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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-0929
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Oct 2012
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

AHEAD OF PRINT

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-0929
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Oct 2012
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

53 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Fabric-Based Integrated Sensor Glove System Recognizing Hand Gesture

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The research on wearable glove sensor system has been increasing over recent years because of the need for portability and comfort. This study presents a fabric-based integrated sensor glove system with five sensing zones. Five sensors are knitted by silver-plated nylon yarn and embedded into glove directly using intarsia technology. Various parameters including sensor elasticity, sizes of embedded sensor as well as glove are discussed, respectively. Further, selected or chosen integrated sensor glove is manufactured and tested for recognizing gestures. Results show that elasticity affects effective sensing range of knitted sensors, size has significant influence on sensors’ sensitivity, and appropriate glove size helps avoiding nonlinear sensing phenomenon. Finally, the glove system, by extracting feature data, can distinguish Chinese number gestures very well and has also the potential to recognize more hand gestures in the future.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sensor glove
  • conductive fabrics
  • strain sensor
  • hand gestures tracking
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Developing Real Avatars for the Apparel Industry and Analysing Fabric Draping in the Virtual Domain

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The youth of today are much more technologically adept than previous generations. This has led to many technological innovations, and the development of these innovations has in turn altered our perception of the world. The film, gaming, and clothing industries have been forced to embrace new technology to satisfy the demand of people for a more realistic virtual experience. These industries all rely on the use of 3D avatars to create virtual depictions of the human body. In the gaming and film industry, the accuracy of the avatar is not so critical. The avatars used in computer games and CGI sections of films have soft contours, which look visually appealing, but are not necessarily accurate to the human form. By contrast, the apparel industry needs to focus on creating very accurate avatars, which represent each person's body shape for virtual fitting to achieve realistic, well-fitted garments. This article describes the methods used to build an avatar and compares the draping between the following scenarios: the real avatar with a real garment, the real avatar with a virtual garment, and finally the virtual avatar with a virtual garment. This research will help to understand how the body shape can affect the virtual fit.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 3D avatars
  • 3D avatar software
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Preliminary Experimental Investigation of Cut-Resistant Materials: A Biomimetic Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of the work was the preliminary experimental investigation of cut-resistant materials including a biomimetic perspective. The effects of the cutting were expressed as static and dynamic cut resistance of the following materials: knitted fabrics, woven fabrics, continuously coated knitted fabrics, and dot-coated knitted fabrics. The cutting process gives rise to frictional forces, but the current test methods for cut-resistant gloves are not designed to measure them. Therefore additionally, the cut resistance of the material was evaluated using a modified procedure based on the standard EN 1082-1, taking into consideration grip strength tests to assess if there is a potential correlation between cut resistance and anti-slip properties.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Protective gloves
  • cut-resistant materials
  • grip strength properties
  • biomimetic
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fabrication and Characterization of Fibrous Polycaprolactone Blended with Natural Green Tea Extracts Using Dual Solvent Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jan 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nanofibrous dressings serve as an impeccable candidate in the management of wounds. Nanofibrous composites composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and green tea using dual solvent systems at different ratios were fabricated through electrospinning. Pure PCL electrospun fibers along with composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wettability, water uptake analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM indicated that fibrous morphology and the diameter of PCL/green tea were smaller for chloroform/dimethylformamide (DMF) (601 nm) and acetone/DMF (896 nm) than the pure PCL (673 nm and 1,104 nm for chloroform/DMF and acetone/DMF, respectively). Wettability of the fabricated composites was increased, and pure PCL fibers were slightly more hydrophobic (100°) than PCL/green tea (94°). Water uptake of the composites was enhanced compared with PCL significantly in acetone/DMF. The PCL/green tea nanofibrous wound dressing with enhanced physicochemical properties serves as an indispensable candidate for wound healing applications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Nanofibrous
  • composite
  • electrospinning
  • green tea
  • wound healing
  • water uptake
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Durable Wash-Resistant Antimicrobial Treatment of Knitted Fabrics

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jun 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Antimicrobial finishing is increasingly used in textile products to increase their functionality. Antimicrobial properties became extremely important during the COVID-19 situation. The main problems faced by antimicrobial finishing are nontoxicity and durability (wash-resistance) of antibacterial activity. Also, it is important to determine whether the antimicrobial finishing changes comfort properties, such as air permeability. This paper deals with the durability of antimicrobial treatment, that is, resistance to washing, and effect on the structural changes that may have influence on the comfort properties, such as permeability to air. Knits of various raw compositions were antimicrobial-treated with the new commercial antimicrobial product, Si Bactericidal (Smart Inovation, Portugal). After the antimicrobial treatment, knitted specimens were washed 50 times and changes in their structural parameters, air permeability, and antimicrobial activity were measured. It was found that the mentioned antimicrobial treatment gives very good antimicrobial activity to the treated fabric and is wash-resistant and long-lasting. Also, it does not change dimensions and permeability to air of the treated fabrics with some exceptions of cotton-based knitted structures.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Antimicrobial treatment
  • antimicrobial activity
  • weft knit
  • air permeability
  • structural changes
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determination of Sewing Thread Consumption for 602, 605, and 607 Cover Stitches Using Geometrical and Multi-Linear Regression Models

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This work deals with prediction of the quantities of sewing threads required to sew a garment using cover stitches for the different classes of 600 (602, 605 and 607 cover stitches) by performing a rapid and precise methods (Geometrical and statistical). Sewing consumption value was estimated based on the geometrical method of different cover stitch shapes to prevent inventory of stocks for each stitch type. In the prediction of the sewing thread consumption for each investigated stitch, it was assumed that the consumption is a function of the input parameters, such as material thickness, stitch density, yarn linear density, and seam width. In addition, a statistical method based on multi-linear regression was established. The coefficient R2 value was determined to evaluate the precision of the geometrical and statistical methods. By comparing the theoretical thread consumption with the experimental ones, it is concluded that the geometrical method is more accurate than the statistical method regarding the range of R2 (from 98.78% to 99.38%), which encouraged industrialists to use geometrical models to predict thread consumption.

The input parameters contributing to the sewing thread consumption behavior were studied and analyzed. It was concluded that the most important parameters influencing thread consumption are stitch density followed by seam width. Both yarn density and material thickness have a low contribution to the thread consumption value.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Consumption
  • apparel industry
  • cover stitches of the class 600
  • geometrical and multi-linear regression models
  • input parameters
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Estimation of Seams in Paraglider Wing

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyze the seams connecting the covering textiles in paraglider wing and estimate their physical strength. The most extreme flight parameters (the angle of attack and velocity) in the numerical model of the wing allow the determination of the mean pressure inside the contour and the maximal difference between the pressures on the inner and the outer material surfaces. The preprocessing stage and numerical calculations in Ansys environment consider three different covering materials. The tool Porous Media is used to create the objects of a given value of air permeability. The estimated parameter of seam is the maximal pressure difference between both sides of the covering material, which that interacts with the test results. The quality index of the seam is defined by the maximal force to seam rupture and relative elongation during rupture. The obtained results indicate that the seams are resistant to the pressure difference caused by the most extreme flight parameters.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Seam quality index
  • paraglider wing
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation of the Performance of Cotton/Polyester Blend in Different Yarn Structures

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The demand for polyester fiber is increasing gradually day by day. Because of its good strength, low manufacturing cost, and ease of modification, polyester fiber has distinct characteristics, whereas cotton is well known for its comfort. Blending these fibers improves the performance of yarns. In this study, cotton/polyester was blended in different ratios to evaluate yarn performance. Three groups of yarn: rigid, core, and dual-core-spun, have been produced to examine the yarn’s performance. From the study, it has been found that increasing the polyester blend ratio increases the yarn strength and elongation but decreases the yarn unevenness and imperfections. Among the group, having more core components decreases yarn strength, unevenness, and imperfection but increases elongation. From the statistical analysis, except strength, all other properties have good interaction on yarn type and blending ratio. Pearson correlation also indicated that elongation and hairiness have a good correlation with yarn type where, except for hairiness, all other properties have shown a strong positive correlation on blending ratio.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cotton
  • polyester
  • blending
  • core-spun yarn
  • dual-core-spun yarn
  • yarn performance
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Review on 3D Fabrication at Nanoscale

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Among the different nanostructures that have been demonstrated as promising materials for various applications, three–dimensional (3D) nanostructures have attracted significant attention as building blocks for constructing high-performance nanodevices because of their unusual mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and magnetic properties arising from their novel size effects and abundant active catalytic/reactive sites due to the high specific surface area. Considerable research efforts have been devoted to designing, fabricating, and evaluating 3D nanostructures for applications, including structural composites, electronics, photonics, biomedical engineering, and energy. This review provides an overview of the nanofabrication strategies that have been developed to fabricate 3D functional architectures with exquisite control over their morphology at the nanoscale. The pros and cons of the typical synthetic methods and experimental protocols are reviewed and outlined. Future challenges of fabrication of 3D nanostructured materials are also discussed to further advance current nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 3D nanostructure
  • nanoscale
  • nanofabrication
  • nanolithography
  • nanoprinting
  • nanomatching
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation of Actual Phenomena and Auxiliary Ultrasonic Welding Parameters on Seam Strength of PVC-Coated Hybrid Textiles

Online veröffentlicht: 09 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A study of polyvinylchloride-coated woven polyester fabric welding potential was conducted using continuous ultrasonic welding machines. The effect of cooling air, anvil wheel status, anvil wheel width, material surface contact, and welding gap on seam strength was studied. Three main welding parameters with different levels were selected based on 5 and 10 mm welding widths using old and new anvil wheels with and without cooling air. A lapped type of seam was applied under full factorial design. A microstructure was captured to examine the formation of welding joints, and seam tensile properties were determined. Comparative analysis of comparable welding parameters was analyzed for a gap against pressure and amplitude against power. The actual weld phenomenon was also analyzed based on the recorded machine parameters. The results showed that auxiliary parameters had a significant effect on seam strength. A microscopic image of a welded seam indicated that cooling air reduced the number and size of holes produced. Weld seam with controlled pressure or power provided higher seam strength than that of the controlled gap or amplitude. The actual phenomenon of welding parameters was important to evaluate weld seam quality, whereby the obtained results indicated good quality at lower power and pressure.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Auxiliary Welding Parameters
  • Actual Welding Phenomenon
  • Comparable Welding Parameters
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effects of Sensory Marketing on Clothing-Buying Behavior

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nowadays, intensive rivalry forces enterprises and brands to strive for differentiation. Use of marketing strategies, which can allure the consumers, effectively is one of the ways of differing oneself from one's rivals. Sensory marketing strategy, which affects the buying behavior and perception of consumers by alluring their senses, is one the marketing strategies whose importance and use have increased in recent years. This strategy also has been intensively used by enterprises that produce and market clothing products, which are one of the basic needs of consumers. In this context, this research study aims to analyze the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior. The research aims to reveal how consumers in Turkey, which is one of the leading global clothing exporters and at the same time which is one of the significant markets, are affected by sensory marketing factors during the clothing purchase process. In accordance with the aim of the research, a survey was conducted of consumers who live in the three biggest cities of Turkey and whose ages are 18 and over. The data, which were obtained from field research, were analyzed statistically and suggestions are made to enterprises and brands that produce clothing products and/or market clothing products, on the basis of the study's findings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Marketing strategies
  • sensory marketing
  • sense
  • perception
  • stimuli
  • buying behavior
  • consumer
  • clothing sector
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Development of a Small, Covered Yarn Prototype

Online veröffentlicht: 27 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The rapid development of the textile industry has led to the demand for more advanced textile equipment because the current covering yarn machines are large and expensive and have a large physical footprint. Also, the current technology is unsuitable for most laboratory research and small factory proofing. In this paper, the principle of forming covered yarn is analyzed and simplified in three systems: the unwinding system, the covering system, and the winding system. A small sample of low volume and better flexibility is developed, the production process and primary structure of the covered yarn prototype are introduced, and the covering effect of the small prototype is debugged and analyzed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • covered yarn
  • small prototype
  • core yarn
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Washing Characterization of Compression Socks

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Compression socks are highly recommended textile garments for the exertion of compression pressure (kPa) at the ankle. They work on the principle of the highest pressure at the ankle gradually decreasing from the ankle to the calf.

Aim

The aim of the current research is to analyze all of the compression sock samples (Class I, Class II, and Class III) simultaneously at various number of times of washing them.

Method

All of the sock samples were washed in a standard washing machine with standard methods (ISO 6330). For the measurement of the compression pressure, a Salzmann MST MKIV pressure measuring device was used according to the RAL-GZ 387/1 method.

Results

Results included the effect of multiple wearing and washing cycles (up to 20) on compression pressure, the effect of temperature (up to 100°C) on compression pressure (kPa); multiple wearing and washing cycles on the percentage of shrinkage and the effect of marking methodology on compression pressure (Kpa) were observed and are discussed in this article. The results suggest that washing is the most important factor to consider while compression socks are used for compression therapy because they directly influence the efficacy of streamline blood flow across the legs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • compression socks
  • washing
  • temperature
  • ankle
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Surface Modification of Himalayan Nettle Fiber and Characterization of the Morphology, Physical and Mechanical Properties

Online veröffentlicht: 27 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The process of retting bast fiber plants for the production of long fiber has presented major challenges. Water retting, dew retting, chemical extraction, and micro-organism (fungi, enzymes) techniques were applied to the extraction of natural fibers. The two nettle samples were extracted with water retting for 14 days and dew retting for 4 weeks. This research investigated the effects on the traditional retting process of nettle fiber by fungi and bacteria formation in lignocellulosic. The latter biological extraction methods successfully degraded the lignin and pectin materials of the fiber and increases the cellulose content. These extraction methods produced high quality fiber and tensile strength at a low cost. This study determined the chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics such as fiber cellulose, non-cellulosic content, tensile strength, tenacity, and elongation break to see how treatments affected them. The treated fiber surface morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate functional group alterations, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used on the fiber specimen.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cellulose
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Nettle fiber
  • Tensile strength
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Transport of Moisture in Car Seat Covers

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Transport of liquid water is one of the basic producer requirements to ensure the suitable physiological comfort of drivers. This paper deals with the investigation of car seat covers’ efficiency from the point of view of their moisture management. Two methods were used for the evaluation of moisture transport in the car seat cover structures. Both of them use a thermography system for water transport detection. The first method evaluates dynamic water spreading in cross-section in the frontal plane; the second one examines horizontally dynamic spreading of liquid drops on the upper face of the sample. The tested materials were designed to understand the role of the middle layer of textile sandwich car seats in their moisture management behavior. The same PES woven structure in the top layer was used for all tested samples. Knitted spacer fabric (3D spacer fabric), polyurethane foam, and nonwoven were used as padding in the middle layer in car seat covers. In summary, the distribution and transport of liquid moisture in a sandwich structure are fundamentally affected by the middle layer of composite, especially by material composition and the value of porosity. The best results were shown in 3D spacer fabric for car seat covers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Moisture management
  • car seat
  • thermography
  • cross-section
  • knitted spacer fabric
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Polyaniline Electrospun Composite Nanofibers Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Reinforcement of fibers was carried out by adding carbon black (CB), and hydroxylated and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into electrospinning solution containing doped polyaniline (CSA-PANI) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). CB/CSA-PANI/PAN and CNT/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber composite membrane was formed in high-voltage electric field. The CSA-PANI/CB/PAN fiber membrane was found to be more brittle than the MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane. The average diameter of the CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers increased with CB addition, while the average diameter of CNT-added MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers decreased with increasing CNT concentrations. Upon greater CB and CNT addition, agglomeration occurred, and the surface of the fibers was raised slightly. The fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane was greatly improved with 1% added CB but then decreased upon further CB addition. Upon addition of CNTs, the fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane first increased and then decreased, and the addition of carboxylated CNTs was more advantageous for improving the fracture strength of the fiber membrane. The electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber membranes was essentially the same for different radiation frequencies. Upon addition of CB and CNTs, the electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber first increased and then decreased, with a more pronounced decrease obtained by the addition of CB.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Carbon nanotube
  • doped polyaniline
  • carbon black
  • electrospun fiber membrane
  • mechanical properties
  • electric field shielding performance
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Numerical Prediction of the Heat Transfer in Air Gap of Different Garment Models

Online veröffentlicht: 13 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer and its mechanism for styling a design garment differently, and to improve thermal comfort caused by clothing styling design, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach has been used to perform numerical investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer across a clothing air gap. Relationships between the heat transfer from the body to clothing (computed by heat transfer equations) and the air gap were examined by body heat loss of different styles of garments. Also, the clothing temperature distribution of different garments was obtained and compared. Computed results reveal that the air gap can play a central role in the heat transfer from the body to the surface of different style garments. When the air gap is small enough, namely about 5 mm in the chest and bust of the X-type of clothing, the conductive heat flux can transfer through the air gap and reach the cloth surface easily, which will bring about the increase of temperature on the clothing surface. The decreasing air gap distance from 50 mm (O-type) to 10 mm (X-type) increases the convective heat flux by up to 25% on the waist. However, the airspeed will increase to greater numbers while the air gap decreases to narrow channels, and it will bring about fierce forced convection heat flux. So the heat transfer must be considered in the process of garment design, and the air gap should be kept at a suitable level. These findings can be used to improve the clothing’s thermal comfort or optimize the cloth structure.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Garment
  • air gap
  • heat transfer
  • thermal comfort
  • numerical simulation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Nondestructive Test Technology Research for Yarn Linear Density Unevenness

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Yarn linear density and linear density unevenness between fragments involve the mass and mass variation of yarn per unit length, which are important indices to reflect the uniformity of yarn thickness. Aiming at the shortcomings of the traditional testing method, which uses a yarn length tester to test these indices by counting length first and then cutting and measuring weight, a testing device that measures weight and counts length synchronously is designed and developed, so that the yarn can be continuous, recyclable, and reusable. Length counting is conducted by a length-counting disk connected to a photoelectric coded disk, and the result of length counting can be accurate to 0.01 m. The original skein frame with a perimeter of 1 m is replaced, so that the error caused by yarn overlapping is avoided. Through program control, the testing of a plurality of groups of linear density values can be completed at one time to calculate the linear density unevenness of different fragments of yarn, and the yarn can be led to a recovery spool through a yarn guide cylinder to form a new package. Polyester/viscose 65/35 blended yarn was taken as a test sample and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software. It is found that the results of the newly developed device are closer to the arbitration value; the whole experiment is completed at one time, which avoids the secondary error and reduces the labor intensity; and the raw materials can be recycled, which saves labor and raw material costs. The device has high value for industrialization and popularization.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Yarn linear density
  • fragment unevenness
  • weight measurement
  • length counting
  • synchronization testing
  • nondestructive recovery
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fit And Pressure Comfort Evaluation On A Virtual Prototype Of A Tight-Fit Cycling Shirt

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Jan 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Graduated compression is widely used for medical application to prevent perioperative venous thromboembolism, but other applications such as sportswear can potentially also benefit from it. A tight-fit cycling shirt meant to ensure the correct position during cycling and prevent injuries was designed. The aim of this study was to improve garment pattern design from the aspect of clothing pressure for providing support and enhancing comfort to the user. This paper investigates the suitability of pressure maps from 3D fashion design software CLO 3D for design and in particular its capability to discriminate between various materials and cycling postures. Moreover, the impact of the mechanical properties of fabric was analyzed. In particular, virtual prototyping tool CLO 3D and pressure mapping were employed to achieve the required graduated compression while ensuring fit and comfort. Pattern adjustments were iteratively performed until stress, strain, and pressure maps showed adequate fit and pressure of the cycling garment on the virtual cyclist in static and dynamic cycling positions. The impact of fabric types on garment fit has been shown by generating the stress, strain, and pressure maps with a virtual simulation. It was found that the visualized pressure on the human body model shows distributions that are related to contact between body and garment, and large compression stresses occur in the lower parts of the two shirts. Evident garment deformation was shown at hip level, upper arm, lower front side seam, and front neck, which can reduce garment wear comfort and freedom of movement. The output was found to be sufficiently accurate to optimize the garments based on material and cycling posture.

Schlüsselwörter

  • stretch fabric
  • pressure
  • virtual prototyping
  • CLO 3D
  • pattern modification
  • tight-fit sportswear
  • cycling posture
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Biomimetic Approach to Protective Glove Design: Inspirations from Nature and the Structural Limitations of Living Organisms

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Drawing inspiration from nature for the design of new technological solutions and smart materials constitutes an important development area for engineers and researchers in many disciplines. Biomimetic materials design brings numerous benefits, especially the possibility of implementing promising interdisciplinary projects based on effective existing solutions that have emerged in the course of natural evolution.

A major aspect of biomimetic materials design, especially relevant to protective gloves, is the identification of an optimum combination of the physicochemical properties and microstructural characteristics of a surface with a view to its potential applications. Properties such as wetting and adhesion can be adjusted by modifications of the surface morphology both on micro- and nanoscales. From the standpoint of the occupational safety performance of polymeric protective gloves, biomimetic materials should exhibit two crucial properties: reversible adhesion (via a large number of contact points) and hydrophobicity (water repellence).

This review analyzes the superhydrophobic and reversible adhesion patterns found in nature that can be used to improve the properties of polymeric protective gloves with major commercial implications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biomimetics
  • inspirations from nature
  • hydrophobicity
  • adhesive properties
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Experimental Investigation of the Wettability of Protective Glove Materials: A Biomimetic Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of the present work was to evaluate the surface wettability of commercially available polymeric protective gloves, as well as to determine the effects of their surface topography in conjunction with the glove material on the hydrophobic properties of the final products, together with surface free energy (SFE) and work of adhesion.

The geometric structures imparted to the surface led to different levels of hydrophobicity and SFE. Most of the studied materials were characterized by good wettability properties. It was shown that a textured surface topography affects wettability. The highest SFE was found for nitrile butadiene rubber materials. All materials except for nitrile butadiene rubber exhibited good hydrophobic properties and relatively low work of adhesion.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Protective gloves
  • surface free energy
  • wettability
  • hydrophobic properties
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Study On Structure And Anti-Uv Properties Of Sericin Cocoons

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Feb 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Through biogenetic engineering, the posterior silk glands of Bombyx mori larvae are degenerated, and only the middle silk glands are retained to secrete sericin to produce sericin fibers, so as to obtain sericin cocoons with high sericin content (>98.5%). For this paper, sericin cocoons were studied, and the morphological structure characteristics and properties of sericin cocoons and common Bombyx mori cocoons were compared and analyzed through such modern test techniques as SEM, FTIR, and XRD. Results show that sericin cocoons have the basic morphological structure of cocoons, but because of the brittleness and hardness of sericin, the ssericin cocoons have poor integrity with a thermal decomposition rate that is higher than that of cocoons; the two cocoons are of a similar protein structure, with both α-helix and β-sheet structures, and dominantly the β-sheet structure; and the crystallinity of sericin cocoons (10.48%) is lower than that of the common Bombyx mori cocoons (27.10%). Sericin was extracted from both cocoons to obtain a mixed sericin solution respectively, which were coated on base fabrics of polyester taffeta (210T) for coating finish and subjected to qualitative research for their anti-UV properties. The base fabrics coated with mixed sericin solutions of sericin cocoons and Bombyx mori cocoons have an anti-UV performance index (UPF) of 23.9% and 22.5% respectively, which are higher than that of the base fabric (8.9%).

Schlüsselwörter

  • sericin cocoon
  • sericin fiber
  • morphological structure
  • thermal property
  • anti-UV
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Review on Fabrication and Application of Regenerated Bombyx Mori Silk Fibroin Materials

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Natural silk fiber derived from the Bombyx mori (B. mori) silkworm has long been used as a luxury raw material in textile industry because of its shimmering appearance and durability, and as surgical suture for its high strength and flexibility. Regenerated silk fibroin, as the main protein extracted from the cocoons of the B. mori silkworm, recently has gained considerable attention due to its outstanding properties, including facile processability, superior biocompatibility, controllable biodegradation, and versatile functionalization. Tremendous effort has been made to fabricate silk fibroin into various promising materials with controlled structural and functional characteristics for advanced utilities in a multitude of biomedical applications, flexible optics, electronics devices, and filtration systems. Herein, reverse engineered silk fibroin extraction methods are reviewed, recent advances in extraction techniques are discussed. Fabrication methods of silk fibroin materials in various formats are also addressed in detail; in particular, progress in new fabrication technologies is presented. Attractive applications of silk fibroin-based materials are then summarized and highlighted. The challenges faced by current approaches in production of silk fibroin-based materials and future directions acquired for pushing these favorable materials further toward above mentioned applications are further elaborated.

Schlüsselwörter

  • B. mori silk fibroin
  • biocompatibility
  • biodegradation
  • biomedical application
  • flexible optics
  • electronics devices
  • filtration
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Study on the Woven Construction of Fabric Dyed With Natural Indigo Dye and Finishing for Applying to Product Design for Home Textile Products

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This research aims to study woven fabric construction with natural indigo dyeing with finishing for home textile applications. The physical and mechanical properties, including color fastness tests, of these woven fabrics according to ISO standards for home textiles exported to the European Union were characterized. Tensile strength, tear strength, and pilling resistance of these woven fabrics were appropriate to design, and had enough strength for bed linens, duvet covers, and pillowcases. The color fastness to washing, water, and light of these woven fabrics passed the requirements for bed linens and pillowcases, except for color fastness to wet rubbing, due to the low performance of natural dyestuff. Thus, a finishing technique of water repellency was applied to improve these properties. This design of natural fiber fabrics dyed with natural indigo was developed for home textile products whose fabrics were produced by community enterprise. These home textile products can be used as a collection prototype for a spa room in a hotel.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Color fastness
  • home textiles
  • indigo dyeing
  • physical and mechanical properties
  • woven fabric
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Calculation Method for the Deformation Behavior of Warp-Knitted Fabric

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, a new method to simulate the structure and loop deformation behavior of double-bar reflex-lapping warp-knitted fabrics based on the structural characteristics is proposed. A simplified mass-spring model was built in which loops knitted by filaments were considered as particles with the uniform mass distribution connected by structure springs for overlaps and shear springs for underlaps. Deformation forces and direction on particles were analyzed to describe the displacement and deformation behavior of particles. A loop model with eight control points was established, and the relationship between control points and particles was studied combining the quadratic Bezier curves. The deformation simulation was implemented by a simulator program with C# and JavaScript via web technology on Visual Studio 2015. The stereoscopic sense of filaments was realized by changing the direction and intensity of the light. The results show that the fabric deformation and the loop shape can be accurately achieve using the simplified mass-spring model compared with the real sample.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Warp-knitted
  • mass-spring system
  • deformation
  • simulation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Textronic Solutions Used for Premature Babies: A Review

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Premature birth is considered to be a substantial problem in perinatal medicine, which in the vast majority of cases (>60%), concerns African and South Asian countries. Nevertheless, prematurity is a global problem and is faced by both less-developed (where 12% of babies are prematurely born) and well-developed countries (with 9% prematurity rate) [1, 2]. The percentage of children born prematurely, i.e., before the 37th week of pregnancy, was 8.7% in Europe, while, in Poland, it was 7.34% [3]. Care of prematurely born babies is a huge challenge for parents and medical staff in the neonatal intensive care unit. Preterm infants, because of their low weight and gestational age, are prone to health problems and even death. For this reason, continuous monitoring of health parameters plays an important role. It is achieved by the use of various sensors that are inserted in infants’ garments. Sensor systems monitor an infant’s health condition, and then the data are transmitted to doctors or parents. This article is for illustrative purposes, aimed at presenting solutions such as the use of sensors for monitoring infants’ physiological parameters.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Wearable sensors for infants
  • textronics
  • smart clothing
  • health monitoring
  • neonatal monitoring
  • wearable sensors
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparative Analysis of Structure and Properties of Stereoscopic Cocoon and Flat Cocoon

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cocoon is a kind of natural biopolymer material with reasonable structure and various functions. However, its structure and functions are often destroyed in practical application. In this study, we took common Bombyx Mori as the research object, and provided different cocooning sites for single or multiple silkworms to construct common stereoscopic cocoons (“normal cocoons” [NC]) and flat cocoons (“single-silkworm flat cocoons” [SFC] and “multi-silkworm flat cocoons” [MFC]), respectively, and compared the morphological structure and basic properties of these cocoons. The study found that the flat cocoons have similar multi-layered variable structure and characteristics compared to those of the common cocoons; also, morphological characteristics and physical and chemical properties of silk fiber from outer layer to inner layer, such as sericin content, fiber fineness, and change rule of basic mechanical properties, are completely consistent with those of the common cocoons. It can be considered that the flat cocoons are constructed by silkworms in the same “procedural” process as that of common cocoons. Due to the expansion of cocooning space, the mechanical properties of fibers are significantly improved. By controlling the size of the cocooning space or the quantity of silkworms cocooning simultaneously, and the time of spinning, a cocoon material with controllable thickness, weight per square meter, porosity, and number of cocoon layers can be obtained as a composite material for direct application.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Stereoscopic cocoon
  • flat cocoon
  • structure
  • property
  • procedural
  • comparison
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Influence of Multilayer Interlocked Fabrics Structure on their Thermal Performance

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper examines the influence of weaving variables such as yarn count, number of layers, warp and weft ratio, materials of the top layer, weft density and interlocking cell shape, and size on the thermal performance of multilayer interlocked woven fabrics. A split-plot design was used to construct a total of 64 fabric structures, which were assessed for thermal performance in terms of resistance to convective, conductive, and radiative heat. It was found that, for equal weft density and yarn number, protective performance improved with the number of fabric layers and with the presence of air cells between these layers, especially if air was not trapped within and could rather pass freely between the cells. An optimal combination of factors for the thermal response to the three types of heat was established via a Derringer–a much needed desirability function. The results of this paper are useful for identifying the interaction between configuration parameters and thermal performance, and hence for the design of improved heat protective clothing.

Schlüsselwörter

  • multilayer interlocked fabrics
  • thermal protective performance
  • aramid
  • viscose FR
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Smart Textile for Building and Living

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In construction, textiles can be used either for reinforcing the structure or for finishing design. When we talk about function, the interior is no less important than the exterior and architecture of the building. Thus using textiles to reinforce the structure of buildings, textiles often perform a desired function of reinforcing the “finish.” Building textile materials include fibers that are mixed with concrete, fiberglass reinforcement meshes, insulators, etc. Textile architecture covers permanent tensile structures based on polyester or glass fiber fabrics, with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating and awnings generally supported by polyester or polyolefin fabrics, with or without coating, especially for gardening. All above topics are covered within this perspective with the experts from the group of smart textiles for building and living within COST Action CA17107 European Network to Connect Research and Innovation Efforts on Advanced Smart Textiles (CONTEXT) [1].

Schlüsselwörter

  • Smart textile
  • building
  • living
  • acoustic
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Automatic Identification Of Wrist Position In A Virtual Environment For Garment Design

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Jan 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

With the development of virtual reality, computer-aided design has shown its strength in the garment product development process. Wrist position corresponds to the styloid process of the ulna (SPU). Due the problem that the SPU position is usually not the finest position of the forearm, the wrist position identification in the 3D clothing design is quite important. This paper proposes a method that uses a fixed-step search algorithm based on existing proportion methods to determine the position of the SPU. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method has been validated using 100 samples by comparison with the existing methods. It can be fully applied to a virtual 3D-to-2D garment prototyping process and ensure the automation of this process.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Design process
  • automatic design
  • sustainable fashion
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of Heat Transfer through a Protective Clothing Package

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Nov 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The protective clothing packages, which protect the human body against hot factors in a foundry are in continuous development to increase their resistance and comfort of use. The problem of heat transfer through textiles is the active field of research and reliable numerical modeling of this process can be helpful to design high-quality protective products. Therefore, the numerical model of heat transfer through the package based on the aluminized basalt fabric was developed. The macroscopic geometry of weft and warp threads was reproduced in agreement with samples of plain weave basalt fabric. Mapping the stochastically distributed individual monofilaments in basalt threads, as well as modeling the heat transfer between them, was impossible at the microscopic level. Therefore, the weft and warp threads were modeled as a porous material with a homogeneous distribution of basalt and air in their structure. Data from measurements of the bare and aluminized basalt fabrics by the Alambeta device were used to determine the model parameters. The model was used to simulate the heat transfer through the protective package composed of the aluminized basalt fabric, wool clothing, and cotton underwear. A good agreement of model results was found for measurement results in such a package. The presented procedure allowed for the determination of the main thermal properties of tested basalt fabrics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Basalt fabrics
  • glass fabrics
  • aluminized basalt fabrics
  • heat transfer modeling
  • thermal conductivity
  • protective clothing
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Study on the Thermal and Impact Resistance Properties of Micro PA66/PU Synergistically Reinforced Multi-Layered Biaxial Weft Knitted Fabric Composites

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Nov 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, the influence of micro PA66/PU in multi-layered biaxial weft knitted (MBWK) fabric reinforced composites on thermal and impact resistance was studied. The main objective was to investigate the role of micro PA66/PU in terms of improving material performance. The results showed that the addition of micro PA66/PU improved the thermal stability of the MBWK composite. It is observed that the onset degradation temperatures increased by 1.6°C in thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) test and the Tg increased by 2.8°C in the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test. Besides, the impact energy absorption of composites increased by 5.3% after the addition of micro PA66/PU. The addition of micro PA66/PU effectively reduced the impact damage area from the failure morphology after impact. In simple words, the addition of micro PA66/PU effectively improves the comprehensive properties of composites.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Micro PA66/PU
  • MBWK composite
  • thermal stability
  • impact resistance
  • combustion resistance
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Lycra Weight Percent and Loop Length on Thermo-physiological Properties of Elastic Single Jersey Knitted Fabric

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this work is to estimate the effect of loop length and Lycra weight percent (Lwp) on the geometrical and thermo-physiological comfort of elastic plain knitted fabric. Fifty single jersey knitted fabric samples were produced at five levels of Lycra weight percent (Lwp) (4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, and 8%) and loop length (2.7 mm, 2.9 mm, 3.1 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.4 mm) with full plaited (fp) and half plaited (hp) of bare Lycra. The thermo-physiological comfort properties (thermal conductivity, absorptivity, and water vapor permeability), air permeability, and geometrical properties were measured at standard of each one. The results showed that the elastic single jersey knitted fabric thickness ranged between 3.12 times and 4.2 times of the yarn diameter (d). The fabric thickness increased when loop length is increased and decreased when Lwp is increased. The thermal conductivity, absorptivity, and water vapor resistance (WVR) decreased with Lwp increasing.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Thermo-physiological comfort properties
  • Lycra weight percent
  • elastic knitted fabric
  • fabric thickness
  • thermal conductivity
  • water vapor resistance
  • full plaited
  • half plaited
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comfort-Related Properies of Cotton Seersucker Fabrics

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This work concerns the comfort-related properties of seersucker woven fabrics made of cotton. Seersucker woven fabrics are characterized by alternating puckered and flat strips in the warp direction. Some researchers consider that due to this structure seersucker fabrics are characterized by very good comfort-related properties. In this work seersucker fabrics with differing repeats of the seersucker effect and different weft yarns were investigated in intense heat and high moisture transfer. Results showed that the structural factors significantly influence the comfort-related properties of the investigated cotton fabrics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Seersucker
  • fabrics
  • comfort
  • measurement
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pressure Evaluation Of Seamless Yoga Leggings Designed With Partition Structure

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Jan 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

It is a novel approach to design the partition structure of clothing according to the deformation of the human body surface skin during exercise. The functional evaluation of these products remains unknown, and there is limited knowledge about the effects of the partition structure design on the pressure comfort of clothing. This research carried out a partitioned structural design of the leggings based on the skin deformation of the lower limbs of the human body during yoga exercise and developed two styles of seamless yoga leggings. The skin pressure exerted by the new seamless yoga leggings was compared with two commercial yoga leggings. Eight female college students were invited to wear all the yoga leggings samples and perform yoga exercises. The skin pressure exerted by yoga leggings was measured by the German novel-Pliance multipurpose pressure distribution measurement system on 10 body positions. The results showed that yoga leggings designed with a partitioned structure exert a comfortable pressure on the skin during yoga exercise, and the pressure change was smaller under different yoga postures, which has better pressure stability. The partition structure design model of seamless yoga leggings was optimized, which provided a reference for the functional partition design and product development of seamless yoga leggings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Yoga leggings
  • seamless knitting
  • partition structure
  • clothing pressure
  • pressure evaluation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Application of Coating Mixture Based on Silica Aerogel to Improve Thermal Protective Performance of Fabrics

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main aim of this research is to improve the protective thermal performance of fabrics. Flame-resistant fabrics characterizing comparable thermal properties were chosen, cotton fabric with a flame-retardant finish and Nomex® fabric. To improve thermal parameters the coating mixture, based on silica aerogel, was applied on one side of the sample surface. Parameters such as the thermal conductivity, resistance to contact, and radiant heat were determined based on the standards, which set high expectations for the protective clothing. Analysis of the coated fabrics surfaces was conducted based on confocal microscopy. It was found that the coating mixture caused a decrease in thermal conductivity. All the modified fabrics reached 1st efficiency level of protection against contact and radiant heat. The best sample from the point of view of protection against contact and radiant heat was modified cotton fabric with a flame-retardant finish. The coating mixture contained 45 wt% of silica aerogel. Moreover, better adhesion of the coating mixture to the cotton fabric compared with Nomex® fabric was observed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • silica aerogel
  • woven fabrics
  • thermal properties
  • protective clothing
  • hot work environment
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

From Raw To Finished Cotton—Characterization By Interface Phenomena

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Jan 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Interface phenomena that occur at the solid–liquid interface, such as wettability, adsorption, and particle aggregation, depend on the kind and magnitude of the solid surface free energy and electrokinetic properties found in water solutions. These phenomena are crucial for textile dyeing, finishing, and care. They characterize the material surface and change with different material pretreatment and finishing. In this paper, electrokinetic potential, isoelectric point, point of zero charge, a specific amount of surface charge and surface free energy of raw, enzymatically scoured, bleached, and finished cotton fabrics were investigated. Electrokinetic potential was measured by a streaming potential method and a specific quantity of surface charge by the back-titration method. For determination of the solid surface free energy components, the thin-layer wicking and contact-angle methods were used. On the basis of these results, components of solid surface free energy were calculated and discussed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cotton fabric
  • scouring
  • bleaching
  • DMDHEU
  • FC resin
  • zeta potential (ZP)
  • surface charge
  • surface free energy
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Approach to Performance Rating of Retroreflective Textile Material Considering Production Technology and Reflector Size

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study investigates retroreflective fabrics’ efficiency from the point of view of the interaction of their visibility, thermo-physiological comfort properties, and durability (represented by physical-mechanical performance). The effect of the combination of two production technologies (reflective transfer films and screen printing method) and two reflector covering sizes (25% and 85%) was examined. Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method was used to determine the best solution considering the abovementioned tested categories of properties. Retroreflective performance was in congruence with the used design coverage factor of the tested pattern. It was found that retroreflection of the tested pattern produced using screen printing technology was significantly lower than retroreflection of an identical pattern made by a transfer film. On the contrary, in terms of thermo-physiological comfort and physical-mechanical performance of the tested samples, screen printing technology shows significantly better results in almost all tested properties, especially in water vapor permeability, moisture management, and physical-mechanical performance. The solution for the abovementioned contradictory results can be achieved by using a combination of the advantages associated with each of these technology methods. Screen printing can be applied to specific regions of clothing that are exposed to extreme loading or sweating, and the transfer of film elements ensures high visibility with respect to the standards and biomotion principles that are deployed as prevalent benchmarks in the industry.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Visibility
  • retroreflection
  • thermo-physiological comfort
  • durability
  • multi-criteria decision
  • TOPSIS
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Blend Electrospinning of Poly(Ɛ-Caprolactone) and Poly(Ethylene Glycol-400) Nanofibers Loaded with Ibuprofen as a Potential Drug Delivery System for Wound Dressings

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Electrospinning (ES) is a versatile and diverse technique to fabricate nano and micro fibers that could be utilized as drug delivery systems. The aim of this research was the fabrication and characterization of drug loaded nanofibrous scaffold produced by single-needle ES using poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol-400) (PEG) and to investigate the potential of this material as a drug delivery system. A model drug, Ibuprofen (IBU), was used. Ibuprofen is a medicine that is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Two concentrations of IBU, 5 wt% and 7 wt%, were incorporated for the ES of PCL and PCL/PEG nanofibers. Characterization of nanofibers was done by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Water Contact Angle Measurements. The impact of IBU on nanofibers’ properties such as morphology, diameters, hydrophilicity, and tensile strength was investigated. Finally, the drug release kinetics of IBU from nanofibers was analyzed and their percentage release efficiency of IBU (RE%) was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy during 24 h.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Poly(ethylene glycol)-400
  • blend electrospinning
  • crystallinity
  • drug-delivery system
  • Ibuprofen
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Development of the Smart T-Shirt for Monitoring Thermal Status of Athletes

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Athletes are often subjected to a great physical strain during training and competition. Sport activities performed in hot and humid conditions may result in different heat illnesses with mild or fatal consequences. Against this background it is important to know the thermal state of athletes during physical activity.

This article presents the development of a smart T-shirt for monitoring the thermal status of an athlete. The smart T-shirt was created by embedding an electronic system with temperature and humidity sensors that allows the measurement of temperature and the relative humidity of the microclimate. A smart T-shirt is comfortable, and integrated sensors and electronics do not affect wearing comfort. A good concurrence between the temperature and humidity results from using the smart T-shirt, and thus the medical device was achieved. Data obtained can be of great importance to the sports staff who will be able to monitor the athletes' thermal state during matches and competitions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Smart T-shirt
  • microclimate temperature
  • relative humidity of the microclimate
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fea-Based Structural Heat Transfer Characteristic of 3-D Orthogonal Woven Composite Subjected to the Non-Uniform Heat Load

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The thermodynamic behavior of 3-D orthogonal woven composite is studied to explore its structural heat transfer mechanism in a non-uniform heat load field based on finite element analysis (FEA). The temperature distribution characteristics of the resin matrix and the fabric reinforcement are observed to compare the heat absorption. Furthermore, the dynamic expansion and distribution characteristics of temperature in the 3-D orthogonal woven composite structure have also been quantitatively studied, together with simultaneously obtaining the path characteristics of the heat transfer in each system (i.e., warp yarns, weft yarns, and Z-yarns). In addition, the spatial temperature distribution characteristics of each yarn system in the fabric reinforcement are also explored. Thus, the structural mechanism of heat conduction for 3-D orthogonal woven composite is obtained.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 3-D orthogonal woven composite
  • heat transfer
  • non-uniform heat load
  • finite element analysis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Texture Representation and Application of Colored Spun Fabric Using Uniform Three-Structure Descriptor

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The local binary pattern (LBP) and its variants have shown their effectiveness in texture images representation. However, most of these LBP methods only focus on the histogram of LBP patterns, ignoring the spatial contextual information among them. In this paper, a uniform three-structure descriptor method was proposed by using three different encoding methods so as to obtain the local spatial contextual information for characterizing the nonuniform texture on the surface of colored spun fabrics. The testing results of 180 samples with 18 different color schemes indicate that the established texture representation model can accurately express the nonuniform texture structure of colored spun fabrics. In addition, the overall correlation index between texture features and sample parameters is 0.027 and 0.024, respectively. When compared with the LBP and its variants, the proposed method obtains a higher representational ability, and simultaneously owns a shorter time complexity. At the same time, the algorithm proposed in this paper enjoys ideal effectiveness and universality for fabric image retrieval. The mean Average Precision (mAP) of the first group of samples is 86.2%; in the second group of samples, the mAP of the sample with low twist coefficient is 89.6%, while the mAP of the sample with high twist coefficient is 88.5%.

Schlüsselwörter

  • colored spun fabric
  • non-uniform texture
  • texture representation
  • three-structure descriptor
  • uniform mode
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation of Twist Waves Distribution along Structurally Nonuniform Yarn

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper presents the features of yarn structure formation on spinning machine, i.e. yarn twist change when winding. It was considered that the twist distribution was one of the reasons for its decrease along the formed yarn. In this paper, based on analysis of changes in thickness and twist due to axial deformation, we consider a yarn moving at constant speed. Moving dynamics of yarn are studied here by using Euler variables. The correspondences of forward and reverse twist waves’ distribution speeds on presented frequency at various vibration forms are obtained. The parameters of Doppler effect for the waves distributed along the yarn are determined.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Yarn structure
  • yarn twist
  • twist distribution
  • thickness
  • twist waves
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tensile Properties Analysis Of 3D Flat-Knitted Inlay Fabric Reinforced Composites Using Acoustic Emission

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Jan 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this work, based on the quasi-static tensile test and acoustic emission technology, the tensile properties of two types of three-dimensional flat-knitted inlay fabrics reinforced composites are investigated, and the acoustic emission characteristic parameters of various damage mechanisms are obtained. The transverse tensile process of specimens could be divided into the elastic stage, yield stage, and fracture stage. We found that, compared with the fluctuation of the stress-strain curve in the yield stage, weft insertion yarns in composite with interlock structure broke almost simultaneously, while the composite with plain stitch broke successively. The transverse and longitudinal tensile strength of the composite with interlock structure was 44.70% and 28.63% higher than the composite with plain structure, respectively. The SEM micrographs showed that the damage mechanism of the composites was matrix fracture, fiber-matrix debonding, and fiber breakage. The amplitude ranges of the three damage mechanisms were 50–65 dB, 65–80 dB, and 90–100 dB, respectively, and the frequency ranges were 35–114 kHz, 116–187 kHz, and 252–281 kHz, respectively. Fiber-matrix debonding and matrix fracture had large cumulative AE energy, numerous events, and long duration time, while fiber breakage had the characteristics of large amplitude, high frequency, low cumulative AE energy, few events, and short duration time.

Schlüsselwörter

  • flat-knitted fabric
  • weft inlays
  • composites
  • tensile properties
  • acoustic emission
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Conductive Heat Transfer Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this study, an algebraic model and its experimental verification was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture content on the heat loss that takes place due to conduction of sock fabrics. The results show that increasing moisture content in the studied socks caused a significant increase in their conductive heat loss. Plain knitted socks with different fiber composition were wetted to a saturated level, and then their moisture content was reduced stepwise. When achieving the required moisture content, the socks samples were characterized by the Alambeta testing instrument for heat transfer. Three different existing modified mathematical models for the thermal conductivity of wet fabrics were used for predicting thermal resistance of socks under wet conditions. The results from both ways are in very good agreement for all the socks at a 95% confidence level. In the above-mentioned models, the prediction of thermal resistance presents newly a combined effect of the real filling coefficient and thermal conductivity of the so-called “wet” polymers instead of dry polymers. With these modifications, the used models predicted the thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Predicted thermal resistance is converted into heat transfer (due to conduction) with a significantly high coefficient of correlation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Heat transfer
  • mathematical modeling
  • plain socks
  • moisture content
  • filling coefficient
  • volume porosity
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessment and Semantic Categorization of Fabric Visual Texture Preferences

Online veröffentlicht: 03 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The texture of a fabric can be perceived by the haptic and visual senses. Visual texture can be defined as a visual quality of a surface. It is an important phenomenon because it can be significant in many fields, such as textile design and e-commerce. At the same time, when we consider the semantics of the word, it is important to take into account that there are a variety of manifestations of fabrics (e.g., woven, knitted, etc.). The mechanism of visual texture perception of fabrics was investigated by measuring visual evaluation values. In our experiment, 12 textile samples with different surface textures are evaluated using thirty-four adjectives (Kansei words). For each visual texture, the adjectives with the highest mean ratings are extracted and analyzed. By using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we aimed to discover and determine preferences for the visual texture of fabrics. The result is a semantic explanation of fabric texture with the adjectives proposed, which can help customers to evaluate the quality of the textile.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Fabric
  • hierarchical cluster analysis
  • principal component analysis
  • semantic meaning
  • textile
  • texture
  • visual preference
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Effect of Different Yarn Combinations on Auxetic Properties of Plied Yarns

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study presents the effects of a novel plied yarn structure consisting of different yarn components and yarn twist levels on the Poisson's ratio and auxetic behavior of yarns. The plied yarn structures are formed with bulky and soft yarn components (helical plied yarn [HPY], braided yarn, and monofilament latex yarn) and stiff yarn components (such as high tenacity [HT] and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]-coated polyester yarns) to achieve auxetic behavior. Experimental results showed that as the level of yarn twist increased, the Poisson's ratios and the tensile modulus values of the plied yarns decreased, but the elongation values increased. A negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) was obtained in HT–latex and PVC–latex plied yarns with a low twist level. The plied yarns formed with braid–HPY and braid–braid components gave partial NPR under tension. A similar result was achieved for yarns with HT–latex and PVC–latex components. Since partial NPR was seen in novel plied yarns with braided and HPY components, it is concluded that yarns formed with bulky–bulky yarn components could give an auxetic performance under tension.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Auxetic effect
  • partial NPR
  • plied yarn
  • braided yarn
  • twist level
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mechanical Properties of Composites Reinforced with Technical Embroidery Made of Flax Fibers

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Jun 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main purpose of the article is to present the new possibilities of producing composite reinforcement with the use of a computer embroidery machine. This kind of production is in line with the principles of sustainable development. The study below presents the results of strength tests of composites containing sevenfold embroidery systems. Each variant included different directions of arrangement of individual layers as a reinforcement. Flax roving was used to strengthen the composite. Flax fibers are characterized by the highest strength among all-natural fibers, at the level of 50–80 cN/tex. The composite was made using the vacuum bag method, using epoxy resin. The embroidery was made on a ZSK embroidery machine, type JCZA 0109-550. The test material was subjected to strength tests—tensile strength, tensile elongation, and bending strength, on the INSTRON machine. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the arrangement of the roving in the direction of the tensile force allowed to obtain the best mechanical properties.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Technical embroidery
  • embroidery
  • embroidery machine
  • automated fiber placement
  • lay-up
  • composite
  • vacuum infusion
  • flax fibers
  • particle-reinforcement
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Archaeology and Virtual Simulation Restoration of Costumes in the Han Xizai Banquet Painting

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Mar 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Based on 3D virtual fitting technology, this paper simulates and reproduces the fabric patterns and sewing processes of 12 characters’ costumes in different scenes on the basis of completing the archaeology of the characters’ costumes in the painting, so as to realize the 3D virtual sewing and digital simulation restoration of the characters costumes. This paper draws the style diagram, structure diagram and 3D virtual simulation diagram of the character costumes in the painting. The article further improves the research on the costumes of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, which has a certain reference value for the study of ancient character costumes and the promotion of Chinese garment culture. At the same time, it provides a reference for the design of artistic works such as character costumes in film and television and games.

Schlüsselwörter

  • the Han Xizai Banquet painting
  • cultural heritage
  • archaeology
  • virtual simulation
  • restoration
  • ancient costume
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Modeling Lean and Six Sigma Integration using Deep Learning: Applied to a Clothing Company

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Implementation of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies enable companies to boost their competitiveness and their efficiency. However, the adoption of these approaches is very much restricted in the Textile and Clothing sector in Morocco. In fact, despite all the advances in these methodologies and practical approaches, defining a rational implementation strategy such as the adequate chronology and the prediction of the expected success level are still a part of a fierce debate and an impediment for practitioners. The result is that only 11 companies out of 1,200 Moroccan clothing companies have successfully implemented Lean and Six Sigma. This article, based on an intelligent model, draws up a support tool to the clothing stakeholders, or otherwise aims to successfully integrate Lean and Six Sigma using Deep Learning. The neural network was trained for the prediction of success level rate and customizing of Lean and Six Sigma implementation chronology with the help of weights and maturity of a set of common critical success factors (CSFs). These CFSs were selected as input data. Then, the dataset have been used for training, testing, and validating the neural network model. To evaluate the trained network, 25% of the data have been used and a tuning hyperparameter process has been designed to reinforce the model performance. For the performance indices such as Categorical Cross Entropy (CCE), the defined loss function, accuracy, and precision have been evaluated and optimized. The developed model can then define the adequate chronology and predict success level with an accuracy of 97%. The trained neural network was then applied to a clothing company as a guide to the success of its continuous improvement project.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Lean Six Sigma
  • critical success factors
  • chronology
  • success level
  • neural network
  • clothing
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Modeling of Material Characteristics of Conventional Synthetic Fabrics

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article presents a method for modeling the material characteristics of synthetic fabrics based on static tensile test results with consideration of material orthotropy. Material characteristics were determined for fabrics under load at three different angles in relation to their orthotropy. The fabrics examined were the following: polyester fabrics Bratex and Ortalion, cotton fabric with nylon and elastin fabric (poplin), and Gore-Tex membrane fabric. Considering the material mechanical characteristics, the differences were in grammage, maximum strain, and tensile strength. The study allowed us to determine the nonlinear elastic dependency between strain and stress. Test results were implemented within the Abaqus/Explicit framework for the purpose of performance of verification simulations. The correlation between simulated and experimental results was established. A high degree of similarity allows us to classify the obtained material model as usable in simulation work.

Schlüsselwörter

  • polyester fabrics
  • down, feathers
  • fluff
  • picture frame test
  • static shear test
  • numerical simulation
  • materials modeling
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigating the Effect of Recycled Cotton Included Fabrics on the Thermal Behaviour by Using a Female Thermal Manikin

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Sep 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In recent years, with the increase in global awareness of environmental problems, the term “sustainability” became more important for apparel manufacturers and consumers. Therefore, recycling of wastes plays a significant role in environmental sustainability by converting the wastes into raw materials. This study focused on recycled cotton-included fabrics, to evaluate the effect of these fabrics on thermal comfort properties. In this context, first, the 45% recycled cotton/55% polyester blended yarns and 50% virgin cotton/50% blended yarns were obtained. Afterwards, single jersey and rib-structured fabrics were knitted using these yarns. The thermal comfort tests were performed on the fabrics and four long sleeve rounded neck shirts then were manufactured using these fabrics to test by the thermal manikin method. Results showed that the yarns including recycled cotton led to a decrease in the values in air permeability of the fabrics and in the effective clothing insulation of the garments. In contrast, it was observed that, including recycled cotton increased the thermal resistance values of the fabrics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Apparel industry
  • sustainability
  • recycling
  • thermal comfort
  • thermal manikin
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Application of Spectral Analysis in Spinning Measurements

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Sep 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The presented analysis concerns the problem of irregularity in the mass distribution in linear textile products, its impact on the quality of flat products, and the methods of assessment. Based on the model of the ideal fiber stream, the purpose of the spectrogram has been justified, the characteristic form of the spectrogram for the yarn, roving, and sliver has been presented, and the impact of spinning machines on the form of the spectrogram has been described. The paper evaluates also the selected aspects of spectral analysis of the yarn and spinning semi-finished product irregularities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • spectral analysis
  • fiber stream
  • yarn
53 Artikel
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A Fabric-Based Integrated Sensor Glove System Recognizing Hand Gesture

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The research on wearable glove sensor system has been increasing over recent years because of the need for portability and comfort. This study presents a fabric-based integrated sensor glove system with five sensing zones. Five sensors are knitted by silver-plated nylon yarn and embedded into glove directly using intarsia technology. Various parameters including sensor elasticity, sizes of embedded sensor as well as glove are discussed, respectively. Further, selected or chosen integrated sensor glove is manufactured and tested for recognizing gestures. Results show that elasticity affects effective sensing range of knitted sensors, size has significant influence on sensors’ sensitivity, and appropriate glove size helps avoiding nonlinear sensing phenomenon. Finally, the glove system, by extracting feature data, can distinguish Chinese number gestures very well and has also the potential to recognize more hand gestures in the future.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sensor glove
  • conductive fabrics
  • strain sensor
  • hand gestures tracking
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Developing Real Avatars for the Apparel Industry and Analysing Fabric Draping in the Virtual Domain

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The youth of today are much more technologically adept than previous generations. This has led to many technological innovations, and the development of these innovations has in turn altered our perception of the world. The film, gaming, and clothing industries have been forced to embrace new technology to satisfy the demand of people for a more realistic virtual experience. These industries all rely on the use of 3D avatars to create virtual depictions of the human body. In the gaming and film industry, the accuracy of the avatar is not so critical. The avatars used in computer games and CGI sections of films have soft contours, which look visually appealing, but are not necessarily accurate to the human form. By contrast, the apparel industry needs to focus on creating very accurate avatars, which represent each person's body shape for virtual fitting to achieve realistic, well-fitted garments. This article describes the methods used to build an avatar and compares the draping between the following scenarios: the real avatar with a real garment, the real avatar with a virtual garment, and finally the virtual avatar with a virtual garment. This research will help to understand how the body shape can affect the virtual fit.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 3D avatars
  • 3D avatar software
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Preliminary Experimental Investigation of Cut-Resistant Materials: A Biomimetic Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Apr 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of the work was the preliminary experimental investigation of cut-resistant materials including a biomimetic perspective. The effects of the cutting were expressed as static and dynamic cut resistance of the following materials: knitted fabrics, woven fabrics, continuously coated knitted fabrics, and dot-coated knitted fabrics. The cutting process gives rise to frictional forces, but the current test methods for cut-resistant gloves are not designed to measure them. Therefore additionally, the cut resistance of the material was evaluated using a modified procedure based on the standard EN 1082-1, taking into consideration grip strength tests to assess if there is a potential correlation between cut resistance and anti-slip properties.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Protective gloves
  • cut-resistant materials
  • grip strength properties
  • biomimetic
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fabrication and Characterization of Fibrous Polycaprolactone Blended with Natural Green Tea Extracts Using Dual Solvent Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jan 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nanofibrous dressings serve as an impeccable candidate in the management of wounds. Nanofibrous composites composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and green tea using dual solvent systems at different ratios were fabricated through electrospinning. Pure PCL electrospun fibers along with composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wettability, water uptake analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM indicated that fibrous morphology and the diameter of PCL/green tea were smaller for chloroform/dimethylformamide (DMF) (601 nm) and acetone/DMF (896 nm) than the pure PCL (673 nm and 1,104 nm for chloroform/DMF and acetone/DMF, respectively). Wettability of the fabricated composites was increased, and pure PCL fibers were slightly more hydrophobic (100°) than PCL/green tea (94°). Water uptake of the composites was enhanced compared with PCL significantly in acetone/DMF. The PCL/green tea nanofibrous wound dressing with enhanced physicochemical properties serves as an indispensable candidate for wound healing applications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Nanofibrous
  • composite
  • electrospinning
  • green tea
  • wound healing
  • water uptake
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Durable Wash-Resistant Antimicrobial Treatment of Knitted Fabrics

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jun 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Antimicrobial finishing is increasingly used in textile products to increase their functionality. Antimicrobial properties became extremely important during the COVID-19 situation. The main problems faced by antimicrobial finishing are nontoxicity and durability (wash-resistance) of antibacterial activity. Also, it is important to determine whether the antimicrobial finishing changes comfort properties, such as air permeability. This paper deals with the durability of antimicrobial treatment, that is, resistance to washing, and effect on the structural changes that may have influence on the comfort properties, such as permeability to air. Knits of various raw compositions were antimicrobial-treated with the new commercial antimicrobial product, Si Bactericidal (Smart Inovation, Portugal). After the antimicrobial treatment, knitted specimens were washed 50 times and changes in their structural parameters, air permeability, and antimicrobial activity were measured. It was found that the mentioned antimicrobial treatment gives very good antimicrobial activity to the treated fabric and is wash-resistant and long-lasting. Also, it does not change dimensions and permeability to air of the treated fabrics with some exceptions of cotton-based knitted structures.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Antimicrobial treatment
  • antimicrobial activity
  • weft knit
  • air permeability
  • structural changes
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determination of Sewing Thread Consumption for 602, 605, and 607 Cover Stitches Using Geometrical and Multi-Linear Regression Models

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This work deals with prediction of the quantities of sewing threads required to sew a garment using cover stitches for the different classes of 600 (602, 605 and 607 cover stitches) by performing a rapid and precise methods (Geometrical and statistical). Sewing consumption value was estimated based on the geometrical method of different cover stitch shapes to prevent inventory of stocks for each stitch type. In the prediction of the sewing thread consumption for each investigated stitch, it was assumed that the consumption is a function of the input parameters, such as material thickness, stitch density, yarn linear density, and seam width. In addition, a statistical method based on multi-linear regression was established. The coefficient R2 value was determined to evaluate the precision of the geometrical and statistical methods. By comparing the theoretical thread consumption with the experimental ones, it is concluded that the geometrical method is more accurate than the statistical method regarding the range of R2 (from 98.78% to 99.38%), which encouraged industrialists to use geometrical models to predict thread consumption.

The input parameters contributing to the sewing thread consumption behavior were studied and analyzed. It was concluded that the most important parameters influencing thread consumption are stitch density followed by seam width. Both yarn density and material thickness have a low contribution to the thread consumption value.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Consumption
  • apparel industry
  • cover stitches of the class 600
  • geometrical and multi-linear regression models
  • input parameters
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Estimation of Seams in Paraglider Wing

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyze the seams connecting the covering textiles in paraglider wing and estimate their physical strength. The most extreme flight parameters (the angle of attack and velocity) in the numerical model of the wing allow the determination of the mean pressure inside the contour and the maximal difference between the pressures on the inner and the outer material surfaces. The preprocessing stage and numerical calculations in Ansys environment consider three different covering materials. The tool Porous Media is used to create the objects of a given value of air permeability. The estimated parameter of seam is the maximal pressure difference between both sides of the covering material, which that interacts with the test results. The quality index of the seam is defined by the maximal force to seam rupture and relative elongation during rupture. The obtained results indicate that the seams are resistant to the pressure difference caused by the most extreme flight parameters.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Seam quality index
  • paraglider wing
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation of the Performance of Cotton/Polyester Blend in Different Yarn Structures

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The demand for polyester fiber is increasing gradually day by day. Because of its good strength, low manufacturing cost, and ease of modification, polyester fiber has distinct characteristics, whereas cotton is well known for its comfort. Blending these fibers improves the performance of yarns. In this study, cotton/polyester was blended in different ratios to evaluate yarn performance. Three groups of yarn: rigid, core, and dual-core-spun, have been produced to examine the yarn’s performance. From the study, it has been found that increasing the polyester blend ratio increases the yarn strength and elongation but decreases the yarn unevenness and imperfections. Among the group, having more core components decreases yarn strength, unevenness, and imperfection but increases elongation. From the statistical analysis, except strength, all other properties have good interaction on yarn type and blending ratio. Pearson correlation also indicated that elongation and hairiness have a good correlation with yarn type where, except for hairiness, all other properties have shown a strong positive correlation on blending ratio.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cotton
  • polyester
  • blending
  • core-spun yarn
  • dual-core-spun yarn
  • yarn performance
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Review on 3D Fabrication at Nanoscale

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Among the different nanostructures that have been demonstrated as promising materials for various applications, three–dimensional (3D) nanostructures have attracted significant attention as building blocks for constructing high-performance nanodevices because of their unusual mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and magnetic properties arising from their novel size effects and abundant active catalytic/reactive sites due to the high specific surface area. Considerable research efforts have been devoted to designing, fabricating, and evaluating 3D nanostructures for applications, including structural composites, electronics, photonics, biomedical engineering, and energy. This review provides an overview of the nanofabrication strategies that have been developed to fabricate 3D functional architectures with exquisite control over their morphology at the nanoscale. The pros and cons of the typical synthetic methods and experimental protocols are reviewed and outlined. Future challenges of fabrication of 3D nanostructured materials are also discussed to further advance current nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 3D nanostructure
  • nanoscale
  • nanofabrication
  • nanolithography
  • nanoprinting
  • nanomatching
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation of Actual Phenomena and Auxiliary Ultrasonic Welding Parameters on Seam Strength of PVC-Coated Hybrid Textiles

Online veröffentlicht: 09 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A study of polyvinylchloride-coated woven polyester fabric welding potential was conducted using continuous ultrasonic welding machines. The effect of cooling air, anvil wheel status, anvil wheel width, material surface contact, and welding gap on seam strength was studied. Three main welding parameters with different levels were selected based on 5 and 10 mm welding widths using old and new anvil wheels with and without cooling air. A lapped type of seam was applied under full factorial design. A microstructure was captured to examine the formation of welding joints, and seam tensile properties were determined. Comparative analysis of comparable welding parameters was analyzed for a gap against pressure and amplitude against power. The actual weld phenomenon was also analyzed based on the recorded machine parameters. The results showed that auxiliary parameters had a significant effect on seam strength. A microscopic image of a welded seam indicated that cooling air reduced the number and size of holes produced. Weld seam with controlled pressure or power provided higher seam strength than that of the controlled gap or amplitude. The actual phenomenon of welding parameters was important to evaluate weld seam quality, whereby the obtained results indicated good quality at lower power and pressure.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Auxiliary Welding Parameters
  • Actual Welding Phenomenon
  • Comparable Welding Parameters
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effects of Sensory Marketing on Clothing-Buying Behavior

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nowadays, intensive rivalry forces enterprises and brands to strive for differentiation. Use of marketing strategies, which can allure the consumers, effectively is one of the ways of differing oneself from one's rivals. Sensory marketing strategy, which affects the buying behavior and perception of consumers by alluring their senses, is one the marketing strategies whose importance and use have increased in recent years. This strategy also has been intensively used by enterprises that produce and market clothing products, which are one of the basic needs of consumers. In this context, this research study aims to analyze the effects of sensory marketing on clothing-buying behavior. The research aims to reveal how consumers in Turkey, which is one of the leading global clothing exporters and at the same time which is one of the significant markets, are affected by sensory marketing factors during the clothing purchase process. In accordance with the aim of the research, a survey was conducted of consumers who live in the three biggest cities of Turkey and whose ages are 18 and over. The data, which were obtained from field research, were analyzed statistically and suggestions are made to enterprises and brands that produce clothing products and/or market clothing products, on the basis of the study's findings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Marketing strategies
  • sensory marketing
  • sense
  • perception
  • stimuli
  • buying behavior
  • consumer
  • clothing sector
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Development of a Small, Covered Yarn Prototype

Online veröffentlicht: 27 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The rapid development of the textile industry has led to the demand for more advanced textile equipment because the current covering yarn machines are large and expensive and have a large physical footprint. Also, the current technology is unsuitable for most laboratory research and small factory proofing. In this paper, the principle of forming covered yarn is analyzed and simplified in three systems: the unwinding system, the covering system, and the winding system. A small sample of low volume and better flexibility is developed, the production process and primary structure of the covered yarn prototype are introduced, and the covering effect of the small prototype is debugged and analyzed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • covered yarn
  • small prototype
  • core yarn
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Washing Characterization of Compression Socks

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Background

Compression socks are highly recommended textile garments for the exertion of compression pressure (kPa) at the ankle. They work on the principle of the highest pressure at the ankle gradually decreasing from the ankle to the calf.

Aim

The aim of the current research is to analyze all of the compression sock samples (Class I, Class II, and Class III) simultaneously at various number of times of washing them.

Method

All of the sock samples were washed in a standard washing machine with standard methods (ISO 6330). For the measurement of the compression pressure, a Salzmann MST MKIV pressure measuring device was used according to the RAL-GZ 387/1 method.

Results

Results included the effect of multiple wearing and washing cycles (up to 20) on compression pressure, the effect of temperature (up to 100°C) on compression pressure (kPa); multiple wearing and washing cycles on the percentage of shrinkage and the effect of marking methodology on compression pressure (Kpa) were observed and are discussed in this article. The results suggest that washing is the most important factor to consider while compression socks are used for compression therapy because they directly influence the efficacy of streamline blood flow across the legs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • compression socks
  • washing
  • temperature
  • ankle
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Surface Modification of Himalayan Nettle Fiber and Characterization of the Morphology, Physical and Mechanical Properties

Online veröffentlicht: 27 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The process of retting bast fiber plants for the production of long fiber has presented major challenges. Water retting, dew retting, chemical extraction, and micro-organism (fungi, enzymes) techniques were applied to the extraction of natural fibers. The two nettle samples were extracted with water retting for 14 days and dew retting for 4 weeks. This research investigated the effects on the traditional retting process of nettle fiber by fungi and bacteria formation in lignocellulosic. The latter biological extraction methods successfully degraded the lignin and pectin materials of the fiber and increases the cellulose content. These extraction methods produced high quality fiber and tensile strength at a low cost. This study determined the chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics such as fiber cellulose, non-cellulosic content, tensile strength, tenacity, and elongation break to see how treatments affected them. The treated fiber surface morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate functional group alterations, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used on the fiber specimen.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cellulose
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Nettle fiber
  • Tensile strength
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Transport of Moisture in Car Seat Covers

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Transport of liquid water is one of the basic producer requirements to ensure the suitable physiological comfort of drivers. This paper deals with the investigation of car seat covers’ efficiency from the point of view of their moisture management. Two methods were used for the evaluation of moisture transport in the car seat cover structures. Both of them use a thermography system for water transport detection. The first method evaluates dynamic water spreading in cross-section in the frontal plane; the second one examines horizontally dynamic spreading of liquid drops on the upper face of the sample. The tested materials were designed to understand the role of the middle layer of textile sandwich car seats in their moisture management behavior. The same PES woven structure in the top layer was used for all tested samples. Knitted spacer fabric (3D spacer fabric), polyurethane foam, and nonwoven were used as padding in the middle layer in car seat covers. In summary, the distribution and transport of liquid moisture in a sandwich structure are fundamentally affected by the middle layer of composite, especially by material composition and the value of porosity. The best results were shown in 3D spacer fabric for car seat covers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Moisture management
  • car seat
  • thermography
  • cross-section
  • knitted spacer fabric
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Polyaniline Electrospun Composite Nanofibers Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Reinforcement of fibers was carried out by adding carbon black (CB), and hydroxylated and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into electrospinning solution containing doped polyaniline (CSA-PANI) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). CB/CSA-PANI/PAN and CNT/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber composite membrane was formed in high-voltage electric field. The CSA-PANI/CB/PAN fiber membrane was found to be more brittle than the MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane. The average diameter of the CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers increased with CB addition, while the average diameter of CNT-added MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers decreased with increasing CNT concentrations. Upon greater CB and CNT addition, agglomeration occurred, and the surface of the fibers was raised slightly. The fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane was greatly improved with 1% added CB but then decreased upon further CB addition. Upon addition of CNTs, the fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane first increased and then decreased, and the addition of carboxylated CNTs was more advantageous for improving the fracture strength of the fiber membrane. The electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber membranes was essentially the same for different radiation frequencies. Upon addition of CB and CNTs, the electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber first increased and then decreased, with a more pronounced decrease obtained by the addition of CB.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Carbon nanotube
  • doped polyaniline
  • carbon black
  • electrospun fiber membrane
  • mechanical properties
  • electric field shielding performance
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Numerical Prediction of the Heat Transfer in Air Gap of Different Garment Models

Online veröffentlicht: 13 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer and its mechanism for styling a design garment differently, and to improve thermal comfort caused by clothing styling design, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach has been used to perform numerical investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer across a clothing air gap. Relationships between the heat transfer from the body to clothing (computed by heat transfer equations) and the air gap were examined by body heat loss of different styles of garments. Also, the clothing temperature distribution of different garments was obtained and compared. Computed results reveal that the air gap can play a central role in the heat transfer from the body to the surface of different style garments. When the air gap is small enough, namely about 5 mm in the chest and bust of the X-type of clothing, the conductive heat flux can transfer through the air gap and reach the cloth surface easily, which will bring about the increase of temperature on the clothing surface. The decreasing air gap distance from 50 mm (O-type) to 10 mm (X-type) increases the convective heat flux by up to 25% on the waist. However, the airspeed will increase to greater numbers while the air gap decreases to narrow channels, and it will bring about fierce forced convection heat flux. So the heat transfer must be considered in the process of garment design, and the air gap should be kept at a suitable level. These findings can be used to improve the clothing’s thermal comfort or optimize the cloth structure.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Garment
  • air gap
  • heat transfer
  • thermal comfort
  • numerical simulation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Nondestructive Test Technology Research for Yarn Linear Density Unevenness

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Yarn linear density and linear density unevenness between fragments involve the mass and mass variation of yarn per unit length, which are important indices to reflect the uniformity of yarn thickness. Aiming at the shortcomings of the traditional testing method, which uses a yarn length tester to test these indices by counting length first and then cutting and measuring weight, a testing device that measures weight and counts length synchronously is designed and developed, so that the yarn can be continuous, recyclable, and reusable. Length counting is conducted by a length-counting disk connected to a photoelectric coded disk, and the result of length counting can be accurate to 0.01 m. The original skein frame with a perimeter of 1 m is replaced, so that the error caused by yarn overlapping is avoided. Through program control, the testing of a plurality of groups of linear density values can be completed at one time to calculate the linear density unevenness of different fragments of yarn, and the yarn can be led to a recovery spool through a yarn guide cylinder to form a new package. Polyester/viscose 65/35 blended yarn was taken as a test sample and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software. It is found that the results of the newly developed device are closer to the arbitration value; the whole experiment is completed at one time, which avoids the secondary error and reduces the labor intensity; and the raw materials can be recycled, which saves labor and raw material costs. The device has high value for industrialization and popularization.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Yarn linear density
  • fragment unevenness
  • weight measurement
  • length counting
  • synchronization testing
  • nondestructive recovery
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Fit And Pressure Comfort Evaluation On A Virtual Prototype Of A Tight-Fit Cycling Shirt

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Jan 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Graduated compression is widely used for medical application to prevent perioperative venous thromboembolism, but other applications such as sportswear can potentially also benefit from it. A tight-fit cycling shirt meant to ensure the correct position during cycling and prevent injuries was designed. The aim of this study was to improve garment pattern design from the aspect of clothing pressure for providing support and enhancing comfort to the user. This paper investigates the suitability of pressure maps from 3D fashion design software CLO 3D for design and in particular its capability to discriminate between various materials and cycling postures. Moreover, the impact of the mechanical properties of fabric was analyzed. In particular, virtual prototyping tool CLO 3D and pressure mapping were employed to achieve the required graduated compression while ensuring fit and comfort. Pattern adjustments were iteratively performed until stress, strain, and pressure maps showed adequate fit and pressure of the cycling garment on the virtual cyclist in static and dynamic cycling positions. The impact of fabric types on garment fit has been shown by generating the stress, strain, and pressure maps with a virtual simulation. It was found that the visualized pressure on the human body model shows distributions that are related to contact between body and garment, and large compression stresses occur in the lower parts of the two shirts. Evident garment deformation was shown at hip level, upper arm, lower front side seam, and front neck, which can reduce garment wear comfort and freedom of movement. The output was found to be sufficiently accurate to optimize the garments based on material and cycling posture.

Schlüsselwörter

  • stretch fabric
  • pressure
  • virtual prototyping
  • CLO 3D
  • pattern modification
  • tight-fit sportswear
  • cycling posture
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A Biomimetic Approach to Protective Glove Design: Inspirations from Nature and the Structural Limitations of Living Organisms

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Drawing inspiration from nature for the design of new technological solutions and smart materials constitutes an important development area for engineers and researchers in many disciplines. Biomimetic materials design brings numerous benefits, especially the possibility of implementing promising interdisciplinary projects based on effective existing solutions that have emerged in the course of natural evolution.

A major aspect of biomimetic materials design, especially relevant to protective gloves, is the identification of an optimum combination of the physicochemical properties and microstructural characteristics of a surface with a view to its potential applications. Properties such as wetting and adhesion can be adjusted by modifications of the surface morphology both on micro- and nanoscales. From the standpoint of the occupational safety performance of polymeric protective gloves, biomimetic materials should exhibit two crucial properties: reversible adhesion (via a large number of contact points) and hydrophobicity (water repellence).

This review analyzes the superhydrophobic and reversible adhesion patterns found in nature that can be used to improve the properties of polymeric protective gloves with major commercial implications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biomimetics
  • inspirations from nature
  • hydrophobicity
  • adhesive properties
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Experimental Investigation of the Wettability of Protective Glove Materials: A Biomimetic Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of the present work was to evaluate the surface wettability of commercially available polymeric protective gloves, as well as to determine the effects of their surface topography in conjunction with the glove material on the hydrophobic properties of the final products, together with surface free energy (SFE) and work of adhesion.

The geometric structures imparted to the surface led to different levels of hydrophobicity and SFE. Most of the studied materials were characterized by good wettability properties. It was shown that a textured surface topography affects wettability. The highest SFE was found for nitrile butadiene rubber materials. All materials except for nitrile butadiene rubber exhibited good hydrophobic properties and relatively low work of adhesion.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Protective gloves
  • surface free energy
  • wettability
  • hydrophobic properties
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Study On Structure And Anti-Uv Properties Of Sericin Cocoons

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Feb 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Through biogenetic engineering, the posterior silk glands of Bombyx mori larvae are degenerated, and only the middle silk glands are retained to secrete sericin to produce sericin fibers, so as to obtain sericin cocoons with high sericin content (>98.5%). For this paper, sericin cocoons were studied, and the morphological structure characteristics and properties of sericin cocoons and common Bombyx mori cocoons were compared and analyzed through such modern test techniques as SEM, FTIR, and XRD. Results show that sericin cocoons have the basic morphological structure of cocoons, but because of the brittleness and hardness of sericin, the ssericin cocoons have poor integrity with a thermal decomposition rate that is higher than that of cocoons; the two cocoons are of a similar protein structure, with both α-helix and β-sheet structures, and dominantly the β-sheet structure; and the crystallinity of sericin cocoons (10.48%) is lower than that of the common Bombyx mori cocoons (27.10%). Sericin was extracted from both cocoons to obtain a mixed sericin solution respectively, which were coated on base fabrics of polyester taffeta (210T) for coating finish and subjected to qualitative research for their anti-UV properties. The base fabrics coated with mixed sericin solutions of sericin cocoons and Bombyx mori cocoons have an anti-UV performance index (UPF) of 23.9% and 22.5% respectively, which are higher than that of the base fabric (8.9%).

Schlüsselwörter

  • sericin cocoon
  • sericin fiber
  • morphological structure
  • thermal property
  • anti-UV
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Review on Fabrication and Application of Regenerated Bombyx Mori Silk Fibroin Materials

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jan 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Natural silk fiber derived from the Bombyx mori (B. mori) silkworm has long been used as a luxury raw material in textile industry because of its shimmering appearance and durability, and as surgical suture for its high strength and flexibility. Regenerated silk fibroin, as the main protein extracted from the cocoons of the B. mori silkworm, recently has gained considerable attention due to its outstanding properties, including facile processability, superior biocompatibility, controllable biodegradation, and versatile functionalization. Tremendous effort has been made to fabricate silk fibroin into various promising materials with controlled structural and functional characteristics for advanced utilities in a multitude of biomedical applications, flexible optics, electronics devices, and filtration systems. Herein, reverse engineered silk fibroin extraction methods are reviewed, recent advances in extraction techniques are discussed. Fabrication methods of silk fibroin materials in various formats are also addressed in detail; in particular, progress in new fabrication technologies is presented. Attractive applications of silk fibroin-based materials are then summarized and highlighted. The challenges faced by current approaches in production of silk fibroin-based materials and future directions acquired for pushing these favorable materials further toward above mentioned applications are further elaborated.

Schlüsselwörter

  • B. mori silk fibroin
  • biocompatibility
  • biodegradation
  • biomedical application
  • flexible optics
  • electronics devices
  • filtration
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A Study on the Woven Construction of Fabric Dyed With Natural Indigo Dye and Finishing for Applying to Product Design for Home Textile Products

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This research aims to study woven fabric construction with natural indigo dyeing with finishing for home textile applications. The physical and mechanical properties, including color fastness tests, of these woven fabrics according to ISO standards for home textiles exported to the European Union were characterized. Tensile strength, tear strength, and pilling resistance of these woven fabrics were appropriate to design, and had enough strength for bed linens, duvet covers, and pillowcases. The color fastness to washing, water, and light of these woven fabrics passed the requirements for bed linens and pillowcases, except for color fastness to wet rubbing, due to the low performance of natural dyestuff. Thus, a finishing technique of water repellency was applied to improve these properties. This design of natural fiber fabrics dyed with natural indigo was developed for home textile products whose fabrics were produced by community enterprise. These home textile products can be used as a collection prototype for a spa room in a hotel.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Color fastness
  • home textiles
  • indigo dyeing
  • physical and mechanical properties
  • woven fabric
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A Calculation Method for the Deformation Behavior of Warp-Knitted Fabric

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, a new method to simulate the structure and loop deformation behavior of double-bar reflex-lapping warp-knitted fabrics based on the structural characteristics is proposed. A simplified mass-spring model was built in which loops knitted by filaments were considered as particles with the uniform mass distribution connected by structure springs for overlaps and shear springs for underlaps. Deformation forces and direction on particles were analyzed to describe the displacement and deformation behavior of particles. A loop model with eight control points was established, and the relationship between control points and particles was studied combining the quadratic Bezier curves. The deformation simulation was implemented by a simulator program with C# and JavaScript via web technology on Visual Studio 2015. The stereoscopic sense of filaments was realized by changing the direction and intensity of the light. The results show that the fabric deformation and the loop shape can be accurately achieve using the simplified mass-spring model compared with the real sample.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Warp-knitted
  • mass-spring system
  • deformation
  • simulation
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Textronic Solutions Used for Premature Babies: A Review

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Premature birth is considered to be a substantial problem in perinatal medicine, which in the vast majority of cases (>60%), concerns African and South Asian countries. Nevertheless, prematurity is a global problem and is faced by both less-developed (where 12% of babies are prematurely born) and well-developed countries (with 9% prematurity rate) [1, 2]. The percentage of children born prematurely, i.e., before the 37th week of pregnancy, was 8.7% in Europe, while, in Poland, it was 7.34% [3]. Care of prematurely born babies is a huge challenge for parents and medical staff in the neonatal intensive care unit. Preterm infants, because of their low weight and gestational age, are prone to health problems and even death. For this reason, continuous monitoring of health parameters plays an important role. It is achieved by the use of various sensors that are inserted in infants’ garments. Sensor systems monitor an infant’s health condition, and then the data are transmitted to doctors or parents. This article is for illustrative purposes, aimed at presenting solutions such as the use of sensors for monitoring infants’ physiological parameters.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Wearable sensors for infants
  • textronics
  • smart clothing
  • health monitoring
  • neonatal monitoring
  • wearable sensors
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Comparative Analysis of Structure and Properties of Stereoscopic Cocoon and Flat Cocoon

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cocoon is a kind of natural biopolymer material with reasonable structure and various functions. However, its structure and functions are often destroyed in practical application. In this study, we took common Bombyx Mori as the research object, and provided different cocooning sites for single or multiple silkworms to construct common stereoscopic cocoons (“normal cocoons” [NC]) and flat cocoons (“single-silkworm flat cocoons” [SFC] and “multi-silkworm flat cocoons” [MFC]), respectively, and compared the morphological structure and basic properties of these cocoons. The study found that the flat cocoons have similar multi-layered variable structure and characteristics compared to those of the common cocoons; also, morphological characteristics and physical and chemical properties of silk fiber from outer layer to inner layer, such as sericin content, fiber fineness, and change rule of basic mechanical properties, are completely consistent with those of the common cocoons. It can be considered that the flat cocoons are constructed by silkworms in the same “procedural” process as that of common cocoons. Due to the expansion of cocooning space, the mechanical properties of fibers are significantly improved. By controlling the size of the cocooning space or the quantity of silkworms cocooning simultaneously, and the time of spinning, a cocoon material with controllable thickness, weight per square meter, porosity, and number of cocoon layers can be obtained as a composite material for direct application.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Stereoscopic cocoon
  • flat cocoon
  • structure
  • property
  • procedural
  • comparison
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Influence of Multilayer Interlocked Fabrics Structure on their Thermal Performance

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper examines the influence of weaving variables such as yarn count, number of layers, warp and weft ratio, materials of the top layer, weft density and interlocking cell shape, and size on the thermal performance of multilayer interlocked woven fabrics. A split-plot design was used to construct a total of 64 fabric structures, which were assessed for thermal performance in terms of resistance to convective, conductive, and radiative heat. It was found that, for equal weft density and yarn number, protective performance improved with the number of fabric layers and with the presence of air cells between these layers, especially if air was not trapped within and could rather pass freely between the cells. An optimal combination of factors for the thermal response to the three types of heat was established via a Derringer–a much needed desirability function. The results of this paper are useful for identifying the interaction between configuration parameters and thermal performance, and hence for the design of improved heat protective clothing.

Schlüsselwörter

  • multilayer interlocked fabrics
  • thermal protective performance
  • aramid
  • viscose FR
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Smart Textile for Building and Living

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In construction, textiles can be used either for reinforcing the structure or for finishing design. When we talk about function, the interior is no less important than the exterior and architecture of the building. Thus using textiles to reinforce the structure of buildings, textiles often perform a desired function of reinforcing the “finish.” Building textile materials include fibers that are mixed with concrete, fiberglass reinforcement meshes, insulators, etc. Textile architecture covers permanent tensile structures based on polyester or glass fiber fabrics, with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating and awnings generally supported by polyester or polyolefin fabrics, with or without coating, especially for gardening. All above topics are covered within this perspective with the experts from the group of smart textiles for building and living within COST Action CA17107 European Network to Connect Research and Innovation Efforts on Advanced Smart Textiles (CONTEXT) [1].

Schlüsselwörter

  • Smart textile
  • building
  • living
  • acoustic
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Automatic Identification Of Wrist Position In A Virtual Environment For Garment Design

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Jan 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

With the development of virtual reality, computer-aided design has shown its strength in the garment product development process. Wrist position corresponds to the styloid process of the ulna (SPU). Due the problem that the SPU position is usually not the finest position of the forearm, the wrist position identification in the 3D clothing design is quite important. This paper proposes a method that uses a fixed-step search algorithm based on existing proportion methods to determine the position of the SPU. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method has been validated using 100 samples by comparison with the existing methods. It can be fully applied to a virtual 3D-to-2D garment prototyping process and ensure the automation of this process.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Design process
  • automatic design
  • sustainable fashion
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Analysis of Heat Transfer through a Protective Clothing Package

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Nov 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The protective clothing packages, which protect the human body against hot factors in a foundry are in continuous development to increase their resistance and comfort of use. The problem of heat transfer through textiles is the active field of research and reliable numerical modeling of this process can be helpful to design high-quality protective products. Therefore, the numerical model of heat transfer through the package based on the aluminized basalt fabric was developed. The macroscopic geometry of weft and warp threads was reproduced in agreement with samples of plain weave basalt fabric. Mapping the stochastically distributed individual monofilaments in basalt threads, as well as modeling the heat transfer between them, was impossible at the microscopic level. Therefore, the weft and warp threads were modeled as a porous material with a homogeneous distribution of basalt and air in their structure. Data from measurements of the bare and aluminized basalt fabrics by the Alambeta device were used to determine the model parameters. The model was used to simulate the heat transfer through the protective package composed of the aluminized basalt fabric, wool clothing, and cotton underwear. A good agreement of model results was found for measurement results in such a package. The presented procedure allowed for the determination of the main thermal properties of tested basalt fabrics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Basalt fabrics
  • glass fabrics
  • aluminized basalt fabrics
  • heat transfer modeling
  • thermal conductivity
  • protective clothing
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Study on the Thermal and Impact Resistance Properties of Micro PA66/PU Synergistically Reinforced Multi-Layered Biaxial Weft Knitted Fabric Composites

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Nov 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, the influence of micro PA66/PU in multi-layered biaxial weft knitted (MBWK) fabric reinforced composites on thermal and impact resistance was studied. The main objective was to investigate the role of micro PA66/PU in terms of improving material performance. The results showed that the addition of micro PA66/PU improved the thermal stability of the MBWK composite. It is observed that the onset degradation temperatures increased by 1.6°C in thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) test and the Tg increased by 2.8°C in the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test. Besides, the impact energy absorption of composites increased by 5.3% after the addition of micro PA66/PU. The addition of micro PA66/PU effectively reduced the impact damage area from the failure morphology after impact. In simple words, the addition of micro PA66/PU effectively improves the comprehensive properties of composites.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Micro PA66/PU
  • MBWK composite
  • thermal stability
  • impact resistance
  • combustion resistance
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Effect of Lycra Weight Percent and Loop Length on Thermo-physiological Properties of Elastic Single Jersey Knitted Fabric

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this work is to estimate the effect of loop length and Lycra weight percent (Lwp) on the geometrical and thermo-physiological comfort of elastic plain knitted fabric. Fifty single jersey knitted fabric samples were produced at five levels of Lycra weight percent (Lwp) (4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, and 8%) and loop length (2.7 mm, 2.9 mm, 3.1 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.4 mm) with full plaited (fp) and half plaited (hp) of bare Lycra. The thermo-physiological comfort properties (thermal conductivity, absorptivity, and water vapor permeability), air permeability, and geometrical properties were measured at standard of each one. The results showed that the elastic single jersey knitted fabric thickness ranged between 3.12 times and 4.2 times of the yarn diameter (d). The fabric thickness increased when loop length is increased and decreased when Lwp is increased. The thermal conductivity, absorptivity, and water vapor resistance (WVR) decreased with Lwp increasing.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Thermo-physiological comfort properties
  • Lycra weight percent
  • elastic knitted fabric
  • fabric thickness
  • thermal conductivity
  • water vapor resistance
  • full plaited
  • half plaited
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Comfort-Related Properies of Cotton Seersucker Fabrics

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This work concerns the comfort-related properties of seersucker woven fabrics made of cotton. Seersucker woven fabrics are characterized by alternating puckered and flat strips in the warp direction. Some researchers consider that due to this structure seersucker fabrics are characterized by very good comfort-related properties. In this work seersucker fabrics with differing repeats of the seersucker effect and different weft yarns were investigated in intense heat and high moisture transfer. Results showed that the structural factors significantly influence the comfort-related properties of the investigated cotton fabrics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Seersucker
  • fabrics
  • comfort
  • measurement
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Pressure Evaluation Of Seamless Yoga Leggings Designed With Partition Structure

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Jan 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

It is a novel approach to design the partition structure of clothing according to the deformation of the human body surface skin during exercise. The functional evaluation of these products remains unknown, and there is limited knowledge about the effects of the partition structure design on the pressure comfort of clothing. This research carried out a partitioned structural design of the leggings based on the skin deformation of the lower limbs of the human body during yoga exercise and developed two styles of seamless yoga leggings. The skin pressure exerted by the new seamless yoga leggings was compared with two commercial yoga leggings. Eight female college students were invited to wear all the yoga leggings samples and perform yoga exercises. The skin pressure exerted by yoga leggings was measured by the German novel-Pliance multipurpose pressure distribution measurement system on 10 body positions. The results showed that yoga leggings designed with a partitioned structure exert a comfortable pressure on the skin during yoga exercise, and the pressure change was smaller under different yoga postures, which has better pressure stability. The partition structure design model of seamless yoga leggings was optimized, which provided a reference for the functional partition design and product development of seamless yoga leggings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Yoga leggings
  • seamless knitting
  • partition structure
  • clothing pressure
  • pressure evaluation
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Application of Coating Mixture Based on Silica Aerogel to Improve Thermal Protective Performance of Fabrics

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Apr 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main aim of this research is to improve the protective thermal performance of fabrics. Flame-resistant fabrics characterizing comparable thermal properties were chosen, cotton fabric with a flame-retardant finish and Nomex® fabric. To improve thermal parameters the coating mixture, based on silica aerogel, was applied on one side of the sample surface. Parameters such as the thermal conductivity, resistance to contact, and radiant heat were determined based on the standards, which set high expectations for the protective clothing. Analysis of the coated fabrics surfaces was conducted based on confocal microscopy. It was found that the coating mixture caused a decrease in thermal conductivity. All the modified fabrics reached 1st efficiency level of protection against contact and radiant heat. The best sample from the point of view of protection against contact and radiant heat was modified cotton fabric with a flame-retardant finish. The coating mixture contained 45 wt% of silica aerogel. Moreover, better adhesion of the coating mixture to the cotton fabric compared with Nomex® fabric was observed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • silica aerogel
  • woven fabrics
  • thermal properties
  • protective clothing
  • hot work environment
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From Raw To Finished Cotton—Characterization By Interface Phenomena

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Jan 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Interface phenomena that occur at the solid–liquid interface, such as wettability, adsorption, and particle aggregation, depend on the kind and magnitude of the solid surface free energy and electrokinetic properties found in water solutions. These phenomena are crucial for textile dyeing, finishing, and care. They characterize the material surface and change with different material pretreatment and finishing. In this paper, electrokinetic potential, isoelectric point, point of zero charge, a specific amount of surface charge and surface free energy of raw, enzymatically scoured, bleached, and finished cotton fabrics were investigated. Electrokinetic potential was measured by a streaming potential method and a specific quantity of surface charge by the back-titration method. For determination of the solid surface free energy components, the thin-layer wicking and contact-angle methods were used. On the basis of these results, components of solid surface free energy were calculated and discussed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cotton fabric
  • scouring
  • bleaching
  • DMDHEU
  • FC resin
  • zeta potential (ZP)
  • surface charge
  • surface free energy
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Approach to Performance Rating of Retroreflective Textile Material Considering Production Technology and Reflector Size

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study investigates retroreflective fabrics’ efficiency from the point of view of the interaction of their visibility, thermo-physiological comfort properties, and durability (represented by physical-mechanical performance). The effect of the combination of two production technologies (reflective transfer films and screen printing method) and two reflector covering sizes (25% and 85%) was examined. Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method was used to determine the best solution considering the abovementioned tested categories of properties. Retroreflective performance was in congruence with the used design coverage factor of the tested pattern. It was found that retroreflection of the tested pattern produced using screen printing technology was significantly lower than retroreflection of an identical pattern made by a transfer film. On the contrary, in terms of thermo-physiological comfort and physical-mechanical performance of the tested samples, screen printing technology shows significantly better results in almost all tested properties, especially in water vapor permeability, moisture management, and physical-mechanical performance. The solution for the abovementioned contradictory results can be achieved by using a combination of the advantages associated with each of these technology methods. Screen printing can be applied to specific regions of clothing that are exposed to extreme loading or sweating, and the transfer of film elements ensures high visibility with respect to the standards and biomotion principles that are deployed as prevalent benchmarks in the industry.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Visibility
  • retroreflection
  • thermo-physiological comfort
  • durability
  • multi-criteria decision
  • TOPSIS
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Blend Electrospinning of Poly(Ɛ-Caprolactone) and Poly(Ethylene Glycol-400) Nanofibers Loaded with Ibuprofen as a Potential Drug Delivery System for Wound Dressings

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Electrospinning (ES) is a versatile and diverse technique to fabricate nano and micro fibers that could be utilized as drug delivery systems. The aim of this research was the fabrication and characterization of drug loaded nanofibrous scaffold produced by single-needle ES using poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol-400) (PEG) and to investigate the potential of this material as a drug delivery system. A model drug, Ibuprofen (IBU), was used. Ibuprofen is a medicine that is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Two concentrations of IBU, 5 wt% and 7 wt%, were incorporated for the ES of PCL and PCL/PEG nanofibers. Characterization of nanofibers was done by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Water Contact Angle Measurements. The impact of IBU on nanofibers’ properties such as morphology, diameters, hydrophilicity, and tensile strength was investigated. Finally, the drug release kinetics of IBU from nanofibers was analyzed and their percentage release efficiency of IBU (RE%) was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy during 24 h.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Poly(ethylene glycol)-400
  • blend electrospinning
  • crystallinity
  • drug-delivery system
  • Ibuprofen
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Development of the Smart T-Shirt for Monitoring Thermal Status of Athletes

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Athletes are often subjected to a great physical strain during training and competition. Sport activities performed in hot and humid conditions may result in different heat illnesses with mild or fatal consequences. Against this background it is important to know the thermal state of athletes during physical activity.

This article presents the development of a smart T-shirt for monitoring the thermal status of an athlete. The smart T-shirt was created by embedding an electronic system with temperature and humidity sensors that allows the measurement of temperature and the relative humidity of the microclimate. A smart T-shirt is comfortable, and integrated sensors and electronics do not affect wearing comfort. A good concurrence between the temperature and humidity results from using the smart T-shirt, and thus the medical device was achieved. Data obtained can be of great importance to the sports staff who will be able to monitor the athletes' thermal state during matches and competitions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Smart T-shirt
  • microclimate temperature
  • relative humidity of the microclimate
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Fea-Based Structural Heat Transfer Characteristic of 3-D Orthogonal Woven Composite Subjected to the Non-Uniform Heat Load

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The thermodynamic behavior of 3-D orthogonal woven composite is studied to explore its structural heat transfer mechanism in a non-uniform heat load field based on finite element analysis (FEA). The temperature distribution characteristics of the resin matrix and the fabric reinforcement are observed to compare the heat absorption. Furthermore, the dynamic expansion and distribution characteristics of temperature in the 3-D orthogonal woven composite structure have also been quantitatively studied, together with simultaneously obtaining the path characteristics of the heat transfer in each system (i.e., warp yarns, weft yarns, and Z-yarns). In addition, the spatial temperature distribution characteristics of each yarn system in the fabric reinforcement are also explored. Thus, the structural mechanism of heat conduction for 3-D orthogonal woven composite is obtained.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 3-D orthogonal woven composite
  • heat transfer
  • non-uniform heat load
  • finite element analysis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Texture Representation and Application of Colored Spun Fabric Using Uniform Three-Structure Descriptor

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The local binary pattern (LBP) and its variants have shown their effectiveness in texture images representation. However, most of these LBP methods only focus on the histogram of LBP patterns, ignoring the spatial contextual information among them. In this paper, a uniform three-structure descriptor method was proposed by using three different encoding methods so as to obtain the local spatial contextual information for characterizing the nonuniform texture on the surface of colored spun fabrics. The testing results of 180 samples with 18 different color schemes indicate that the established texture representation model can accurately express the nonuniform texture structure of colored spun fabrics. In addition, the overall correlation index between texture features and sample parameters is 0.027 and 0.024, respectively. When compared with the LBP and its variants, the proposed method obtains a higher representational ability, and simultaneously owns a shorter time complexity. At the same time, the algorithm proposed in this paper enjoys ideal effectiveness and universality for fabric image retrieval. The mean Average Precision (mAP) of the first group of samples is 86.2%; in the second group of samples, the mAP of the sample with low twist coefficient is 89.6%, while the mAP of the sample with high twist coefficient is 88.5%.

Schlüsselwörter

  • colored spun fabric
  • non-uniform texture
  • texture representation
  • three-structure descriptor
  • uniform mode
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Investigation of Twist Waves Distribution along Structurally Nonuniform Yarn

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Aug 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper presents the features of yarn structure formation on spinning machine, i.e. yarn twist change when winding. It was considered that the twist distribution was one of the reasons for its decrease along the formed yarn. In this paper, based on analysis of changes in thickness and twist due to axial deformation, we consider a yarn moving at constant speed. Moving dynamics of yarn are studied here by using Euler variables. The correspondences of forward and reverse twist waves’ distribution speeds on presented frequency at various vibration forms are obtained. The parameters of Doppler effect for the waves distributed along the yarn are determined.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Yarn structure
  • yarn twist
  • twist distribution
  • thickness
  • twist waves
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Tensile Properties Analysis Of 3D Flat-Knitted Inlay Fabric Reinforced Composites Using Acoustic Emission

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Jan 2020
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this work, based on the quasi-static tensile test and acoustic emission technology, the tensile properties of two types of three-dimensional flat-knitted inlay fabrics reinforced composites are investigated, and the acoustic emission characteristic parameters of various damage mechanisms are obtained. The transverse tensile process of specimens could be divided into the elastic stage, yield stage, and fracture stage. We found that, compared with the fluctuation of the stress-strain curve in the yield stage, weft insertion yarns in composite with interlock structure broke almost simultaneously, while the composite with plain stitch broke successively. The transverse and longitudinal tensile strength of the composite with interlock structure was 44.70% and 28.63% higher than the composite with plain structure, respectively. The SEM micrographs showed that the damage mechanism of the composites was matrix fracture, fiber-matrix debonding, and fiber breakage. The amplitude ranges of the three damage mechanisms were 50–65 dB, 65–80 dB, and 90–100 dB, respectively, and the frequency ranges were 35–114 kHz, 116–187 kHz, and 252–281 kHz, respectively. Fiber-matrix debonding and matrix fracture had large cumulative AE energy, numerous events, and long duration time, while fiber breakage had the characteristics of large amplitude, high frequency, low cumulative AE energy, few events, and short duration time.

Schlüsselwörter

  • flat-knitted fabric
  • weft inlays
  • composites
  • tensile properties
  • acoustic emission
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Conductive Heat Transfer Prediction of Plain Socks in Wet State

Online veröffentlicht: 07 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this study, an algebraic model and its experimental verification was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture content on the heat loss that takes place due to conduction of sock fabrics. The results show that increasing moisture content in the studied socks caused a significant increase in their conductive heat loss. Plain knitted socks with different fiber composition were wetted to a saturated level, and then their moisture content was reduced stepwise. When achieving the required moisture content, the socks samples were characterized by the Alambeta testing instrument for heat transfer. Three different existing modified mathematical models for the thermal conductivity of wet fabrics were used for predicting thermal resistance of socks under wet conditions. The results from both ways are in very good agreement for all the socks at a 95% confidence level. In the above-mentioned models, the prediction of thermal resistance presents newly a combined effect of the real filling coefficient and thermal conductivity of the so-called “wet” polymers instead of dry polymers. With these modifications, the used models predicted the thermal resistance at different moisture levels. Predicted thermal resistance is converted into heat transfer (due to conduction) with a significantly high coefficient of correlation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Heat transfer
  • mathematical modeling
  • plain socks
  • moisture content
  • filling coefficient
  • volume porosity
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Assessment and Semantic Categorization of Fabric Visual Texture Preferences

Online veröffentlicht: 03 May 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The texture of a fabric can be perceived by the haptic and visual senses. Visual texture can be defined as a visual quality of a surface. It is an important phenomenon because it can be significant in many fields, such as textile design and e-commerce. At the same time, when we consider the semantics of the word, it is important to take into account that there are a variety of manifestations of fabrics (e.g., woven, knitted, etc.). The mechanism of visual texture perception of fabrics was investigated by measuring visual evaluation values. In our experiment, 12 textile samples with different surface textures are evaluated using thirty-four adjectives (Kansei words). For each visual texture, the adjectives with the highest mean ratings are extracted and analyzed. By using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we aimed to discover and determine preferences for the visual texture of fabrics. The result is a semantic explanation of fabric texture with the adjectives proposed, which can help customers to evaluate the quality of the textile.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Fabric
  • hierarchical cluster analysis
  • principal component analysis
  • semantic meaning
  • textile
  • texture
  • visual preference
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Effect of Different Yarn Combinations on Auxetic Properties of Plied Yarns

Online veröffentlicht: 15 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study presents the effects of a novel plied yarn structure consisting of different yarn components and yarn twist levels on the Poisson's ratio and auxetic behavior of yarns. The plied yarn structures are formed with bulky and soft yarn components (helical plied yarn [HPY], braided yarn, and monofilament latex yarn) and stiff yarn components (such as high tenacity [HT] and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]-coated polyester yarns) to achieve auxetic behavior. Experimental results showed that as the level of yarn twist increased, the Poisson's ratios and the tensile modulus values of the plied yarns decreased, but the elongation values increased. A negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) was obtained in HT–latex and PVC–latex plied yarns with a low twist level. The plied yarns formed with braid–HPY and braid–braid components gave partial NPR under tension. A similar result was achieved for yarns with HT–latex and PVC–latex components. Since partial NPR was seen in novel plied yarns with braided and HPY components, it is concluded that yarns formed with bulky–bulky yarn components could give an auxetic performance under tension.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Auxetic effect
  • partial NPR
  • plied yarn
  • braided yarn
  • twist level
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Mechanical Properties of Composites Reinforced with Technical Embroidery Made of Flax Fibers

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Jun 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main purpose of the article is to present the new possibilities of producing composite reinforcement with the use of a computer embroidery machine. This kind of production is in line with the principles of sustainable development. The study below presents the results of strength tests of composites containing sevenfold embroidery systems. Each variant included different directions of arrangement of individual layers as a reinforcement. Flax roving was used to strengthen the composite. Flax fibers are characterized by the highest strength among all-natural fibers, at the level of 50–80 cN/tex. The composite was made using the vacuum bag method, using epoxy resin. The embroidery was made on a ZSK embroidery machine, type JCZA 0109-550. The test material was subjected to strength tests—tensile strength, tensile elongation, and bending strength, on the INSTRON machine. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the arrangement of the roving in the direction of the tensile force allowed to obtain the best mechanical properties.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Technical embroidery
  • embroidery
  • embroidery machine
  • automated fiber placement
  • lay-up
  • composite
  • vacuum infusion
  • flax fibers
  • particle-reinforcement
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Archaeology and Virtual Simulation Restoration of Costumes in the Han Xizai Banquet Painting

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Mar 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Based on 3D virtual fitting technology, this paper simulates and reproduces the fabric patterns and sewing processes of 12 characters’ costumes in different scenes on the basis of completing the archaeology of the characters’ costumes in the painting, so as to realize the 3D virtual sewing and digital simulation restoration of the characters costumes. This paper draws the style diagram, structure diagram and 3D virtual simulation diagram of the character costumes in the painting. The article further improves the research on the costumes of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, which has a certain reference value for the study of ancient character costumes and the promotion of Chinese garment culture. At the same time, it provides a reference for the design of artistic works such as character costumes in film and television and games.

Schlüsselwörter

  • the Han Xizai Banquet painting
  • cultural heritage
  • archaeology
  • virtual simulation
  • restoration
  • ancient costume
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Modeling Lean and Six Sigma Integration using Deep Learning: Applied to a Clothing Company

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Implementation of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies enable companies to boost their competitiveness and their efficiency. However, the adoption of these approaches is very much restricted in the Textile and Clothing sector in Morocco. In fact, despite all the advances in these methodologies and practical approaches, defining a rational implementation strategy such as the adequate chronology and the prediction of the expected success level are still a part of a fierce debate and an impediment for practitioners. The result is that only 11 companies out of 1,200 Moroccan clothing companies have successfully implemented Lean and Six Sigma. This article, based on an intelligent model, draws up a support tool to the clothing stakeholders, or otherwise aims to successfully integrate Lean and Six Sigma using Deep Learning. The neural network was trained for the prediction of success level rate and customizing of Lean and Six Sigma implementation chronology with the help of weights and maturity of a set of common critical success factors (CSFs). These CFSs were selected as input data. Then, the dataset have been used for training, testing, and validating the neural network model. To evaluate the trained network, 25% of the data have been used and a tuning hyperparameter process has been designed to reinforce the model performance. For the performance indices such as Categorical Cross Entropy (CCE), the defined loss function, accuracy, and precision have been evaluated and optimized. The developed model can then define the adequate chronology and predict success level with an accuracy of 97%. The trained neural network was then applied to a clothing company as a guide to the success of its continuous improvement project.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Lean Six Sigma
  • critical success factors
  • chronology
  • success level
  • neural network
  • clothing
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Modeling of Material Characteristics of Conventional Synthetic Fabrics

Online veröffentlicht: 02 Jun 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article presents a method for modeling the material characteristics of synthetic fabrics based on static tensile test results with consideration of material orthotropy. Material characteristics were determined for fabrics under load at three different angles in relation to their orthotropy. The fabrics examined were the following: polyester fabrics Bratex and Ortalion, cotton fabric with nylon and elastin fabric (poplin), and Gore-Tex membrane fabric. Considering the material mechanical characteristics, the differences were in grammage, maximum strain, and tensile strength. The study allowed us to determine the nonlinear elastic dependency between strain and stress. Test results were implemented within the Abaqus/Explicit framework for the purpose of performance of verification simulations. The correlation between simulated and experimental results was established. A high degree of similarity allows us to classify the obtained material model as usable in simulation work.

Schlüsselwörter

  • polyester fabrics
  • down, feathers
  • fluff
  • picture frame test
  • static shear test
  • numerical simulation
  • materials modeling
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigating the Effect of Recycled Cotton Included Fabrics on the Thermal Behaviour by Using a Female Thermal Manikin

Online veröffentlicht: 12 Sep 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In recent years, with the increase in global awareness of environmental problems, the term “sustainability” became more important for apparel manufacturers and consumers. Therefore, recycling of wastes plays a significant role in environmental sustainability by converting the wastes into raw materials. This study focused on recycled cotton-included fabrics, to evaluate the effect of these fabrics on thermal comfort properties. In this context, first, the 45% recycled cotton/55% polyester blended yarns and 50% virgin cotton/50% blended yarns were obtained. Afterwards, single jersey and rib-structured fabrics were knitted using these yarns. The thermal comfort tests were performed on the fabrics and four long sleeve rounded neck shirts then were manufactured using these fabrics to test by the thermal manikin method. Results showed that the yarns including recycled cotton led to a decrease in the values in air permeability of the fabrics and in the effective clothing insulation of the garments. In contrast, it was observed that, including recycled cotton increased the thermal resistance values of the fabrics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Apparel industry
  • sustainability
  • recycling
  • thermal comfort
  • thermal manikin
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Application of Spectral Analysis in Spinning Measurements

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Sep 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The presented analysis concerns the problem of irregularity in the mass distribution in linear textile products, its impact on the quality of flat products, and the methods of assessment. Based on the model of the ideal fiber stream, the purpose of the spectrogram has been justified, the characteristic form of the spectrogram for the yarn, roving, and sliver has been presented, and the impact of spinning machines on the form of the spectrogram has been described. The paper evaluates also the selected aspects of spectral analysis of the yarn and spinning semi-finished product irregularities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • spectral analysis
  • fiber stream
  • yarn

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