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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2353-3978
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Jul 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 22 (2014): Heft 1 (June 2014)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2353-3978
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Jul 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

16 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Biological Activities of Troponoids and Their Use in Agriculture A Review

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 5 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Chemical compounds containing the tropone structure (2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one), in their molecule, called troponoids, characterized by a seven-membered ring, are distributed in some plants, bacteria and fungi, although they are relatively rare. ß-Thujaplicin (2-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one), also known as hinokitiol, is a natural compound found in several plants of the Cupressaceae family. Besides hinokitiol, related compounds were identified in Cupressaceae trees. It has been demonstrated that hinokitiol and its derivatives have various biological effects, such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumor, anti-ischemic, iron chelating and the inhibitory activity against polyphenol oxidase activity. Activity similar to ß-thujaplicin has tropolone and its derivatives, which are not present nature. Due to the high scientific and practical interest, synthetic ß-thujaplicin and other troponoids have been produced for many years. In this review, the major biological effects of troponoids, mostly ß-thujaplicin and tropolone, on tyrosinase and polyphenol oxidase activity, ethylene production, antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities, and biotransformation of ß-thujaplicin by cultured plant cells are presented. Accumulation of ß-thujaplicin and related troponoids has been shown in cell cultures of Cupressus lusitanica and other species of Cupressaceae. The biosynthetic pathway of the troponoids in plants, bacteria and fungi has been also briefly described.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cupressaceae
  • ß-thujaplicin
  • tropolone
  • polyphenol oxidase
  • biosynthesis antibacterial
  • anti-fungal
  • insecticidal activity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effect of Edaphic Factors on the Similarity of Parasitic Nematodes in the Soil Sampled in Nurseries of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 21 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The largest faunistic similarity of nematodes was found in soils sampled in coniferous nurseries where arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis - Cupressaceae), spruces (Picea spp. - Pinaceae) and pines (Pinus spp. - Pi-naceae) were grown. In soil sampled from deciduous tree and shrub nurseries, similar species composition of parasitic nematodes was found in stands of oaks (Quercus spp. - Fagaceae), black locusts (Robiniapseudo-acacia - Fabaceae) and maples (Acer spp. - Sapindaceae). In soils, especially the light and medium, from stands of coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs, Aphelenchus avenae was often isolated. Bitylenchus dubius occurred in both types of nurseries, particularly in light soils. The largest faunistic similarities between nematodes isolated from places of growth of coniferous and deciduous plants were recorded in soils of loamy sand and sandy loam. The most abundant nematode species and the greatest similarity in species of plant parasitic nematodes were observed in soils with neutral pH or slightly acidic. Aphelenchus avenae was found in soil samples collected from both coniferous and deciduous plants, with no relation to soil acidity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • plant parasitic nematodes
  • ornamental plants nurseries
  • faunistic similarity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Planting Term on Growth and Flowering of Two Cultivars of Lachenalia Produced in A Greenhouse as Potting Plants During Winter Months

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 29 - 34

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A greenhouse experiment was carried out on lachenalia plants to determine the effect of different bulb planting terms (from October to January) on the growth and flowering of cultivars ‘Ronina’ and ‘Rupert’, in the natural light conditions. From every planted bulb emerged stems and flowers, but the time of flow–ering was dependent on the planting term and genotype. Irrespective of the planting term, plants of ‘Rupert’ were taller than those of ‘Ronina’. The planting term had an influence on the length of the inflorescence in ‘Rupert’, but did not affect in ‘Ronina’. The bulbs of ‘Rupert’ produced more than twice as many florets as ‘Ronina’ bulbs. Irrespective of the genotype, the bulbs planted the earliest produced the thinnest stems. The two tested cultivars were long-lasting flowering pot plants - their inflorescences remained decorative for over 20 days.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cape hyacinth
  • forcing
  • plant morphology
  • flower quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Micropropagation of PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA (Oliver & Hiern.) Using Nodal Explant

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 35 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Pluchea lanceolata is an important medicinal plant of Asteraceae family known for its anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity. A protocol was established for micropropagation of P. lanceolata using nodal explants. Nodal explants were inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (1962) - MS medium supple–mented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin), thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2iP (2-isopentenyladenine) at various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg·dm-3). The highest multiplication rate was obtained for nodal explants cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 0.5 mg·dm-3 thidiazuron (TDZ). In vitro raised shoots were successfully rooted on ½ mineral salt concentration of MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg dm-3 IBA.

Schlüsselwörter

  • micropropagation
  • TDZ
  • BAP
  • Kin
  • 2iP
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of 8-Hydroxyquinoline Citrate, Sucrose and Peroxidase Inhibitors on Vase Life of Lisianthus (EUSTOMA GRANDIFLORUM L.) Cut Flowers

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 41 - 47

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cut lisianthus flowers have a short vase life, possibly due to blockage of xylem vessels. The effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate, sucrose and peroxidase inhibitors on delaying senescence and extending vase life of cut lisianthus flowers was tested. The peroxidase inhibitors used in this experiment were catechol (CH) (5, 10, 15 mM) and p-phenylenediamine (PD) (5, 10, 15 mM). All vase solutions contained 200 mg-dm-3 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) and 3% sucrose. 10 mM CH treatment was the most effective for vase life extension (13.3 days), increasing water uptake, and delaying fresh weight loss. The vase solution containing 10 mM CH significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and decreased peroxidase (POD) activities. Similarly, 10 mM PD increased anthocyanin content more than the other treat–ments. Protein degradation was significantly delayed by application of 5 mM PD. The malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation was reduced when CH at 5 mM and PD in 5 and 15 mM were added to the vase solution. Results indicated that peroxidase inhibitors in combination with 8-HQC and sucrose increase vase life of lisianthus by improving water uptake and delaying fresh weight loss.

Schlüsselwörter

  • lisianthus
  • peroxidase
  • postharvest
  • water uptake
  • protein
  • anthocyanin content
  • SOD
  • POD activity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Physiological Response of In Vitro Cultured MAGNOLIASP. to Nutrient Medium Composition

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 49 - 61

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the regeneration response of in vitro cultured Magnolia × soulangeana ‘Alexandrina’ and Magnolia liliiflora ‘Nigra’ to nutrient medium composition. In the primary culture (initiated from dormant axillary buds) combinations of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts with 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid were tested. The primary explants of cv. ‘Alexandrina’ expressed higher regeneration rate than cv. ‘Nigra’. For both species, the regen eration was most strongly potentiated at addition of 0.25 mg dm−3 of the cytokinin alone. The auxin exerted undesir–able effects. Several basal salts media were applied in proliferation stage and their physiological effects were evaluated in reference to traditionally used MS. At culturing on Chée & Pool C2d Vitis Medium (VM) that is for the first time introduced to magnolia and on MS, M. liliiflora formed more but less elongated shoots than M. soulangeana. However, on VM, substantial increase (25-30%) of the number of axillary shoots and leaves, shoot length and fresh and dry weights over MS was established for both species. This suggested VM as promising composition of nutrients in multiplication stage. Microshoots obtained on MS, VM, Rugini Olive Medium and DKW Juglans Medium were successfully rooted in vitro and subsequently established ex vitro. The findings expand the information on magnolia response to culture conditions and contribute to elaboration of innovative elements of protocols for establishing tissue cultures with high regeneration capacity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sp.
  • basal medium
  • plant growth regulators
  • primary culture
  • rooting
  • shoot proliferation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Influence of Laser Beam and Auxins on Rooting of Leatherleaf Viburnum (VIBURNUM RHYTIDOPHYIIUM Hemsl.) Cuttings

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 63 - 66

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this work is to compare the effect of three- and sixfold irradiation with a semiconductor laser beams of 200 mW power and wavelength equal to 670 nm and the rooting agent on the percentage and quality of rooted cuttings of leatherleaf viburnum. The most effective for root number and root length was threefold irradiation and for fresh root weight threefold irradiation applied together with the rooting agent.

Schlüsselwörter

  • laser photostimulation
  • rooting
  • leatherleaf viburnum
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

How Do Rare Earth Elements (Lanthanoids) Affect Root Development and Protocorm-Like Body Formation in Hybrid CYMBIDIUM?

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 67 - 75

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Only few studies in the plant tissue culture literature have examined the impact of lanthanoids, or rare earth elements, on in vitro plant organogenesis. In this study, using a model plant, hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, the impact of six lanthanoids (lanthanum (III) nitrate hexahydrate (La(NO3)3 · 6H2O), cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3 · 6H2O), neodymium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Nd(NO3)3 · 6H2O), praseodymium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Pr(NO3)3 · 6H2O), samarium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Sm(NO3)3 · 6H2O), gadolinium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Gd(NO3)3 · 6H2O) on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB) formation on Teixeira Cymbidium (TC) medium was examined. 0 (control), 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg·dm-3 of each lanthanoid was tested. All lanthanoids could produce more neo-PLBs and neo-PLB fresh weight than TC medium lacking plant growth regulators (PGRs), suggesting some PGR-like ability of lanthanoids, although PLB-related traits (percentage of half-PLBs forming neo-PLBs; number of neo-PLBs formed per half-PLB; fresh weight of half-PLB + neo-PLBs) was always significantly lower than TC medium containing PGRs. Except for Gd, all other lanthanoids had no negative impact on the number of new leaves from neo-PLB-derived shoots, but all lanthanoids showed a significantly lower plant height, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight and, in most cases, SPAD (chlorophyll content) value. In addition, using the same concentration of the six lanthanoids, the ability to fortify root formation of neo-PLB-derived plantlets was also assessed. Except for Sm, all other lanthanoids significantly increased the number of roots, root fresh and dry weight.

Schlüsselwörter

  • lanthanoid
  • orchid
  • PLB
  • rare earth element
  • root formation
  • Teixeira (TC) medium
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIASPP.) in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 77 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca), ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata), ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa). Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT), F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl) and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively) were detected among these genotypes. In fruits of F. x ananassa the terpenoid profile was dominated by nerolidol, whereas wild spe–cies produced mainly monoterpenes. It was correlated with the higher induction of FaNES1 in cultivated and PINS gene in the wild Fragaria species. The flavour biogenesis in ripening fruits was determined by the expression of SAAT gene, especially visible for ‘Profumata di Tortona’ and ‘Onda’ strawberries. The fruit solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace was analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Olfac–tometry (GC-O), that allows for the chromatographic separation of volatiles together with their olfactomet-ric evaluation. ‘Reine des Vallées’ fruits have a peculiar profile characterized by high concentrations of limonene, linalool and mesifurane that resulted in “spiced”, “citrus, floral” and “sweet, baked” descriptors. The character impact compound in ‘Profumata di Tortona’ fruits was ethyl butanoate, responsible for “sweet” and “fruity, strawberry” descriptors. However, it was detected in lower amount in comparison to the data obtained for F. x ananassa strawberries. The sesquiterpene nerolidol was identified in both culti–vated strawberry genotypes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fruit
  • aroma
  • quality
  • olfactometry
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Examination of the Suitability of Different Pollinators for Four Sweet Cherry Cultivars Commonly Grown in Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 85 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the work was to select pollinators for sweet cherry cultivars: ‘Vanda’, ‘Techlovan’, ‘Syl–via’ and ‘Regina’, which are of great economic significance in Poland. As pollinators, three or four different cultivars with the same or similar flowering time as the pollinated cultivars were evaluated annually. The pollinators belonged to different incompatibility groups. Pollination was carried out over four consecutive seasons. Assuming that for a good yield more than 20% of the flowers should develop fruits, a good polli–nator for the cv. ‘Vanda’ was ‘Techlovan’, and for the cv. ‘Regina’ - ‘Sylvia’. The cv. ‘Techlovan’ was pollinated to best effect by ‘Vega’, and the cv. ‘Sylvia’ by ‘Regina’, but the setting of fruits in the last two combinations was moderately good. Low to moderately good fruit setting but depending on the year was observed in the combinations ‘Sylvia’ x ‘Summit’, ‘Regina’ x ‘Summit’, and ‘Regina’ x ‘Rainier’. Cultivar ‘Summit’ for ‘Sylvia’, and ‘Summit’ and ‘Rainier’ for the cv. ‘Regina’ should not be used as pollinators because the low percentage of fruit set obtained annually does not guarantee a satisfactory yield.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sweet cherry
  • pollinator
  • cultivar
  • fruit set
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Identification of Four New Est-Based Markers on the Apple (MALUS ⋉ DOMESTICA) Genetic Map

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 93 - 100

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The map of the linkage groups: LG2, LG12 and LG14, which are expected to contain QTLs related to fruit quality, was generated by analysis of 56 individuals of the cross: ‘Retina’ × ‘Topaz’. Twenty three of the 27 SSR markers covered 225 cM in ‘Retina’ and 371 cM in ‘Topaz’ genome. High level of colinearity (≈85%) was found between obtained map and the respective map regions of ‘Fiesta’, ‘Discovery’, ‘Ralls Janet’ and ‘Delicious’. Only single inversions of marker positions were noted, predominantly in ‘Topaz’. CAPS and SSCP/SNP markers in seven ESTs, chosen based on the metabolic pathways of ascorbic acids and sugar, were identified. Four of the CAPS markers, linked to the genes coding: UDP glucose: flavonoid 3-o-glucosyl transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, and two sugar transporters, were mapped on LG2 (GFglTra - both cultivars), LG12 (PGiso1B and PSTS - ‘Topaz’) and LG14 (PST - ‘Retina’). According to our knowledge, loci of these markers have never been identified on the apple genome map.

Schlüsselwörter

  • comparative mapping
  • SSR transferability
  • ascorbic acid
  • sugar metabolism
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of Yield and Healthiness of Twenty Table Grapevine Cultivars Grown in Central Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 101 - 107

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

During the years 2008-2013, 20 table grape cultivars grown in Skierniewice (Central Poland) were assessed. Among the assessed cultivars, two - ‘Chasselas Blanc’ (standard) and ‘Favorit’ belonged to V. vinifera. Eighteen interspecific hybrids - ‘Aron’, ‘Esther’ (‘Eszter’), ‘Fanny’, ‘Flora’, ‘Galanth’, ‘Ganita’, ‘Garant’, ‘Katharina’, ‘Lidi’, ‘Lilla’, ‘Muscat Bleu’, ‘Nelly’, ‘Osella’, ‘Philipp’, ‘Rosetta’, ‘Rosina’, ‘Timur’ and ‘Verdelet’ were bred in various European countries. Vines, grafted on ‘Kober 5 BB’ rootstock, were planted in 2007 and annually covered for winter. Taking into account productivity, quality of fruits, susceptibility to frost damage and fungal diseases, the Swiss ‘Muscat Bleu’ and German ‘Garant’ proved most suitable for cultivation in the conditions of Central Poland. Plants of all cultivars belonging to the group of interspecific hybrids were less susceptible to infections caused by fungal pathogens than plants of V. vinifera genotypes. The assessment of frost resistance based on the observation of those parts of bushes, which were not covered, showed high diversification among the interspecific hybrids.

Schlüsselwörter

  • L.
  • sp.
  • grapes
  • frost
  • fungal diseases
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ethylene Emission of Apples Treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene During Storage

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 109 - 112

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The effect of post-harvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on ethylene emission in early-winter apple (cv. ‘Calville’), winter (‘Gloster’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Jonagold’), and late-winter cultivars (‘Granny Smith’, ‘Idared’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’) w as investigated. The fruits were picked at a commercial harvest time and half of them were treated with 1-MCP (‘SmartFresh™’ 0.068 gm-3) for 24 h at 5 °C. Then both groups of apples were placed in a common storage at the temperature of 2 °C. The intensity of fruit ethylene emission (rate of ethylene production) was measured and 1 -MCP inhibition index was calculated. During storage, activity of ethylene emission by control apples of ‘Calville’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ showed typical climacteric pattern, while the intensity of ethylene emission of apples of other cultivars only increased gradually. The change of ethylene activity of early-winter apple cv. ‘Calville’ and winter cv. ‘Jonagold’, both treated with 1-MCP after harvest, had exponential character, especially actively increasing after 3 months of storage. At the same time ethylene emission of 1 -MCP treated fruits of other cultivars changed steadily to a low level and was effectively suppressed during the whole 6-month period of storage in normal atmosphere. The value of inhibition index of fruits treated by 1-MCP confirmed the consistent restoration of the ability to ethylene synthesis and thus to post-harvest ripening of some apples cultivars.

Schlüsselwörter

  • apples
  • 1-MCP
  • storage condition
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Relationship Between Texture Sensory Profiles and Optical Properties Measured by Time-Resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy During Post-Storage Shelf Life of ‘Braeburn’ Apples

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 113 - 121

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

‘Braeburn’ apples from three harvests after 6-month storage in controlled atmosphere were measured at 670 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), ranked on decreasing μa670 (increasing maturity), classified as less (LeM), medium and more mature (MoM), randomised into three batches per harvest and analysed after 1, 8 and 14 days of shelf life. LeM and MoM apples were measured in the 630-900 nm range by TRS, and analysed for sensory profile (firm, crispy, juicy, mealy) and pulp mechanical characteristics (firmness, stiffness, energy-to-rupture). All data were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to sensory intensity scores, fruits were either divided into five classes (very low – VL; low – L; medium – M; high – H; very high – VH) separately for every attribute, or clustered into four groups, each one representing a specific sensory profile. The absorption spectra showed a maximum at 670 nm (chlorophyll-a) and μa670 was higher in the VH class for firm, crispy and juicy and in the VL and L classes for mealy. The scattering spectra had a decreasing trend with the wavelength increase, and μs’ values were lower in the VH class for firm and crispy, and higher in the VH class for mealy and in the VL ones for juicy. PCA underlined that μs’ values were negatively related to firmness and μa670, and that μa690, μa730, μa830, μa850 and μa900 were opposed to mealiness. PC scores differed among the four sensory profiles and increased from VL to VH classes for firmness, crispiness and juiciness and from VH to VL classes for mealiness.

Schlüsselwörter

  • absorption coefficient
  • reduced scattering coefficient
  • texture sensory profiles
  • pulp mechanical characteristics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Impact of the Brassicaceae Plant Materials Added to the Soil on the Population of FUSARIUM SOLANI (Mart.) SACC. and FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM Schlecht

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 123 - 129

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Soil with the spores of fungi in dormant stage from previous years infections belonging to the genus Fusarium caused significant loss of onion yield in Poland. The most important form of Fusarium inoculum in the field are chlamydospores, which may survive in soil for many years. There are no available methods to eradicate chlamydospores from soil environment. Inspired by data from the literature and own prelimi–nary observation, we evaluated the effect of application of Brassicaceae plant material to the soil infested with F. oxysporum and F. solani isolates, which are pathogenic to onion. Obtained results showed that addition of fresh plant material from B. juncea and B. alba had no effect on amount of Fusarium propagules in the soil. Moreover amendment of infested soil with dry plants or milled seeds of B. juncea or B. nigra significantly stimulated the population of Fusarium in the soil.

Schlüsselwörter

  • plants
  • biofumigation
  • chlamydospores
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Validation of the Analytical Method for the Determination of Flavonoids in Broccoli

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 131 - 140

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A simple, accurate and selective HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of quercetin and kaempferol, which are the main flavonols in broccoli. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column using a mobile phase composed of methanol/water (60/40) and phosphoric acid 0.2% at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. The detection was carried out on a DAD detector at 370 nm. This method was validated according to the requirements for new methods, which include selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The current method demonstrates good linearity, with R2 > 0.99. The recovery is within 98.07-102.15% and 97.92-101.83% for quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. The method is selective, in that quercetin and kaempferol are well separated from other compounds of broccoli with good resolution. The low limit of detection and limit of quantitation of quercetin and kaempferol enable the detection and quantitation of these flavonoids in broccoli at low con–centrations.

Schlüsselwörter

  • quercetin
  • kaempferol
  • broccoli
  • validation
16 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Biological Activities of Troponoids and Their Use in Agriculture A Review

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 5 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Chemical compounds containing the tropone structure (2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one), in their molecule, called troponoids, characterized by a seven-membered ring, are distributed in some plants, bacteria and fungi, although they are relatively rare. ß-Thujaplicin (2-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one), also known as hinokitiol, is a natural compound found in several plants of the Cupressaceae family. Besides hinokitiol, related compounds were identified in Cupressaceae trees. It has been demonstrated that hinokitiol and its derivatives have various biological effects, such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumor, anti-ischemic, iron chelating and the inhibitory activity against polyphenol oxidase activity. Activity similar to ß-thujaplicin has tropolone and its derivatives, which are not present nature. Due to the high scientific and practical interest, synthetic ß-thujaplicin and other troponoids have been produced for many years. In this review, the major biological effects of troponoids, mostly ß-thujaplicin and tropolone, on tyrosinase and polyphenol oxidase activity, ethylene production, antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities, and biotransformation of ß-thujaplicin by cultured plant cells are presented. Accumulation of ß-thujaplicin and related troponoids has been shown in cell cultures of Cupressus lusitanica and other species of Cupressaceae. The biosynthetic pathway of the troponoids in plants, bacteria and fungi has been also briefly described.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cupressaceae
  • ß-thujaplicin
  • tropolone
  • polyphenol oxidase
  • biosynthesis antibacterial
  • anti-fungal
  • insecticidal activity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effect of Edaphic Factors on the Similarity of Parasitic Nematodes in the Soil Sampled in Nurseries of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 21 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The largest faunistic similarity of nematodes was found in soils sampled in coniferous nurseries where arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis - Cupressaceae), spruces (Picea spp. - Pinaceae) and pines (Pinus spp. - Pi-naceae) were grown. In soil sampled from deciduous tree and shrub nurseries, similar species composition of parasitic nematodes was found in stands of oaks (Quercus spp. - Fagaceae), black locusts (Robiniapseudo-acacia - Fabaceae) and maples (Acer spp. - Sapindaceae). In soils, especially the light and medium, from stands of coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs, Aphelenchus avenae was often isolated. Bitylenchus dubius occurred in both types of nurseries, particularly in light soils. The largest faunistic similarities between nematodes isolated from places of growth of coniferous and deciduous plants were recorded in soils of loamy sand and sandy loam. The most abundant nematode species and the greatest similarity in species of plant parasitic nematodes were observed in soils with neutral pH or slightly acidic. Aphelenchus avenae was found in soil samples collected from both coniferous and deciduous plants, with no relation to soil acidity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • plant parasitic nematodes
  • ornamental plants nurseries
  • faunistic similarity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of Planting Term on Growth and Flowering of Two Cultivars of Lachenalia Produced in A Greenhouse as Potting Plants During Winter Months

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 29 - 34

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A greenhouse experiment was carried out on lachenalia plants to determine the effect of different bulb planting terms (from October to January) on the growth and flowering of cultivars ‘Ronina’ and ‘Rupert’, in the natural light conditions. From every planted bulb emerged stems and flowers, but the time of flow–ering was dependent on the planting term and genotype. Irrespective of the planting term, plants of ‘Rupert’ were taller than those of ‘Ronina’. The planting term had an influence on the length of the inflorescence in ‘Rupert’, but did not affect in ‘Ronina’. The bulbs of ‘Rupert’ produced more than twice as many florets as ‘Ronina’ bulbs. Irrespective of the genotype, the bulbs planted the earliest produced the thinnest stems. The two tested cultivars were long-lasting flowering pot plants - their inflorescences remained decorative for over 20 days.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cape hyacinth
  • forcing
  • plant morphology
  • flower quality
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Micropropagation of PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA (Oliver & Hiern.) Using Nodal Explant

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 35 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Pluchea lanceolata is an important medicinal plant of Asteraceae family known for its anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity. A protocol was established for micropropagation of P. lanceolata using nodal explants. Nodal explants were inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (1962) - MS medium supple–mented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin), thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2iP (2-isopentenyladenine) at various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg·dm-3). The highest multiplication rate was obtained for nodal explants cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 0.5 mg·dm-3 thidiazuron (TDZ). In vitro raised shoots were successfully rooted on ½ mineral salt concentration of MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg dm-3 IBA.

Schlüsselwörter

  • micropropagation
  • TDZ
  • BAP
  • Kin
  • 2iP
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Effect of 8-Hydroxyquinoline Citrate, Sucrose and Peroxidase Inhibitors on Vase Life of Lisianthus (EUSTOMA GRANDIFLORUM L.) Cut Flowers

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 41 - 47

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cut lisianthus flowers have a short vase life, possibly due to blockage of xylem vessels. The effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate, sucrose and peroxidase inhibitors on delaying senescence and extending vase life of cut lisianthus flowers was tested. The peroxidase inhibitors used in this experiment were catechol (CH) (5, 10, 15 mM) and p-phenylenediamine (PD) (5, 10, 15 mM). All vase solutions contained 200 mg-dm-3 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) and 3% sucrose. 10 mM CH treatment was the most effective for vase life extension (13.3 days), increasing water uptake, and delaying fresh weight loss. The vase solution containing 10 mM CH significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and decreased peroxidase (POD) activities. Similarly, 10 mM PD increased anthocyanin content more than the other treat–ments. Protein degradation was significantly delayed by application of 5 mM PD. The malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation was reduced when CH at 5 mM and PD in 5 and 15 mM were added to the vase solution. Results indicated that peroxidase inhibitors in combination with 8-HQC and sucrose increase vase life of lisianthus by improving water uptake and delaying fresh weight loss.

Schlüsselwörter

  • lisianthus
  • peroxidase
  • postharvest
  • water uptake
  • protein
  • anthocyanin content
  • SOD
  • POD activity
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Physiological Response of In Vitro Cultured MAGNOLIASP. to Nutrient Medium Composition

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 49 - 61

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the regeneration response of in vitro cultured Magnolia × soulangeana ‘Alexandrina’ and Magnolia liliiflora ‘Nigra’ to nutrient medium composition. In the primary culture (initiated from dormant axillary buds) combinations of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts with 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid were tested. The primary explants of cv. ‘Alexandrina’ expressed higher regeneration rate than cv. ‘Nigra’. For both species, the regen eration was most strongly potentiated at addition of 0.25 mg dm−3 of the cytokinin alone. The auxin exerted undesir–able effects. Several basal salts media were applied in proliferation stage and their physiological effects were evaluated in reference to traditionally used MS. At culturing on Chée & Pool C2d Vitis Medium (VM) that is for the first time introduced to magnolia and on MS, M. liliiflora formed more but less elongated shoots than M. soulangeana. However, on VM, substantial increase (25-30%) of the number of axillary shoots and leaves, shoot length and fresh and dry weights over MS was established for both species. This suggested VM as promising composition of nutrients in multiplication stage. Microshoots obtained on MS, VM, Rugini Olive Medium and DKW Juglans Medium were successfully rooted in vitro and subsequently established ex vitro. The findings expand the information on magnolia response to culture conditions and contribute to elaboration of innovative elements of protocols for establishing tissue cultures with high regeneration capacity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sp.
  • basal medium
  • plant growth regulators
  • primary culture
  • rooting
  • shoot proliferation
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The Influence of Laser Beam and Auxins on Rooting of Leatherleaf Viburnum (VIBURNUM RHYTIDOPHYIIUM Hemsl.) Cuttings

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 63 - 66

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this work is to compare the effect of three- and sixfold irradiation with a semiconductor laser beams of 200 mW power and wavelength equal to 670 nm and the rooting agent on the percentage and quality of rooted cuttings of leatherleaf viburnum. The most effective for root number and root length was threefold irradiation and for fresh root weight threefold irradiation applied together with the rooting agent.

Schlüsselwörter

  • laser photostimulation
  • rooting
  • leatherleaf viburnum
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

How Do Rare Earth Elements (Lanthanoids) Affect Root Development and Protocorm-Like Body Formation in Hybrid CYMBIDIUM?

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 67 - 75

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Only few studies in the plant tissue culture literature have examined the impact of lanthanoids, or rare earth elements, on in vitro plant organogenesis. In this study, using a model plant, hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, the impact of six lanthanoids (lanthanum (III) nitrate hexahydrate (La(NO3)3 · 6H2O), cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3 · 6H2O), neodymium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Nd(NO3)3 · 6H2O), praseodymium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Pr(NO3)3 · 6H2O), samarium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Sm(NO3)3 · 6H2O), gadolinium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (Gd(NO3)3 · 6H2O) on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB) formation on Teixeira Cymbidium (TC) medium was examined. 0 (control), 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg·dm-3 of each lanthanoid was tested. All lanthanoids could produce more neo-PLBs and neo-PLB fresh weight than TC medium lacking plant growth regulators (PGRs), suggesting some PGR-like ability of lanthanoids, although PLB-related traits (percentage of half-PLBs forming neo-PLBs; number of neo-PLBs formed per half-PLB; fresh weight of half-PLB + neo-PLBs) was always significantly lower than TC medium containing PGRs. Except for Gd, all other lanthanoids had no negative impact on the number of new leaves from neo-PLB-derived shoots, but all lanthanoids showed a significantly lower plant height, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight and, in most cases, SPAD (chlorophyll content) value. In addition, using the same concentration of the six lanthanoids, the ability to fortify root formation of neo-PLB-derived plantlets was also assessed. Except for Sm, all other lanthanoids significantly increased the number of roots, root fresh and dry weight.

Schlüsselwörter

  • lanthanoid
  • orchid
  • PLB
  • rare earth element
  • root formation
  • Teixeira (TC) medium
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Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIASPP.) in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 77 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca), ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata), ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa). Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT), F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl) and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively) were detected among these genotypes. In fruits of F. x ananassa the terpenoid profile was dominated by nerolidol, whereas wild spe–cies produced mainly monoterpenes. It was correlated with the higher induction of FaNES1 in cultivated and PINS gene in the wild Fragaria species. The flavour biogenesis in ripening fruits was determined by the expression of SAAT gene, especially visible for ‘Profumata di Tortona’ and ‘Onda’ strawberries. The fruit solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace was analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Olfac–tometry (GC-O), that allows for the chromatographic separation of volatiles together with their olfactomet-ric evaluation. ‘Reine des Vallées’ fruits have a peculiar profile characterized by high concentrations of limonene, linalool and mesifurane that resulted in “spiced”, “citrus, floral” and “sweet, baked” descriptors. The character impact compound in ‘Profumata di Tortona’ fruits was ethyl butanoate, responsible for “sweet” and “fruity, strawberry” descriptors. However, it was detected in lower amount in comparison to the data obtained for F. x ananassa strawberries. The sesquiterpene nerolidol was identified in both culti–vated strawberry genotypes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fruit
  • aroma
  • quality
  • olfactometry
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Examination of the Suitability of Different Pollinators for Four Sweet Cherry Cultivars Commonly Grown in Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 85 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the work was to select pollinators for sweet cherry cultivars: ‘Vanda’, ‘Techlovan’, ‘Syl–via’ and ‘Regina’, which are of great economic significance in Poland. As pollinators, three or four different cultivars with the same or similar flowering time as the pollinated cultivars were evaluated annually. The pollinators belonged to different incompatibility groups. Pollination was carried out over four consecutive seasons. Assuming that for a good yield more than 20% of the flowers should develop fruits, a good polli–nator for the cv. ‘Vanda’ was ‘Techlovan’, and for the cv. ‘Regina’ - ‘Sylvia’. The cv. ‘Techlovan’ was pollinated to best effect by ‘Vega’, and the cv. ‘Sylvia’ by ‘Regina’, but the setting of fruits in the last two combinations was moderately good. Low to moderately good fruit setting but depending on the year was observed in the combinations ‘Sylvia’ x ‘Summit’, ‘Regina’ x ‘Summit’, and ‘Regina’ x ‘Rainier’. Cultivar ‘Summit’ for ‘Sylvia’, and ‘Summit’ and ‘Rainier’ for the cv. ‘Regina’ should not be used as pollinators because the low percentage of fruit set obtained annually does not guarantee a satisfactory yield.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sweet cherry
  • pollinator
  • cultivar
  • fruit set
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Identification of Four New Est-Based Markers on the Apple (MALUS ⋉ DOMESTICA) Genetic Map

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 93 - 100

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The map of the linkage groups: LG2, LG12 and LG14, which are expected to contain QTLs related to fruit quality, was generated by analysis of 56 individuals of the cross: ‘Retina’ × ‘Topaz’. Twenty three of the 27 SSR markers covered 225 cM in ‘Retina’ and 371 cM in ‘Topaz’ genome. High level of colinearity (≈85%) was found between obtained map and the respective map regions of ‘Fiesta’, ‘Discovery’, ‘Ralls Janet’ and ‘Delicious’. Only single inversions of marker positions were noted, predominantly in ‘Topaz’. CAPS and SSCP/SNP markers in seven ESTs, chosen based on the metabolic pathways of ascorbic acids and sugar, were identified. Four of the CAPS markers, linked to the genes coding: UDP glucose: flavonoid 3-o-glucosyl transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, and two sugar transporters, were mapped on LG2 (GFglTra - both cultivars), LG12 (PGiso1B and PSTS - ‘Topaz’) and LG14 (PST - ‘Retina’). According to our knowledge, loci of these markers have never been identified on the apple genome map.

Schlüsselwörter

  • comparative mapping
  • SSR transferability
  • ascorbic acid
  • sugar metabolism
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Evaluation of Yield and Healthiness of Twenty Table Grapevine Cultivars Grown in Central Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 101 - 107

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

During the years 2008-2013, 20 table grape cultivars grown in Skierniewice (Central Poland) were assessed. Among the assessed cultivars, two - ‘Chasselas Blanc’ (standard) and ‘Favorit’ belonged to V. vinifera. Eighteen interspecific hybrids - ‘Aron’, ‘Esther’ (‘Eszter’), ‘Fanny’, ‘Flora’, ‘Galanth’, ‘Ganita’, ‘Garant’, ‘Katharina’, ‘Lidi’, ‘Lilla’, ‘Muscat Bleu’, ‘Nelly’, ‘Osella’, ‘Philipp’, ‘Rosetta’, ‘Rosina’, ‘Timur’ and ‘Verdelet’ were bred in various European countries. Vines, grafted on ‘Kober 5 BB’ rootstock, were planted in 2007 and annually covered for winter. Taking into account productivity, quality of fruits, susceptibility to frost damage and fungal diseases, the Swiss ‘Muscat Bleu’ and German ‘Garant’ proved most suitable for cultivation in the conditions of Central Poland. Plants of all cultivars belonging to the group of interspecific hybrids were less susceptible to infections caused by fungal pathogens than plants of V. vinifera genotypes. The assessment of frost resistance based on the observation of those parts of bushes, which were not covered, showed high diversification among the interspecific hybrids.

Schlüsselwörter

  • L.
  • sp.
  • grapes
  • frost
  • fungal diseases
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Ethylene Emission of Apples Treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene During Storage

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 109 - 112

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The effect of post-harvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on ethylene emission in early-winter apple (cv. ‘Calville’), winter (‘Gloster’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Jonagold’), and late-winter cultivars (‘Granny Smith’, ‘Idared’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’) w as investigated. The fruits were picked at a commercial harvest time and half of them were treated with 1-MCP (‘SmartFresh™’ 0.068 gm-3) for 24 h at 5 °C. Then both groups of apples were placed in a common storage at the temperature of 2 °C. The intensity of fruit ethylene emission (rate of ethylene production) was measured and 1 -MCP inhibition index was calculated. During storage, activity of ethylene emission by control apples of ‘Calville’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ showed typical climacteric pattern, while the intensity of ethylene emission of apples of other cultivars only increased gradually. The change of ethylene activity of early-winter apple cv. ‘Calville’ and winter cv. ‘Jonagold’, both treated with 1-MCP after harvest, had exponential character, especially actively increasing after 3 months of storage. At the same time ethylene emission of 1 -MCP treated fruits of other cultivars changed steadily to a low level and was effectively suppressed during the whole 6-month period of storage in normal atmosphere. The value of inhibition index of fruits treated by 1-MCP confirmed the consistent restoration of the ability to ethylene synthesis and thus to post-harvest ripening of some apples cultivars.

Schlüsselwörter

  • apples
  • 1-MCP
  • storage condition
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Relationship Between Texture Sensory Profiles and Optical Properties Measured by Time-Resolved Reflectance Spectroscopy During Post-Storage Shelf Life of ‘Braeburn’ Apples

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 113 - 121

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

‘Braeburn’ apples from three harvests after 6-month storage in controlled atmosphere were measured at 670 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), ranked on decreasing μa670 (increasing maturity), classified as less (LeM), medium and more mature (MoM), randomised into three batches per harvest and analysed after 1, 8 and 14 days of shelf life. LeM and MoM apples were measured in the 630-900 nm range by TRS, and analysed for sensory profile (firm, crispy, juicy, mealy) and pulp mechanical characteristics (firmness, stiffness, energy-to-rupture). All data were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to sensory intensity scores, fruits were either divided into five classes (very low – VL; low – L; medium – M; high – H; very high – VH) separately for every attribute, or clustered into four groups, each one representing a specific sensory profile. The absorption spectra showed a maximum at 670 nm (chlorophyll-a) and μa670 was higher in the VH class for firm, crispy and juicy and in the VL and L classes for mealy. The scattering spectra had a decreasing trend with the wavelength increase, and μs’ values were lower in the VH class for firm and crispy, and higher in the VH class for mealy and in the VL ones for juicy. PCA underlined that μs’ values were negatively related to firmness and μa670, and that μa690, μa730, μa830, μa850 and μa900 were opposed to mealiness. PC scores differed among the four sensory profiles and increased from VL to VH classes for firmness, crispiness and juiciness and from VH to VL classes for mealiness.

Schlüsselwörter

  • absorption coefficient
  • reduced scattering coefficient
  • texture sensory profiles
  • pulp mechanical characteristics
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The Impact of the Brassicaceae Plant Materials Added to the Soil on the Population of FUSARIUM SOLANI (Mart.) SACC. and FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM Schlecht

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 123 - 129

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Soil with the spores of fungi in dormant stage from previous years infections belonging to the genus Fusarium caused significant loss of onion yield in Poland. The most important form of Fusarium inoculum in the field are chlamydospores, which may survive in soil for many years. There are no available methods to eradicate chlamydospores from soil environment. Inspired by data from the literature and own prelimi–nary observation, we evaluated the effect of application of Brassicaceae plant material to the soil infested with F. oxysporum and F. solani isolates, which are pathogenic to onion. Obtained results showed that addition of fresh plant material from B. juncea and B. alba had no effect on amount of Fusarium propagules in the soil. Moreover amendment of infested soil with dry plants or milled seeds of B. juncea or B. nigra significantly stimulated the population of Fusarium in the soil.

Schlüsselwörter

  • plants
  • biofumigation
  • chlamydospores
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Validation of the Analytical Method for the Determination of Flavonoids in Broccoli

Online veröffentlicht: 10 Sep 2014
Seitenbereich: 131 - 140

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A simple, accurate and selective HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of quercetin and kaempferol, which are the main flavonols in broccoli. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column using a mobile phase composed of methanol/water (60/40) and phosphoric acid 0.2% at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. The detection was carried out on a DAD detector at 370 nm. This method was validated according to the requirements for new methods, which include selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The current method demonstrates good linearity, with R2 > 0.99. The recovery is within 98.07-102.15% and 97.92-101.83% for quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. The method is selective, in that quercetin and kaempferol are well separated from other compounds of broccoli with good resolution. The low limit of detection and limit of quantitation of quercetin and kaempferol enable the detection and quantitation of these flavonoids in broccoli at low con–centrations.

Schlüsselwörter

  • quercetin
  • kaempferol
  • broccoli
  • validation

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