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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1799-3350
Erstveröffentlichung
15 Dec 2016
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

AHEAD OF PRINT

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1799-3350
Erstveröffentlichung
15 Dec 2016
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Unifying loyalty: a grounded theory about tactical officers’ challenges when leading licensed medical personnel in combat zones

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Jul 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Objectives

The aim was to explore the tactical officers’ (TOs) main concerns when leading licensed medical personnel (LMP) in combat zones and how they resolved them.

Methods

A classic grounded theory was chosen in order to develop a theory, which explained and conceptualized the TOs behaviors. Ten individual interviews and five informal conversations were conducted with TOs with various ranks, experienced in leading LMPs on military operations in Afghanistan, Mali and/or Aden (outside the coast of Somalia).

Results

The theory unifying loyalty explains how TOs handle the challenges when leading LMP. To create loyalty TOs use four strategies: executing orders, clearing out roles, marking limits and clarifying rules and laws. These strategies can be used by two leadership styles, hierarchical and democratic.

Conclusions

In order to fulfill the military duties it is essential to unify LMP in the unit, which is a challenge since LMP experience dual loyalty. The main goal for TOs is to ensure and maintain stability and do the military duties when being in combat zones and that requires using both leadership styles, depending on what the conditions in combat zones requires.

Schlüsselwörter

  • loyalty
  • leadership styles
  • military medical personnel
  • tactical officers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Advanced education for NCMs’ professional career development: a conclusive experience?

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research which assessed whether the Knowledge Acquisition Programme and the Non-Commissioned Member Executive Professional Development Programme contributed to the Non-Commissioned Members’ effectiveness as senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. Thirty-seven Programme graduates from 2006 to 2015 received a questionnaire containing seven closed-ended general information questions and twelve open-ended programme/course specific questions. Seventeen graduates responded to the questionnaire. Manual coding was used to identify main themes and sub-themes. The research findings determined that both Programmes contributed to the effectiveness of senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. However, some caveats were expressed, and recommendations brought forward to enhance the Programme and to improve its future deliveries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • career development
  • advanced education
  • critical thinking skills
  • Knowledge Acquisition Programme (KAP)
  • Non-Commissioned Members Executive Professional Development Programme (NEPDP)
  • Royal Military College (RMC) of Canada
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A legal review of sieges in modern war

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between Western military doctrine, international law, and the impact of sieges in war. This paper examines three case studies – the battles of Mosul (2016–2017), the Second Battle of Donetsk Airport (2014–2015), and Ghouta – to analyze the effect of international law on the conduct of sieges and how that impacts the attacker, the besieged, and the innocent bystanders. In the end, we find that Western military doctrine is inadequate to address siege situations, which in turn can result in mishandling siege situations from an international law standpoint. Additionally, we find that international law, as well as applied law, provides the actors therein sufficient leeway to create the conditions for the siege to continue to be used well into the future.

Schlüsselwörter

  • siege
  • modern war
  • Syria
  • Donbas
  • Russia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Supporting military maintenance and repair with additive manufacturing

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to explore whether Additive Manufacturing (AM) can support the military maintenance and repair of combat troops at isolated tactical level maintenance sites. The study also sought an explanation as to how AM could be organised in military logistics. The subject was approached from a systemic perspective. A system dynamics modelling was used as an impact assessment method. When selecting the parameters used in the model, the 3D printing data of the spare parts printed on the MTLB armoured personnel carrier (APC) were utilised. With simulation, we identified several key nodes for replacing or enhancing conventional military logistics with an AM added supply chain. As a result of the study, it was identified that by adding metal AM to the mechanised battalion organic maintenance and repair at the field level, it can produce spare parts whose use will improve APC recovery in the event of failure. We found that the relatively slow production speed of AM is the most influential factor in the use of the method. This study introduces a new perspective on reviewing the potential of AM in military logistics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • maintenance and repair
  • military logistic
  • additive manufacturing
  • system analysis
  • system designs
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Siting military base camps through an MCDA framework

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The process used to determine site suitability for military base camps lacks a formal framework for reducing relative risks to soldier safety and maximise mission effectiveness. Presently, military personnel responsible for determining site suitability of a base camp must assess large amounts of geographic, socioeconomic and logistical data, without a decision analysis framework to aid in the process. By adopting a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to determine site suitability of base camps, battlespace commanders can make better, more defensible decisions. This paper surveys US Army officers with recent base camp experience to develop a set of initial criteria and weights relevant to base camp site selection. The developed decision framework is demonstrated using an MCDA methodology in an illustrative example to compare alternative base camp locations within a designated Area of Interest (AoI). Leveraging the site ranking output and/or criteria weights resulting from the methodology provides decision-making support that can be used in the field when time, resources and data may not be readily available.

Schlüsselwörter

  • military
  • base camps
  • siting
  • MCDA
  • risk
  • decision analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Military organisations and emerging technologies – How do unmanned systems find a role in future navies?

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Sep 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Fewer qualified platforms and reduced personnel within the navy are the reality for many nations, although operational requirements might have remained the same or increased over time. At the same time, research is advancing in unmanned and autonomous systems, which have also found application in military use. Therefore, navies need to develop approaches for effective technological transformation. To fulfil this need, this study aims to identify and describe the relevant research from different disciplines and their respective relation to the design of future navies. The study commences with a literature review related to knowledge support for understanding how emerging technologies, such as maritime autonomous systems (MAS), find their place in a military organisation. The findings suggest that the armed forces should be categorised as a sociotechnical system, built of systems-of-systems that together enable capability, and that it is as a capability enforcer that the overall system should be developed. This highlights the importance of structural and organisational changes in making the best use of the technology, as well as in making the sociotechnical system as efficient as possible. Therefore, the armed forces need to be learning organisations, exercising joint planning, where there is room for knowledge sharing and flexibility within the organisation despite different hierarchical layers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • autonomous systems
  • concept development
  • sociotechnical systems
  • capability development
  • capability lifecycle
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Interoperable, adaptable, information exchange in NATO coalition operations

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Oct 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper summarises our work on policy-enabled inter-network routing for mobile networks and adapting information services to available networking resources in tactical networks. The work shows promise; both the policy routing and adaptive service infrastructure were part of successful interoperability trials in the Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXercise (CWIX) in 2021. This paper highlights our findings, how our work can support interoperability in NATO, and represents an enabler for future coalition operations. Although promising, the work involves research and concept development, and so, we anticipate its timeframe for seeing actual operational use as likely 3–5 years from now, typically targeting future developments within Federated Mission Networking (FMN). In our work, we have shown that we can build a federated mobile network by using a reactive routing protocol that supports policy routing in a network overlay for use in a coalition. Further, we have shown that we can leverage network-level information at the application level, through a so-called cross-layer optimization (CLO) approach. The CLO approach leverages a well-defined format, and we found that this format promotes interoperability and can be used in a multi-national setting. Since our work is experimental, we have also identified some shortcomings for future work.

Schlüsselwörter

  • tactical networks
  • Federated Mission Networking
  • routing
  • middleware
7 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Unifying loyalty: a grounded theory about tactical officers’ challenges when leading licensed medical personnel in combat zones

Online veröffentlicht: 04 Jul 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract Objectives

The aim was to explore the tactical officers’ (TOs) main concerns when leading licensed medical personnel (LMP) in combat zones and how they resolved them.

Methods

A classic grounded theory was chosen in order to develop a theory, which explained and conceptualized the TOs behaviors. Ten individual interviews and five informal conversations were conducted with TOs with various ranks, experienced in leading LMPs on military operations in Afghanistan, Mali and/or Aden (outside the coast of Somalia).

Results

The theory unifying loyalty explains how TOs handle the challenges when leading LMP. To create loyalty TOs use four strategies: executing orders, clearing out roles, marking limits and clarifying rules and laws. These strategies can be used by two leadership styles, hierarchical and democratic.

Conclusions

In order to fulfill the military duties it is essential to unify LMP in the unit, which is a challenge since LMP experience dual loyalty. The main goal for TOs is to ensure and maintain stability and do the military duties when being in combat zones and that requires using both leadership styles, depending on what the conditions in combat zones requires.

Schlüsselwörter

  • loyalty
  • leadership styles
  • military medical personnel
  • tactical officers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Advanced education for NCMs’ professional career development: a conclusive experience?

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Sep 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research which assessed whether the Knowledge Acquisition Programme and the Non-Commissioned Member Executive Professional Development Programme contributed to the Non-Commissioned Members’ effectiveness as senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. Thirty-seven Programme graduates from 2006 to 2015 received a questionnaire containing seven closed-ended general information questions and twelve open-ended programme/course specific questions. Seventeen graduates responded to the questionnaire. Manual coding was used to identify main themes and sub-themes. The research findings determined that both Programmes contributed to the effectiveness of senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. However, some caveats were expressed, and recommendations brought forward to enhance the Programme and to improve its future deliveries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • career development
  • advanced education
  • critical thinking skills
  • Knowledge Acquisition Programme (KAP)
  • Non-Commissioned Members Executive Professional Development Programme (NEPDP)
  • Royal Military College (RMC) of Canada
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A legal review of sieges in modern war

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between Western military doctrine, international law, and the impact of sieges in war. This paper examines three case studies – the battles of Mosul (2016–2017), the Second Battle of Donetsk Airport (2014–2015), and Ghouta – to analyze the effect of international law on the conduct of sieges and how that impacts the attacker, the besieged, and the innocent bystanders. In the end, we find that Western military doctrine is inadequate to address siege situations, which in turn can result in mishandling siege situations from an international law standpoint. Additionally, we find that international law, as well as applied law, provides the actors therein sufficient leeway to create the conditions for the siege to continue to be used well into the future.

Schlüsselwörter

  • siege
  • modern war
  • Syria
  • Donbas
  • Russia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Supporting military maintenance and repair with additive manufacturing

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to explore whether Additive Manufacturing (AM) can support the military maintenance and repair of combat troops at isolated tactical level maintenance sites. The study also sought an explanation as to how AM could be organised in military logistics. The subject was approached from a systemic perspective. A system dynamics modelling was used as an impact assessment method. When selecting the parameters used in the model, the 3D printing data of the spare parts printed on the MTLB armoured personnel carrier (APC) were utilised. With simulation, we identified several key nodes for replacing or enhancing conventional military logistics with an AM added supply chain. As a result of the study, it was identified that by adding metal AM to the mechanised battalion organic maintenance and repair at the field level, it can produce spare parts whose use will improve APC recovery in the event of failure. We found that the relatively slow production speed of AM is the most influential factor in the use of the method. This study introduces a new perspective on reviewing the potential of AM in military logistics.

Schlüsselwörter

  • maintenance and repair
  • military logistic
  • additive manufacturing
  • system analysis
  • system designs
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Siting military base camps through an MCDA framework

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The process used to determine site suitability for military base camps lacks a formal framework for reducing relative risks to soldier safety and maximise mission effectiveness. Presently, military personnel responsible for determining site suitability of a base camp must assess large amounts of geographic, socioeconomic and logistical data, without a decision analysis framework to aid in the process. By adopting a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to determine site suitability of base camps, battlespace commanders can make better, more defensible decisions. This paper surveys US Army officers with recent base camp experience to develop a set of initial criteria and weights relevant to base camp site selection. The developed decision framework is demonstrated using an MCDA methodology in an illustrative example to compare alternative base camp locations within a designated Area of Interest (AoI). Leveraging the site ranking output and/or criteria weights resulting from the methodology provides decision-making support that can be used in the field when time, resources and data may not be readily available.

Schlüsselwörter

  • military
  • base camps
  • siting
  • MCDA
  • risk
  • decision analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Military organisations and emerging technologies – How do unmanned systems find a role in future navies?

Online veröffentlicht: 14 Sep 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Fewer qualified platforms and reduced personnel within the navy are the reality for many nations, although operational requirements might have remained the same or increased over time. At the same time, research is advancing in unmanned and autonomous systems, which have also found application in military use. Therefore, navies need to develop approaches for effective technological transformation. To fulfil this need, this study aims to identify and describe the relevant research from different disciplines and their respective relation to the design of future navies. The study commences with a literature review related to knowledge support for understanding how emerging technologies, such as maritime autonomous systems (MAS), find their place in a military organisation. The findings suggest that the armed forces should be categorised as a sociotechnical system, built of systems-of-systems that together enable capability, and that it is as a capability enforcer that the overall system should be developed. This highlights the importance of structural and organisational changes in making the best use of the technology, as well as in making the sociotechnical system as efficient as possible. Therefore, the armed forces need to be learning organisations, exercising joint planning, where there is room for knowledge sharing and flexibility within the organisation despite different hierarchical layers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • autonomous systems
  • concept development
  • sociotechnical systems
  • capability development
  • capability lifecycle
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Interoperable, adaptable, information exchange in NATO coalition operations

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Oct 2022
Seitenbereich: -

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper summarises our work on policy-enabled inter-network routing for mobile networks and adapting information services to available networking resources in tactical networks. The work shows promise; both the policy routing and adaptive service infrastructure were part of successful interoperability trials in the Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXercise (CWIX) in 2021. This paper highlights our findings, how our work can support interoperability in NATO, and represents an enabler for future coalition operations. Although promising, the work involves research and concept development, and so, we anticipate its timeframe for seeing actual operational use as likely 3–5 years from now, typically targeting future developments within Federated Mission Networking (FMN). In our work, we have shown that we can build a federated mobile network by using a reactive routing protocol that supports policy routing in a network overlay for use in a coalition. Further, we have shown that we can leverage network-level information at the application level, through a so-called cross-layer optimization (CLO) approach. The CLO approach leverages a well-defined format, and we found that this format promotes interoperability and can be used in a multi-national setting. Since our work is experimental, we have also identified some shortcomings for future work.

Schlüsselwörter

  • tactical networks
  • Federated Mission Networking
  • routing
  • middleware

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