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Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 3 (September 2014)

Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 2 (June 2014)

Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 1 (March 2014)

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Volumen 13 (2013): Heft 3 (September 2013)

Volumen 13 (2013): Heft 2 (June 2013)

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Volumen 12 (2012): Heft 2 (June 2012)

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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-0929
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Oct 2012
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 2 (June 2014)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-0929
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Oct 2012
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

9 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Performance Study of Screen-Printed Textile Antennas after Repeated Washing

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 47 - 54

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The stability of wearable textile antennas after 20 reference washing cycles was evaluated by measuring the reflection coefficient of different antenna prototypes. The prototypes’ conductive parts were screen-printed on several textile substrates using two different silver-based conductive inks. The necessity of coating the antennas with a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) coating was investigated by comparing coated with uncoated antennas. It is shown that covering the antennas with the TPU layer not only protects the screen-printed conductive area but also prevents delamination of the multilayered textile fabric substrates, making the antennas washable for up to 20 cycles. Furthermore, it is proven that coating is not necessary for maintaining antenna operation and this up to 20 washing cycles. However, connector detachment caused by friction during the washing process was the main problem of antenna performance degradation. Hence, other flexible, durable methods should be developed for establishing a stable electrical connection.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Screen-printed textile antennas
  • conductive ink
  • textile
  • washing
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determination of Fabric Surface Resistance by Van Der Pauw Method in Case of Contacts Distant from the Sample Edge

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 55 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The van der Pauw method can be used to determine the electroconductive properties of textile materials. However, the sample surface resistance can be determined provided that the sample has characteristics typical for the van der Pauw structure. In the paper, a method of evaluating the sample structure is shown. The selected electroconductive woven fabrics are used as an example of van der Pauw structure. An analysis of impact of electrodes placement on the resistance measurements was conducted. Knowing how the resistance of the sample varies with the electrodes distance from the edge, the samples’ surface resistances were calculated in cases when the electrodes are placed at the sample edge. An uncertainty analysis of the samples’ surface resistances was conducted based on the Monte Carlo method.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Electroconductive properties
  • woven fabric
  • van der Pauw structure
  • van der Pauw method
  • surface resistance
  • electrodes placement
  • Monte Carlo method
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparative Investigation of Mechanical–Physical Characteristics of Biodegradable and Non-Degradable Yarns

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 61 - 72

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article presents the results from investigations of tensile tests, absorbency test and degradation test of biodegradable and non- or partly biodegradable yarns produced from pure poly hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV), poly (lactide acid) (PLA), isotactic polypropylene (iPP) polymers and their blends. The results indicate that mechanical-physical properties of PHBV are improved by adding PLA and iPP to PHBV. The main results indicate that the PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP (70/30) blends had better mechanical properties than pure PHBV, as well as improved immiscibility and the same or lower degradation in sodium chloride solution, respectively. The PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP blends showed a tendency for lower crystallinity and stiffness of the yarns, rendering them less stiff and fragile. The absorption tests showed that absorption dynamic process depends on the structure and raw materials of the yarns. The disinfectant in all samples is absorbed faster than blood. Research results showed that pure PHBV yarns have good hydrophobic properties, compared with pure PLA and iPP yarns. The use of additional PLA and iPP polymers changed the wetting behaviour of yarns. Absorption time of blended yarns in disinfectant liquid decreases and absorption time in the case of blood significantly increases in comparison with PLA and iPP yarns and decreases compared with PHBV yarns. The degradation tests (within 90 days in a solution of sodium chloride) showed that pure PHBV and PHBV/PLA blends degraded at different rates but with the loss of the same weight, while pure PHBV and PHBV/iPP blends degraded at the same rate, but PHBV/iPP blends had worse destruction results. Such improvements are expected to be important for the practical application of PHBV in some fields

Schlüsselwörter

  • Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate
  • polylactid acid
  • polypropylene
  • extrusion
  • mechanical properties
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Antibacterial Properties of Functional Polyamide 6.6

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 73 - 75

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Polyamide 6.6 multifilaments are grafted with the monomer N-allyliminodiacetic acid for the purpose of removal of some heavy metal ions from their aqueous solutions by forming its metal chelate especially with Ag+ ion. Such a fibrous chelate-forming resin has been used with success due to its large surface area, which contains an important metal chelate-forming functional group, where metal ions are adsorbed or desorbed on its surface, and therefore having an improved adsorption and desorption capability. In previous work, chelate-forming fibre was characterised by ICP-AES analysis according to the digestion method by microwave. The antibacterial activity of the prepared fibre is investigated with Escherichia coli bacteria as reference, according to the zone of inhibition method in agar medium. The material used as reference without metal does not present any effect on E. coli. However, the chelateforming fibres with Ag+ have a strong bactericidal effect, even with a low concentration of silver ions. These modified materials can be used as highly effective bactericidal composites that may be used in future applications for the production of antimicrobial textiles, papers or polymer materials

Schlüsselwörter

  • Functionalisation
  • Polyamide 6.6
  • N-Allyliminodiacetic acid
  • Silver ions
  • Antibacterial activity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Study on Electrical Performances and Lifetime of a Flexible Electrochromic Textile Device

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 76 - 81

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using their ability to change their color according to an external stimulation, chromic materials can be used to form a color-changing textile. Electrochromism, more particularly, is a colour change phenomenon caused by the application of an electrical potential. A flexible textile electrochromic device composed of four layers is presented. In order to improve the lifetime of this structure, the electrical performances of the electrolyte layer are studied. A method to measure and calculate the resistance variations of the electrolyte applied on a textile cotton substrate is given. Relations between the electrical performances of the electrolyte and the electrochromic effect of the device are also highlighted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Smart textile
  • electrochromism
  • flexible display
  • electrolyte
  • sol-gel
  • conductivity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Geometry on Performance of Interlacer

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 82 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Interlacer is the key part of interlacing technology that is adopted to improve the cohesion between loose multifilaments. Aimed at finding the interlacers with better performance, the present research designed five interlacers that can be classified into round type and cornered type. These five interlacers are different in cross-sectional shapes of yarn channel but are the same in the cross-sectional area. The evaluation of the performance of the interlacer includes the number and the strength of the tangles of the interlaced yarn it produces. Experiments are carried out at various supplied air pressures, yarn speeds and feed ratios. It was found that the interlacer with round cross-sectional shape of yarn channel is capable of producing an interlaced yarn with a large number of tangles and the cornered cross-sectional shape is effective in improving the strength of tangles. Among these five interlacers, the interlacer with an elliptical or an inverse-triangular shape has the best processing performance

Schlüsselwörter

  • Interlacer
  • Interlaced yarn
  • Shape of yarn channel
  • Number of tangles
  • Strength of tangles
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Footwear Use at Workplace and Recommendations for the Improvement of its Functionality and Hygiene

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 89 - 94

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In protecting themselves against different dangerous and noxious factors at the workplace, workers are often faced with the necessity of using footwear that puts a significant strain on the human body. Such footwear is frequently not accepted by the users due to wearing discomfort and difficulties with performing one’s tasks efficiently. The paper describes requirements concerning the evaluation of protective footwear functionality and hygiene as well as formulates recommendations for the improvement of these footwear properties. Based on own studies it was observed that the use of appropriate textiles in protective footwear increases its functionality and hygiene.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Protective footwear
  • comfort of use
  • textiles
  • hygiene
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fabrication of Plga/Hap and Plga/Phb/Hap Fibrous Nanocomposite Materials for Osseous Tissue Regeneration

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 95 - 110

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study presents the manufacturing of nanofibrous structures as osteoconductive, osteoinductive materials for osseous tissue regeneration. The fibrous structures were obtained by electrospinning of poly(l-lactide-coglicolide) (PLGA) with addition of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and of a blend of PLGA with polyhydroxybutyrate with HAp added. The polymers used in the experiment were synthesised by an innovative method with a zirconium catalyst. First, the optimal electrospinning process parameters were selected. For the characterisation of the obtained osseous tissue reconstruction materials, the physical, macroscopic, functional, mechanical and thermal properties as well as crystallinity index were studied. The study of the radiation sterilisation influence on average molar mass, thermal and mechanical properties was made in order to analyse the degradation effect.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Electrospinning
  • resorbable material
  • implant
  • osseous tissue regeneration
  • hydroxyapatite.
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation about the Manufacturing Technique of the Composite Corner Fitting Part

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 111 - 120

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Textile composite reinforcement forming has been employed in many aeronautic industries as a traditional composite manufacturing process. The double-curved shape manufacturing may be difficult and can lead to defects when the composite parts have high curvatures and large deformations. Compared with the textile composites forming, surface 3D weaving can demonstrate directly the geometry of final composite part without the stages involved in 2D product. The weaving in three directions is completely designed and warp and weft yarns are always perpendicular to the surfaces of the final 3D ply. These two manufacturing techniques are applied to produce an important piece of aircraft: the corner fitting. The 3D weaving results are compared with the experimental forming by a punch as same geometry as the corner fitting part. The conveniences and limits of each technique are investigated. The comparisons show particularly a perfect final 3D fabric with homogeneous fibre volume fraction performed by the surface 3D weaving technique.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Manufacture
  • Weaving
  • Textile Composite
  • Forming
  • 3D Fabric
  • Corner Fitting
9 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Performance Study of Screen-Printed Textile Antennas after Repeated Washing

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 47 - 54

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The stability of wearable textile antennas after 20 reference washing cycles was evaluated by measuring the reflection coefficient of different antenna prototypes. The prototypes’ conductive parts were screen-printed on several textile substrates using two different silver-based conductive inks. The necessity of coating the antennas with a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) coating was investigated by comparing coated with uncoated antennas. It is shown that covering the antennas with the TPU layer not only protects the screen-printed conductive area but also prevents delamination of the multilayered textile fabric substrates, making the antennas washable for up to 20 cycles. Furthermore, it is proven that coating is not necessary for maintaining antenna operation and this up to 20 washing cycles. However, connector detachment caused by friction during the washing process was the main problem of antenna performance degradation. Hence, other flexible, durable methods should be developed for establishing a stable electrical connection.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Screen-printed textile antennas
  • conductive ink
  • textile
  • washing
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determination of Fabric Surface Resistance by Van Der Pauw Method in Case of Contacts Distant from the Sample Edge

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 55 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The van der Pauw method can be used to determine the electroconductive properties of textile materials. However, the sample surface resistance can be determined provided that the sample has characteristics typical for the van der Pauw structure. In the paper, a method of evaluating the sample structure is shown. The selected electroconductive woven fabrics are used as an example of van der Pauw structure. An analysis of impact of electrodes placement on the resistance measurements was conducted. Knowing how the resistance of the sample varies with the electrodes distance from the edge, the samples’ surface resistances were calculated in cases when the electrodes are placed at the sample edge. An uncertainty analysis of the samples’ surface resistances was conducted based on the Monte Carlo method.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Electroconductive properties
  • woven fabric
  • van der Pauw structure
  • van der Pauw method
  • surface resistance
  • electrodes placement
  • Monte Carlo method
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparative Investigation of Mechanical–Physical Characteristics of Biodegradable and Non-Degradable Yarns

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 61 - 72

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article presents the results from investigations of tensile tests, absorbency test and degradation test of biodegradable and non- or partly biodegradable yarns produced from pure poly hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV), poly (lactide acid) (PLA), isotactic polypropylene (iPP) polymers and their blends. The results indicate that mechanical-physical properties of PHBV are improved by adding PLA and iPP to PHBV. The main results indicate that the PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP (70/30) blends had better mechanical properties than pure PHBV, as well as improved immiscibility and the same or lower degradation in sodium chloride solution, respectively. The PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP blends showed a tendency for lower crystallinity and stiffness of the yarns, rendering them less stiff and fragile. The absorption tests showed that absorption dynamic process depends on the structure and raw materials of the yarns. The disinfectant in all samples is absorbed faster than blood. Research results showed that pure PHBV yarns have good hydrophobic properties, compared with pure PLA and iPP yarns. The use of additional PLA and iPP polymers changed the wetting behaviour of yarns. Absorption time of blended yarns in disinfectant liquid decreases and absorption time in the case of blood significantly increases in comparison with PLA and iPP yarns and decreases compared with PHBV yarns. The degradation tests (within 90 days in a solution of sodium chloride) showed that pure PHBV and PHBV/PLA blends degraded at different rates but with the loss of the same weight, while pure PHBV and PHBV/iPP blends degraded at the same rate, but PHBV/iPP blends had worse destruction results. Such improvements are expected to be important for the practical application of PHBV in some fields

Schlüsselwörter

  • Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate
  • polylactid acid
  • polypropylene
  • extrusion
  • mechanical properties
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Antibacterial Properties of Functional Polyamide 6.6

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 73 - 75

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Polyamide 6.6 multifilaments are grafted with the monomer N-allyliminodiacetic acid for the purpose of removal of some heavy metal ions from their aqueous solutions by forming its metal chelate especially with Ag+ ion. Such a fibrous chelate-forming resin has been used with success due to its large surface area, which contains an important metal chelate-forming functional group, where metal ions are adsorbed or desorbed on its surface, and therefore having an improved adsorption and desorption capability. In previous work, chelate-forming fibre was characterised by ICP-AES analysis according to the digestion method by microwave. The antibacterial activity of the prepared fibre is investigated with Escherichia coli bacteria as reference, according to the zone of inhibition method in agar medium. The material used as reference without metal does not present any effect on E. coli. However, the chelateforming fibres with Ag+ have a strong bactericidal effect, even with a low concentration of silver ions. These modified materials can be used as highly effective bactericidal composites that may be used in future applications for the production of antimicrobial textiles, papers or polymer materials

Schlüsselwörter

  • Functionalisation
  • Polyamide 6.6
  • N-Allyliminodiacetic acid
  • Silver ions
  • Antibacterial activity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Study on Electrical Performances and Lifetime of a Flexible Electrochromic Textile Device

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 76 - 81

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using their ability to change their color according to an external stimulation, chromic materials can be used to form a color-changing textile. Electrochromism, more particularly, is a colour change phenomenon caused by the application of an electrical potential. A flexible textile electrochromic device composed of four layers is presented. In order to improve the lifetime of this structure, the electrical performances of the electrolyte layer are studied. A method to measure and calculate the resistance variations of the electrolyte applied on a textile cotton substrate is given. Relations between the electrical performances of the electrolyte and the electrochromic effect of the device are also highlighted.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Smart textile
  • electrochromism
  • flexible display
  • electrolyte
  • sol-gel
  • conductivity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Geometry on Performance of Interlacer

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 82 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Interlacer is the key part of interlacing technology that is adopted to improve the cohesion between loose multifilaments. Aimed at finding the interlacers with better performance, the present research designed five interlacers that can be classified into round type and cornered type. These five interlacers are different in cross-sectional shapes of yarn channel but are the same in the cross-sectional area. The evaluation of the performance of the interlacer includes the number and the strength of the tangles of the interlaced yarn it produces. Experiments are carried out at various supplied air pressures, yarn speeds and feed ratios. It was found that the interlacer with round cross-sectional shape of yarn channel is capable of producing an interlaced yarn with a large number of tangles and the cornered cross-sectional shape is effective in improving the strength of tangles. Among these five interlacers, the interlacer with an elliptical or an inverse-triangular shape has the best processing performance

Schlüsselwörter

  • Interlacer
  • Interlaced yarn
  • Shape of yarn channel
  • Number of tangles
  • Strength of tangles
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Footwear Use at Workplace and Recommendations for the Improvement of its Functionality and Hygiene

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 89 - 94

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In protecting themselves against different dangerous and noxious factors at the workplace, workers are often faced with the necessity of using footwear that puts a significant strain on the human body. Such footwear is frequently not accepted by the users due to wearing discomfort and difficulties with performing one’s tasks efficiently. The paper describes requirements concerning the evaluation of protective footwear functionality and hygiene as well as formulates recommendations for the improvement of these footwear properties. Based on own studies it was observed that the use of appropriate textiles in protective footwear increases its functionality and hygiene.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Protective footwear
  • comfort of use
  • textiles
  • hygiene
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fabrication of Plga/Hap and Plga/Phb/Hap Fibrous Nanocomposite Materials for Osseous Tissue Regeneration

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 95 - 110

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study presents the manufacturing of nanofibrous structures as osteoconductive, osteoinductive materials for osseous tissue regeneration. The fibrous structures were obtained by electrospinning of poly(l-lactide-coglicolide) (PLGA) with addition of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and of a blend of PLGA with polyhydroxybutyrate with HAp added. The polymers used in the experiment were synthesised by an innovative method with a zirconium catalyst. First, the optimal electrospinning process parameters were selected. For the characterisation of the obtained osseous tissue reconstruction materials, the physical, macroscopic, functional, mechanical and thermal properties as well as crystallinity index were studied. The study of the radiation sterilisation influence on average molar mass, thermal and mechanical properties was made in order to analyse the degradation effect.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Electrospinning
  • resorbable material
  • implant
  • osseous tissue regeneration
  • hydroxyapatite.
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation about the Manufacturing Technique of the Composite Corner Fitting Part

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jun 2014
Seitenbereich: 111 - 120

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Textile composite reinforcement forming has been employed in many aeronautic industries as a traditional composite manufacturing process. The double-curved shape manufacturing may be difficult and can lead to defects when the composite parts have high curvatures and large deformations. Compared with the textile composites forming, surface 3D weaving can demonstrate directly the geometry of final composite part without the stages involved in 2D product. The weaving in three directions is completely designed and warp and weft yarns are always perpendicular to the surfaces of the final 3D ply. These two manufacturing techniques are applied to produce an important piece of aircraft: the corner fitting. The 3D weaving results are compared with the experimental forming by a punch as same geometry as the corner fitting part. The conveniences and limits of each technique are investigated. The comparisons show particularly a perfect final 3D fabric with homogeneous fibre volume fraction performed by the surface 3D weaving technique.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Manufacture
  • Weaving
  • Textile Composite
  • Forming
  • 3D Fabric
  • Corner Fitting

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