Ausgaben

Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 26 (2019): Heft 4 (December 2019)

Volumen 26 (2019): Heft 3 (September 2019)

Volumen 26 (2019): Heft 2 (June 2019)

Volumen 26 (2019): Heft 1 (March 2019)

Volumen 25 (2018): Heft 4 (December 2018)

Volumen 25 (2018): Heft 3 (September 2018)

Volumen 25 (2018): Heft 2 (June 2018)

Volumen 25 (2018): Heft 1 (March 2018)

Volumen 24 (2017): Heft 4 (December 2017)

Volumen 24 (2017): Heft 3 (September 2017)

Volumen 24 (2017): Heft 2 (June 2017)

Volumen 24 (2017): Heft 1 (March 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2354-0133
Erstveröffentlichung
20 Dec 2019
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 24 (2017): Heft 1 (March 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2354-0133
Erstveröffentlichung
20 Dec 2019
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

40 Artikel
Open Access

Influence of Biodiesel from Egyptian Used Cooking Oil on Performance and Emissions of Small Diesel Engine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 7 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Egyptian waste cooking oils have special specifications because it expose to high temperatures during use for long hours. In the present experimental study, the performance and emissions of a four strokes, single cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine fuelled with two different biodiesel from Egyptian used cooking oil (palm and sunflower) are evaluated at different speeds. The measured performance parameters include torque, fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency was calculated using the measured test data The emission parameters include carbon monoxide, particulate matter and the oxides of nitrogen. The tests have been carried out with different blends of B5 to B100 of biodiesel with diesel fuel. The results showed that the cetane number of sunflower biodiesel has dropped significantly as a result of high temperatures and negatively affected the performance and emissions of the diesel engine also the engine performance with the palm biodiesel blend B5 is closed to diesel fuel also, for B5 CO emission decreased from 53 to 70% while NOx emission decreased from 13 to 80% compared to diesel fuel.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Diesel engine
  • biodiesel
  • Egyptian used cooking oils
  • engine performance
  • emissions
Open Access

Usefulness of the Adopted Method for the Number of Aviation Occurrences Prediction

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 23 - 29

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Poland – according to ICAO requirements, is obliged to conduct analyses of the coefficients adopted to assess the level of safety in civil aviation. They are carried out on the basis of the data contained in the ECCAIRS database.

The authors have processed the data contained in this database by analysing them using various criteria (ICAO aviation occurrence categories, flight phases, different airports) to test the methodology of the safety indicators values forecasting and setting their “warning levels”. Exceedance of these levels could be a signal for taking preventive action by the relevant competent aviation authorities.

The proposed method is based on the assumption that the determined parameters are governed by normal distribution rules (Gaussian). Parameter values calculated based on real data from 2016 were compared with those predicted a year earlier.

It was found that the factors for different events have increased significantly - above the calculated warning levels, particularly for general aviation.

The results of this analysis may support competent aviation authorities’ decisions in areas where safety risks are most critical.

Schlüsselwörter

  • air transport
  • air traffic safety
  • safety management
  • aviation occurrence
Open Access

Analytical and Numerical Identification of Lamb Waves Modes for Hybrid Composites

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 31 - 38

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The current work is devoted to the problem of analytical and numerical identification of fundamental elastic waves’ modes, namely symmetric mode S0 and antisymmetric mode A0, in the case of hybrid composite. The investigated material consists of one layer made of aluminum alloy Pa38 and six layers made of glass fabric/epoxy resin. At the very beginning, the dispersion curves are determined with the use of stiffness matrix method. The calculated values of phase velocities are verified by numerical simulation. The semi – analytical finite element method is applied. Next, the numerical simulations of elastic waves propagation are performed. In the studied model, the plane state of strain is assumed. These simulations are carried out with the use of finite element method. The excitation signal is a sine wave modulated by Hanning window. The simulation is repeated for different excitation frequency. The group velocities of wave modes S0 and A0 are estimated and compared with the analytical results. The evaluation of the group velocities is based on the analysis of the appropriate components of displacement. The two different method are employed, namely: cross – correlation method and envelope extraction by Hilbert transform. Generally, the obtained results are in a good agreement. However, the method based on envelope extraction by Hilbert transform provides better correlation between analytical and numerical results. The significant discrepancy is observed in the case of symmetric mode S0 for relatively high values of frequency. It is caused by the dispersion phenomena. The analytical calculations are performed with the use of SCILAB 5.5.2 free software and the numerical simulations are carried out with the use of finite element system ANSYS 13.0.

Schlüsselwörter

  • structural health monitoring
  • elastic waves
  • dispersion curves
  • stiffness matrix method
  • numerical simulations
  • finite element method
  • group velocities
Open Access

Description of Diesel Fuel Based on Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 39 - 45

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of the study is spectrally characterise fuel Diesel used in diesel ship engine. For description of Diesel fuel the techniques of total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was applied. To characterise the oil, the spectrofluorometer ‘Aqualog Horiba’, which allows performing precise measurement in a short time, was applied to measure the excitation-emission spectra. Total synchronous fluorescence spectra of oil were obtained using various wavelength intervals basing on the measured excitation-emission spectra of Diesel fuel. Total synchronous spectra of Diesel oil are considered for several oil concentration. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were used to describe the detected maxima of Diesel fuel fluorescence by the wavelength-interval fluorescence maximum, containing information about the excitation wavelength and the wavelength-interval describing the characteristic fluorescence peak position for each considered fuel sample. That approach is discussed in relation to find a universal indicator – the wavelength-interval – as a possible tool proposed to Diesel fuel description independent from the fuel concentration. Therefore, we discuss the changes of the total synchronous fluorescence spectra for different oil concentration. Obtained results indicate that the best indicator for this kind of oil characterisation seems to be the wavelength-interval for 60 nm due to the independence of the synchronous spectra from the oil concentration.

Schlüsselwörter

  • synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy
  • total synchronous spectra
  • Diesel fuel
  • wavelength-interval
  • offset
Open Access

Risk Assessment Screening Study for Fire, Explosion and Toxicity Effects of Hydrocarbons Stored in a Sphere and Bullet

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 47 - 57

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A fast and economical approach was used to assess impact of fires, explosions and toxicity for a LPG gas storage facility using Fire Explosion and Chemical (FEC) Indices, the TNT and TNO multi energy methods, which are part of a process hazard analysis study. The assessment identified high consequence events for radiation, toxicity and overpressure due to catastrophic rupture of spheres and bullets holding LPG. The FEC Indices indicated that further investigation was needed to determine the extent of blast overpressure whereas toxicity was not identified as a high consequence. The TNO method was used to assess overpressure for congested volumes and unconfined vapour cloud explosions for a bullet, whereas the TNT method was used to predict overpressure occurring on a sphere with no congestion. The FEC indices can be used to screen for high consequence events in order to save time and identify the level of risk complexity needed for process equipment, whereas the TNO method can be easily applied when determining safety distances from LPG facilities for various building constructions provided that the degree of congestion is known.

Schlüsselwörter

  • liquefied petroleum gas
  • fires
  • boiling liquid expanding vapour cloud explosion
  • BLEVE
  • vapour cloud explosion
  • screening assessment
  • TNO technique
  • TNT method
Open Access

Working Area of the Helicopter Pad Stabilization Mechanism

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 59 - 66

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Helicopter pad located on the ship significantly increase the operational capabilities of military and civilian ships. During the storm, especially side tilts of the ship hinder or even prevent the safe use of the helicopter pad. It is proposed to apply the system placed between the deck of the ship and landing site plate, driven by four independent cable drives located under the deck. The task of the system will be preventing from transferring to Helicopter pad the tilt of the ship around the longitudinal and transverse axis and the displacement of the deck along the transverse and vertical axis within the limits of the work area. The mechanism consists of four movable links on which the movable helicopter pad platform is located. As the linear actuators, trolleys moving along horizontal guides were used, powered by system of steel cables with four independent electric motors. In folded state the mechanism, take up appropriately little space under the deck area. For the assumed extreme amplitudes of the ship motion, minimum dimensions of the mechanism links that meets the requirement to work in one configuration and lack of collisions were determined. Kinematic relationships were created indicate which mechanical quantities should be measured in real time to determine the momentary drives speeds. For the adopted assumptions simulation was performed, confirming the predicted behaviour of the system. Based on the kinematic equations of system and taking in consideration collisions and geometrical limits, working area for the flat part of the mechanism was determined.

Schlüsselwörter

  • mechanical engineering
  • maritime engineering
  • mechanism design
  • safety
Open Access

Review of Design of High-Pressure Turbine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 67 - 76

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The engine manufacturers adopt new measures in order to further improve the characteristics of a turbine engine. They pose new challenges to reduce a fuel consumption and an emission of pollution to the environment (including noise), but also keeping the highest level of reliability. Based on those considerations, current research in propulsion is conducted.

Modern turbines are characterised by high inlet temperature. This has implications for engine efficiency, which is expressed with a change of mass, cross-section and fuel consumption. In this article, main trends in the development of turbine engines are presented. This analysis was carried out on the basis of Rolls-Royce engine data.

The article presents literature review concerning the analytical methods of high-pressure turbines preliminary design. The aerodynamic design process is highly iterative, multidisciplinary and complex. Due to this, modern gas turbines need sophisticated tools in terms of aerodynamics, mechanical properties and materials.

The article depicts simplified model of real turbine engine. As showed in the article, this model gives only a 10% error level in engine thrust value. The calculations may be used for preliminary engine analyses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • preliminary design
  • turbomachinery
  • gas turbines
  • high-pressure turbine
  • HPT
Open Access

Estimation of Hull’s Resistance at Preliminary Phase of Designing

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 77 - 82

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper are presented the methodology of calculation of hull resistance components, principal parameters of a vessel, necessary for calculation of displacement in relation to vessel’s type. That methodology concerns analysis of designing ways at early stage of ship’s power calculation. Ship owners’ preliminary assumptions for new ship consist of deadweight (for container vessel load capacity TEU), speed shipping line and others. Taking it as a base, in early stage of design one has to select propulsion type. This goal needs definition of principal dimensions of a vessel, which are the base for further calculations of hull’s resistance and evaluation of necessary power of main engine (engines) to fulfil shipping requirements. In the paper, are presented major constraints for designing of new vessels coming from ship-owner assumptions such as seafaring limitations and safety of shipping regulations due to Classification Societies Rules or coming out from designing experience. In the paper are presented components of ship’s resistance and methods of total resistance calculations what is a basis for power calculation and propulsion designing. Moreover, are presented results of calculations of resistance components of different types of ships, and variety of displacement and sailing velocity. It has to be assumed, that presented method concerns preliminary design stage and can vary from different ships classes and constructions of hulls.

Schlüsselwörter

  • seagoing ships
  • hull coefficient
  • hull dimensions parameters
  • hull resistance
  • propulsion power
Open Access

Concept of Tiltrotor UAV Control System

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 83 - 89

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nowadays, civil UAV industry market grows rapidly. This expansion is followed by the new requirements and expectations against UAVs, which force their constructors to look for less typical solutions.

Expected long time endurance and range are the typical examples of such expectations. Clients are often looking for UAV with VTOL ability and time of flight much greater than 30 minutes and long range. They want to inspect large areas, i.e. between major cities without need of paying for building and maintaining developed aircraft infrastructure. Example of UAV with low infrastructure requirements are multirotors. Major disadvantage of them is short flight time. Elongating time of flight is hard to achieve by classical multirotor with standard Li-Pol batteries available on the market. They have too low energy density in currently used technology. Alternative power solutions, like fuel cells, have low financially rewarding factor, which cause whole projects to be unprofitable. Foregoing circumstances force engineers to find less usual ways for improvement energy efficiency, which will cause extending the time and range of flight. One of them is a tiltrotor.

Tiltrotors are hybrid solutions – they combine airplane and multirotor capabilities to achieve features, which exclude each other in classical constructions. Aircraft-like wing make it able to use its lift-to-drag ratio to achieve energy savings, higher top speed and extended range in comparison with multirotors. UAV is also equipped with multiple multirotor-style engines with additional capability to rotate itself in pitch. In horizontal engine position, vehicle behaves like classical multirotor – allowing pilot to hover and perform VTOL manoeuvres. When engines are tilted to vertical position, whole UAV get performance similar to airplane – high speed and flight endurance.

In the other hand, practical implementation of tiltrotor solution can be problematic: simulation, steering and controlling such aircraft in transition state are complex tasks. Moreover, designed aircraft should follow major rule connected with multirotors: Should have as simple, robust mechanical design as it can.

Proposed article will concentrate on concept and preliminary design of fly-by-wire steering system with unique properties for tiltrotor. One of such properties will be unification of steering method – which eliminates need for switch and setting initial conditions for control subsystems, when flight procedure requires changing flight mode. Second important improvement will be possibility to use transitional states as intermediate state between propeller driven fly and gliding – which allow achieving wide spectrum of flight speeds.

Moreover, huge number degrees of freedom (at least 9) create new opportunities for steering optimization. Extensive thrust vectoring abilities of such UAV could not only implicate substantial efficiency improvement of multirotors, but also improve its manoeuvrability.

The article will focus on basic concepts of kinematics, steering of such UAV and show proposition of energy-usage oriented optimization for its control trajectories. To let mechanical design be simple, all control and steering methods will be implemented in software, which will implicate complex structure of steering system. Overcoming complexity of software should be profitable in relation to expected improvements of UAV capabilities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • UAV
  • tiltrotor
  • control system
Open Access

Analysis of Influence of Legal Requirements on the Design of Electronic Ignition System for Aviation Piston Engine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 91 - 100

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article is a review of European aviation regulations with respect to their impact on the design of a new electronic ignition system for aircraft engines. The analysis covers the EASA decision on certification specifications as well as recommended means of compliance and related standards on testing and designing electronic subassemblies and their programming. The analysis focuses on the following aspects: design requirements (system configuration), functional requirements (principles of operation), safety (fault tolerance), material requirements (with regard to corrosion and fire resistance of electronic components) and scope of tests for particular component.

The analysis is illustrated by a case of a research and development project to design and implement an ignition system for a piston engine. The engine with its new ignition system was to be offered commercially as a product of a Polish aircraft engine manufacturer.

The article is a review of European aviation regulations with respect to their impact on the design of a new electronic ignition system for aircraft engines. The analysis covers the EASA decision on certification specifications and their programming. It is illustrated by a case of a particular engine re-engineering project

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • road transport
  • simulation
  • combustion engines
  • air pollution
  • environmental protection
Open Access

PN-Emissions with Increased Lube Oil Consumption of GDI Car with/without GPF

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 101 - 112

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The particle number (PN) emissions are increasingly considered in the progressing exhaust gas legislation for onand off-road vehicles. The invisible nanoparticles penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and cause several health hazards.

The present paper shows how the PN- and gaseous emissions of a modern GDI (Abbreviations see sat the end of this paper) vehicle change, when there is an in-creased lube oil consumption. What are the potentials of a gasoline particle filter to reduce the emissions?

The lube oil consumption was simulated by mixing 2% vol. lube oil into the fuel. A non-coated GPF was mounted at tailpipe, so only the filtration effects were indicated.

The tests were performed at transient (WLTC) and at stationary (SSC) operating conditions.

It has been shown that the increased lube oil consumption significantly increases the PN-emissions and the applied high quality GPF eliminates these emissions very efficiently.

Schlüsselwörter

  • PN-emissions of road transport
  • combustion engines
  • air pollution
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Adjustment of Cylinder Lubricating Oil of Marine Slow-Speed Engines

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 113 - 119

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article refers to the common task of lubrication system. The fast development of the world’s maritime sector, makes competition among countries increasing. Because of the deterioration of the global economy, the shipping companies, ship-owners want to reduce freight rates, to meet safety requirements, as well as improving conditions of exploitation and operating the machines to prevent the pollution of the marine environment. While exploiting the diesel engine in general and Sulzer diesel engines in particular, ship owners are always eager to reduce the operating cost and still ensure the engine running are safe and reliable. Provide an example of how to calculate the amount of cylinder lubricating oil according to the theory of slow-speed marine engines. The article refers to the costs of the operation and exploitation of ship, offer solution to reduce extraction costs by optimizing the amount of lubricating oil for the cylinders. The analyses in the article are based on Sulzer RTA engines. The article also refers to the level of actual lubrication oil for the cylinders of slow-speed marine engines during operation and exploitation based on the practical experience of the chief engineers, who had ever worked with these engines. The optimal adjustment of cylinder lubricating oil of Sulzer RTA diesel engines to reduce the operating cost but still ensure the engine running are safe and reliable and the problems need to be noted in the process of adjustment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cylinder lubricating oil system
  • slow-speed engines
  • optimal adjustment
  • Sulzer diesel engines
Open Access

The Possibility of Application Thermography Method for Controlling Friction Stir Welding of AW-5083 Aluminium Alloy Sheets

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 121 - 127

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents the research results of thermography method used for monitoring process of friction stir welding of sheets made of AW-5083 aluminium alloy. Nowadays monitoring the temperature is used in many fields of science, including in the diagnosis of machining and joining processes such as turning, grinding, milling, welding, etc.

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) – a new technology can be successfully used for butt-welding of different types of aluminium alloy sheets. FSW method can be an alternative to traditional arc welding methods i.e. MIG or TIG. The joining process was carried out on laboratory stand built on the basis of universal milling machine FWA-31. The parameters of joining AW-5083 alloy sheets chosen after optimization of the FSW process were presented.

For determining temperature and its distribution in tool-workpieces contact area, noncontact infrared method was chosen. Infrared camera ThermoGear G100 produced by NEC Avio Infrared Technologies Co., Ltd. was used. The camera has two measuring ranges defined: -40-+120°C and 0-500°C.

Average value of the temperature between the tool and joined metal sheets was about 380°C in case when correct parameters of welding were chosen. Controlling the temperature allow catch the moment when the material of joined sheets is plasticized (370°C) which is best to start the linear moving of the tool and the same start of welding.

The study can be the basis for the use of thermography method to monitor the process and determine the parameters of the friction stir welding for obtaining a high quality joint.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Friction Stir Welding − FSW
  • thermography
  • monitoring
  • 5xxx aluminium alloy
  • shipbuilding
Open Access

Analysis and Conceptual Design of Micro Class UAV for Aerodesign International Competition

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 129 - 135

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aero Design is an annual student competition held by Society of Automotive Engineers in which the goal is to design and build a flying UAV capable of lifting the highest payload while observing lowest payload weight and fitting in a specified carrying case. To achieve that task teams have to choose between conflicting objectives that are lowest empty weight and highest lifting capacity. The rules state that design to enter the competition must be a fixed wing aircraft fitting in a box with inside dimensions of 24x18x8 inches. The payload bay has to be a rectangular block measuring 5x2x2 inches. There also is a limit of 55 pounds total weight with payload. The aircraft must take of either by hand launch or be propelled using a rubber tubing, than do a 360-degree circuit of the flying field and finally land within 200 feet landing zone. The article presents requirements analysis, weather research, design research, considered about launch method, wing layout and aircraft layout study (napkin sketches).

Schlüsselwörter

  • UAV
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • drones
  • analysis
  • aircraft design
Open Access

Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design of Micro Class UAV for Aerodesign International Competition

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 137 - 141

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aero Design is an annual student competition held by Society of Automotive Engineers in which the goal is to design and build a flying UAV capable of lifting the highest payload while observing lowest payload weight and fitting in a specified carrying case. The most important aspect in aircraft design is choosing suitable aerodynamic and mechanical configurations for example: aircraft and wing layout, airfoil with the correct Reynolds (in this case low) number, airframe, and landing gear construction. The article presents airfoil selection, trade studies, tail aerodynamic design, tail sizing, drag analysis, calculations of stability, stress analysis, propulsion selection and manufacturing of UAV prototype.

In particular, the comparison of different aircraft designs, effect of taper ratio on lift distribution, the design of wings, lift vs. angle of attack curves and. angle of attack curves, the aircraft tail surfaces, fuselage design are presented in the article. The aim of this study was to perform analysis of aerodynamic and mechanical of Micro Class UAV for Aerodesign International Competition. All projects will be doing in a prototype technology demonstrator was built to confirm our assumptions about airfoil’s performance. Flight tests were successful. Analytical model was made and put into an excel spreadsheet. Maximum predicted payload was estimated to be 5.5 pounds.

Schlüsselwörter

  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • drones
  • Aero Design
  • aircraft design
Open Access

Influence of Magnetic Particles Concentration in Ferro-Oil on Values of Friction Force and Coefficient of Friction of Slide Journal Bearing

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 143 - 150

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article has been focused on the analysis of changes in friction force as well as coefficient of friction of slide journal bearing in terms of the concentration of magnetic particles in the lubricating ferro-oil. There has been present an analytical and numerical calculation model based on experimentally determined physical quantities describing the dependence of ferro-oil’s viscosity on fundamental parameters such as temperature, pressure or external magnetic field in the paper. Numerical calculations of the dimensionless friction force as well as the dimensionless friction coefficient were performed by solving the Reynold’s type equation using the finite difference method using Mathcad 15 and own calculation procedures. The obtained results has been presented in the form of a series of graphs that take into account: the influence of external magnetic field, corrections related to the influence of pressure changes, corrections related to the influence of temperature changes and finally corrections related to non-Newtonian ferro-oil properties. An analysis of the obtained characteristics has been made so the observations and conclusions were drawn regarding optimum magnetic particle content in the ferro-oil lubricating the sliding journal bearing

Schlüsselwörter

  • ferro-oil
  • dynamic viscosity
  • magnetic particles concentration
  • friction force
  • friction coefficient
Open Access

Analysis of Middle Range Frequency Vibration of Aircraft Reciprocating Engine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 151 - 158

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The authors investigate into vibration characteristics of ASz-62IR-16E aircraft engine. The focus of empirical tests was on the middle frequency vibration range (1000-7000 Hz) that corresponds to vibrations caused by air-fuel mixture combustion process, and defining root mean square of the detected vibration and the amplitude − frequency function. The tests were conducted for seven characteristic engine speeds. Vibrations were measured along three axes of local Cartesian coordinate system. Results indicate directions, frequency ranges and scale of strongest vibrations. The work is a part of identification tests and is intended to provide input for redesign of the engine ignition system.

In particular, ASz-62IR-16E engine in test bed, coordinate system for the experiment − designation of axes, sensors mounted on the engine block, comparison of root mean square of full detected range of vibrations (RMS), spectral analysis of vibration for characteristic engine speeds, vibration peaks for all engine speeds, vibrations attributable to combustion process are presented in the article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vibration
  • aircraft
  • radial engine
  • identification
Open Access

Initial State Evaluation Algorithm Using Fuzzy Bellman Method

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 159 - 169

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The problem of UAV control along a predefined trajectory is a well know problem and there are several methods that could accomplish this task. However, adding final conditions that the UAV have to meet at the end of the trajectory makes this problem more difficult. In this article, the authors present a fuzzy based method that is not time consuming and can solve this problem.

The algorithm for flying at low altitudes are aimed to ensure the maximum safety of the flight by considering only the acceleration values that are possible to achieve by the object. In particular, the article presents: flight trajectory over mountainous terrain, the structure of altitude control system, the structure of normal acceleration control system, exemplary calculations and an object with velocity equals, membership functions of angle of attack, solutions’ illustration, flight path angle and pitch angle along the trajectory, the demanded and actual normal acceleration along the trajectory and flying object trajectory.

Schlüsselwörter

  • UAV
  • guidance
  • trajectory
  • mountainous terrain
Open Access

Ballast Water Cleaning Systems Versus Standard D-2 of Water Cleanliness Requirements

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 171 - 178

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The ballast water treatment systems are installed on vessels according to International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other marine administrations requirements. The aim is to minimize the risk of environment contamination from ships’ ballast water and sediments.

The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM 2004 Convention) is adopted in 2004 to introduce global regulations to control to transfer potentially invasive species. The BWM Convention will enter into force on 8th September 2017 on vessels with small exceptions.

It was discussed the ballast water treatment standards and technology for fulfilment of IMO, EMSA, USCG and other regulations. The standard D-2 of ballast water cleanliness should be reached after proper treatment through the BWMS.

Some BWMS packs were presented with their advantages and disadvantages. The existing problem is the ballast water cleanliness discharged outboard and the state of cleanliness of ballast water tanks and installation.

It was mentioned some problems to solve during the choice of BWMS.

It was discussed the threats for BWMS effectiveness of ballast water cleanliness.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ballast water
  • ballast water management
  • sediments
  • cleaning systems
  • cleanliness quality
  • standard D-2
Open Access

Multirotor Platform with Sensory Head for Measurement of Selected Air Parameters

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 179 - 187

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this article, a project of an unmanned aerial system designed for monitoring of air pollution is presented. The system consists of an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a measurement head with sensors of chemical and physical properties of atmospheric air, and a ground control station arranged to store and display the collected data. The head contains modern sensors selective to the most important components of air in view of environmental pollution. Measurement data are acquired locally as well as transmitted wirelessly to a ground station. The UAV can be programmed to a particular measurement missions. The ground station dispose of a software for flight control and for visualisation of measurement results on-line. In this paper, an architecture of the entire system, a data processing performing by each subsystem, and communication methods between them are presented. This paper also includes a specification of sensors with their principles of operation, description of their metrological properties and the way, in which they are implemented in the designed electrical circuits. Results of preliminary tests in a laboratory and in a field, during a short flight, are also presented.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Unmanned aerial vehicle
  • pollution measurement
  • on-line air monitoring
  • environmental monitoring
  • embedded gas sensing system
Open Access

Vision Based Navigation for Satellite Docking

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 189 - 202

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article deals with the situation of a space debris or not working satellite in an unidentified pose with respect to the master satellite. Feature based monocular pose estimation vision system was presented. The results of numerical simulation were described. The results of implementation and testing of simulation intended for vision­based navigation applications such as rendezvous of satellites and formation flying is shown. In this document markerless local features based navigation system has been studied. The proposed vision navigation system satellites are able to determine the position and orientation of a target in relation to the coordinate system of the camera. It relates from the time when the satellite is visible as a small object until docking with the chaser. A modified algorithm soft Position Iterations was used to estimate the pose of the target. Visual navigation system uses a single camera. The impact of changes in illumination of the object was analysed. In order to reproduce the space conditions the laboratory stand was built. The developed method was tested experimentally for different scenarios approach satellites to each other. Comparing the ground truth position and orientation and the results obtained with the aim of vision navigation system it is worth nothing to observe accuracy of the developed method. Achieved satisfactory performance of the algorithm.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • satellite
  • vision navigation
  • autonomous docking
Open Access

Estimation of Turboprop Engine Parameters for Various Fuels

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 203 - 210

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The analysis of work parameters of a turboprop engine fuelled by various fuels was done in the article. The turboprop engine model was presented in the beginning. The main feature of this model is description of the flow in the engine as semi-perfect gas model. By this way, the change of fumes chemical composition influence the gas properties as heat constant and isentropic index are determined. Next energy balance of a compressor and turbine was analysed and turbine pressure drop was evaluated. Finally, engine output power was determined. It was done for selected fuels, which could be applied in the aero engines. The results of analyse were presented in the tables and charts and discussed. Summary of the test results with the results for contemporary applied fuel allows drawing the conclusions about the turboprop engine performance change by various fuel application. Main of them refers to the point that higher combustion heat value of fuel and higher heat constant of fumes cause better engine work conditions By this way the hydrogen seems to be perspective fuel of future, because its combustion heat value is three times JET A-1 and by this way it is possible the engine fuel consumption will be lower.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Aircraft Engines
  • Fuels
  • Turboprop Engines
Open Access

Influence of the Atmospheric Turbulence on the Accuracy of the Missile Targeting

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 211 - 222

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents results of simulation of 6-DOF motion for a missile subjected to atmospheric turbulences. Therefore, an applied mathematical model of motion includes description of stochastic turbulences influencing on missile flight. Both models of the motion as well as of turbulences are shortly presented. Model validity was assessed by comparing the calculation results with the data recorded during shooting on the range. Result of series of simulations allows determining the missile sensitivity to this case of disturbances. Exemplary results of simulations are shown.

The turbulence model assumes that the wind is dependent on time and space. This assumption is based on the Taylor’s “frozen turbulence” hypothesis. The advection velocity of the turbulence is much greater than the velocity scale of the turbulence itself. The velocity has two component. In the article, the first component is omitted and the second is treated as the stochastic process representing atmospheric turbulence. To describe this turbulence Shinozuka’s method was applied. Mathematical description of the missile motion, equations of translatory motion, External forces end moments, model of the turbulence are presented in the article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • missile dynamics
  • stochastic turbulences
  • numerical simulations
Open Access

Trimming Surfaces in the Automatic Plane Control Process

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 223 - 230

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The directions and speed of development of plane avionics systems are determined by three factors: economical consideration, required safety levels, and optimized working conditions for the pilot. This article presents the concept of a system in which the automatic control and stabilization process is effected because of coordinated deflections of trimming surfaces: the rudder, the elevator, and the ailerons. In particular, this article presents the structure of the system in the longitudinal movement steering channel by way of deflection of the trimmer of the elevator. Furthermore, it discusses the results of numerical model simulations, which are compared to the results obtained during in-flight tests. Additionally, this article specifies general technical requirements for the servomechanisms intended for the system class discussed herein.

Selection of sufficiently large amplification makes control the plane with relatively small deflections of the trimmer. In particular, relationship between the deflection of the elevator and the deflection of trimmer, view of a tail plane and dimensions of the elevator trimmer, the structure and results of the pitch angle control system and simulation are presented in the article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • optionally piloted airplane
  • automatic control system
  • trimming
  • trim control system
Open Access

Wind Tunnel Tests of Quad-Rotor Autogyro Model

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 231 - 238

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The wind tunnel investigation of basic aerodynamic characteristics as well as flow visualization tests of the innovative quad-rotor autogyro model is presented. The wind tunnel measurements of aerodynamic characteristics were carried out using 6-component internal strain-gauge balance. In the area of the main rotor and quad-rotors, the flow visualization tests were performed by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) System. The work was carried out in cooperation with the Lublin University of Technology, which provided a model of gyroplane manufactured according to their own concept.

In the experimental study an influence of quad-rotors as well as pusher propeller on the autogyro model characteristics were determined by measurements aerodynamic forces and moments for a number of selected model configurations.

The wind tunnel experimental tests were performed in the Institute of Aviation low speed wind tunnel T-1, characterized by 1.5 m diameter test section. The investigations were carried out for undisturbed flow velocity V∞ = 12.5 m/s, which corresponds to the Reynold’s number, Re = 0.82 * 106 referred to 1 m, The angles of attack used in the experiment were implemented in two ranges -40 ≤ α \ ≤ 20 and 00≤ α ≤ 130, with a sideslip angle β = 0.

The tests showed that the flow induced by quad-rotors interfered with the flow induced by the main rotor changing the autogyro aerodynamic characteristics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • autogyro
  • quad-rotor
  • aerodynamic characteristics
Open Access

Assessment of Exhaust Emissions by Andoria 4CTi90 Compression Ignition Engine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 239 - 245

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Compression ignition engines are a major source of air pollution in big cities and the cause of smog. Therefore, it seems appropriate to quantify emissions of toxic components of combustion gases by compression ignition engines.

In the paper, it was presented emission measurement results of selected components of exhaust gases such as CO, CO2, HC, O2, NOx, by indirect injection compression ignition engine. The object of the study was Andoria 4CTi90 engine. The research was carried out at the AVL engine test bench. Measurement results were shown in the form of external and load characteristics. It was interesting to compare the emissions of individual exhaust components of the 4CTi90 engine with the contemporary direct injection engine. The measurements carried out at the Department of Automotive Engineering at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin on the Fiat 1.3 JTD Multijet engine showed that the emissions of the considered exhaust gas components in conditions of external characteristics, for the rotational speed of 4000 1/min, were much higher than the Andoria engine. The study assumed the measurement of hydrocarbon emissions, however, within almost the entire range it was zero. Only for the speed of 4000 min−1, the meter showed values slightly higher than zero. The authors believe that it would be interesting to compare the exhaust emissions of the 4CTi90-1BE engine and the ADCR engine.

Schlüsselwörter

  • exhaust emissions
  • external characteristics
  • compression ignition engine
  • indirect injection
Open Access

The Full or Partial Replacement of Mineral Marine Engine Oil with Vegetable Oil, on the Example of Rapeseed Oil

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 247 - 253

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The demand for petroleum products is increasing day by day, but mentioned products have limited sources and they are hazardous for environment. Therefore international organizations for example: International Maritime Organization, start to make restrictive requirements application petroleum products for safety environmental, what is the main reason of the use of the alternative liquids. One of the most popular environmental friendly, renewable and less toxic oils is vegetable oils. They can used as fuels and lubricants. The vegetable oils are mainly triglycerides, which contain three hydroxyl groups and long chain unsaturated free fatty acids attached at the hydroxyl group by ester linkages. They have good properties of lubricity, viscosity and thermal.

In this article focused only on lubricants. Among a wide group of vegetable oils chosen rapeseed oil. Rapeseed is the most important and most efficient oilseed crop in Europe and it is the most common basestocks for vegetable-based lubricants. It conducted research into pure rapeseed oil and its different quantity additives to traditional marine motor oil – Marinol RG 1240. The two basic physic-chemical parameters, they were flash point and dependence of viscosity and temperature, were compare and assess. It has been proven that vegetable oils have a higher ignition temperature than mineral oils and a smaller viscosity change in the range of temperature presented.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vegetable oil
  • rapeseed oil
  • engine oil
  • marine
  • mineral oil
  • lubricant
  • viscosity
  • flash point
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Methods of Flight Parameters Indications Matching in Helmet-Mounted Display Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 255 - 263

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents selected results of the analytical work carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology regarding the possibility of computer matching systems, digital display and analogue devices, both in the static states and in dynamic states while manoeuvring the aircraft. On the example of parameter of vertical speeds provided a method of matching the indications for the helicopter Mi-17-1V with built helmet-mounted display system of flight data SWPL-1 Cyclops (developed by the Air Force Institute of Technology and cooperating with analogue avionics). Adjusting the display of vertical speed achieved by an inertial element of first row, implemented programmatically in the computer graphics KG-1.

On the other hand, method of adjusting of indications on the information presented in the helmet-mounted cueing system NSC-1 Orion (built in the Air Force Institute of Technology for helicopter W-3PL Capercaillie) and obtained from the integrated avionics system (with digital avionics), exemplified by magnetic heading (obtained from heading layout KCS-305) and geographic heading (obtained from inertial navigation system EGI-3000).

Adjusting of indications realized by introducing amendments to the indications of the multifunctional monitor MW-1, translucent display HUD and helmet-mounted display WDN-1 (in the form of elected declination, implemented programmatically on the computer mission KM-1) and the amendments to the magnetic deviation (introduced periodically to heading compensator layout KCS-305).

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • aviation
  • aircraft helmet-mounted display systems
  • joint helmet-mounted cueing systems
Open Access

Quarter Car Model to Evaluate Behaviour Under Road and Body Excitation

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 265 - 273

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper presents a quarter car model two degrees of freedom (wheel and body), with vertical guiding system, the model being equipped with suspension stroke limiters and with excitation by wheel and/or by body. The model reproduces elastic and damping characteristics of wheel and of rebound and compression stopper bumpers, the spring elastic characteristic and the shock absorber damping characteristic on rebound and compression, function piston speed. The road profile is generated with simple or summation of harmonic functions, or by reproducing real roads. The forces acting on full vehicle body e.g. aerodynamic and inertial forces are reproduced in the proposed quarter model by vertical forces reduced to the analysed quarter part. Thus, the model can be used for evaluation the vertical and horizontal stability at acceleration, deceleration, pitch and roll, at aerial forces, the body ground clearance and the comfort. The model can evaluate the influence of the damping and elastic characteristics of suspension and wheel, of the static position, of the vehicle load state, of the road profile and of the external forces, to the vehicle behaviour.

Schlüsselwörter

  • quarter car model
  • shock absorber
  • simulation
  • comfort
  • stability
  • clearance
  • road profile
  • external forces
Open Access

Maritime Transport other Than Shipping: Electrical Energy Case

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 275 - 280

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Large demand for energy results in necessity for its transportation in various ways. On land areas, energy media transfer consists mainly of transport in tanks by rail, road or river routs as well as pipeline systems for liquid or gasified hydrocarbons. A part of energy media in the world is electric energy flowing though metallic conductors of overhead and cable networks.

If sea areas are considered, ship navigation routs crosses with pipelines and electrical energy transfer systems. Furthermore, every transport system can interfere with other. Marine areas occupied by pipelines and submarine cables must be excluded from use of anchors and bottom fishing gear. On the other hand, pipeline systems interfere with the free development of navigation, particularly in areas near ports. Power transfer systems modify the natural force fields in the water column, surface water and even in near-water layer of atmosphere.

In this article, we show the main ways of transferring electricity in the sea and the resulting modifications of physical fields: electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic ones. We also discuss the probable impact of modifications of natural fields on ship traffic as well as corrosion of hulls of ships and marine structures. The considerations presented in the article are related primarily to the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea.

Schlüsselwörter

  • maritime transport
  • submarine energy transfer
  • marine environment
  • wind farms
  • Polish Exclusive Economic Zone
Open Access

Cooling of Exhaust Gases as a Possibility to increase Stealth Properties of Military Helicopters

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 281 - 290

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Helicopters, in comparison to other aircrafts, have much lower flight speeds and manoeuvrability, which makes them easy targets for actual combat assets like ground to air or air-to-air infrared-guided missiles. Current techniques aim to increase the combat effectiveness and lifetime of military helicopters performing combat missions by reducing the possibility of their detection on battlefield, thereby increasing their flight time without fire attack and reduce effects of potential strike. When designing new helicopter types, especially for combat applications, it is essential to pay enormous attention to infrared emissions of the solid parts composing the helicopter’s structure, as well as to exhaust gases egressing from the engine’s exhaust system. Due to their high temperature, exhaust gases, egressed to the surrounding are a major factor in infrared radiation emission level and, in consequence, detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. This article presents the possibility to decrease the infrared radiation level that is emitted to the environment by helicopter in flight, by cooling hot exhaust in special ejective cooler. Article presents also the exhaust cooler operation principles and results of numeric analysis of concept exhaust cooler adapted to cooperate with PA-10W turbine engine. Numeric analysis presented promising results in decreasing the infrared emission level by PA W-3 helicopter in flight, as well as increasing its stealth properties.

Schlüsselwörter

  • helicopter
  • exhaust
  • radiation
  • cooler
  • stealth
Open Access

Possibility of Upgrading Fighter Aircraft MiG-29 in the Field of Helmet-Mounted Display Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 291 - 298

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents selected results of the analytical work carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology in the field of information visualization capabilities of helmet-mounted guidance and navigation in fighter aircraft MiG-29. There is presented the SzCz-3UM headset system of target’s indication, currently used on-board of MiG-29, which is directly cooperating with the pilot during the combat flight. There was presented that the information from the on-board systems of this aircraft containing analogue devices must be computer-processed into digital form in order to present flight data in the helmet-mounted display system. However, MiG-29 aircraft, used in the Polish Air Force, are equipped with modern digital avionics (integrated avionics system) based on the MIL-1553B digital data buses, which gives the possibility of the new helmet-mounted imaging of flight parameters via the computer data processing from aircraft’s devices and on-board installations. To develop guidelines for the construction of the helmet-mounted system for the MiG-29, the SWPL-1 Cyklop flight data-displaying system was adopted (system developed in the Air Force Institute of Technology as avionics system modernization for Mi-17 military helicopters). There are discussed the main problems of scientific and specialist research positions used in the Air Force Institute of Technology to assess the accuracy of the selected equipment components of avionics systems and determine credibility of information provided to the pilot during the flight.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • aviation
  • aircraft glass cockpit systems
  • helmet mounted display systems
Open Access

Multiaxial Transducers Calibration

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 299 - 308

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of present article is investigating properties of accelerometer calibration method, called automatic calibration. The research of transducer’s model was conducted and chosen optimization algorithms were rated by the simulation method and also using real transducer. The aim of tests was examination of the possibility to find parameters of the transducer model considering influence of temperature and deviation of axes. Described optimal calibration process without special calibration apparatus considers also influence of temperature on acceleration measurement. Afterward, described calibration method was tested on real transducer. Obtained results show that the hybrid two-step algorithm is suitable to the multiaxial transducers calibration.

In the research, accelerometer as triaxial transducer was chosen and subjected to tests and the results of simulation was recorded in the MATLAB workspace. From existing estimation, three algorithms were chosen: the quasi-Newton, simplex (Nelder-Mead), and Levenberg-Marquard. The experimental part of the calibration utilized the idea of using existing and known constant vector of the measured value like gravitational acceleration and magnetic field. Calibration with temperature compensation of real transducer was presented.

Schlüsselwörter

  • accelerometer
  • calibration
  • auto-calibration
  • nonlinear regression
Open Access

Hybrid Vehicle Diagnostics

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 309 - 315

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The history of hybrid vehicles has started between the 19th and the 20th century because then the first project of a hybrid vehicle was constructed. The first man who manufactured a front hub mounted electric propulsion connected with a generator powered by a spark ignition engine was Ferdinand Porsche. This vehicle was called the Lohner-Porsche Electromobile. The first mass-produced hybrid vehicle was the first generation Toyota Prius. The model premiere was in 1996 and the production started one year later. The vehicle was equipped with a 1.5 dcm 58 hp spark ignition engine and with the added electric propulsion. It generated 40 mechanical hp. Since 2000, a 72 hp spark ignition engine and a 44 hp electric generator were mounted. Fuel consumption of this model was 5 litres per 100 km. In the early 2000s, 95% hybrid vehicles were the Toyota Prius. The biggest competitor to the Toyota Prius was the Honda Insight. Lexus and Mercedes started manufacturing hybrid vehicles few years later. The most popular car brands that sell hybrid vehicles are Toyota and Lexus from Toyota Motor Corporation. This article describes an example of diagnostic possibilities for the hybrid vehicle system. The construction of vehicle models that use two propulsion systems (spark ignition engine and electric generator) results in the development and increase in control system devices. The measurements were made using various diagnostic devices, e.g. a diagnostic scanner, mustimeter, megohm-meter and oscilloscope. The reading of fault codes is not enough so it is necessary to use a mustimeter or a megohm-meter to examine the signal characteristics, which is presented in this article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • hybrid vehicle diagnostics
  • sensors
  • actuator technology
  • oscilloscope signal characteristics
Open Access

Electric Energy Balance of the Rotax 912 with Fuel Injection

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 317 - 323

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A majority of ultralight aircraft is powered by the Rotax 912 ULS, which is a four-cylinder carburettor piston SI boxer engine. However, its power-to-power advanced aircraft is insufficient. This article discusses the examination of the Rotax 912 fitted with a modified power system and mechanical charging to increase the power of a base unit by 36%. This engine was developed as a collaborated project of the Lublin University of Technology and the AVIATION ARTUR TRENDAK & SON GmbH, a manufacturer of autogyros. Sources of energy in the Rotax 912 are generated with a generator integrated with an ignition system of a maximum power of 250 W at 5800 rpm and 13.5 V [1]. The technology of fuel injection and charging required us to apply control systems and to measure engine-operating parameters, which resulted in higher electric energy demand. Additionally, a mechanical pump was replaced with a more efficient electric pump, which also changed electric energy balance. The examination was conducted on the test stand of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Aviation Propulsion Systems of the Lublin University of Technology. The measurement system consisted of the Tektronix TCP305 current probes and TCP A300 converters. Signals were recorded with data acquisition cards and the National Instruments Ni CompaktDAQ module. Power consumption was measured for the selected speed ranging from 2000 to 5800 rpm. The current probes were appropriately installed on power cords. The probes recorded respectively the power consumed by the fuel pump, the energy demand of the lambda sensor, and the electricity taken by the ECU. The data obtained was converted with the author’s script in LabVIEW. Based on the results, the highest electricity demand shows the fuel pump. Furthermore, increasing engine speed and load results in higher pressure in the fuel system and consequently in the higher power demand of the pump. The pump consumes up to 89% of all energy consumed by the system. In the control system, the highest demand shows lambda sensor BOSCH LSU4.2 [4]. With the increase in speed, the exhaust gas temperature increases, which leads to less power consumed by the heater of the sensor head. The demand of the other measurement systems and actuators is less than 10.6% of total consumption. The investigation shows that the total power demand of this new system ranges from 63 to 73 W, which is from 24 to 70% of the total power output from a generator mounted on the engine.

Schlüsselwörter

  • electric energy balance
  • air transport
  • combustion engines
  • transport
Open Access

Study of the Noncommutativity of Submitting Aircraft Rotation in High-Manoeuvring Flights

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 325 - 332

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents selected results of the analytical work carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology and the Polish Air Force Academy by means of a computer simulation of noncommutativity phenomena submitting aircraft turnover on high-manoeuvrability flights. The results of these simulations allowed to define the guidelines for the method of “production” of noncommutativity phenomenon in specialized rotating positions for strapdown inertial navigation systems (to evaluate the errors of determining spatial orientation).

Also, it analysed the possibility of “production” noncommutativity rotational movement in mobile flight simulator used for testing pilots and candidates for pilots (to test the sensitivity of the pilot’s vestibular system in terms of feeling the impact of this phenomenon). The results of the assessment of “greatness” noncommutativity angular velocity vector, occurring in some parts of the high-manoeuvrability flight of aircraft on the example of a fighter-bomber airplane Su-22 were discussed as well.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • aviation
  • inertial navigation systems
  • coning motion
  • noncommutativity rate vector
Open Access

Possibilities of Voice Supporting of the Pilot in Multi-Task Military Aircraft

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 333 - 338

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents selected results of the analytical works, carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology, in the field of possibilities to support the pilot’s work in the cabin of the modern multi-task aircraft or military helicopter with the use of the computer voice communication assistant, with automatic recognition of the pilot’s voice and speech, which operates in conditions of the lack of time. There are presented the voice systems warning the pilot of the occurrence of an emergency state, as the so-called voice guides, P-591-04 type, used in the MiG-29 multi-purpose aircraft and RI-65 type, used in the Mi-17 and Mi-24 helicopters. As an example of implementation of the concept of a new system supporting the pilot’s work, there was selected the voice communication system, constructed in the Air Force Institute of Technology for the W-3PL multi-purpose helicopter with the ZSA integrated avionics system. The main research problems related to the construction of integrated avionics systems, verbally supporting the pilot’s work, were discussed, and the specialized tools and research stations used in the Air Force Institute of Technology for the phonoscopic speech and voice studies, were presented. Furthermore, an example of the functional diagram and the system architecture of the pilot’s work verbal supporting for a selected emergency situation on the aircraft board were demonstrated, as well as the expected range of that system’s applications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • aviation
  • aircraft voice supporting systems
  • cockpit voice activated systems
Open Access

Integrated Attitude and Navigation System for Small Airplane

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 339 - 348

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Navigation system is one of the most important aircraft systems. Accuracy and precision of position and attitude is extremely important for safe aircraft operations. The integrated INS/GNSS systems are commonly used as autonomous on-board devices for fulfilling this task. The INS sensors like accelerometers and gyroscopes are mainly affected by drift. The GNSS encounter stochastic disturbances with no tendency to grow in time but as each radio navigation system may be jammed or its signal can just be not available. These base properties of errors make these two systems well suited for integration. These were the main motivations for development of integrated navigation and attitude determination system, presented in this article. In the developed system, data is integrated from all available sensors, particularly INS, GPS, and air data computer. Navigation information from these sensors is combined using Kalman filtering algorithms to obtain robust solution, effective also in a case of failure/inaccessibility of GPS. Position calculated using the accelerations from INS is corrected by position from GPS and optionally by position calculated using the true airspeed (TAS) from ADC. Navigation system is modelled and programmed in MATLAB environment. The system was tested using the data from real experiments, proving efficiency of the method.

Schlüsselwörter

  • navigation
  • integration
  • data fusion
  • INS
  • GPS
  • ADC
Open Access

The Aircraft Piston Engine Conjugate Heat Transfer Model

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 349 - 355

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Maintaining high aircraft’s propulsion system reliability requires a good knowledge of engine’s heat transfer conditions at each engine running time. Even though the flow around the cylinder may be steady, the heat flux from the engine is not evenly distributed. This is caused by varied engine head and fins geometry and uneven heat transfer coefficient distribution. The lack of knowledge of the local heat transfer coefficient values and time coefficients for the transient heat transfer make it unfeasible to make an analytical model for a given geometry. One transient Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation does not solve the heat transfer fully. Only a conjugate simulation allows an in-depth analysis of a transient heat transfer. The Combustion and species transport fluid simulation is coupled to the temperature field solid simulation. This work presents the methods and results of such conjugate heat transfer simulation. The change of heat flux parameters in respect to time is shown. The results are verified by the real engine measurements.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CFD
  • fluid
  • dynamics
  • conjugate
  • coupled
  • heat
  • transfer
  • engine
  • SI
Open Access

Experimental Verification of the Use of Dummies for Tests in Empirical Research

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 357 - 362

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The issues related to the use of test dummies for experimental research in the field of automotive engineering have been addressed. The article discusses the historical introduction and development of the dummies in the biomechanical tests, which have contributed to the replacement of, previously conducted tests on corpses or volunteers. The evolution of dummies development Evolution of the dummies construction development to the present times has been presented. Question was raised: what is the “similarity” between the dummy living human being. Contemporary dummies reflect very well features of the human body are made of good quality materials and can be equipped with numerous sensors performing various measurements. Comparative empirical tests carried out with an adult dummy and a living adult of similar parameters such as: size (weight and height) body proportions have been presented. The impact of vibrations on the human occupant riding a motor vehicle was examined, with road tests being carried out of realized driving on various road surfaces within that work and with the data recorded being analysed in the time domain and frequency domain. In the time domain, time histories of the accelerations recorded were analysed and the root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration values were calculated. In the frequency domain, the power spectral density (PSD) values and the absolute transmittance (amplification) values were determined for the acceleration signals recorded. The analysis of the measurement results for the ability to absorb vibration by living human being and the dummy has been done. The differences and similarities between the living human subject and the test dummy have been presented from the point of view of utilizing such subjects for experimental tests.

Schlüsselwörter

  • dummies
  • experimental tests
  • human body vibration
40 Artikel
Open Access

Influence of Biodiesel from Egyptian Used Cooking Oil on Performance and Emissions of Small Diesel Engine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 7 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Egyptian waste cooking oils have special specifications because it expose to high temperatures during use for long hours. In the present experimental study, the performance and emissions of a four strokes, single cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine fuelled with two different biodiesel from Egyptian used cooking oil (palm and sunflower) are evaluated at different speeds. The measured performance parameters include torque, fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency was calculated using the measured test data The emission parameters include carbon monoxide, particulate matter and the oxides of nitrogen. The tests have been carried out with different blends of B5 to B100 of biodiesel with diesel fuel. The results showed that the cetane number of sunflower biodiesel has dropped significantly as a result of high temperatures and negatively affected the performance and emissions of the diesel engine also the engine performance with the palm biodiesel blend B5 is closed to diesel fuel also, for B5 CO emission decreased from 53 to 70% while NOx emission decreased from 13 to 80% compared to diesel fuel.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Diesel engine
  • biodiesel
  • Egyptian used cooking oils
  • engine performance
  • emissions
Open Access

Usefulness of the Adopted Method for the Number of Aviation Occurrences Prediction

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 23 - 29

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Poland – according to ICAO requirements, is obliged to conduct analyses of the coefficients adopted to assess the level of safety in civil aviation. They are carried out on the basis of the data contained in the ECCAIRS database.

The authors have processed the data contained in this database by analysing them using various criteria (ICAO aviation occurrence categories, flight phases, different airports) to test the methodology of the safety indicators values forecasting and setting their “warning levels”. Exceedance of these levels could be a signal for taking preventive action by the relevant competent aviation authorities.

The proposed method is based on the assumption that the determined parameters are governed by normal distribution rules (Gaussian). Parameter values calculated based on real data from 2016 were compared with those predicted a year earlier.

It was found that the factors for different events have increased significantly - above the calculated warning levels, particularly for general aviation.

The results of this analysis may support competent aviation authorities’ decisions in areas where safety risks are most critical.

Schlüsselwörter

  • air transport
  • air traffic safety
  • safety management
  • aviation occurrence
Open Access

Analytical and Numerical Identification of Lamb Waves Modes for Hybrid Composites

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 31 - 38

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The current work is devoted to the problem of analytical and numerical identification of fundamental elastic waves’ modes, namely symmetric mode S0 and antisymmetric mode A0, in the case of hybrid composite. The investigated material consists of one layer made of aluminum alloy Pa38 and six layers made of glass fabric/epoxy resin. At the very beginning, the dispersion curves are determined with the use of stiffness matrix method. The calculated values of phase velocities are verified by numerical simulation. The semi – analytical finite element method is applied. Next, the numerical simulations of elastic waves propagation are performed. In the studied model, the plane state of strain is assumed. These simulations are carried out with the use of finite element method. The excitation signal is a sine wave modulated by Hanning window. The simulation is repeated for different excitation frequency. The group velocities of wave modes S0 and A0 are estimated and compared with the analytical results. The evaluation of the group velocities is based on the analysis of the appropriate components of displacement. The two different method are employed, namely: cross – correlation method and envelope extraction by Hilbert transform. Generally, the obtained results are in a good agreement. However, the method based on envelope extraction by Hilbert transform provides better correlation between analytical and numerical results. The significant discrepancy is observed in the case of symmetric mode S0 for relatively high values of frequency. It is caused by the dispersion phenomena. The analytical calculations are performed with the use of SCILAB 5.5.2 free software and the numerical simulations are carried out with the use of finite element system ANSYS 13.0.

Schlüsselwörter

  • structural health monitoring
  • elastic waves
  • dispersion curves
  • stiffness matrix method
  • numerical simulations
  • finite element method
  • group velocities
Open Access

Description of Diesel Fuel Based on Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 39 - 45

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of the study is spectrally characterise fuel Diesel used in diesel ship engine. For description of Diesel fuel the techniques of total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was applied. To characterise the oil, the spectrofluorometer ‘Aqualog Horiba’, which allows performing precise measurement in a short time, was applied to measure the excitation-emission spectra. Total synchronous fluorescence spectra of oil were obtained using various wavelength intervals basing on the measured excitation-emission spectra of Diesel fuel. Total synchronous spectra of Diesel oil are considered for several oil concentration. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were used to describe the detected maxima of Diesel fuel fluorescence by the wavelength-interval fluorescence maximum, containing information about the excitation wavelength and the wavelength-interval describing the characteristic fluorescence peak position for each considered fuel sample. That approach is discussed in relation to find a universal indicator – the wavelength-interval – as a possible tool proposed to Diesel fuel description independent from the fuel concentration. Therefore, we discuss the changes of the total synchronous fluorescence spectra for different oil concentration. Obtained results indicate that the best indicator for this kind of oil characterisation seems to be the wavelength-interval for 60 nm due to the independence of the synchronous spectra from the oil concentration.

Schlüsselwörter

  • synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy
  • total synchronous spectra
  • Diesel fuel
  • wavelength-interval
  • offset
Open Access

Risk Assessment Screening Study for Fire, Explosion and Toxicity Effects of Hydrocarbons Stored in a Sphere and Bullet

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 47 - 57

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A fast and economical approach was used to assess impact of fires, explosions and toxicity for a LPG gas storage facility using Fire Explosion and Chemical (FEC) Indices, the TNT and TNO multi energy methods, which are part of a process hazard analysis study. The assessment identified high consequence events for radiation, toxicity and overpressure due to catastrophic rupture of spheres and bullets holding LPG. The FEC Indices indicated that further investigation was needed to determine the extent of blast overpressure whereas toxicity was not identified as a high consequence. The TNO method was used to assess overpressure for congested volumes and unconfined vapour cloud explosions for a bullet, whereas the TNT method was used to predict overpressure occurring on a sphere with no congestion. The FEC indices can be used to screen for high consequence events in order to save time and identify the level of risk complexity needed for process equipment, whereas the TNO method can be easily applied when determining safety distances from LPG facilities for various building constructions provided that the degree of congestion is known.

Schlüsselwörter

  • liquefied petroleum gas
  • fires
  • boiling liquid expanding vapour cloud explosion
  • BLEVE
  • vapour cloud explosion
  • screening assessment
  • TNO technique
  • TNT method
Open Access

Working Area of the Helicopter Pad Stabilization Mechanism

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 59 - 66

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Helicopter pad located on the ship significantly increase the operational capabilities of military and civilian ships. During the storm, especially side tilts of the ship hinder or even prevent the safe use of the helicopter pad. It is proposed to apply the system placed between the deck of the ship and landing site plate, driven by four independent cable drives located under the deck. The task of the system will be preventing from transferring to Helicopter pad the tilt of the ship around the longitudinal and transverse axis and the displacement of the deck along the transverse and vertical axis within the limits of the work area. The mechanism consists of four movable links on which the movable helicopter pad platform is located. As the linear actuators, trolleys moving along horizontal guides were used, powered by system of steel cables with four independent electric motors. In folded state the mechanism, take up appropriately little space under the deck area. For the assumed extreme amplitudes of the ship motion, minimum dimensions of the mechanism links that meets the requirement to work in one configuration and lack of collisions were determined. Kinematic relationships were created indicate which mechanical quantities should be measured in real time to determine the momentary drives speeds. For the adopted assumptions simulation was performed, confirming the predicted behaviour of the system. Based on the kinematic equations of system and taking in consideration collisions and geometrical limits, working area for the flat part of the mechanism was determined.

Schlüsselwörter

  • mechanical engineering
  • maritime engineering
  • mechanism design
  • safety
Open Access

Review of Design of High-Pressure Turbine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 67 - 76

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The engine manufacturers adopt new measures in order to further improve the characteristics of a turbine engine. They pose new challenges to reduce a fuel consumption and an emission of pollution to the environment (including noise), but also keeping the highest level of reliability. Based on those considerations, current research in propulsion is conducted.

Modern turbines are characterised by high inlet temperature. This has implications for engine efficiency, which is expressed with a change of mass, cross-section and fuel consumption. In this article, main trends in the development of turbine engines are presented. This analysis was carried out on the basis of Rolls-Royce engine data.

The article presents literature review concerning the analytical methods of high-pressure turbines preliminary design. The aerodynamic design process is highly iterative, multidisciplinary and complex. Due to this, modern gas turbines need sophisticated tools in terms of aerodynamics, mechanical properties and materials.

The article depicts simplified model of real turbine engine. As showed in the article, this model gives only a 10% error level in engine thrust value. The calculations may be used for preliminary engine analyses.

Schlüsselwörter

  • preliminary design
  • turbomachinery
  • gas turbines
  • high-pressure turbine
  • HPT
Open Access

Estimation of Hull’s Resistance at Preliminary Phase of Designing

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 77 - 82

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper are presented the methodology of calculation of hull resistance components, principal parameters of a vessel, necessary for calculation of displacement in relation to vessel’s type. That methodology concerns analysis of designing ways at early stage of ship’s power calculation. Ship owners’ preliminary assumptions for new ship consist of deadweight (for container vessel load capacity TEU), speed shipping line and others. Taking it as a base, in early stage of design one has to select propulsion type. This goal needs definition of principal dimensions of a vessel, which are the base for further calculations of hull’s resistance and evaluation of necessary power of main engine (engines) to fulfil shipping requirements. In the paper, are presented major constraints for designing of new vessels coming from ship-owner assumptions such as seafaring limitations and safety of shipping regulations due to Classification Societies Rules or coming out from designing experience. In the paper are presented components of ship’s resistance and methods of total resistance calculations what is a basis for power calculation and propulsion designing. Moreover, are presented results of calculations of resistance components of different types of ships, and variety of displacement and sailing velocity. It has to be assumed, that presented method concerns preliminary design stage and can vary from different ships classes and constructions of hulls.

Schlüsselwörter

  • seagoing ships
  • hull coefficient
  • hull dimensions parameters
  • hull resistance
  • propulsion power
Open Access

Concept of Tiltrotor UAV Control System

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 83 - 89

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nowadays, civil UAV industry market grows rapidly. This expansion is followed by the new requirements and expectations against UAVs, which force their constructors to look for less typical solutions.

Expected long time endurance and range are the typical examples of such expectations. Clients are often looking for UAV with VTOL ability and time of flight much greater than 30 minutes and long range. They want to inspect large areas, i.e. between major cities without need of paying for building and maintaining developed aircraft infrastructure. Example of UAV with low infrastructure requirements are multirotors. Major disadvantage of them is short flight time. Elongating time of flight is hard to achieve by classical multirotor with standard Li-Pol batteries available on the market. They have too low energy density in currently used technology. Alternative power solutions, like fuel cells, have low financially rewarding factor, which cause whole projects to be unprofitable. Foregoing circumstances force engineers to find less usual ways for improvement energy efficiency, which will cause extending the time and range of flight. One of them is a tiltrotor.

Tiltrotors are hybrid solutions – they combine airplane and multirotor capabilities to achieve features, which exclude each other in classical constructions. Aircraft-like wing make it able to use its lift-to-drag ratio to achieve energy savings, higher top speed and extended range in comparison with multirotors. UAV is also equipped with multiple multirotor-style engines with additional capability to rotate itself in pitch. In horizontal engine position, vehicle behaves like classical multirotor – allowing pilot to hover and perform VTOL manoeuvres. When engines are tilted to vertical position, whole UAV get performance similar to airplane – high speed and flight endurance.

In the other hand, practical implementation of tiltrotor solution can be problematic: simulation, steering and controlling such aircraft in transition state are complex tasks. Moreover, designed aircraft should follow major rule connected with multirotors: Should have as simple, robust mechanical design as it can.

Proposed article will concentrate on concept and preliminary design of fly-by-wire steering system with unique properties for tiltrotor. One of such properties will be unification of steering method – which eliminates need for switch and setting initial conditions for control subsystems, when flight procedure requires changing flight mode. Second important improvement will be possibility to use transitional states as intermediate state between propeller driven fly and gliding – which allow achieving wide spectrum of flight speeds.

Moreover, huge number degrees of freedom (at least 9) create new opportunities for steering optimization. Extensive thrust vectoring abilities of such UAV could not only implicate substantial efficiency improvement of multirotors, but also improve its manoeuvrability.

The article will focus on basic concepts of kinematics, steering of such UAV and show proposition of energy-usage oriented optimization for its control trajectories. To let mechanical design be simple, all control and steering methods will be implemented in software, which will implicate complex structure of steering system. Overcoming complexity of software should be profitable in relation to expected improvements of UAV capabilities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • UAV
  • tiltrotor
  • control system
Open Access

Analysis of Influence of Legal Requirements on the Design of Electronic Ignition System for Aviation Piston Engine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 91 - 100

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article is a review of European aviation regulations with respect to their impact on the design of a new electronic ignition system for aircraft engines. The analysis covers the EASA decision on certification specifications as well as recommended means of compliance and related standards on testing and designing electronic subassemblies and their programming. The analysis focuses on the following aspects: design requirements (system configuration), functional requirements (principles of operation), safety (fault tolerance), material requirements (with regard to corrosion and fire resistance of electronic components) and scope of tests for particular component.

The analysis is illustrated by a case of a research and development project to design and implement an ignition system for a piston engine. The engine with its new ignition system was to be offered commercially as a product of a Polish aircraft engine manufacturer.

The article is a review of European aviation regulations with respect to their impact on the design of a new electronic ignition system for aircraft engines. The analysis covers the EASA decision on certification specifications and their programming. It is illustrated by a case of a particular engine re-engineering project

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • road transport
  • simulation
  • combustion engines
  • air pollution
  • environmental protection
Open Access

PN-Emissions with Increased Lube Oil Consumption of GDI Car with/without GPF

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 101 - 112

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The particle number (PN) emissions are increasingly considered in the progressing exhaust gas legislation for onand off-road vehicles. The invisible nanoparticles penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and cause several health hazards.

The present paper shows how the PN- and gaseous emissions of a modern GDI (Abbreviations see sat the end of this paper) vehicle change, when there is an in-creased lube oil consumption. What are the potentials of a gasoline particle filter to reduce the emissions?

The lube oil consumption was simulated by mixing 2% vol. lube oil into the fuel. A non-coated GPF was mounted at tailpipe, so only the filtration effects were indicated.

The tests were performed at transient (WLTC) and at stationary (SSC) operating conditions.

It has been shown that the increased lube oil consumption significantly increases the PN-emissions and the applied high quality GPF eliminates these emissions very efficiently.

Schlüsselwörter

  • PN-emissions of road transport
  • combustion engines
  • air pollution
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Adjustment of Cylinder Lubricating Oil of Marine Slow-Speed Engines

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 113 - 119

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article refers to the common task of lubrication system. The fast development of the world’s maritime sector, makes competition among countries increasing. Because of the deterioration of the global economy, the shipping companies, ship-owners want to reduce freight rates, to meet safety requirements, as well as improving conditions of exploitation and operating the machines to prevent the pollution of the marine environment. While exploiting the diesel engine in general and Sulzer diesel engines in particular, ship owners are always eager to reduce the operating cost and still ensure the engine running are safe and reliable. Provide an example of how to calculate the amount of cylinder lubricating oil according to the theory of slow-speed marine engines. The article refers to the costs of the operation and exploitation of ship, offer solution to reduce extraction costs by optimizing the amount of lubricating oil for the cylinders. The analyses in the article are based on Sulzer RTA engines. The article also refers to the level of actual lubrication oil for the cylinders of slow-speed marine engines during operation and exploitation based on the practical experience of the chief engineers, who had ever worked with these engines. The optimal adjustment of cylinder lubricating oil of Sulzer RTA diesel engines to reduce the operating cost but still ensure the engine running are safe and reliable and the problems need to be noted in the process of adjustment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cylinder lubricating oil system
  • slow-speed engines
  • optimal adjustment
  • Sulzer diesel engines
Open Access

The Possibility of Application Thermography Method for Controlling Friction Stir Welding of AW-5083 Aluminium Alloy Sheets

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 121 - 127

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents the research results of thermography method used for monitoring process of friction stir welding of sheets made of AW-5083 aluminium alloy. Nowadays monitoring the temperature is used in many fields of science, including in the diagnosis of machining and joining processes such as turning, grinding, milling, welding, etc.

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) – a new technology can be successfully used for butt-welding of different types of aluminium alloy sheets. FSW method can be an alternative to traditional arc welding methods i.e. MIG or TIG. The joining process was carried out on laboratory stand built on the basis of universal milling machine FWA-31. The parameters of joining AW-5083 alloy sheets chosen after optimization of the FSW process were presented.

For determining temperature and its distribution in tool-workpieces contact area, noncontact infrared method was chosen. Infrared camera ThermoGear G100 produced by NEC Avio Infrared Technologies Co., Ltd. was used. The camera has two measuring ranges defined: -40-+120°C and 0-500°C.

Average value of the temperature between the tool and joined metal sheets was about 380°C in case when correct parameters of welding were chosen. Controlling the temperature allow catch the moment when the material of joined sheets is plasticized (370°C) which is best to start the linear moving of the tool and the same start of welding.

The study can be the basis for the use of thermography method to monitor the process and determine the parameters of the friction stir welding for obtaining a high quality joint.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Friction Stir Welding − FSW
  • thermography
  • monitoring
  • 5xxx aluminium alloy
  • shipbuilding
Open Access

Analysis and Conceptual Design of Micro Class UAV for Aerodesign International Competition

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 129 - 135

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aero Design is an annual student competition held by Society of Automotive Engineers in which the goal is to design and build a flying UAV capable of lifting the highest payload while observing lowest payload weight and fitting in a specified carrying case. To achieve that task teams have to choose between conflicting objectives that are lowest empty weight and highest lifting capacity. The rules state that design to enter the competition must be a fixed wing aircraft fitting in a box with inside dimensions of 24x18x8 inches. The payload bay has to be a rectangular block measuring 5x2x2 inches. There also is a limit of 55 pounds total weight with payload. The aircraft must take of either by hand launch or be propelled using a rubber tubing, than do a 360-degree circuit of the flying field and finally land within 200 feet landing zone. The article presents requirements analysis, weather research, design research, considered about launch method, wing layout and aircraft layout study (napkin sketches).

Schlüsselwörter

  • UAV
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • drones
  • analysis
  • aircraft design
Open Access

Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design of Micro Class UAV for Aerodesign International Competition

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 137 - 141

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Aero Design is an annual student competition held by Society of Automotive Engineers in which the goal is to design and build a flying UAV capable of lifting the highest payload while observing lowest payload weight and fitting in a specified carrying case. The most important aspect in aircraft design is choosing suitable aerodynamic and mechanical configurations for example: aircraft and wing layout, airfoil with the correct Reynolds (in this case low) number, airframe, and landing gear construction. The article presents airfoil selection, trade studies, tail aerodynamic design, tail sizing, drag analysis, calculations of stability, stress analysis, propulsion selection and manufacturing of UAV prototype.

In particular, the comparison of different aircraft designs, effect of taper ratio on lift distribution, the design of wings, lift vs. angle of attack curves and. angle of attack curves, the aircraft tail surfaces, fuselage design are presented in the article. The aim of this study was to perform analysis of aerodynamic and mechanical of Micro Class UAV for Aerodesign International Competition. All projects will be doing in a prototype technology demonstrator was built to confirm our assumptions about airfoil’s performance. Flight tests were successful. Analytical model was made and put into an excel spreadsheet. Maximum predicted payload was estimated to be 5.5 pounds.

Schlüsselwörter

  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • drones
  • Aero Design
  • aircraft design
Open Access

Influence of Magnetic Particles Concentration in Ferro-Oil on Values of Friction Force and Coefficient of Friction of Slide Journal Bearing

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 143 - 150

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article has been focused on the analysis of changes in friction force as well as coefficient of friction of slide journal bearing in terms of the concentration of magnetic particles in the lubricating ferro-oil. There has been present an analytical and numerical calculation model based on experimentally determined physical quantities describing the dependence of ferro-oil’s viscosity on fundamental parameters such as temperature, pressure or external magnetic field in the paper. Numerical calculations of the dimensionless friction force as well as the dimensionless friction coefficient were performed by solving the Reynold’s type equation using the finite difference method using Mathcad 15 and own calculation procedures. The obtained results has been presented in the form of a series of graphs that take into account: the influence of external magnetic field, corrections related to the influence of pressure changes, corrections related to the influence of temperature changes and finally corrections related to non-Newtonian ferro-oil properties. An analysis of the obtained characteristics has been made so the observations and conclusions were drawn regarding optimum magnetic particle content in the ferro-oil lubricating the sliding journal bearing

Schlüsselwörter

  • ferro-oil
  • dynamic viscosity
  • magnetic particles concentration
  • friction force
  • friction coefficient
Open Access

Analysis of Middle Range Frequency Vibration of Aircraft Reciprocating Engine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 151 - 158

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The authors investigate into vibration characteristics of ASz-62IR-16E aircraft engine. The focus of empirical tests was on the middle frequency vibration range (1000-7000 Hz) that corresponds to vibrations caused by air-fuel mixture combustion process, and defining root mean square of the detected vibration and the amplitude − frequency function. The tests were conducted for seven characteristic engine speeds. Vibrations were measured along three axes of local Cartesian coordinate system. Results indicate directions, frequency ranges and scale of strongest vibrations. The work is a part of identification tests and is intended to provide input for redesign of the engine ignition system.

In particular, ASz-62IR-16E engine in test bed, coordinate system for the experiment − designation of axes, sensors mounted on the engine block, comparison of root mean square of full detected range of vibrations (RMS), spectral analysis of vibration for characteristic engine speeds, vibration peaks for all engine speeds, vibrations attributable to combustion process are presented in the article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vibration
  • aircraft
  • radial engine
  • identification
Open Access

Initial State Evaluation Algorithm Using Fuzzy Bellman Method

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 159 - 169

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The problem of UAV control along a predefined trajectory is a well know problem and there are several methods that could accomplish this task. However, adding final conditions that the UAV have to meet at the end of the trajectory makes this problem more difficult. In this article, the authors present a fuzzy based method that is not time consuming and can solve this problem.

The algorithm for flying at low altitudes are aimed to ensure the maximum safety of the flight by considering only the acceleration values that are possible to achieve by the object. In particular, the article presents: flight trajectory over mountainous terrain, the structure of altitude control system, the structure of normal acceleration control system, exemplary calculations and an object with velocity equals, membership functions of angle of attack, solutions’ illustration, flight path angle and pitch angle along the trajectory, the demanded and actual normal acceleration along the trajectory and flying object trajectory.

Schlüsselwörter

  • UAV
  • guidance
  • trajectory
  • mountainous terrain
Open Access

Ballast Water Cleaning Systems Versus Standard D-2 of Water Cleanliness Requirements

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 171 - 178

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The ballast water treatment systems are installed on vessels according to International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other marine administrations requirements. The aim is to minimize the risk of environment contamination from ships’ ballast water and sediments.

The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM 2004 Convention) is adopted in 2004 to introduce global regulations to control to transfer potentially invasive species. The BWM Convention will enter into force on 8th September 2017 on vessels with small exceptions.

It was discussed the ballast water treatment standards and technology for fulfilment of IMO, EMSA, USCG and other regulations. The standard D-2 of ballast water cleanliness should be reached after proper treatment through the BWMS.

Some BWMS packs were presented with their advantages and disadvantages. The existing problem is the ballast water cleanliness discharged outboard and the state of cleanliness of ballast water tanks and installation.

It was mentioned some problems to solve during the choice of BWMS.

It was discussed the threats for BWMS effectiveness of ballast water cleanliness.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ballast water
  • ballast water management
  • sediments
  • cleaning systems
  • cleanliness quality
  • standard D-2
Open Access

Multirotor Platform with Sensory Head for Measurement of Selected Air Parameters

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 179 - 187

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this article, a project of an unmanned aerial system designed for monitoring of air pollution is presented. The system consists of an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a measurement head with sensors of chemical and physical properties of atmospheric air, and a ground control station arranged to store and display the collected data. The head contains modern sensors selective to the most important components of air in view of environmental pollution. Measurement data are acquired locally as well as transmitted wirelessly to a ground station. The UAV can be programmed to a particular measurement missions. The ground station dispose of a software for flight control and for visualisation of measurement results on-line. In this paper, an architecture of the entire system, a data processing performing by each subsystem, and communication methods between them are presented. This paper also includes a specification of sensors with their principles of operation, description of their metrological properties and the way, in which they are implemented in the designed electrical circuits. Results of preliminary tests in a laboratory and in a field, during a short flight, are also presented.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Unmanned aerial vehicle
  • pollution measurement
  • on-line air monitoring
  • environmental monitoring
  • embedded gas sensing system
Open Access

Vision Based Navigation for Satellite Docking

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 189 - 202

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article deals with the situation of a space debris or not working satellite in an unidentified pose with respect to the master satellite. Feature based monocular pose estimation vision system was presented. The results of numerical simulation were described. The results of implementation and testing of simulation intended for vision­based navigation applications such as rendezvous of satellites and formation flying is shown. In this document markerless local features based navigation system has been studied. The proposed vision navigation system satellites are able to determine the position and orientation of a target in relation to the coordinate system of the camera. It relates from the time when the satellite is visible as a small object until docking with the chaser. A modified algorithm soft Position Iterations was used to estimate the pose of the target. Visual navigation system uses a single camera. The impact of changes in illumination of the object was analysed. In order to reproduce the space conditions the laboratory stand was built. The developed method was tested experimentally for different scenarios approach satellites to each other. Comparing the ground truth position and orientation and the results obtained with the aim of vision navigation system it is worth nothing to observe accuracy of the developed method. Achieved satisfactory performance of the algorithm.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • satellite
  • vision navigation
  • autonomous docking
Open Access

Estimation of Turboprop Engine Parameters for Various Fuels

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 203 - 210

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The analysis of work parameters of a turboprop engine fuelled by various fuels was done in the article. The turboprop engine model was presented in the beginning. The main feature of this model is description of the flow in the engine as semi-perfect gas model. By this way, the change of fumes chemical composition influence the gas properties as heat constant and isentropic index are determined. Next energy balance of a compressor and turbine was analysed and turbine pressure drop was evaluated. Finally, engine output power was determined. It was done for selected fuels, which could be applied in the aero engines. The results of analyse were presented in the tables and charts and discussed. Summary of the test results with the results for contemporary applied fuel allows drawing the conclusions about the turboprop engine performance change by various fuel application. Main of them refers to the point that higher combustion heat value of fuel and higher heat constant of fumes cause better engine work conditions By this way the hydrogen seems to be perspective fuel of future, because its combustion heat value is three times JET A-1 and by this way it is possible the engine fuel consumption will be lower.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Aircraft Engines
  • Fuels
  • Turboprop Engines
Open Access

Influence of the Atmospheric Turbulence on the Accuracy of the Missile Targeting

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 211 - 222

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents results of simulation of 6-DOF motion for a missile subjected to atmospheric turbulences. Therefore, an applied mathematical model of motion includes description of stochastic turbulences influencing on missile flight. Both models of the motion as well as of turbulences are shortly presented. Model validity was assessed by comparing the calculation results with the data recorded during shooting on the range. Result of series of simulations allows determining the missile sensitivity to this case of disturbances. Exemplary results of simulations are shown.

The turbulence model assumes that the wind is dependent on time and space. This assumption is based on the Taylor’s “frozen turbulence” hypothesis. The advection velocity of the turbulence is much greater than the velocity scale of the turbulence itself. The velocity has two component. In the article, the first component is omitted and the second is treated as the stochastic process representing atmospheric turbulence. To describe this turbulence Shinozuka’s method was applied. Mathematical description of the missile motion, equations of translatory motion, External forces end moments, model of the turbulence are presented in the article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • missile dynamics
  • stochastic turbulences
  • numerical simulations
Open Access

Trimming Surfaces in the Automatic Plane Control Process

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 223 - 230

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The directions and speed of development of plane avionics systems are determined by three factors: economical consideration, required safety levels, and optimized working conditions for the pilot. This article presents the concept of a system in which the automatic control and stabilization process is effected because of coordinated deflections of trimming surfaces: the rudder, the elevator, and the ailerons. In particular, this article presents the structure of the system in the longitudinal movement steering channel by way of deflection of the trimmer of the elevator. Furthermore, it discusses the results of numerical model simulations, which are compared to the results obtained during in-flight tests. Additionally, this article specifies general technical requirements for the servomechanisms intended for the system class discussed herein.

Selection of sufficiently large amplification makes control the plane with relatively small deflections of the trimmer. In particular, relationship between the deflection of the elevator and the deflection of trimmer, view of a tail plane and dimensions of the elevator trimmer, the structure and results of the pitch angle control system and simulation are presented in the article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • optionally piloted airplane
  • automatic control system
  • trimming
  • trim control system
Open Access

Wind Tunnel Tests of Quad-Rotor Autogyro Model

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 231 - 238

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The wind tunnel investigation of basic aerodynamic characteristics as well as flow visualization tests of the innovative quad-rotor autogyro model is presented. The wind tunnel measurements of aerodynamic characteristics were carried out using 6-component internal strain-gauge balance. In the area of the main rotor and quad-rotors, the flow visualization tests were performed by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) System. The work was carried out in cooperation with the Lublin University of Technology, which provided a model of gyroplane manufactured according to their own concept.

In the experimental study an influence of quad-rotors as well as pusher propeller on the autogyro model characteristics were determined by measurements aerodynamic forces and moments for a number of selected model configurations.

The wind tunnel experimental tests were performed in the Institute of Aviation low speed wind tunnel T-1, characterized by 1.5 m diameter test section. The investigations were carried out for undisturbed flow velocity V∞ = 12.5 m/s, which corresponds to the Reynold’s number, Re = 0.82 * 106 referred to 1 m, The angles of attack used in the experiment were implemented in two ranges -40 ≤ α \ ≤ 20 and 00≤ α ≤ 130, with a sideslip angle β = 0.

The tests showed that the flow induced by quad-rotors interfered with the flow induced by the main rotor changing the autogyro aerodynamic characteristics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • autogyro
  • quad-rotor
  • aerodynamic characteristics
Open Access

Assessment of Exhaust Emissions by Andoria 4CTi90 Compression Ignition Engine

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 239 - 245

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Compression ignition engines are a major source of air pollution in big cities and the cause of smog. Therefore, it seems appropriate to quantify emissions of toxic components of combustion gases by compression ignition engines.

In the paper, it was presented emission measurement results of selected components of exhaust gases such as CO, CO2, HC, O2, NOx, by indirect injection compression ignition engine. The object of the study was Andoria 4CTi90 engine. The research was carried out at the AVL engine test bench. Measurement results were shown in the form of external and load characteristics. It was interesting to compare the emissions of individual exhaust components of the 4CTi90 engine with the contemporary direct injection engine. The measurements carried out at the Department of Automotive Engineering at the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin on the Fiat 1.3 JTD Multijet engine showed that the emissions of the considered exhaust gas components in conditions of external characteristics, for the rotational speed of 4000 1/min, were much higher than the Andoria engine. The study assumed the measurement of hydrocarbon emissions, however, within almost the entire range it was zero. Only for the speed of 4000 min−1, the meter showed values slightly higher than zero. The authors believe that it would be interesting to compare the exhaust emissions of the 4CTi90-1BE engine and the ADCR engine.

Schlüsselwörter

  • exhaust emissions
  • external characteristics
  • compression ignition engine
  • indirect injection
Open Access

The Full or Partial Replacement of Mineral Marine Engine Oil with Vegetable Oil, on the Example of Rapeseed Oil

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 247 - 253

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The demand for petroleum products is increasing day by day, but mentioned products have limited sources and they are hazardous for environment. Therefore international organizations for example: International Maritime Organization, start to make restrictive requirements application petroleum products for safety environmental, what is the main reason of the use of the alternative liquids. One of the most popular environmental friendly, renewable and less toxic oils is vegetable oils. They can used as fuels and lubricants. The vegetable oils are mainly triglycerides, which contain three hydroxyl groups and long chain unsaturated free fatty acids attached at the hydroxyl group by ester linkages. They have good properties of lubricity, viscosity and thermal.

In this article focused only on lubricants. Among a wide group of vegetable oils chosen rapeseed oil. Rapeseed is the most important and most efficient oilseed crop in Europe and it is the most common basestocks for vegetable-based lubricants. It conducted research into pure rapeseed oil and its different quantity additives to traditional marine motor oil – Marinol RG 1240. The two basic physic-chemical parameters, they were flash point and dependence of viscosity and temperature, were compare and assess. It has been proven that vegetable oils have a higher ignition temperature than mineral oils and a smaller viscosity change in the range of temperature presented.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vegetable oil
  • rapeseed oil
  • engine oil
  • marine
  • mineral oil
  • lubricant
  • viscosity
  • flash point
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Methods of Flight Parameters Indications Matching in Helmet-Mounted Display Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 255 - 263

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents selected results of the analytical work carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology regarding the possibility of computer matching systems, digital display and analogue devices, both in the static states and in dynamic states while manoeuvring the aircraft. On the example of parameter of vertical speeds provided a method of matching the indications for the helicopter Mi-17-1V with built helmet-mounted display system of flight data SWPL-1 Cyclops (developed by the Air Force Institute of Technology and cooperating with analogue avionics). Adjusting the display of vertical speed achieved by an inertial element of first row, implemented programmatically in the computer graphics KG-1.

On the other hand, method of adjusting of indications on the information presented in the helmet-mounted cueing system NSC-1 Orion (built in the Air Force Institute of Technology for helicopter W-3PL Capercaillie) and obtained from the integrated avionics system (with digital avionics), exemplified by magnetic heading (obtained from heading layout KCS-305) and geographic heading (obtained from inertial navigation system EGI-3000).

Adjusting of indications realized by introducing amendments to the indications of the multifunctional monitor MW-1, translucent display HUD and helmet-mounted display WDN-1 (in the form of elected declination, implemented programmatically on the computer mission KM-1) and the amendments to the magnetic deviation (introduced periodically to heading compensator layout KCS-305).

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • aviation
  • aircraft helmet-mounted display systems
  • joint helmet-mounted cueing systems
Open Access

Quarter Car Model to Evaluate Behaviour Under Road and Body Excitation

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 265 - 273

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper presents a quarter car model two degrees of freedom (wheel and body), with vertical guiding system, the model being equipped with suspension stroke limiters and with excitation by wheel and/or by body. The model reproduces elastic and damping characteristics of wheel and of rebound and compression stopper bumpers, the spring elastic characteristic and the shock absorber damping characteristic on rebound and compression, function piston speed. The road profile is generated with simple or summation of harmonic functions, or by reproducing real roads. The forces acting on full vehicle body e.g. aerodynamic and inertial forces are reproduced in the proposed quarter model by vertical forces reduced to the analysed quarter part. Thus, the model can be used for evaluation the vertical and horizontal stability at acceleration, deceleration, pitch and roll, at aerial forces, the body ground clearance and the comfort. The model can evaluate the influence of the damping and elastic characteristics of suspension and wheel, of the static position, of the vehicle load state, of the road profile and of the external forces, to the vehicle behaviour.

Schlüsselwörter

  • quarter car model
  • shock absorber
  • simulation
  • comfort
  • stability
  • clearance
  • road profile
  • external forces
Open Access

Maritime Transport other Than Shipping: Electrical Energy Case

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 275 - 280

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Large demand for energy results in necessity for its transportation in various ways. On land areas, energy media transfer consists mainly of transport in tanks by rail, road or river routs as well as pipeline systems for liquid or gasified hydrocarbons. A part of energy media in the world is electric energy flowing though metallic conductors of overhead and cable networks.

If sea areas are considered, ship navigation routs crosses with pipelines and electrical energy transfer systems. Furthermore, every transport system can interfere with other. Marine areas occupied by pipelines and submarine cables must be excluded from use of anchors and bottom fishing gear. On the other hand, pipeline systems interfere with the free development of navigation, particularly in areas near ports. Power transfer systems modify the natural force fields in the water column, surface water and even in near-water layer of atmosphere.

In this article, we show the main ways of transferring electricity in the sea and the resulting modifications of physical fields: electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic ones. We also discuss the probable impact of modifications of natural fields on ship traffic as well as corrosion of hulls of ships and marine structures. The considerations presented in the article are related primarily to the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea.

Schlüsselwörter

  • maritime transport
  • submarine energy transfer
  • marine environment
  • wind farms
  • Polish Exclusive Economic Zone
Open Access

Cooling of Exhaust Gases as a Possibility to increase Stealth Properties of Military Helicopters

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 281 - 290

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Helicopters, in comparison to other aircrafts, have much lower flight speeds and manoeuvrability, which makes them easy targets for actual combat assets like ground to air or air-to-air infrared-guided missiles. Current techniques aim to increase the combat effectiveness and lifetime of military helicopters performing combat missions by reducing the possibility of their detection on battlefield, thereby increasing their flight time without fire attack and reduce effects of potential strike. When designing new helicopter types, especially for combat applications, it is essential to pay enormous attention to infrared emissions of the solid parts composing the helicopter’s structure, as well as to exhaust gases egressing from the engine’s exhaust system. Due to their high temperature, exhaust gases, egressed to the surrounding are a major factor in infrared radiation emission level and, in consequence, detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. This article presents the possibility to decrease the infrared radiation level that is emitted to the environment by helicopter in flight, by cooling hot exhaust in special ejective cooler. Article presents also the exhaust cooler operation principles and results of numeric analysis of concept exhaust cooler adapted to cooperate with PA-10W turbine engine. Numeric analysis presented promising results in decreasing the infrared emission level by PA W-3 helicopter in flight, as well as increasing its stealth properties.

Schlüsselwörter

  • helicopter
  • exhaust
  • radiation
  • cooler
  • stealth
Open Access

Possibility of Upgrading Fighter Aircraft MiG-29 in the Field of Helmet-Mounted Display Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 291 - 298

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents selected results of the analytical work carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology in the field of information visualization capabilities of helmet-mounted guidance and navigation in fighter aircraft MiG-29. There is presented the SzCz-3UM headset system of target’s indication, currently used on-board of MiG-29, which is directly cooperating with the pilot during the combat flight. There was presented that the information from the on-board systems of this aircraft containing analogue devices must be computer-processed into digital form in order to present flight data in the helmet-mounted display system. However, MiG-29 aircraft, used in the Polish Air Force, are equipped with modern digital avionics (integrated avionics system) based on the MIL-1553B digital data buses, which gives the possibility of the new helmet-mounted imaging of flight parameters via the computer data processing from aircraft’s devices and on-board installations. To develop guidelines for the construction of the helmet-mounted system for the MiG-29, the SWPL-1 Cyklop flight data-displaying system was adopted (system developed in the Air Force Institute of Technology as avionics system modernization for Mi-17 military helicopters). There are discussed the main problems of scientific and specialist research positions used in the Air Force Institute of Technology to assess the accuracy of the selected equipment components of avionics systems and determine credibility of information provided to the pilot during the flight.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • aviation
  • aircraft glass cockpit systems
  • helmet mounted display systems
Open Access

Multiaxial Transducers Calibration

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 299 - 308

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of present article is investigating properties of accelerometer calibration method, called automatic calibration. The research of transducer’s model was conducted and chosen optimization algorithms were rated by the simulation method and also using real transducer. The aim of tests was examination of the possibility to find parameters of the transducer model considering influence of temperature and deviation of axes. Described optimal calibration process without special calibration apparatus considers also influence of temperature on acceleration measurement. Afterward, described calibration method was tested on real transducer. Obtained results show that the hybrid two-step algorithm is suitable to the multiaxial transducers calibration.

In the research, accelerometer as triaxial transducer was chosen and subjected to tests and the results of simulation was recorded in the MATLAB workspace. From existing estimation, three algorithms were chosen: the quasi-Newton, simplex (Nelder-Mead), and Levenberg-Marquard. The experimental part of the calibration utilized the idea of using existing and known constant vector of the measured value like gravitational acceleration and magnetic field. Calibration with temperature compensation of real transducer was presented.

Schlüsselwörter

  • accelerometer
  • calibration
  • auto-calibration
  • nonlinear regression
Open Access

Hybrid Vehicle Diagnostics

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 309 - 315

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The history of hybrid vehicles has started between the 19th and the 20th century because then the first project of a hybrid vehicle was constructed. The first man who manufactured a front hub mounted electric propulsion connected with a generator powered by a spark ignition engine was Ferdinand Porsche. This vehicle was called the Lohner-Porsche Electromobile. The first mass-produced hybrid vehicle was the first generation Toyota Prius. The model premiere was in 1996 and the production started one year later. The vehicle was equipped with a 1.5 dcm 58 hp spark ignition engine and with the added electric propulsion. It generated 40 mechanical hp. Since 2000, a 72 hp spark ignition engine and a 44 hp electric generator were mounted. Fuel consumption of this model was 5 litres per 100 km. In the early 2000s, 95% hybrid vehicles were the Toyota Prius. The biggest competitor to the Toyota Prius was the Honda Insight. Lexus and Mercedes started manufacturing hybrid vehicles few years later. The most popular car brands that sell hybrid vehicles are Toyota and Lexus from Toyota Motor Corporation. This article describes an example of diagnostic possibilities for the hybrid vehicle system. The construction of vehicle models that use two propulsion systems (spark ignition engine and electric generator) results in the development and increase in control system devices. The measurements were made using various diagnostic devices, e.g. a diagnostic scanner, mustimeter, megohm-meter and oscilloscope. The reading of fault codes is not enough so it is necessary to use a mustimeter or a megohm-meter to examine the signal characteristics, which is presented in this article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • hybrid vehicle diagnostics
  • sensors
  • actuator technology
  • oscilloscope signal characteristics
Open Access

Electric Energy Balance of the Rotax 912 with Fuel Injection

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 317 - 323

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A majority of ultralight aircraft is powered by the Rotax 912 ULS, which is a four-cylinder carburettor piston SI boxer engine. However, its power-to-power advanced aircraft is insufficient. This article discusses the examination of the Rotax 912 fitted with a modified power system and mechanical charging to increase the power of a base unit by 36%. This engine was developed as a collaborated project of the Lublin University of Technology and the AVIATION ARTUR TRENDAK & SON GmbH, a manufacturer of autogyros. Sources of energy in the Rotax 912 are generated with a generator integrated with an ignition system of a maximum power of 250 W at 5800 rpm and 13.5 V [1]. The technology of fuel injection and charging required us to apply control systems and to measure engine-operating parameters, which resulted in higher electric energy demand. Additionally, a mechanical pump was replaced with a more efficient electric pump, which also changed electric energy balance. The examination was conducted on the test stand of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Aviation Propulsion Systems of the Lublin University of Technology. The measurement system consisted of the Tektronix TCP305 current probes and TCP A300 converters. Signals were recorded with data acquisition cards and the National Instruments Ni CompaktDAQ module. Power consumption was measured for the selected speed ranging from 2000 to 5800 rpm. The current probes were appropriately installed on power cords. The probes recorded respectively the power consumed by the fuel pump, the energy demand of the lambda sensor, and the electricity taken by the ECU. The data obtained was converted with the author’s script in LabVIEW. Based on the results, the highest electricity demand shows the fuel pump. Furthermore, increasing engine speed and load results in higher pressure in the fuel system and consequently in the higher power demand of the pump. The pump consumes up to 89% of all energy consumed by the system. In the control system, the highest demand shows lambda sensor BOSCH LSU4.2 [4]. With the increase in speed, the exhaust gas temperature increases, which leads to less power consumed by the heater of the sensor head. The demand of the other measurement systems and actuators is less than 10.6% of total consumption. The investigation shows that the total power demand of this new system ranges from 63 to 73 W, which is from 24 to 70% of the total power output from a generator mounted on the engine.

Schlüsselwörter

  • electric energy balance
  • air transport
  • combustion engines
  • transport
Open Access

Study of the Noncommutativity of Submitting Aircraft Rotation in High-Manoeuvring Flights

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 325 - 332

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents selected results of the analytical work carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology and the Polish Air Force Academy by means of a computer simulation of noncommutativity phenomena submitting aircraft turnover on high-manoeuvrability flights. The results of these simulations allowed to define the guidelines for the method of “production” of noncommutativity phenomenon in specialized rotating positions for strapdown inertial navigation systems (to evaluate the errors of determining spatial orientation).

Also, it analysed the possibility of “production” noncommutativity rotational movement in mobile flight simulator used for testing pilots and candidates for pilots (to test the sensitivity of the pilot’s vestibular system in terms of feeling the impact of this phenomenon). The results of the assessment of “greatness” noncommutativity angular velocity vector, occurring in some parts of the high-manoeuvrability flight of aircraft on the example of a fighter-bomber airplane Su-22 were discussed as well.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • aviation
  • inertial navigation systems
  • coning motion
  • noncommutativity rate vector
Open Access

Possibilities of Voice Supporting of the Pilot in Multi-Task Military Aircraft

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 333 - 338

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents selected results of the analytical works, carried out in the Air Force Institute of Technology, in the field of possibilities to support the pilot’s work in the cabin of the modern multi-task aircraft or military helicopter with the use of the computer voice communication assistant, with automatic recognition of the pilot’s voice and speech, which operates in conditions of the lack of time. There are presented the voice systems warning the pilot of the occurrence of an emergency state, as the so-called voice guides, P-591-04 type, used in the MiG-29 multi-purpose aircraft and RI-65 type, used in the Mi-17 and Mi-24 helicopters. As an example of implementation of the concept of a new system supporting the pilot’s work, there was selected the voice communication system, constructed in the Air Force Institute of Technology for the W-3PL multi-purpose helicopter with the ZSA integrated avionics system. The main research problems related to the construction of integrated avionics systems, verbally supporting the pilot’s work, were discussed, and the specialized tools and research stations used in the Air Force Institute of Technology for the phonoscopic speech and voice studies, were presented. Furthermore, an example of the functional diagram and the system architecture of the pilot’s work verbal supporting for a selected emergency situation on the aircraft board were demonstrated, as well as the expected range of that system’s applications.

Schlüsselwörter

  • transport
  • aviation
  • aircraft voice supporting systems
  • cockpit voice activated systems
Open Access

Integrated Attitude and Navigation System for Small Airplane

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 339 - 348

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Navigation system is one of the most important aircraft systems. Accuracy and precision of position and attitude is extremely important for safe aircraft operations. The integrated INS/GNSS systems are commonly used as autonomous on-board devices for fulfilling this task. The INS sensors like accelerometers and gyroscopes are mainly affected by drift. The GNSS encounter stochastic disturbances with no tendency to grow in time but as each radio navigation system may be jammed or its signal can just be not available. These base properties of errors make these two systems well suited for integration. These were the main motivations for development of integrated navigation and attitude determination system, presented in this article. In the developed system, data is integrated from all available sensors, particularly INS, GPS, and air data computer. Navigation information from these sensors is combined using Kalman filtering algorithms to obtain robust solution, effective also in a case of failure/inaccessibility of GPS. Position calculated using the accelerations from INS is corrected by position from GPS and optionally by position calculated using the true airspeed (TAS) from ADC. Navigation system is modelled and programmed in MATLAB environment. The system was tested using the data from real experiments, proving efficiency of the method.

Schlüsselwörter

  • navigation
  • integration
  • data fusion
  • INS
  • GPS
  • ADC
Open Access

The Aircraft Piston Engine Conjugate Heat Transfer Model

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 349 - 355

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Maintaining high aircraft’s propulsion system reliability requires a good knowledge of engine’s heat transfer conditions at each engine running time. Even though the flow around the cylinder may be steady, the heat flux from the engine is not evenly distributed. This is caused by varied engine head and fins geometry and uneven heat transfer coefficient distribution. The lack of knowledge of the local heat transfer coefficient values and time coefficients for the transient heat transfer make it unfeasible to make an analytical model for a given geometry. One transient Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation does not solve the heat transfer fully. Only a conjugate simulation allows an in-depth analysis of a transient heat transfer. The Combustion and species transport fluid simulation is coupled to the temperature field solid simulation. This work presents the methods and results of such conjugate heat transfer simulation. The change of heat flux parameters in respect to time is shown. The results are verified by the real engine measurements.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CFD
  • fluid
  • dynamics
  • conjugate
  • coupled
  • heat
  • transfer
  • engine
  • SI
Open Access

Experimental Verification of the Use of Dummies for Tests in Empirical Research

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 357 - 362

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The issues related to the use of test dummies for experimental research in the field of automotive engineering have been addressed. The article discusses the historical introduction and development of the dummies in the biomechanical tests, which have contributed to the replacement of, previously conducted tests on corpses or volunteers. The evolution of dummies development Evolution of the dummies construction development to the present times has been presented. Question was raised: what is the “similarity” between the dummy living human being. Contemporary dummies reflect very well features of the human body are made of good quality materials and can be equipped with numerous sensors performing various measurements. Comparative empirical tests carried out with an adult dummy and a living adult of similar parameters such as: size (weight and height) body proportions have been presented. The impact of vibrations on the human occupant riding a motor vehicle was examined, with road tests being carried out of realized driving on various road surfaces within that work and with the data recorded being analysed in the time domain and frequency domain. In the time domain, time histories of the accelerations recorded were analysed and the root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration values were calculated. In the frequency domain, the power spectral density (PSD) values and the absolute transmittance (amplification) values were determined for the acceleration signals recorded. The analysis of the measurement results for the ability to absorb vibration by living human being and the dummy has been done. The differences and similarities between the living human subject and the test dummy have been presented from the point of view of utilizing such subjects for experimental tests.

Schlüsselwörter

  • dummies
  • experimental tests
  • human body vibration

Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo