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Volumen 55 (2021): Heft 1 (January 2021)

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Volumen 54 (2020): Heft 1 (January 2020)

Volumen 53 (2019): Heft 4 (October 2019)

Volumen 53 (2019): Heft 3 (July 2019)

Volumen 53 (2019): Heft 2 (April 2019)

Volumen 53 (2019): Heft 1 (January 2019)

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Volumen 52 (2018): Heft 3 (July 2018)

Volumen 52 (2018): Heft 2 (April 2018)

Volumen 52 (2018): Heft 1 (January 2018)

Volumen 51 (2017): Heft 4 (October 2017)

Volumen 51 (2017): Heft 3 (July 2017)

Volumen 51 (2017): Heft 2 (April 2017)

Volumen 51 (2017): Heft 1 (January 2017)

Volumen 50 (2016): Heft 4 (October 2016)

Volumen 50 (2016): Heft 3 (July 2016)

Volumen 50 (2016): Heft 2 (April 2016)

Volumen 50 (2016): Heft 1 (January 2016)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1336-0329
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2016
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 50 (2016): Heft 1 (January 2016)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1336-0329
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2016
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
Open Access

Editorial

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 1 - 2

Zusammenfassung

Open Access

Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia – the life’s work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 3 - 9

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991–95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 – October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women.

Results. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women.

Conclusions: 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

Schlüsselwörter

  • iodine deficiency-related disorders
  • iodine
  • prophylaxis
  • monitoring
  • side-effects
Open Access

Handedness and gender influence blood pressure in young healthy men and women: A pilot study

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 10 - 15

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. The type and level of sex steroids influence blood pressure (BP). It has been suggested that functional brain asymmetries may be influenced by sex hormones. In addition, there are inter-arm differences in BP not yet related with handedness. In this study, we hypothesize a possible association between sex hormones, handedness, and inter-arm differences in blood pressure.

Methods. To analyze this hypothesis, we measured BP in the left and right arm of the left and right handed adult young men and women in menstrual and ovulatory phase and calculated their mean arterial pressure (MAP).

Results. Significant differences depending on sex, arm, handedness or phase of the cycle were observed. MAP was mostly higher in men than in women. Remarkably, in women, the highest levels were observed in the left handed in menstrual phase. Interestingly, the level of handedness correlated negatively with MAP measured in the left arm of right-handed women in the ovulatory phase but positively with the MAP measured in the right arm of right-handed women in the menstrual phase.

Conclusions. These results may reflect an asymmetrical modulatory influence of sex hormones in BP control.

Schlüsselwörter

  • brain asymmetry
  • handedness
  • sex hormones
  • blood pressure
Open Access

The prepulse inhibition deficit appearance is largely independent on the circadian cycle, body weight, and the gender of vasopressin deficient Brattleboro rat

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 16 - 23

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. A disturbance of sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) is one of the best tests of the schizophrenia-like behavior. Vasopressin was implicated in the development of schizophrenia; therefore, the naturally occurring vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rat has been suggested to be a reliable non-pharmacological animal model. However, previous studies focusing on PPI deficit did not use proper control and despite clear gender differences in the development of the disorder, the effect of gender has been mostly neglected.

Methods. First, we compared the „noise” and „tone” type prepulse at 73-77-81 dB intensity during the light or dark phase using small (~150 g) or big (~500 g) Wistar rats. The test parameters were validated by a pharmacological schizophrenia model (30 mg/kg ketamine i.p.). Than male, female, and lactating vasopressin-deficient animals were compared with +/+ ones.

Results. We established that the prepulse “noise” type is not optimal for PPI testing. The cycle of the day as well as the body weight had no effect on PPI. Even if we compared vasopressin-deficient animals with their closely related +/+ controls, the PPI deficiency was visible with more pronounced effect at 77 dB prepulse intensity similarly to pharmacological schizophrenia model. Despite our expectation, the gender as well as lactation had no effect on the vasopressin-deficiency induced PPI deficit.

Conclusions. The present data confirmed and extended our previous studies that vasopressin-deficient rat is a good model of schizophrenia. It seems that female as well as lactating Brattleboro rats are useful tools for testing putative novel antipsychotics in line with special attention required for schizophrenic women.

Schlüsselwörter

  • schizophrenia
  • ketamine
  • male
  • female
  • lactation
  • acoustic startle response
Open Access

Newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism applicant with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 24 - 26

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. While non-symptomatic pericardial effusion is seen in primary hypothyroidism, massive pericardial effusion is a very rare finding. In the literature, newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism cases presenting with massive pericardial effusion or acute renal failure are present, but we did not encounter any case first presenting with combination of two signs. In this case report, primary hypothyroidism case that presenting with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure will be discussed.

Subject and Results. Forty-eight years old male patient was hospitalized with shortness of breath, chest pain, swelling of the eyelids and bilateral limbs complaints. On chest radiograph heart shadow was deleted, pleural effusion was present until the middle zone of the left lung. Biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium, potassium, creatine kinase, Troponin I, CK-MB, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, 52.6 μg/ml), free triiodothyronine (T3, 0.61pg/ml), free thyroxine (T4, 0.12 ng/dl), anti thyroperoxydase (343 IU/ml), anti thyroglobulin (1604 IU/ml), were analyzed. The patient underwent pericardiocentesis. Levothyroxine treatment started with a dose of 0.05 mg per day and increased gradually until the optimum dose provided. At the end of the third month, the values of TSH, free T4, and free T3 were measured (2.3 μg/ml, 1.1 ng/dl, 2.54 pg/ml, respectively). The patient recovered completely and pericardial effusion was not detected in echocardiography.

Conclusion. Massive PE and acute renal failure due to primary hypothyroidism is a rare clinical condition. Primary hypothyroidism should be kept in mind in patients with symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain, and generalized edema; moreover, when acute renal failure and PE were detected. It should be considered that patient’s biochemical parameters can improve starting from the two weeks after levothyroxine treatment started with pericardiocentesis in severe symptomatic patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • acute renal failure
  • pericardial effusion
  • primary hypothyroidism
Open Access

Pancrelipase treatment in a patient with the history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation that developed resistant hypocalcemia secondary to total thyroidectomy

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 27 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an independent risk factor for moderate hypocalcaemia and may lead to the development of resistant hypocalcaemia following thyroid surgery.

Subject and Results. A 35-year old female patient was referred to our hospital by her family physician for treatment of resistant hypocalcaemia. The patient underwent RYGB three years ago and a total thyroidectomy for a benign thyroid nodule one year ago. Calcitriol, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and ergocalciferol therapeutic dosages were incremented. Despite dosage increments, the desired calcium levels were not achieved. In the sixth month after admission to our hospital, pancrelipase was added to patient’s treatment scheme. On the following visit, a good calcium increase had been achieved.

Conclusion. This report presents a case history of RYGB and resistant hypocalcaemia, which developed after thyroid surgery and positively responded to pancrelipase treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bariatric surgery
  • hypocalcaemia
  • hypoparathyroidism
  • thyroidectomy
Open Access

Comparison of clinical and biochemical variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and their first-degree relatives with metabolic syndrome in Benin City, Nigeria: A cross sectional case controlled study

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 32 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by a relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. It is also associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including hyper-tension and dyslipidemia. Although there are many studies that have studied the metabolic abnormalities in T2DM patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), only few of them have assessed the metabolic abnormalities in their first-degree relatives (FDRs) who had MetS. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical and biochemical variables in T2DM subjects and their FDRs without diabetes in Benin City, Nigeria.

Methods. This is a cross sectional case control study including 124 T2DM patients, 96 FDR of T2DM subjects, and 96 controls recruited using convenience sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire-administered technique. Variables of interest that were assessed included anthropometric indices like waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist:hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), proteinuria, and microalbuminuria. The 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to make a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The Chi-square test was used for comparison of proportions. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The student t-test was used to compare means and test for significant differences in the anthropometric and the metabolic indices.

Results. The prevalence of the MetS in T2DM persons was 87.1%, 16.7% in the FDR group, and 13.5% in the control group according to the WHO criteria. The mean value of HbA1c was significantly higher in T2DM subjects with MetS (p<0.05). The mean values of WC, FPG, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were higher in subjects with MetS in the T2DM group than in persons with MetS in the FDR group though not significant (p>0.05). The mean values of WHR, BMI, SBP, DBP, and triglyceride were higher in persons with the MetS in the FDR group than in persons with the MetS in the T2DM group. The difference in the BMI and SBP was significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with T2DM in Nigeria is very high. Though, all the biochemical and clinical indices were higher in T2DM subjects with MetS, the mean HbA1c, BMI, and SBP was significantly higher when compared to their FDR who also have MetS.

Schlüsselwörter

  • metabolic syndrome
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • anthropometry
  • hypertension
  • dyslipidemia
7 Artikel
Open Access

Editorial

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 1 - 2

Zusammenfassung

Open Access

Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia – the life’s work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 3 - 9

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991–95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 – October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women.

Results. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women.

Conclusions: 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

Schlüsselwörter

  • iodine deficiency-related disorders
  • iodine
  • prophylaxis
  • monitoring
  • side-effects
Open Access

Handedness and gender influence blood pressure in young healthy men and women: A pilot study

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 10 - 15

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. The type and level of sex steroids influence blood pressure (BP). It has been suggested that functional brain asymmetries may be influenced by sex hormones. In addition, there are inter-arm differences in BP not yet related with handedness. In this study, we hypothesize a possible association between sex hormones, handedness, and inter-arm differences in blood pressure.

Methods. To analyze this hypothesis, we measured BP in the left and right arm of the left and right handed adult young men and women in menstrual and ovulatory phase and calculated their mean arterial pressure (MAP).

Results. Significant differences depending on sex, arm, handedness or phase of the cycle were observed. MAP was mostly higher in men than in women. Remarkably, in women, the highest levels were observed in the left handed in menstrual phase. Interestingly, the level of handedness correlated negatively with MAP measured in the left arm of right-handed women in the ovulatory phase but positively with the MAP measured in the right arm of right-handed women in the menstrual phase.

Conclusions. These results may reflect an asymmetrical modulatory influence of sex hormones in BP control.

Schlüsselwörter

  • brain asymmetry
  • handedness
  • sex hormones
  • blood pressure
Open Access

The prepulse inhibition deficit appearance is largely independent on the circadian cycle, body weight, and the gender of vasopressin deficient Brattleboro rat

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 16 - 23

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. A disturbance of sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) is one of the best tests of the schizophrenia-like behavior. Vasopressin was implicated in the development of schizophrenia; therefore, the naturally occurring vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rat has been suggested to be a reliable non-pharmacological animal model. However, previous studies focusing on PPI deficit did not use proper control and despite clear gender differences in the development of the disorder, the effect of gender has been mostly neglected.

Methods. First, we compared the „noise” and „tone” type prepulse at 73-77-81 dB intensity during the light or dark phase using small (~150 g) or big (~500 g) Wistar rats. The test parameters were validated by a pharmacological schizophrenia model (30 mg/kg ketamine i.p.). Than male, female, and lactating vasopressin-deficient animals were compared with +/+ ones.

Results. We established that the prepulse “noise” type is not optimal for PPI testing. The cycle of the day as well as the body weight had no effect on PPI. Even if we compared vasopressin-deficient animals with their closely related +/+ controls, the PPI deficiency was visible with more pronounced effect at 77 dB prepulse intensity similarly to pharmacological schizophrenia model. Despite our expectation, the gender as well as lactation had no effect on the vasopressin-deficiency induced PPI deficit.

Conclusions. The present data confirmed and extended our previous studies that vasopressin-deficient rat is a good model of schizophrenia. It seems that female as well as lactating Brattleboro rats are useful tools for testing putative novel antipsychotics in line with special attention required for schizophrenic women.

Schlüsselwörter

  • schizophrenia
  • ketamine
  • male
  • female
  • lactation
  • acoustic startle response
Open Access

Newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism applicant with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 24 - 26

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. While non-symptomatic pericardial effusion is seen in primary hypothyroidism, massive pericardial effusion is a very rare finding. In the literature, newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism cases presenting with massive pericardial effusion or acute renal failure are present, but we did not encounter any case first presenting with combination of two signs. In this case report, primary hypothyroidism case that presenting with massive pericardial effusion and acute renal failure will be discussed.

Subject and Results. Forty-eight years old male patient was hospitalized with shortness of breath, chest pain, swelling of the eyelids and bilateral limbs complaints. On chest radiograph heart shadow was deleted, pleural effusion was present until the middle zone of the left lung. Biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium, potassium, creatine kinase, Troponin I, CK-MB, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, 52.6 μg/ml), free triiodothyronine (T3, 0.61pg/ml), free thyroxine (T4, 0.12 ng/dl), anti thyroperoxydase (343 IU/ml), anti thyroglobulin (1604 IU/ml), were analyzed. The patient underwent pericardiocentesis. Levothyroxine treatment started with a dose of 0.05 mg per day and increased gradually until the optimum dose provided. At the end of the third month, the values of TSH, free T4, and free T3 were measured (2.3 μg/ml, 1.1 ng/dl, 2.54 pg/ml, respectively). The patient recovered completely and pericardial effusion was not detected in echocardiography.

Conclusion. Massive PE and acute renal failure due to primary hypothyroidism is a rare clinical condition. Primary hypothyroidism should be kept in mind in patients with symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain, and generalized edema; moreover, when acute renal failure and PE were detected. It should be considered that patient’s biochemical parameters can improve starting from the two weeks after levothyroxine treatment started with pericardiocentesis in severe symptomatic patients.

Schlüsselwörter

  • acute renal failure
  • pericardial effusion
  • primary hypothyroidism
Open Access

Pancrelipase treatment in a patient with the history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation that developed resistant hypocalcemia secondary to total thyroidectomy

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 27 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an independent risk factor for moderate hypocalcaemia and may lead to the development of resistant hypocalcaemia following thyroid surgery.

Subject and Results. A 35-year old female patient was referred to our hospital by her family physician for treatment of resistant hypocalcaemia. The patient underwent RYGB three years ago and a total thyroidectomy for a benign thyroid nodule one year ago. Calcitriol, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and ergocalciferol therapeutic dosages were incremented. Despite dosage increments, the desired calcium levels were not achieved. In the sixth month after admission to our hospital, pancrelipase was added to patient’s treatment scheme. On the following visit, a good calcium increase had been achieved.

Conclusion. This report presents a case history of RYGB and resistant hypocalcaemia, which developed after thyroid surgery and positively responded to pancrelipase treatment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bariatric surgery
  • hypocalcaemia
  • hypoparathyroidism
  • thyroidectomy
Open Access

Comparison of clinical and biochemical variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and their first-degree relatives with metabolic syndrome in Benin City, Nigeria: A cross sectional case controlled study

Online veröffentlicht: 22 Feb 2016
Seitenbereich: 32 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Objective. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by a relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. It is also associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, including hyper-tension and dyslipidemia. Although there are many studies that have studied the metabolic abnormalities in T2DM patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), only few of them have assessed the metabolic abnormalities in their first-degree relatives (FDRs) who had MetS. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical and biochemical variables in T2DM subjects and their FDRs without diabetes in Benin City, Nigeria.

Methods. This is a cross sectional case control study including 124 T2DM patients, 96 FDR of T2DM subjects, and 96 controls recruited using convenience sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire-administered technique. Variables of interest that were assessed included anthropometric indices like waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist:hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), proteinuria, and microalbuminuria. The 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to make a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The Chi-square test was used for comparison of proportions. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The student t-test was used to compare means and test for significant differences in the anthropometric and the metabolic indices.

Results. The prevalence of the MetS in T2DM persons was 87.1%, 16.7% in the FDR group, and 13.5% in the control group according to the WHO criteria. The mean value of HbA1c was significantly higher in T2DM subjects with MetS (p<0.05). The mean values of WC, FPG, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were higher in subjects with MetS in the T2DM group than in persons with MetS in the FDR group though not significant (p>0.05). The mean values of WHR, BMI, SBP, DBP, and triglyceride were higher in persons with the MetS in the FDR group than in persons with the MetS in the T2DM group. The difference in the BMI and SBP was significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with T2DM in Nigeria is very high. Though, all the biochemical and clinical indices were higher in T2DM subjects with MetS, the mean HbA1c, BMI, and SBP was significantly higher when compared to their FDR who also have MetS.

Schlüsselwörter

  • metabolic syndrome
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • anthropometry
  • hypertension
  • dyslipidemia

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