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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1581-3207
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Apr 2007
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 49 (2015): Heft 4 (December 2015)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1581-3207
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Apr 2007
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

14 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Immunotoxin – a new treatment option in patients with relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 315 - 319

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Even though Hodgkin lymphoma is a highly curable disease, some of the patients have either a refractory disease or experience a relapse following a successful primary therapy. Durable responses and remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory disease may be achieved in approximately one-half with salvage chemotherapy followed by high dose chemotherapy (HDT) and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (SCT). On the other hand, patients who relapse after HDT and autologous SCT or those who have failed at least two prior multi-agent chemotherapy regimens and are not candidates for HDT have limited treatment options.

Conclusions. A new treatment option in this population is an immunotoxin Brentuximab vedotin composed of a CD30 directed antibody linked to the antitubulin agent monomethyl auristatin E. It has demonstrated a substantial effectiveness and an acceptable toxicity. In the pivotal study, the overall response rate was 75% with 34% of complete remissions. The median durations of response were 20.5 and 6.7 months for those with complete remission and all responding patients, respectively. The median overall survival was 40.5 months (3-years overall survival 54%) and the median progression-free survival 9.3 months. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were peripheral sensory neuropathy, nausea, and fatigue while the most common severe side effects were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and peripheral sensory neuropathy.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • relapsed and refractory
  • new treatment option
  • treatment effectiveness
  • toxicity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

[F-18] FDG-PET/CT parameters as predictors of outcome in inoperable NSCLC patients

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 320 - 326

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. We evaluated the prognostic significance of standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in [F-18] FDG PET/CT findings in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Patients and methods. One hundred and three patients (mean age, 65.6 ± 16 years) underwent [F-18] FDG PET/CT before the chemotherapy. The SUVmax value, the MTV (cm3; 42% threshold) and the TLG (g) were registered. The patients were followed up to 18 months thereafter (range 12-55 months). Failure to respond without progression, progression and/or disease-related death constituted surrogate end-points. The optimal SUVmax, MTV and TLG cut-off to predict the patients’ outcome were estimated. PET/CT results were then related to disease outcome (progression free survival; PFS).

Results. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for SUVmax showed a significant shorter PFS in patients presenting with lower values as compared to those with higher (p < 0.05, log-rank test). MTV and TLG were not suitable for predicting PFS apart from the subset of patients with mediastinal nodal involvement.

Conclusions. Despite the availability of new tools for the quantitative assessment of disease activity on PET/CT, the SUVmax rather than MTV and TLG remains the only predictor for PFS in NSCLC patients. MTV holds a value only when concomitant nodal involvement occurs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Non-small-cell lung cancer
  • [F-18] FDG PET/CT
  • quantitative assessment
  • glycolytic activity
  • survival
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimal scan time for evaluation of parathyroid adenoma with [18F]-fluorocholine PET/CT

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 327 - 333

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Parathyroid adenomas, the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, are benign tumours which autonomously produce and secrete parathyroid hormone. [18F]-fluorocholine (FCH), PET marker of cellular proliferation, was recently demonstrated to accumulate in lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue; however, the optimal time to perform FCH PET/CT after FCH administration is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal scan time of FCH PET/CT in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

Patients and methods. 43 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were enrolled in this study. A triple-phase PET/CT imaging was performed five minutes, one and two hours after the administration of FCH. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue and thyroid tissue. Standardized uptake value (SUVmean), retention index and lesion contrast for parathyroid and thyroid tissue were calculated.

Results. Accumulation of FCH was higher in lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue in comparison to the thyroid tissue with significantly higher SUVmean in the second and in the third phase (p < 0.0001). Average retention index decreased significantly between the first and the second phase and increased significantly between the second and the third phase in lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue and decreased significantly over all three phases in thyroid tissue (p< 0.0001). The lesion contrast of lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue and thyroid tissue was significantly better in the second and the third phase compared to the first phase (p < 0.05).

Conclusions. According to the results the optimal scan time of FCH PET/CT for localization of lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue is one hour after administration of the FCH.

Schlüsselwörter

  • [F]-fluorocholine PET/CT
  • lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue
  • triple-phase
  • standardized up-take value
  • retention index
  • lesion contrast
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 334 - 340

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Ultrasound elastography is an imaging procedure that can assess the biomechanical characteristics of different tissues. The aim of this study was to define the diagnostic value of the endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) elastography strain ratio of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with a suspicion of lung cancer. The diagnostic values of the strain ratios were compared with the EBUS brightness mode (B-mode) features of selected mediastinal lymph nodes and with their cytological diagnoses.

Patients and methods. This prospective, single-centre study enrolled patients with an indication for biopsy and mediastinal staging after a non-invasive diagnostic workup of a lung tumour. EBUS with standard B-mode evaluation and elastography with strain ratio measurement were performed before endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA).

Results. Thirty-three patients with 80 suspicious mediastinal lymph nodes were included. Malignant infiltration was confirmed in 34 (42.5%) lymph nodes. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the strain ratio was 0.87 (p < 0.0001). At a strain ratio ≥ 8, the accuracy for malignancy prediction was 86.25% (sensitivity 88.24%, specificity 84.78%, positive predictive value [PPV] 81.08%, negative predictive value [NPV] 90.70%). The strain ratio is more accurate than conventional B-mode EBUS modalities for differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes.

Conclusions. EBUS-guided elastography with strain ratio assessment can distinguish malignant from benign mediastinal lymph nodes with greater accuracy than conventional EBUS modalities. This new method may reduce the number of mediastinal EBUS-TBNAs and thus reduce the invasiveness and expense of mediastinal staging in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC).

Schlüsselwörter

  • cancer staging
  • elastography
  • endobronchial ultrasound
  • lung cancer
  • needle biopsy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of risk factors for perifocal oedema after endovascular embolization of unruptured intracranial arterial aneurysms

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 341 - 346

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Endovascular embolization is a treatment of choice for the management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, but sometimes is complicated with perianeurysmal oedema. The aim of our study was to establish incidence and outcomes of perianeurysmal oedema after endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and to reveal possible risk factors for development of this potentially serious complication.

Methods. In total 119 adult patients with endovascular embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysm (performed at Department for Interventional Neuroradiology, Clinical Center, Kragujevac, Serbia) were included in our study. The embolizations were made by electrolite-detachable platinum coils: pure platinum, hydrophilic and combination of platinum and hydrophilic coils. Primary outcome variable was perianeurysmal oedema visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 7, 30 and 90 days after the embolization.

Results. The perianurysmal oedema appeared in 47.6% of patients treated with hydrophilic coils, in 21.6% of patients treated with platinum coils, and in 53.8% of those treated with mixed type of the coils. The multivariate logistic regression showed that variables associated with occurrence of perianeurysmal oedema are volume of the aneurysm, hypertension, diabetes and smoking habit. Hypertension is the most important independent predictor of the perianeurysmal oedema, followed by smoking and diabetes.

Conclusions. The results of our study suggest that older patients with larger unruptured intracranial aneurysms, who suffer from diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and have the smoking habit, are under much higher risk of having perianeurysmal oedema after endovascular coiling.

Schlüsselwörter

  • intracranial aneurysms
  • endovascular embolization
  • perianeurysmal oedema
  • hypertension
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Estimation of cell response in fractionation radiotherapy using different methods derived from linear quadratic model

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 347 - 356

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. The aim of this study was to use various theoretical methods derived from the Linear Quadratic (LQ) model to calculate the effects of number of subfractions, time intervals between subfractions, dose per subfraction, and overall fraction time on the cells’ survival. Comparison of the results with experimental outcomes of melanoma and breast adenocarcinoma cells was also performed. Finally, the best matched method with experimental outcomes is introduced as the most accurate method in predicting the cell response.

Materials and methods. The most widely used theoretical methods in the literature, presented by Keall et al., Brenner, and Mu et al., were used to calculate the cells’ survival following radiotherapy with different treatment schemes. The overall treatment times were ranged from 15 to 240 minutes. To investigate the effects of number of subfractions and dose per subfraction, the cells’ survival after different treatment delivery scenarios were calculated through fixed overall treatment times of 30, 60 and 240 minutes. The experimental tests were done for dose of 4 Gy. The results were compared with those of the theoretical outcomes.

Results. The most affective parameter on the cells’ survival was the overall treatment time. However, the number of subfractions per fractions was another effecting parameter in the theoretical models. This parameter showed no significant effect on the cells’ survival in experimental schemes. The variations in number of subfractions per each fraction showed different results on the cells’ survival, calculated by Keall et al. and Brenner methods (P<0.05).

Conclusions. Mu et al. method can predict the cells’ survival following fractionation radiotherapy more accurately than the other models. Using Mu et al. method, as an accurate and simple method to predict the cell response after fractionation radiotherapy, is suggested for clinical applications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fractionation radiotherapy
  • survival
  • dose per fraction
  • number of fractions
  • linear quadratic model
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 357 - 364

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients.

Patients and methods. 606 primary breast cancer patients were enrolled in the prospective study in the Department of gynaecological oncology and breast oncology at the University Medical Centre Maribor between the years 2004 and 2010. We evaluated the traditional prognostic factors (age, menopausal status, tumour size, pathohistological type, histologic grade, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion and hormone receptor status), together with uPA and PAI-1. We used Spearman’s rank correlation, Mann Whitney U test and χ2 test for statistical analysis.

Results. Our findings indicate a positive correlation between uPA and tumour size (p < 0.001), grade (p < 0.001), histological type (p < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.01) and a negative correlation between uPA and hormone receptor status (p < 0.001). They also indicate a positive correlation between PAI-1 and tumour size (p = 0.004), grade (p < 0.001), pathohistological type (p < 0.001) and negative correlation between PAI-1 and hormone receptor status (p = 0.002).

Conclusions. Our study showed a relationship between uPA and PAI-1 and traditional prognostic factors. Their role as prognostic and predictive factors remains to be further evaluated.

Schlüsselwörter

  • urokinase plasminogen activator
  • plasminogen activator inhibitor
  • breast cancer
  • prognostic factor
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prognostic value of some tumor markers in unresectable stage IV oropharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 365 - 370

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. The aim of the study was to investigate how the expression of tumor markers p21, p27, p53, cyclin D1, EGFR, Ki-67, and CD31 influenced the outcome of advanced inoperable oropharyngeal carcinoma patients, treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy.

Patients and methods. The pretreatment biopsy specimens of 74 consecutive patients with inoperable stage IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy were in retrospective study processed by immunochemistry for p21, p27, p53, cyclin D1, EGFR, Ki-67, and CD31. Disease-free survival (DFS) was assessed according to the expression of tumor markers.

Results. Patients with a high expression of p21 (≥10%), p27 (>50%), Ki-67 (>50%), CD31 (>130 vessels/mm2) and low expression of p53 (<10%), cyclin D1 (<10%) and EGFR (<10%) (favorable levels - FL) had better DFS than patients with a low expression of p21 (<10%), p27 (≤50%), Ki-67 (≤50%), CD31 (<130 vessels/mm2) and high expression of p53 (≥10%), cyclin D1 (≥10%) and EGFR (≥10%) (unfavorable levels - UL). However, statistical significance in survival between FL and UL was achieved only for p27 and cyclin D1. DFS significantly decreased with an increasing number of markers with an unfavorable level per tumor (1–4 vs. 5–7) (78% vs. 32%, respectively; p = 0.004). The number of markers per tumor with UL of expression retained prognostic significance also in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions. Statistical significance in survival between FL and UL emerged only for p27 and cyclin D1. The number of markers per tumor with UL of expression was an independent prognostic factor for an adverse outcome.

Schlüsselwörter

  • oropharynx
  • radiochemotherapy
  • tumor markers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clinical results of proton beam therapy for twenty older patients with esophageal cancer

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 371 - 378

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. In an aging society, increasing number of older patients are diagnosed with esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of proton beam therapy for older patients with esophageal cancer.

Patients and methods. Older patients (age: ≥ 65 years) newly diagnosed with esophageal cancer between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent either proton beam therapy alone or proton beam therapy with initial X-ray irradiation. Toxicities were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0.

Results. Twenty patients were eligible for this study and all completed the treatment. The median age was 78 years (range: 65–89 years) and the median follow-up time was 26.5 months (range: 6–62 months). Seven patients had lymph node metastases and 10 had stage II/III cancer. The median dose of proton beam therapy was 72.6 Gy relative biological dose effectiveness (RBE) (range: 66–74.8 Gy [RBE]) for proton beam therapy alone and 33 Gy (RBE) (range: 30.8–39.6 Gy [RBE]; total dose range: 66.8–75.6 Gy [RBE]) for proton beam therapy with initial X-ray irradiation. The 2-year overall survival rate was 81.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.4%–100%), and the 2-year local control rate was 89.4% (95% CI: 75.5%–100%). Grade 2 or 3 toxicities occurred in some cases; however, no grade 4 or 5 toxicity was observed.

Conclusions. High-dose (66–75.6 Gy [RBE]) proton beam therapy without chemotherapy was an efficacious and safe treatment for older patients with esophageal cancer.

Schlüsselwörter

  • proton therapy
  • aged
  • esophageal neoplasms
  • radiotherapy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cutaneous melanoma frequencies and seasonal trend in 20 years of observation of a population characterised by excessive sun exposure

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 379 - 385

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer. It has become an increasingly common neoplasm in the most developed countries, especially among individuals of European origin.

Patients and methods. Anonymous data of patients with cutaneous melanoma were collected from the diagnostic database of the University Hospital of Trieste from 1 January 1990 to 10 December 2013. Our study is based on a population which was constant over the period of observation; it was also well-defined and characterised by unrestrained sun exposure.

Results. The number of cutaneous melanomas increased during the period of observation with a seasonality trend and gender related differences both for anatomical sites distribution and stage of the disease. Moreover, 6% of our cohort developed multiple melanomas.

Conclusions. In a well-defined population devoted to excessive sun exposure the frequencies of skin melanomas roughly doubled from 1990 to 2013 following a seasonal trend. In that population, prevention efforts according to gender specific risk behaviour, as well as follow-up programmes both for evaluation of metastatic spreading and for early diagnosis of additional skin melanomas, are crucial due to gender specific differences and to the occurrence of multiple melanomas.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cutaneous melanoma
  • sun exposure
  • frequencies
  • multiple melanomas
  • gender related differences
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Release of growth factors after mechanical and chemical pleurodesis for treatment of malignant pleural effusion: a randomized control study

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 386 - 394

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Growth factors are key inducers of fibrosis but can also mediate inflammatory responses resulting in increasing pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The primary aim of the study was to analyse growth factors release after performing chemical and mechanical pleurodesis in the first 48 hours at the patients with malignant pleural effusion. The secondary endpoints were to evaluate the effectiveness of the both pleurodeses, symptoms release and the quality of life of patients after the treatment.

Patients and methods. A prospective randomized study included 36 consecutive female patients with breast carcinoma and malignant pleural effusion in an intention-to-treat analysis. We treated 18 patients by means of thoracoscopic mechanical pleurodesis and 18 patients by chemical pleurodesis with talcum applied over a chest tube. We gathered the pleural fluid and serum samples in the following 48 hours under a dedicated protocol and tested them for growth factors levels. A quality of life and visual analogue pain score surveys were also performed.

Results. Median measured serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level after chemical pleurodesis was 930.68 pg/ml (95% CI: 388.22–4656.65) and after mechanical pleurodesis 808.54 pg/ml. (95% CI: 463.20-1235.13) (p = 0.103). Median pleural levels of transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 were higher after performing mechanical pleurodesis (4814.00 pg/ml [95% CI: 2726.51–7292.94]) when compared to those after performing chemical pleurodesis (1976.50 pg/ml [95% CI: 1659.82–5136.26]) (p = 0.078). We observed similar results for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) β; the serum level was higher after mechanical pleurodesis (30.45 pg/ml [95% CI: 20.40–59.42]), compared to those after chemical pleurodesis (13.39 pg/ml [95% CI: 5.04 – 74.60]) (p = 0.076). Mechanical pleurodesis was equally effective as chemical pleurodesis in terms of hospital stay, pleural effusion re-accumulation, requiring of additional thoracentesis, median overall survival, but, it shortened the mean thoracic drainage duration (p = 0.030) and resulted in a higher symptoms release and in a better quality of life (p = 0.047).

Conclusions. We recorded an increase in serum VEGF levels after chemical pleurodesis, however on the contrary, an increase in the pleural fluid level of TGFβ1 and FGFβ] after mechanical pleurodesis with respect to compared group. Although the differences did not reach statistical significance, VEGF, TGFβ1 and FGFβ remain the most interesting parameters for future research. Considering the mechanisms of growth factors action, we conclude that in our study group mechanical pleurodesis might be more efficient in terms of growth factors release, thoracic drainage duration and resulted in a higher symptoms release and in a better quality of life than chemical pleurodesis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • malignant pleural effusion
  • pleurodesis
  • growth factors
  • quality of life
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. Case report and review of the literature

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 395 - 401

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP) are rare tumours. They are mostly benign. Only around 12% of them are malignant. In the initial stage they are mostly asymptomatic and by growing they cause chest pain, irritating cough and dyspnoea on account of the pressure created on the surrounding structures. Rare giant tumours have compression symptoms on the mediastinal structures. The condition requires tiered diagnostic radiology. Preoperative biopsy is not successful in most cases. The therapy of choice is radical surgical tumour removal. Malignant or non-radically removed benign solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura additionally require neoadjuvant therapy.

Case report. A 68-year old patient was hospitalized for giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura in the right pleural cavity. With its expansive growth the tumour caused the shift of the mediastinum by compressing the lower vena cava, right cardiac auricle as well as the intermediate and lower lobe bronchus. Due to cardiac inflow obstruction and right lung collapse, the patient’s life was endangered with signs of cardio-respiratory failure. After preoperative diagnostic radiology, the tumour was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the patient’s condition improved. No disease recurrence was diagnosed after a year.

Conclusions. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura may cause serious and life-threatening conditions by causing compression of the pleural cavity with its expansive growth. Early diagnosis of the condition enables less aggressive as well as video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients with significantly better state of health. Large tumour surgeries in cardio-respiratory affected patients are highly risk-associated procedures.

Schlüsselwörter

  • solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura
  • expansive growth
  • mediastinum shift
  • surgical treatment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Impact of comorbidity on the outcome in men with advanced prostate cancer treated with docetaxel

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 402 - 408

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may not receive docetaxel in everyday clinical practice due to comorbidities. Here we explore the impact of comorbidity on outcome in men with mCRPC treated with docetaxel in a population-based outcome study.

Methods. Men with mCRPC treated with docetaxel at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana between 2005 and 2012 were eligible. Comorbidity was assessed by the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (aa-CCI) and adult comorbidity evaluation (ACE-27) index. Hospital admissions due to the toxicity and deaths during treatment with docetaxel were used as a measure of tolerability. Association between comorbidity and overall survival (OS) was tested using the Cox proportional hazards analysis.

Results. Two hundred and eight men were treated with docetaxel. No, mild, moderate and severe comorbidity was present in 2%, 32%, 53% and 13% using aa-CCI and in 27%, 35%, 29% and 8% when assessed by ACE-27. A substantial dose reduction of docetaxel occurred more often in men with moderate or severe comorbidity as compared to those with no or mild comorbidity. At all comorbidity levels about one-third of men required hospitalization or died during treatment with docetaxel. In univariate analysis a higher level of comorbidity was not associated with worse OS (aa-CCI HR 0.99; [95% CI 0.87–1.13], p = 0.93; ACE-27: HR 0.96; [95% CI 0.79–1.17], p = 0.69).

Conclusions. Men with mCRPC, who have comorbidities may benefit from treatment with docetaxel.

Schlüsselwörter

  • metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • comorbidity
  • chemotherapy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clinical impact of post-progression survival on overall survival in patients with limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer after first-line chemoradiotherapy

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 409 - 415

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. The effects of first-line chemoradiotherapy on overall survival (OS) may be confounded by subsequent lines of therapy in patients with limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC). Therefore, we aimed to determine the relationships between progression-free survival (PFS), post-progression survival (PPS) and OS after first-line chemoradiotherapy in LD-SCLC patients.

Patients and methods. We retrospectively analyzed 71 LD-SCLC patients with performance status (PS) 0-2 who received first-line chemoradiotherapy and had disease recurrence between September 2002 and March 2013 at Shizuoka Cancer Center (Shizuoka, Japan). We determined the correlation between PFS and OS and between PPS and OS at the individual level. In addition, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant prognostic factors of PPS.

Results. OS is more strongly correlated with PPS (Spearman’s r = 0.86, R2 = 0.72, p < 0.05) than PFS (Spearman’s r = 0.46, R2 = 0.38, p < 0.05). In addition, the response to second-line treatments, the presence of distant metastases at recurrence and the number of additional regimens after first-line chemoradiotherapy were significant independent prognostic factors for PPS.

Conclusions. PPS has more impact on OS than PFS in recurrent LD-SCLC patients with good PS at beginning of the treatment. Moreover, treatments administered after first-line chemoradiotherapy may affect their OS. However, larger multicenter studies are needed to validate these findings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • chemoradiotherapy
  • limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer
  • overall survival
  • post-progression survival
  • progression-free survival
14 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Immunotoxin – a new treatment option in patients with relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 315 - 319

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Even though Hodgkin lymphoma is a highly curable disease, some of the patients have either a refractory disease or experience a relapse following a successful primary therapy. Durable responses and remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory disease may be achieved in approximately one-half with salvage chemotherapy followed by high dose chemotherapy (HDT) and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (SCT). On the other hand, patients who relapse after HDT and autologous SCT or those who have failed at least two prior multi-agent chemotherapy regimens and are not candidates for HDT have limited treatment options.

Conclusions. A new treatment option in this population is an immunotoxin Brentuximab vedotin composed of a CD30 directed antibody linked to the antitubulin agent monomethyl auristatin E. It has demonstrated a substantial effectiveness and an acceptable toxicity. In the pivotal study, the overall response rate was 75% with 34% of complete remissions. The median durations of response were 20.5 and 6.7 months for those with complete remission and all responding patients, respectively. The median overall survival was 40.5 months (3-years overall survival 54%) and the median progression-free survival 9.3 months. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were peripheral sensory neuropathy, nausea, and fatigue while the most common severe side effects were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and peripheral sensory neuropathy.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • relapsed and refractory
  • new treatment option
  • treatment effectiveness
  • toxicity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

[F-18] FDG-PET/CT parameters as predictors of outcome in inoperable NSCLC patients

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 320 - 326

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. We evaluated the prognostic significance of standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in [F-18] FDG PET/CT findings in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Patients and methods. One hundred and three patients (mean age, 65.6 ± 16 years) underwent [F-18] FDG PET/CT before the chemotherapy. The SUVmax value, the MTV (cm3; 42% threshold) and the TLG (g) were registered. The patients were followed up to 18 months thereafter (range 12-55 months). Failure to respond without progression, progression and/or disease-related death constituted surrogate end-points. The optimal SUVmax, MTV and TLG cut-off to predict the patients’ outcome were estimated. PET/CT results were then related to disease outcome (progression free survival; PFS).

Results. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for SUVmax showed a significant shorter PFS in patients presenting with lower values as compared to those with higher (p < 0.05, log-rank test). MTV and TLG were not suitable for predicting PFS apart from the subset of patients with mediastinal nodal involvement.

Conclusions. Despite the availability of new tools for the quantitative assessment of disease activity on PET/CT, the SUVmax rather than MTV and TLG remains the only predictor for PFS in NSCLC patients. MTV holds a value only when concomitant nodal involvement occurs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Non-small-cell lung cancer
  • [F-18] FDG PET/CT
  • quantitative assessment
  • glycolytic activity
  • survival
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimal scan time for evaluation of parathyroid adenoma with [18F]-fluorocholine PET/CT

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 327 - 333

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Parathyroid adenomas, the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, are benign tumours which autonomously produce and secrete parathyroid hormone. [18F]-fluorocholine (FCH), PET marker of cellular proliferation, was recently demonstrated to accumulate in lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue; however, the optimal time to perform FCH PET/CT after FCH administration is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal scan time of FCH PET/CT in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

Patients and methods. 43 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were enrolled in this study. A triple-phase PET/CT imaging was performed five minutes, one and two hours after the administration of FCH. Regions of interest (ROI) were placed in lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue and thyroid tissue. Standardized uptake value (SUVmean), retention index and lesion contrast for parathyroid and thyroid tissue were calculated.

Results. Accumulation of FCH was higher in lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue in comparison to the thyroid tissue with significantly higher SUVmean in the second and in the third phase (p < 0.0001). Average retention index decreased significantly between the first and the second phase and increased significantly between the second and the third phase in lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue and decreased significantly over all three phases in thyroid tissue (p< 0.0001). The lesion contrast of lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue and thyroid tissue was significantly better in the second and the third phase compared to the first phase (p < 0.05).

Conclusions. According to the results the optimal scan time of FCH PET/CT for localization of lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue is one hour after administration of the FCH.

Schlüsselwörter

  • [F]-fluorocholine PET/CT
  • lesions representing enlarged parathyroid tissue
  • triple-phase
  • standardized up-take value
  • retention index
  • lesion contrast
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Endobronchial ultrasound elastography strain ratio for mediastinal lymph node diagnosis

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 334 - 340

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Ultrasound elastography is an imaging procedure that can assess the biomechanical characteristics of different tissues. The aim of this study was to define the diagnostic value of the endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) elastography strain ratio of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with a suspicion of lung cancer. The diagnostic values of the strain ratios were compared with the EBUS brightness mode (B-mode) features of selected mediastinal lymph nodes and with their cytological diagnoses.

Patients and methods. This prospective, single-centre study enrolled patients with an indication for biopsy and mediastinal staging after a non-invasive diagnostic workup of a lung tumour. EBUS with standard B-mode evaluation and elastography with strain ratio measurement were performed before endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA).

Results. Thirty-three patients with 80 suspicious mediastinal lymph nodes were included. Malignant infiltration was confirmed in 34 (42.5%) lymph nodes. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the strain ratio was 0.87 (p < 0.0001). At a strain ratio ≥ 8, the accuracy for malignancy prediction was 86.25% (sensitivity 88.24%, specificity 84.78%, positive predictive value [PPV] 81.08%, negative predictive value [NPV] 90.70%). The strain ratio is more accurate than conventional B-mode EBUS modalities for differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes.

Conclusions. EBUS-guided elastography with strain ratio assessment can distinguish malignant from benign mediastinal lymph nodes with greater accuracy than conventional EBUS modalities. This new method may reduce the number of mediastinal EBUS-TBNAs and thus reduce the invasiveness and expense of mediastinal staging in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC).

Schlüsselwörter

  • cancer staging
  • elastography
  • endobronchial ultrasound
  • lung cancer
  • needle biopsy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of risk factors for perifocal oedema after endovascular embolization of unruptured intracranial arterial aneurysms

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 341 - 346

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Endovascular embolization is a treatment of choice for the management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, but sometimes is complicated with perianeurysmal oedema. The aim of our study was to establish incidence and outcomes of perianeurysmal oedema after endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and to reveal possible risk factors for development of this potentially serious complication.

Methods. In total 119 adult patients with endovascular embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysm (performed at Department for Interventional Neuroradiology, Clinical Center, Kragujevac, Serbia) were included in our study. The embolizations were made by electrolite-detachable platinum coils: pure platinum, hydrophilic and combination of platinum and hydrophilic coils. Primary outcome variable was perianeurysmal oedema visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 7, 30 and 90 days after the embolization.

Results. The perianurysmal oedema appeared in 47.6% of patients treated with hydrophilic coils, in 21.6% of patients treated with platinum coils, and in 53.8% of those treated with mixed type of the coils. The multivariate logistic regression showed that variables associated with occurrence of perianeurysmal oedema are volume of the aneurysm, hypertension, diabetes and smoking habit. Hypertension is the most important independent predictor of the perianeurysmal oedema, followed by smoking and diabetes.

Conclusions. The results of our study suggest that older patients with larger unruptured intracranial aneurysms, who suffer from diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and have the smoking habit, are under much higher risk of having perianeurysmal oedema after endovascular coiling.

Schlüsselwörter

  • intracranial aneurysms
  • endovascular embolization
  • perianeurysmal oedema
  • hypertension
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Estimation of cell response in fractionation radiotherapy using different methods derived from linear quadratic model

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 347 - 356

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. The aim of this study was to use various theoretical methods derived from the Linear Quadratic (LQ) model to calculate the effects of number of subfractions, time intervals between subfractions, dose per subfraction, and overall fraction time on the cells’ survival. Comparison of the results with experimental outcomes of melanoma and breast adenocarcinoma cells was also performed. Finally, the best matched method with experimental outcomes is introduced as the most accurate method in predicting the cell response.

Materials and methods. The most widely used theoretical methods in the literature, presented by Keall et al., Brenner, and Mu et al., were used to calculate the cells’ survival following radiotherapy with different treatment schemes. The overall treatment times were ranged from 15 to 240 minutes. To investigate the effects of number of subfractions and dose per subfraction, the cells’ survival after different treatment delivery scenarios were calculated through fixed overall treatment times of 30, 60 and 240 minutes. The experimental tests were done for dose of 4 Gy. The results were compared with those of the theoretical outcomes.

Results. The most affective parameter on the cells’ survival was the overall treatment time. However, the number of subfractions per fractions was another effecting parameter in the theoretical models. This parameter showed no significant effect on the cells’ survival in experimental schemes. The variations in number of subfractions per each fraction showed different results on the cells’ survival, calculated by Keall et al. and Brenner methods (P<0.05).

Conclusions. Mu et al. method can predict the cells’ survival following fractionation radiotherapy more accurately than the other models. Using Mu et al. method, as an accurate and simple method to predict the cell response after fractionation radiotherapy, is suggested for clinical applications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fractionation radiotherapy
  • survival
  • dose per fraction
  • number of fractions
  • linear quadratic model
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 357 - 364

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients.

Patients and methods. 606 primary breast cancer patients were enrolled in the prospective study in the Department of gynaecological oncology and breast oncology at the University Medical Centre Maribor between the years 2004 and 2010. We evaluated the traditional prognostic factors (age, menopausal status, tumour size, pathohistological type, histologic grade, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion and hormone receptor status), together with uPA and PAI-1. We used Spearman’s rank correlation, Mann Whitney U test and χ2 test for statistical analysis.

Results. Our findings indicate a positive correlation between uPA and tumour size (p < 0.001), grade (p < 0.001), histological type (p < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.01) and a negative correlation between uPA and hormone receptor status (p < 0.001). They also indicate a positive correlation between PAI-1 and tumour size (p = 0.004), grade (p < 0.001), pathohistological type (p < 0.001) and negative correlation between PAI-1 and hormone receptor status (p = 0.002).

Conclusions. Our study showed a relationship between uPA and PAI-1 and traditional prognostic factors. Their role as prognostic and predictive factors remains to be further evaluated.

Schlüsselwörter

  • urokinase plasminogen activator
  • plasminogen activator inhibitor
  • breast cancer
  • prognostic factor
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Prognostic value of some tumor markers in unresectable stage IV oropharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 365 - 370

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. The aim of the study was to investigate how the expression of tumor markers p21, p27, p53, cyclin D1, EGFR, Ki-67, and CD31 influenced the outcome of advanced inoperable oropharyngeal carcinoma patients, treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy.

Patients and methods. The pretreatment biopsy specimens of 74 consecutive patients with inoperable stage IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy were in retrospective study processed by immunochemistry for p21, p27, p53, cyclin D1, EGFR, Ki-67, and CD31. Disease-free survival (DFS) was assessed according to the expression of tumor markers.

Results. Patients with a high expression of p21 (≥10%), p27 (>50%), Ki-67 (>50%), CD31 (>130 vessels/mm2) and low expression of p53 (<10%), cyclin D1 (<10%) and EGFR (<10%) (favorable levels - FL) had better DFS than patients with a low expression of p21 (<10%), p27 (≤50%), Ki-67 (≤50%), CD31 (<130 vessels/mm2) and high expression of p53 (≥10%), cyclin D1 (≥10%) and EGFR (≥10%) (unfavorable levels - UL). However, statistical significance in survival between FL and UL was achieved only for p27 and cyclin D1. DFS significantly decreased with an increasing number of markers with an unfavorable level per tumor (1–4 vs. 5–7) (78% vs. 32%, respectively; p = 0.004). The number of markers per tumor with UL of expression retained prognostic significance also in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions. Statistical significance in survival between FL and UL emerged only for p27 and cyclin D1. The number of markers per tumor with UL of expression was an independent prognostic factor for an adverse outcome.

Schlüsselwörter

  • oropharynx
  • radiochemotherapy
  • tumor markers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clinical results of proton beam therapy for twenty older patients with esophageal cancer

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 371 - 378

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. In an aging society, increasing number of older patients are diagnosed with esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of proton beam therapy for older patients with esophageal cancer.

Patients and methods. Older patients (age: ≥ 65 years) newly diagnosed with esophageal cancer between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent either proton beam therapy alone or proton beam therapy with initial X-ray irradiation. Toxicities were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0.

Results. Twenty patients were eligible for this study and all completed the treatment. The median age was 78 years (range: 65–89 years) and the median follow-up time was 26.5 months (range: 6–62 months). Seven patients had lymph node metastases and 10 had stage II/III cancer. The median dose of proton beam therapy was 72.6 Gy relative biological dose effectiveness (RBE) (range: 66–74.8 Gy [RBE]) for proton beam therapy alone and 33 Gy (RBE) (range: 30.8–39.6 Gy [RBE]; total dose range: 66.8–75.6 Gy [RBE]) for proton beam therapy with initial X-ray irradiation. The 2-year overall survival rate was 81.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.4%–100%), and the 2-year local control rate was 89.4% (95% CI: 75.5%–100%). Grade 2 or 3 toxicities occurred in some cases; however, no grade 4 or 5 toxicity was observed.

Conclusions. High-dose (66–75.6 Gy [RBE]) proton beam therapy without chemotherapy was an efficacious and safe treatment for older patients with esophageal cancer.

Schlüsselwörter

  • proton therapy
  • aged
  • esophageal neoplasms
  • radiotherapy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cutaneous melanoma frequencies and seasonal trend in 20 years of observation of a population characterised by excessive sun exposure

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 379 - 385

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer. It has become an increasingly common neoplasm in the most developed countries, especially among individuals of European origin.

Patients and methods. Anonymous data of patients with cutaneous melanoma were collected from the diagnostic database of the University Hospital of Trieste from 1 January 1990 to 10 December 2013. Our study is based on a population which was constant over the period of observation; it was also well-defined and characterised by unrestrained sun exposure.

Results. The number of cutaneous melanomas increased during the period of observation with a seasonality trend and gender related differences both for anatomical sites distribution and stage of the disease. Moreover, 6% of our cohort developed multiple melanomas.

Conclusions. In a well-defined population devoted to excessive sun exposure the frequencies of skin melanomas roughly doubled from 1990 to 2013 following a seasonal trend. In that population, prevention efforts according to gender specific risk behaviour, as well as follow-up programmes both for evaluation of metastatic spreading and for early diagnosis of additional skin melanomas, are crucial due to gender specific differences and to the occurrence of multiple melanomas.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cutaneous melanoma
  • sun exposure
  • frequencies
  • multiple melanomas
  • gender related differences
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Release of growth factors after mechanical and chemical pleurodesis for treatment of malignant pleural effusion: a randomized control study

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 386 - 394

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Growth factors are key inducers of fibrosis but can also mediate inflammatory responses resulting in increasing pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The primary aim of the study was to analyse growth factors release after performing chemical and mechanical pleurodesis in the first 48 hours at the patients with malignant pleural effusion. The secondary endpoints were to evaluate the effectiveness of the both pleurodeses, symptoms release and the quality of life of patients after the treatment.

Patients and methods. A prospective randomized study included 36 consecutive female patients with breast carcinoma and malignant pleural effusion in an intention-to-treat analysis. We treated 18 patients by means of thoracoscopic mechanical pleurodesis and 18 patients by chemical pleurodesis with talcum applied over a chest tube. We gathered the pleural fluid and serum samples in the following 48 hours under a dedicated protocol and tested them for growth factors levels. A quality of life and visual analogue pain score surveys were also performed.

Results. Median measured serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level after chemical pleurodesis was 930.68 pg/ml (95% CI: 388.22–4656.65) and after mechanical pleurodesis 808.54 pg/ml. (95% CI: 463.20-1235.13) (p = 0.103). Median pleural levels of transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 were higher after performing mechanical pleurodesis (4814.00 pg/ml [95% CI: 2726.51–7292.94]) when compared to those after performing chemical pleurodesis (1976.50 pg/ml [95% CI: 1659.82–5136.26]) (p = 0.078). We observed similar results for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) β; the serum level was higher after mechanical pleurodesis (30.45 pg/ml [95% CI: 20.40–59.42]), compared to those after chemical pleurodesis (13.39 pg/ml [95% CI: 5.04 – 74.60]) (p = 0.076). Mechanical pleurodesis was equally effective as chemical pleurodesis in terms of hospital stay, pleural effusion re-accumulation, requiring of additional thoracentesis, median overall survival, but, it shortened the mean thoracic drainage duration (p = 0.030) and resulted in a higher symptoms release and in a better quality of life (p = 0.047).

Conclusions. We recorded an increase in serum VEGF levels after chemical pleurodesis, however on the contrary, an increase in the pleural fluid level of TGFβ1 and FGFβ] after mechanical pleurodesis with respect to compared group. Although the differences did not reach statistical significance, VEGF, TGFβ1 and FGFβ remain the most interesting parameters for future research. Considering the mechanisms of growth factors action, we conclude that in our study group mechanical pleurodesis might be more efficient in terms of growth factors release, thoracic drainage duration and resulted in a higher symptoms release and in a better quality of life than chemical pleurodesis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • malignant pleural effusion
  • pleurodesis
  • growth factors
  • quality of life
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. Case report and review of the literature

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 395 - 401

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP) are rare tumours. They are mostly benign. Only around 12% of them are malignant. In the initial stage they are mostly asymptomatic and by growing they cause chest pain, irritating cough and dyspnoea on account of the pressure created on the surrounding structures. Rare giant tumours have compression symptoms on the mediastinal structures. The condition requires tiered diagnostic radiology. Preoperative biopsy is not successful in most cases. The therapy of choice is radical surgical tumour removal. Malignant or non-radically removed benign solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura additionally require neoadjuvant therapy.

Case report. A 68-year old patient was hospitalized for giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura in the right pleural cavity. With its expansive growth the tumour caused the shift of the mediastinum by compressing the lower vena cava, right cardiac auricle as well as the intermediate and lower lobe bronchus. Due to cardiac inflow obstruction and right lung collapse, the patient’s life was endangered with signs of cardio-respiratory failure. After preoperative diagnostic radiology, the tumour was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the patient’s condition improved. No disease recurrence was diagnosed after a year.

Conclusions. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura may cause serious and life-threatening conditions by causing compression of the pleural cavity with its expansive growth. Early diagnosis of the condition enables less aggressive as well as video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients with significantly better state of health. Large tumour surgeries in cardio-respiratory affected patients are highly risk-associated procedures.

Schlüsselwörter

  • solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura
  • expansive growth
  • mediastinum shift
  • surgical treatment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Impact of comorbidity on the outcome in men with advanced prostate cancer treated with docetaxel

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 402 - 408

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. Men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may not receive docetaxel in everyday clinical practice due to comorbidities. Here we explore the impact of comorbidity on outcome in men with mCRPC treated with docetaxel in a population-based outcome study.

Methods. Men with mCRPC treated with docetaxel at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana between 2005 and 2012 were eligible. Comorbidity was assessed by the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (aa-CCI) and adult comorbidity evaluation (ACE-27) index. Hospital admissions due to the toxicity and deaths during treatment with docetaxel were used as a measure of tolerability. Association between comorbidity and overall survival (OS) was tested using the Cox proportional hazards analysis.

Results. Two hundred and eight men were treated with docetaxel. No, mild, moderate and severe comorbidity was present in 2%, 32%, 53% and 13% using aa-CCI and in 27%, 35%, 29% and 8% when assessed by ACE-27. A substantial dose reduction of docetaxel occurred more often in men with moderate or severe comorbidity as compared to those with no or mild comorbidity. At all comorbidity levels about one-third of men required hospitalization or died during treatment with docetaxel. In univariate analysis a higher level of comorbidity was not associated with worse OS (aa-CCI HR 0.99; [95% CI 0.87–1.13], p = 0.93; ACE-27: HR 0.96; [95% CI 0.79–1.17], p = 0.69).

Conclusions. Men with mCRPC, who have comorbidities may benefit from treatment with docetaxel.

Schlüsselwörter

  • metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • comorbidity
  • chemotherapy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clinical impact of post-progression survival on overall survival in patients with limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer after first-line chemoradiotherapy

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Nov 2015
Seitenbereich: 409 - 415

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Background. The effects of first-line chemoradiotherapy on overall survival (OS) may be confounded by subsequent lines of therapy in patients with limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC). Therefore, we aimed to determine the relationships between progression-free survival (PFS), post-progression survival (PPS) and OS after first-line chemoradiotherapy in LD-SCLC patients.

Patients and methods. We retrospectively analyzed 71 LD-SCLC patients with performance status (PS) 0-2 who received first-line chemoradiotherapy and had disease recurrence between September 2002 and March 2013 at Shizuoka Cancer Center (Shizuoka, Japan). We determined the correlation between PFS and OS and between PPS and OS at the individual level. In addition, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant prognostic factors of PPS.

Results. OS is more strongly correlated with PPS (Spearman’s r = 0.86, R2 = 0.72, p < 0.05) than PFS (Spearman’s r = 0.46, R2 = 0.38, p < 0.05). In addition, the response to second-line treatments, the presence of distant metastases at recurrence and the number of additional regimens after first-line chemoradiotherapy were significant independent prognostic factors for PPS.

Conclusions. PPS has more impact on OS than PFS in recurrent LD-SCLC patients with good PS at beginning of the treatment. Moreover, treatments administered after first-line chemoradiotherapy may affect their OS. However, larger multicenter studies are needed to validate these findings.

Schlüsselwörter

  • chemoradiotherapy
  • limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer
  • overall survival
  • post-progression survival
  • progression-free survival

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