was fabricated by simply casting cassava silk fibroin (CSF), chitosan quaternary ammonium salt (HACC), and graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscope images showed that when GO was dispersed in the composite films, the surface of CSF-based composite film became rough, and a wrinkled GO structure could be found. When the content of GO was 0.8%, the film displayed a higher change with respect to the breaking strength and elongation, respectively, up to 97.69 ± 3.69 and 79.11 ± 1.48 MPa, keeping good thermal properties because of the incorporation of GO and HACC. Furthermore, the novel CSF/HACC/GO composite film demonstrates a lower degradation rate, implying the improvement of the resistance to the enzyme solution. Especially in the film with 0.8 wt% GO, the residual mass arrived at 64.35 ± 1.1% of the primary mass after 21 days compared with the CSF/HACC film. This would reclaim the application of silk-based composite films in the biomaterial field.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CSF-based film
  • thermal properties
  • biodegradation membrane material
  • graphene oxide
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Eco-Fashion Designing to Ensure Corporate Social Responsibility within the Supply Chain in Fashion Industry

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: 467 - 481

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Fashion is a widespread cultural phenomenon which supports cultural attitudes and proposes new ways of acting. This study considers how ecological goals can be applied in the fashion industry through an awareness of its effects on the environment with the aim of conducting the process of designing and manufacturing fashion garments. To understand this needs practically, this study investigates on few industries in Hatyai municipality (Thailand) for knowing their practice on eco-fashion approach to support MSW management properly. The study adopts as its methodology a systematic review of relevant literature covering the twin problems of the degradation of the environment and the shortage of natural resources currently caused by the fashion-garment industry, in search of feasible solutions centred on the concept of eco-fashion. The study also addresses how the concept of ecological clothing can generate a new mentality among consumers. The study identifies concepts, techniques and processes which can economically be applied in producing fashion garments from a more ecologically sound starting point. This paper also sheds light on how corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be practiced within the fashion supply chain. This study contributes to the existing literature by assisting the understanding of the current situation of waste in the fashion-garment industry and the methods necessary to ensure eco-fashion designing and a responsible fashion supply chain.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CSR
  • waste management
  • ecological clothing
  • responsible supply chain
  • sustainable clothing
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Phototherapy in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot — A Preliminary Study

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Nov 2021
Seitenbereich: 482 - 490

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The first part of the publication presents a substantively insightful literature study on the essence and effects of light waves on wound healing in living organisms, including the use of phototherapy in the treatment of the diabetic foot. A knitted textile dressing was designed and manufactured for phototherapy of patients with diabetes suffering from diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). The proposed solution is intended for the treatment of dermal tissues within the patient's foot affected because of diabetic disease at an early stage. Thus, the use of a knitted dressing with incorporated fiber optic structures and powered by a semiconductor laser emitting a 405 nm light wave from its entire surface would prevent further anomalies of the patient's tissues and help to avoid surgical intervention.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Phototherapy
  • fiber optics
  • knitted dressing
  • diabetes
  • diabetic foot syndrome
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparison of the Vibration Response of a Rotary Dobby with Cam-Link and Cam-Slider Modulators

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Aug 2020
Seitenbereich: 491 - 500

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article presents the kinematic modeling and analysis of cam profiles of two different types of modulator: a cam-link and a cam-slider modulators. Kinematic and dynamic models of the two different modulators were established based on the motion curves of the main shaft of the rotary dobby. Simulations were carried out in Simulink to analyze the vibration responses under different rotary speeds, and vibration responses of the two mechanisms were compared. The results show that the cam-link modulator vibrates smoothly at speeds of <700 rpm, and theoretically, the speed should not exceed 1,400 rpm. The cam-slider modulator vibrates smoothly at speeds of <500 rpm, and theoretically, the speed should not exceed 1,000 rpm. The cam-slider modulator is more suitable for use at low speeds, whereas the cam-link modulator is more appropriate for high speeds. When both the cam-slider and cam-link modulators operate at high speeds, vibration distortion occurs, leading to bifurcation and chaotic vibration. Further knowledge of the complex behaviors associated with detachment of the follower from the cam can support the design of more sophisticated controllers aimed at avoiding follower detachment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Modulator
  • cam profile
  • dynamic model
  • vibration response
  • bifurcation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Numerical Simulation of Solar Radiation and Conjugate Heat Transfer through Cabin Seat Textile

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 501 - 507

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The solar radiation and the conjugate heat transfer through the cabin seat fabric were investigated numerically with a focus on a comparative analysis of various fabric solar reflectance or reflectivity (SR) and inlet cooling air velocity. For this purpose, 3D compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations with the low Reynolds number turbulence model were utilized to simulate the airflow in the cabin. The discrete ordinate radiation model was adopted to describe the solar radiation. The conjugate heat transfer between the airflow and the fabric seats was included. The airflow temperature, radiative heat flux, and radiative heat transfer through the fabrics in a fixed cross section were studied. The results demonstrate that the increase in fabric SR leads to the increase in energy reflected to the atmosphere, which will bring about a lower temperature on the seat fabric. The decrease in emissivity and the energy absorbed results in the lower heat transfer and heat radiation and leads to the improvement of the cabin thermal environment. The high-temperature gradient near the seat causes the forced air circulation and is beneficial for the improvement of the thermal comfort. However, the cooling effect is not so obvious near the cabin seats when the inflow speed is increased.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cabin textile
  • thermal environment
  • solar radiation
  • heat transfer
  • numerical simulation

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