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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1897-3191
Erstveröffentlichung
23 Feb 2007
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 37 (2008): Heft 4 (December 2008)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1897-3191
Erstveröffentlichung
23 Feb 2007
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, microcystins and nodularins, in fresh and brackish waters of the Pomeranian Province, northern Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 3 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Microcystins (MCs) and structurally related nodularins (NODs) are hepatotoxic cyclic peptides produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria. These toxins have been implicated in the deaths of wild and domestic animals as well as in incidents of human illness. Cyanobacterial toxins occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Pomeranian Province, northern Poland were characterized in this study. Water samples collected from seven lakes in August and September 2005 were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA). Cyanobacterial toxins present in field samples and in an isolated strain of Planktothrix agardhii were also characterized by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In most of the fresh water samples MC-LR, MC-RR and MC-YR dominated. In the lakes where P. agardhii was most abundant demethylated microcystin variants tentatively identified as [D-Asp3]MC-LR, [D-Asp3]MC-YR and [D-Asp3]MC-RR, were found. Total concentrations of the toxins measured by HPLC ranged from 0.1 μg 1-1 to 305.4 μg 1-1. Nodularia spumigena bloom samples were collected from brackish waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic, and LC-ISP-MS/MS of extract from these revealed the presence of two geometrical isomers of linear nodularin and nodularin variant with aspartic acid methyl ester [MeAsp1(OMe)]NOD.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cyanobacterial blooms
  • cyclic peptides
  • LC-MS/MS
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Replacement of chroococcales and nostocales by oscillatoriales caused a significant increase in microcystin concentrations in a dam reservoir

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 23 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A two-year study on cyanobacterial development and the dynamics of intracellular microcystins was carried out in a shallow dam reservoir. Potentially toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis wesenbergii, M. aeruginosa, Woronichinia naegeliana, Anabaena spp., Planktothrix agardhii) were observed to be the main component (70-94% total biomass) of the phytoplankton community, in which species composition was unstable and was very different between the 2005 and 2006 summer seasons. Generally, total phytoplankton, cyanobacterial biomass and total microcystin (MC) concentrations in the reservoir were much higher in 2006 than in 2005. The highest MC concentration (173.8 μg MC-LR equivalent dm-3) was seen in 2006 during P. agardhii (Oscillatoriales) domination (max. fresh biomass 50.3 mg dm-3; above 91% of phytoplankton biomass). Positive correlations between microcystin concentrations and cyanobacterial biomass suggest that populations of Nostocales and Oscillatoriales in 2005 and Oscillatoriales (P. agardhii) in 2006 may have been the main producers of MCs in the reservoir. The strong increase in P. agardhii biomass concomitant with a decrease in the total biomass of Chroococcales and Nostocales was responsible for the increase in MC concentration in the Siemianówka dam reservoir.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cyanobacteria
  • microcystins
  • shallow dam reservoir
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Holocene diatom biostratigraphy of the SW Gulf of Gdańsk, Southern Baltic Sea (part III)

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 35 - 52

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The palaeoenvironmental changes of the south-western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk during the last 8,000 years, with reference to the stages of the Baltic Sea, were reconstructed. Diatom analyses of two cores taken from the shallower and deeper parts of the basin enabled the conclusion to be drawn that the microflora studied developed in the three Baltic phases: Mastogloia, Littorina and Post-Littorina. Moreover, the so-called anthropogenic assemblage was observed in subbottom sediments of the study area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • diatoms
  • palaeoecology
  • Holocene
  • Gulf of Gdańsk
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Helminths of the lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus) from the Gulf of Gdańsk and Vistula Lagoon (Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 53 - 59

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus Linnaeus, 1758) is a marine fish inhabiting shallow coastal areas of North Atlantic. In 1996-2006, 224 lumpsucker individuals caught in the Gulf of Gdańsk and Vistula Lagoon (Poland) were examined for metazoan parasites. The fish were found to support the cestode Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779), the nematodes Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802) L3, Dichelyne minutus (Rudolphi, 1819), and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) L3, L4, ad. as well as the acanthocephalans Corynosoma strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) cyst., Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Müller, 1776, and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776). The total (both areas) prevalence of parasites was 63.4% at a mean intensity of 2.1 inds. In the Gulf of Gdańsk, 66.3% of all the lumpsucker examined were infected (intensity 2 inds), the level of infection in the Vistula Lagoon being 46.5% of the fish (intensity 2.3 inds). The Gulf of Gdańsk lumpsucker supported all the parasitic species listed, while 4 species only (E. crassum, H. aduncum, E. gadi, and P. laevis) were recorded in the Vistula Lagoon. The dominant parasites were H. aduncum (43.3%, 2.1 inds) and E. gadi (21.0%, 1.2 inds). All the parasitic species, except C. strumosum, are being reported from the southern Baltic lumpsucker for the first time.

Schlüsselwörter

  • parasites
  • lumpsucker
  • Gulf of Gdańsk
  • Vistula Lagoon
  • Poland
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Infestation of the black cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis L. 1758) from the colony on the Selment Wielki, with the nematode Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda, Anisakidae)

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 61 - 71

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Seasonal changes in the intensity and prevalence of infestation of the black cormorants from the colony on Lake Selment Wielki were investigated. In 2006, the cormorants were procured in April, August, and October, while in 2007, they were collected in August and September. The prevalence of the infestation was very high and reached 100%. The highest intensity (mean values of 102.46 and 82.17 nematodes/bird in 2006 and 2007, respectively) was revealed in the cormorants shot in August. Intensity of infestation of those birds procured in autumn 2006 was more than twice that found in spring and one-fourth of that found in summer of that year. Similarly, in autumn of 2007, the birds' stomachs contained less than half of the number of nematodes recorded in summer of that year.

Schlüsselwörter

  • black cormorant
  • infestation intensity
  • infestation prevalence
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The state of plant conservation in small water bodies located within the city limits of Olsztyn

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 73 - 83

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The interior depressions in the Olsztyn area are characterized by high biodiversity. On the basis of floral surveys of 32 small water bodies, 200 species of vascular plants and 10 species of bryophytes were recorded. Phytosociological analysis indicated 45 plant associations. Among the phytocoenoses described, some communities require more attention, including Wolffietum arrhizae, Riccietum fluitantis, Charetum fragilis, the pondweeds Potametum nitentis and P. commpressi as well as communities with Potamogeton trichoides and P. pusillus.

In light of their significant natural value, some of the basins studied units should be protected as ecological grounds. Reservoirs located in the Jaroty District, in the vicinity of Lake Track or some reservoirs located within the Gutkowo and Kortowo districts are important points of peatwater or water accumulation. These small water bodies limit the nutrient and pollutant input into the numerous lakes located in the Olsztyn area. Some basins are of a recreational character, including the reservoir located in the central quarter of the town and the water bodies of the Kortowo District. The remaining reservoirs need restoration and litter collection to restore their recreational functions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • small water bodies
  • phytocoenosis
  • plant conservation
  • Olsztyn
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The distribution of lead, zinc, and chromium in fractions of bottom sediments in the Narew River and its tributaries

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 85 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of the paper was to evaluate the distribution of lead, zinc and chromium contents in different grain fractions of bottom sediments in the Narew River and some of its tributaries. This study also aimed to determine which fractions are mostly responsible for bottom sediment pollution. The studies of the Narew and its tributaries (the Supraśl, Narewka, and Orlanka) were conducted in September 2005 in the upper Narew catchment area. The analyzed bottom sediments differed regarding grain size distribution. The studies revealed the influence of the percentage of particular grain fractions present on the accumulation of heavy metals in all bottom sediments.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bottom sediments
  • heavy metals
  • grain distribution
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Surface and near-bottom water saturation with CaCO3 in the Pomeranian Bay in the vicinity of the Świna Channel mouth

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 93 - 99

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Langmuir and Langelier calcite saturation indexes were calculated for water in the vicinity of the Świna Channel in the Pomeranian Bay. Measurements carried out in April-October of 1994 and 2004 indicated that CaCO3 concentrations nearly reached the saturation level, though in spring and fall the water showed slight calcite unsaturation while in summer it was oversaturated with calcite. The observed saturation levels were related with the shifts in the equilibrium between assimilation and dissimilation processes in the Pomeranian Bay ecosystem.

Schlüsselwörter

  • freshwater
  • calcite saturation
  • southern Baltic
  • Pomeranian Bay
  • Świna Channel mouth
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Water bugs (Heteroptera) in small water bodies located in Olsztyn

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 101 - 114

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study was conducted on 16 water bodies located in Olsztyn, most of them natural and dominated by astatic ones (dystrophic, eutrophic, and artificial with elevated mineralization levels). Heteroptera was identified to 32 species represented by five synecological groups, i.e., species typical of dystrophic water bodies (Cymatia bonsdorffi, Hesperocorixa linnaei, H. moesta, H. sahlbergi, Gerris lateralis, G. sphagnetorum, Hebrus ruficeps), lacustrine species (Gerris argentatus, Aquarius paludum), halophilous species (Cymatia rogenhoferi, Paracorixa concinna, Gerris thoracicus), psammophilous and argilophilous species (Sigara lateralis) and eurytopic species typical of small water bodies (18). It was found that the degree of permanency of astatic water bodies affects both the species diversity and abundance of the Heteroptera fauna. Migrations play a crucial role with respect to the colonization of newly-formed bodies of water and to the abandonment of those that are drying up.

Schlüsselwörter

  • water bugs (Heteroptera)
  • urban water bodies
  • permanent and astatic water bodies
  • communities of water boatmen
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cyanobacterial blooms in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic): the main effect of eutrophication

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 115 - 121

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The most striking aspect of eutrophication in the Baltic are the summer blooms of cyanobacteria. Some of the blooms are toxic to marine organisms and poisonous to people. Our studies, conducted over the last three decades, report on mass occurrences of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (L.) Ralphs and Nodularia spumigena Mertens. It is generally assumed that cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are stimulated by the low ratio of N:P and initiated by high water temperatures. The mean annual value of this ratio in the Gulf of Gdańsk, since 1981, is 7:1-8:1, with the lowest values, of about 4, being seen in July when the cyanobacterial blooms begin. During three years of observations (1992-1994) the smallest number of recorded taxa was reported in 1993, concurrent with the lowest water temperature (16°C in summer). In August 1994, when the temperature increased to 22°C, a huge bloom was seen. Nodularia spumigena was very abundant in that bloom, and nodularin concentration of 2.59 mg toxin per g dry weight of bloom sample was recorded. A similar situation has also been observed in the years 2003-2006.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Baltic
  • Southern Baltic
  • Gulf of Gdansk
  • blooms
  • cyanobacteria
  • eutrophication
10 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, microcystins and nodularins, in fresh and brackish waters of the Pomeranian Province, northern Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 3 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Microcystins (MCs) and structurally related nodularins (NODs) are hepatotoxic cyclic peptides produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria. These toxins have been implicated in the deaths of wild and domestic animals as well as in incidents of human illness. Cyanobacterial toxins occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Pomeranian Province, northern Poland were characterized in this study. Water samples collected from seven lakes in August and September 2005 were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA). Cyanobacterial toxins present in field samples and in an isolated strain of Planktothrix agardhii were also characterized by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In most of the fresh water samples MC-LR, MC-RR and MC-YR dominated. In the lakes where P. agardhii was most abundant demethylated microcystin variants tentatively identified as [D-Asp3]MC-LR, [D-Asp3]MC-YR and [D-Asp3]MC-RR, were found. Total concentrations of the toxins measured by HPLC ranged from 0.1 μg 1-1 to 305.4 μg 1-1. Nodularia spumigena bloom samples were collected from brackish waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic, and LC-ISP-MS/MS of extract from these revealed the presence of two geometrical isomers of linear nodularin and nodularin variant with aspartic acid methyl ester [MeAsp1(OMe)]NOD.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cyanobacterial blooms
  • cyclic peptides
  • LC-MS/MS
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Replacement of chroococcales and nostocales by oscillatoriales caused a significant increase in microcystin concentrations in a dam reservoir

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 23 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A two-year study on cyanobacterial development and the dynamics of intracellular microcystins was carried out in a shallow dam reservoir. Potentially toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis wesenbergii, M. aeruginosa, Woronichinia naegeliana, Anabaena spp., Planktothrix agardhii) were observed to be the main component (70-94% total biomass) of the phytoplankton community, in which species composition was unstable and was very different between the 2005 and 2006 summer seasons. Generally, total phytoplankton, cyanobacterial biomass and total microcystin (MC) concentrations in the reservoir were much higher in 2006 than in 2005. The highest MC concentration (173.8 μg MC-LR equivalent dm-3) was seen in 2006 during P. agardhii (Oscillatoriales) domination (max. fresh biomass 50.3 mg dm-3; above 91% of phytoplankton biomass). Positive correlations between microcystin concentrations and cyanobacterial biomass suggest that populations of Nostocales and Oscillatoriales in 2005 and Oscillatoriales (P. agardhii) in 2006 may have been the main producers of MCs in the reservoir. The strong increase in P. agardhii biomass concomitant with a decrease in the total biomass of Chroococcales and Nostocales was responsible for the increase in MC concentration in the Siemianówka dam reservoir.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cyanobacteria
  • microcystins
  • shallow dam reservoir
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Holocene diatom biostratigraphy of the SW Gulf of Gdańsk, Southern Baltic Sea (part III)

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 35 - 52

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The palaeoenvironmental changes of the south-western part of the Gulf of Gdańsk during the last 8,000 years, with reference to the stages of the Baltic Sea, were reconstructed. Diatom analyses of two cores taken from the shallower and deeper parts of the basin enabled the conclusion to be drawn that the microflora studied developed in the three Baltic phases: Mastogloia, Littorina and Post-Littorina. Moreover, the so-called anthropogenic assemblage was observed in subbottom sediments of the study area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • diatoms
  • palaeoecology
  • Holocene
  • Gulf of Gdańsk
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Helminths of the lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus) from the Gulf of Gdańsk and Vistula Lagoon (Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 53 - 59

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus Linnaeus, 1758) is a marine fish inhabiting shallow coastal areas of North Atlantic. In 1996-2006, 224 lumpsucker individuals caught in the Gulf of Gdańsk and Vistula Lagoon (Poland) were examined for metazoan parasites. The fish were found to support the cestode Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779), the nematodes Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802) L3, Dichelyne minutus (Rudolphi, 1819), and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) L3, L4, ad. as well as the acanthocephalans Corynosoma strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) cyst., Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Müller, 1776, and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776). The total (both areas) prevalence of parasites was 63.4% at a mean intensity of 2.1 inds. In the Gulf of Gdańsk, 66.3% of all the lumpsucker examined were infected (intensity 2 inds), the level of infection in the Vistula Lagoon being 46.5% of the fish (intensity 2.3 inds). The Gulf of Gdańsk lumpsucker supported all the parasitic species listed, while 4 species only (E. crassum, H. aduncum, E. gadi, and P. laevis) were recorded in the Vistula Lagoon. The dominant parasites were H. aduncum (43.3%, 2.1 inds) and E. gadi (21.0%, 1.2 inds). All the parasitic species, except C. strumosum, are being reported from the southern Baltic lumpsucker for the first time.

Schlüsselwörter

  • parasites
  • lumpsucker
  • Gulf of Gdańsk
  • Vistula Lagoon
  • Poland
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Infestation of the black cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis L. 1758) from the colony on the Selment Wielki, with the nematode Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda, Anisakidae)

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 61 - 71

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Seasonal changes in the intensity and prevalence of infestation of the black cormorants from the colony on Lake Selment Wielki were investigated. In 2006, the cormorants were procured in April, August, and October, while in 2007, they were collected in August and September. The prevalence of the infestation was very high and reached 100%. The highest intensity (mean values of 102.46 and 82.17 nematodes/bird in 2006 and 2007, respectively) was revealed in the cormorants shot in August. Intensity of infestation of those birds procured in autumn 2006 was more than twice that found in spring and one-fourth of that found in summer of that year. Similarly, in autumn of 2007, the birds' stomachs contained less than half of the number of nematodes recorded in summer of that year.

Schlüsselwörter

  • black cormorant
  • infestation intensity
  • infestation prevalence
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The state of plant conservation in small water bodies located within the city limits of Olsztyn

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 73 - 83

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The interior depressions in the Olsztyn area are characterized by high biodiversity. On the basis of floral surveys of 32 small water bodies, 200 species of vascular plants and 10 species of bryophytes were recorded. Phytosociological analysis indicated 45 plant associations. Among the phytocoenoses described, some communities require more attention, including Wolffietum arrhizae, Riccietum fluitantis, Charetum fragilis, the pondweeds Potametum nitentis and P. commpressi as well as communities with Potamogeton trichoides and P. pusillus.

In light of their significant natural value, some of the basins studied units should be protected as ecological grounds. Reservoirs located in the Jaroty District, in the vicinity of Lake Track or some reservoirs located within the Gutkowo and Kortowo districts are important points of peatwater or water accumulation. These small water bodies limit the nutrient and pollutant input into the numerous lakes located in the Olsztyn area. Some basins are of a recreational character, including the reservoir located in the central quarter of the town and the water bodies of the Kortowo District. The remaining reservoirs need restoration and litter collection to restore their recreational functions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • small water bodies
  • phytocoenosis
  • plant conservation
  • Olsztyn
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The distribution of lead, zinc, and chromium in fractions of bottom sediments in the Narew River and its tributaries

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 85 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of the paper was to evaluate the distribution of lead, zinc and chromium contents in different grain fractions of bottom sediments in the Narew River and some of its tributaries. This study also aimed to determine which fractions are mostly responsible for bottom sediment pollution. The studies of the Narew and its tributaries (the Supraśl, Narewka, and Orlanka) were conducted in September 2005 in the upper Narew catchment area. The analyzed bottom sediments differed regarding grain size distribution. The studies revealed the influence of the percentage of particular grain fractions present on the accumulation of heavy metals in all bottom sediments.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bottom sediments
  • heavy metals
  • grain distribution
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Surface and near-bottom water saturation with CaCO3 in the Pomeranian Bay in the vicinity of the Świna Channel mouth

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 93 - 99

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Langmuir and Langelier calcite saturation indexes were calculated for water in the vicinity of the Świna Channel in the Pomeranian Bay. Measurements carried out in April-October of 1994 and 2004 indicated that CaCO3 concentrations nearly reached the saturation level, though in spring and fall the water showed slight calcite unsaturation while in summer it was oversaturated with calcite. The observed saturation levels were related with the shifts in the equilibrium between assimilation and dissimilation processes in the Pomeranian Bay ecosystem.

Schlüsselwörter

  • freshwater
  • calcite saturation
  • southern Baltic
  • Pomeranian Bay
  • Świna Channel mouth
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Water bugs (Heteroptera) in small water bodies located in Olsztyn

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 101 - 114

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study was conducted on 16 water bodies located in Olsztyn, most of them natural and dominated by astatic ones (dystrophic, eutrophic, and artificial with elevated mineralization levels). Heteroptera was identified to 32 species represented by five synecological groups, i.e., species typical of dystrophic water bodies (Cymatia bonsdorffi, Hesperocorixa linnaei, H. moesta, H. sahlbergi, Gerris lateralis, G. sphagnetorum, Hebrus ruficeps), lacustrine species (Gerris argentatus, Aquarius paludum), halophilous species (Cymatia rogenhoferi, Paracorixa concinna, Gerris thoracicus), psammophilous and argilophilous species (Sigara lateralis) and eurytopic species typical of small water bodies (18). It was found that the degree of permanency of astatic water bodies affects both the species diversity and abundance of the Heteroptera fauna. Migrations play a crucial role with respect to the colonization of newly-formed bodies of water and to the abandonment of those that are drying up.

Schlüsselwörter

  • water bugs (Heteroptera)
  • urban water bodies
  • permanent and astatic water bodies
  • communities of water boatmen
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cyanobacterial blooms in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic): the main effect of eutrophication

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Jan 2009
Seitenbereich: 115 - 121

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The most striking aspect of eutrophication in the Baltic are the summer blooms of cyanobacteria. Some of the blooms are toxic to marine organisms and poisonous to people. Our studies, conducted over the last three decades, report on mass occurrences of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (L.) Ralphs and Nodularia spumigena Mertens. It is generally assumed that cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are stimulated by the low ratio of N:P and initiated by high water temperatures. The mean annual value of this ratio in the Gulf of Gdańsk, since 1981, is 7:1-8:1, with the lowest values, of about 4, being seen in July when the cyanobacterial blooms begin. During three years of observations (1992-1994) the smallest number of recorded taxa was reported in 1993, concurrent with the lowest water temperature (16°C in summer). In August 1994, when the temperature increased to 22°C, a huge bloom was seen. Nodularia spumigena was very abundant in that bloom, and nodularin concentration of 2.59 mg toxin per g dry weight of bloom sample was recorded. A similar situation has also been observed in the years 2003-2006.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Baltic
  • Southern Baltic
  • Gulf of Gdansk
  • blooms
  • cyanobacteria
  • eutrophication

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