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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2674-4619
Erstveröffentlichung
18 Jun 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 4 (2014): Heft 2 (October 2014)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2674-4619
Erstveröffentlichung
18 Jun 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

12 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

EU Eastern Partnership and New Challenges for Europe

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 3 - 4

Zusammenfassung

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The EU-Ukraine Association Agreement prior to the Vilnius Eastern Partnership Summit

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 5 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper seeks to explore how the EU policy on Ukraine evolved in the run-up to the Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius in November 2013. In particular, it looks into the preparations leading to the signature of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement. Thereby it contributes to better understanding of the EU policy debate related to the associated negotiations with the Eastern Partnership countries.

Prior to the Vilnius Summit there were high expectations that signature of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement would become a key deliverable of the summit. After the EU had postponed the signing of the agreement due to Ukraine’s backsliding in democracy for several times, the process gained new momentum in 2013. It is suggested that exogenous factors, such as Russia’s increasing pressure on Ukraine, contributed to consolidating the EU position.

However, at the last minute Ukraine suspended its signature of the agreement at the Vilnius Summit. While Ukraine’s domestic developments and Yanukovych’s deals with Russia can be blamed for this fiasco, the EU Member States take a large share of responsibility. Lack of creativity to find a way out of the deadlock, as well as lack of the political will on the part of EU leaders to fight for Ukraine explains why the Association Agreement turned out as a missed opportunity.

Keywords

  • Association Agreement
  • Eastern Partnership
  • EU
  • Russia
  • Ukraine
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The European Union: Stability Despite Challenges

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 20 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The European Union has remained stable despite all its past and current challenges. This essay explores the reasons for that. We argue that the secret behind its stability lies in its system of negotiation. Against this backdrop, we analyse two recent challenges of the European Union. First, we show how domestically bound European governments were able to bring about a stable internationally negotiated solution for what became known as euro crisis. By means of game theory we boil down why the European Union remained stable even after havoc struck. Second, we analyze the dynamics behind the failed negotiations with Ukraine that have led to the current conflict. Thereby, the role of vested interest in negotiations for stability is emphasized. We prognosticate that due to the very same vested interests that led to the failure of the negotiations, Ukraine will remain united and return to stability in the mid-term. Finally, we conclude that, despite challenges like these, the European Union never experienced a crisis in terms of system theory since it never fell short to fulfil its purpose which is to allow for peaceful cooperative solutions.

Keywords

  • crisis management
  • euro crisis
  • economic integration
  • external policies
  • decision making
  • institutional arrangements
  • institutions
  • Ukraine
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 34 - 49

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and creating environment that fosters economic growth and the wellbeing of people

Keywords

  • Eastern Partnership
  • social entrepreneurship
  • mechanisms for social entrepreneurship
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 50 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU) and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

Keywords

  • Eastern Partnership
  • energy security
  • the European Union
  • Turkey
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Significance and Impact of Innovation Networks of Academia and Business with a Special Emphasis on Work-Based Learning

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 69 - 82

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Europe 2020 Strategy puts the quality and relevance of education and training systems at the heart of EU’s efforts to improve innovation and competitiveness and to achieve intelligent, sustainable and inclusive growth. The development of partnerships between vocational schools or higher-education institutions and the business sector must be considered as a critical factor in identifying learning requirements, improving the relevance of education and facilitating access to education and learning. The growing lack of skills is one of the major challenges for companies that rely on more highly qualified personnel. To increase the cooperation between academia and the business world means to integrate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), since 99.2 per cent of European businesses are SMEs. They are the blood cells of the European economy and are essential for growth, yet a very heterogeneous group that can only be integrated in cooperation networks by intermediate organisations which tackle the needs of this diverse group of businesses. Such a partnership of 17 universities and polytechnics, including the University of Latvia, was founded in 2010 and is shortly introduced as a best practice example.To stay competitive in the globalised world, companies need to be innovative and that requires cooperation with knowledge institutions. A survey conducted in 2013 revealed that one of the major obstacles for SMEs to improve their innovation capabilities is their inability to find qualified personnel. This corresponds to the huge challenges the labour markets face in Europe. Almost all countries report a growing lack of skilled workforce while at the same time youth unemployment is increasing. This gap between the current qualifications and the qualifications demanded by businesses sector can be overcome by a closer cooperation between enterprises and education facilities, on a national but also international level between Western and Eastern countries. The introduction of work-based education plays a crucial role in narrowing this divide.

Keywords

  • innovation network
  • partnership
  • qualification
  • SMEs
  • work-based learning
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Need for Service Design Development for Sustainable Rural Tourism in Azerbaijan

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 83 - 98

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

‘Development of Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Support of Local Handicrafts in Rural Azerbaijan’ is a joint effort between the Turku University of Applied Sciences Ltd. and Sustainable Future in Finland and Ekoloji Tarazliq NGO as a local partner, with the aim of creating rural businesses and services in order to attract tourists to the three project areas. Thus far, most of the tourists in Azerbaijan have been business travellers staying in the capital, Baku. The project (implemented in 2012-2014) has introduced PPP or public-private partnership approaches in the promotion of sustainable tourism through the involvement of various stakeholders from small-scale entrepreneurs to national level authorities. The most important stakeholder groups are the local communities, entrepreneurs, handicraft masters, and owners of households providing accommodation services to travelers.

Several challenges and areas of development in rural tourism have been identified: insufficient infrastructure in rural areas, varying quality of services, and unclear brands of different regions. Rural tourism has great potential in Azerbaijan, but it needs promotion and support, especially in organized structures for service design and marketing channels, which require strong cooperation on the national and local level.

The project envisages eco-cultural tourism as a concept which emphasizes unique environmental conditions and traditional cultural values in order to create favorable conditions for tourists; meanwhile it presents marginal livelihoods a novel source of income. Sustainability and participation are crucial for the long-term future of eco-cultural tourism, which could, with strong multilevel cooperation and comprehensive service design structures, promote economic development and support especially women’s participation and role in the tourism market of the rural areas.

Keywords

  • Azerbaijan
  • eco-cultural tourism
  • entrepreneurship
  • rural tourism
  • service design
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Trade Union Practices in the EU and Latvia: Experience for Eastern Partnership Countries

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 99 - 118

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article will show major dimensions in the experience of EU Member States that could be shared with the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries. The framework of the study is the EU concept of trade unions in social dialogue and social partnership in the public sector. This study outlines the concept of social dialogue as a core element of industrial relations and will focus on industrial relations specifically in the public sector.

The authors have elaborated the approach to industrial relations and social dialogue taking into account comparative approach to definitions provided by international institutions such as ILO and OECD, as well as institutions in the EU and Latvia. Latvia is also a case study for Eastern Partnership countries as these countries and their trade unions are in a transition period from socialist structures to structures that possess liberal economies. Trade unions in these countries are members of the International Trade Union Confederation. The major transformation that trade unions underwent from being part of the socialist system and becoming an independent institution since Latvia regained independence in 1991 has been studied. The paper discusses the current developments related to the position of Latvian Free Trade Union Federation in the system of decision-making process related to the public administration management. Finally, the prospective role of trade unions in the EU and in Latvia is analysed and possible revitalisation of trade union is discussed. This approach could be applied to the Eastern Partners of the EU.

Keywords

  • EU Eastern Partnership
  • legislation
  • social dialogue
  • social partnership
  • trade unions
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Historical Regional Demographic Divergence in Latvia: Lessons of the Common Past with Eastern Partnership Countries

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 119 - 133

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In recent decades, scientific literature on demographic research is increasing attention on spatial data analysis. It is considered a useful and reliable analysis methodology in evaluating complex regional development processes. However, due to its complexity and reliance on properly captured and quantified spatial relations, it remains a difficult topic for many scholars and practitioners. In Latvia, spatial demographic analysis may prove useful, providing opportunities for uncovering new dimensions of long-term regional demographic and economic development issues. Here, the author analyses spatial distribution aspects of key demographic indicators in Latvia’s municipalities, the associated socio-economic factors and their impact. The implications of the identified spatial processes and dependencies for regional development policy and aid are discussed, including possible lessons learned from or shared with the EU Eastern Partnership countries facing similar challenges.

Keywords

  • exploratory data analysis
  • regional demographic convergence
  • regional development
  • spatial econometric analysis
  • time-series clustering
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The EU-Eastern Partnership Countries: Association Agreements and Transdisciplinarity in Studies, Training and Research

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 134 - 149

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The European Union (EU) signed Association Agreements on 27 June 2014 with Georgia, the Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. The Association Agreement (AA) is the EU’s main instrument to bring the countries in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) closer to EU standards and norms. For the citizens of the EaP countries to benefit from these agreements, a more in-depth knowledge of the EU and the EU Member States is required to be reflected in a comparative approach to European Union studies. We examine these implications on the need to expand and adapt, the content and approach to research and teaching European Union studies, with the transdisciplinary approach becoming increasingly dominant, becoming a modern tool for research in social sciences. This contribution aims to offer insight into the implementation of transdisciplinarity in the methodology of education and research as it is determined by current increasing global challenges. This approach should serve as a means of integrating a number of main goals as part of learning, teaching and research processes: strengthening employability of young people and preparing them for citizenship. We discuss the need for modernizing European studies in the EU Member States that could serve as an example for the EU Eastern Partnership countries. We conclude that the theoretical approach to European and related studies of other disciplines and their practical implications should always be transdisciplinary in nature and benefit from direct in-situ exposure and should be fully integrated in university curricula

Keywords

  • cooperation
  • European Union studies
  • implications of EU-Eastern Partnership
  • transdisciplinarity
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Towards Special Methodological Problems of Macro-Optimal Sociocybernetic International Economic Sanctioning Coordination Modelling: Introductory Remarks on Preliminary Postulates and Conjectures

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 150 - 158

Zusammenfassung

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Developing Trade and Trade Policy Relations with the European Union: Experience of Visegrad Countries and Implications/ Lessons for Eastern Partners. East European Studies, no. 5. Budapest: Institute of World Economics MTA KRTK, 2014, 215pp.

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 159 - 161

Zusammenfassung

12 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

EU Eastern Partnership and New Challenges for Europe

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 3 - 4

Zusammenfassung

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The EU-Ukraine Association Agreement prior to the Vilnius Eastern Partnership Summit

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 5 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper seeks to explore how the EU policy on Ukraine evolved in the run-up to the Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius in November 2013. In particular, it looks into the preparations leading to the signature of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement. Thereby it contributes to better understanding of the EU policy debate related to the associated negotiations with the Eastern Partnership countries.

Prior to the Vilnius Summit there were high expectations that signature of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement would become a key deliverable of the summit. After the EU had postponed the signing of the agreement due to Ukraine’s backsliding in democracy for several times, the process gained new momentum in 2013. It is suggested that exogenous factors, such as Russia’s increasing pressure on Ukraine, contributed to consolidating the EU position.

However, at the last minute Ukraine suspended its signature of the agreement at the Vilnius Summit. While Ukraine’s domestic developments and Yanukovych’s deals with Russia can be blamed for this fiasco, the EU Member States take a large share of responsibility. Lack of creativity to find a way out of the deadlock, as well as lack of the political will on the part of EU leaders to fight for Ukraine explains why the Association Agreement turned out as a missed opportunity.

Keywords

  • Association Agreement
  • Eastern Partnership
  • EU
  • Russia
  • Ukraine
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The European Union: Stability Despite Challenges

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 20 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The European Union has remained stable despite all its past and current challenges. This essay explores the reasons for that. We argue that the secret behind its stability lies in its system of negotiation. Against this backdrop, we analyse two recent challenges of the European Union. First, we show how domestically bound European governments were able to bring about a stable internationally negotiated solution for what became known as euro crisis. By means of game theory we boil down why the European Union remained stable even after havoc struck. Second, we analyze the dynamics behind the failed negotiations with Ukraine that have led to the current conflict. Thereby, the role of vested interest in negotiations for stability is emphasized. We prognosticate that due to the very same vested interests that led to the failure of the negotiations, Ukraine will remain united and return to stability in the mid-term. Finally, we conclude that, despite challenges like these, the European Union never experienced a crisis in terms of system theory since it never fell short to fulfil its purpose which is to allow for peaceful cooperative solutions.

Keywords

  • crisis management
  • euro crisis
  • economic integration
  • external policies
  • decision making
  • institutional arrangements
  • institutions
  • Ukraine
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 34 - 49

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and creating environment that fosters economic growth and the wellbeing of people

Keywords

  • Eastern Partnership
  • social entrepreneurship
  • mechanisms for social entrepreneurship
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 50 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU) and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

Keywords

  • Eastern Partnership
  • energy security
  • the European Union
  • Turkey
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Significance and Impact of Innovation Networks of Academia and Business with a Special Emphasis on Work-Based Learning

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 69 - 82

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Europe 2020 Strategy puts the quality and relevance of education and training systems at the heart of EU’s efforts to improve innovation and competitiveness and to achieve intelligent, sustainable and inclusive growth. The development of partnerships between vocational schools or higher-education institutions and the business sector must be considered as a critical factor in identifying learning requirements, improving the relevance of education and facilitating access to education and learning. The growing lack of skills is one of the major challenges for companies that rely on more highly qualified personnel. To increase the cooperation between academia and the business world means to integrate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), since 99.2 per cent of European businesses are SMEs. They are the blood cells of the European economy and are essential for growth, yet a very heterogeneous group that can only be integrated in cooperation networks by intermediate organisations which tackle the needs of this diverse group of businesses. Such a partnership of 17 universities and polytechnics, including the University of Latvia, was founded in 2010 and is shortly introduced as a best practice example.To stay competitive in the globalised world, companies need to be innovative and that requires cooperation with knowledge institutions. A survey conducted in 2013 revealed that one of the major obstacles for SMEs to improve their innovation capabilities is their inability to find qualified personnel. This corresponds to the huge challenges the labour markets face in Europe. Almost all countries report a growing lack of skilled workforce while at the same time youth unemployment is increasing. This gap between the current qualifications and the qualifications demanded by businesses sector can be overcome by a closer cooperation between enterprises and education facilities, on a national but also international level between Western and Eastern countries. The introduction of work-based education plays a crucial role in narrowing this divide.

Keywords

  • innovation network
  • partnership
  • qualification
  • SMEs
  • work-based learning
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Need for Service Design Development for Sustainable Rural Tourism in Azerbaijan

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 83 - 98

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

‘Development of Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Support of Local Handicrafts in Rural Azerbaijan’ is a joint effort between the Turku University of Applied Sciences Ltd. and Sustainable Future in Finland and Ekoloji Tarazliq NGO as a local partner, with the aim of creating rural businesses and services in order to attract tourists to the three project areas. Thus far, most of the tourists in Azerbaijan have been business travellers staying in the capital, Baku. The project (implemented in 2012-2014) has introduced PPP or public-private partnership approaches in the promotion of sustainable tourism through the involvement of various stakeholders from small-scale entrepreneurs to national level authorities. The most important stakeholder groups are the local communities, entrepreneurs, handicraft masters, and owners of households providing accommodation services to travelers.

Several challenges and areas of development in rural tourism have been identified: insufficient infrastructure in rural areas, varying quality of services, and unclear brands of different regions. Rural tourism has great potential in Azerbaijan, but it needs promotion and support, especially in organized structures for service design and marketing channels, which require strong cooperation on the national and local level.

The project envisages eco-cultural tourism as a concept which emphasizes unique environmental conditions and traditional cultural values in order to create favorable conditions for tourists; meanwhile it presents marginal livelihoods a novel source of income. Sustainability and participation are crucial for the long-term future of eco-cultural tourism, which could, with strong multilevel cooperation and comprehensive service design structures, promote economic development and support especially women’s participation and role in the tourism market of the rural areas.

Keywords

  • Azerbaijan
  • eco-cultural tourism
  • entrepreneurship
  • rural tourism
  • service design
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Trade Union Practices in the EU and Latvia: Experience for Eastern Partnership Countries

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 99 - 118

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article will show major dimensions in the experience of EU Member States that could be shared with the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries. The framework of the study is the EU concept of trade unions in social dialogue and social partnership in the public sector. This study outlines the concept of social dialogue as a core element of industrial relations and will focus on industrial relations specifically in the public sector.

The authors have elaborated the approach to industrial relations and social dialogue taking into account comparative approach to definitions provided by international institutions such as ILO and OECD, as well as institutions in the EU and Latvia. Latvia is also a case study for Eastern Partnership countries as these countries and their trade unions are in a transition period from socialist structures to structures that possess liberal economies. Trade unions in these countries are members of the International Trade Union Confederation. The major transformation that trade unions underwent from being part of the socialist system and becoming an independent institution since Latvia regained independence in 1991 has been studied. The paper discusses the current developments related to the position of Latvian Free Trade Union Federation in the system of decision-making process related to the public administration management. Finally, the prospective role of trade unions in the EU and in Latvia is analysed and possible revitalisation of trade union is discussed. This approach could be applied to the Eastern Partners of the EU.

Keywords

  • EU Eastern Partnership
  • legislation
  • social dialogue
  • social partnership
  • trade unions
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Historical Regional Demographic Divergence in Latvia: Lessons of the Common Past with Eastern Partnership Countries

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 119 - 133

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In recent decades, scientific literature on demographic research is increasing attention on spatial data analysis. It is considered a useful and reliable analysis methodology in evaluating complex regional development processes. However, due to its complexity and reliance on properly captured and quantified spatial relations, it remains a difficult topic for many scholars and practitioners. In Latvia, spatial demographic analysis may prove useful, providing opportunities for uncovering new dimensions of long-term regional demographic and economic development issues. Here, the author analyses spatial distribution aspects of key demographic indicators in Latvia’s municipalities, the associated socio-economic factors and their impact. The implications of the identified spatial processes and dependencies for regional development policy and aid are discussed, including possible lessons learned from or shared with the EU Eastern Partnership countries facing similar challenges.

Keywords

  • exploratory data analysis
  • regional demographic convergence
  • regional development
  • spatial econometric analysis
  • time-series clustering
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The EU-Eastern Partnership Countries: Association Agreements and Transdisciplinarity in Studies, Training and Research

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 134 - 149

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The European Union (EU) signed Association Agreements on 27 June 2014 with Georgia, the Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. The Association Agreement (AA) is the EU’s main instrument to bring the countries in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) closer to EU standards and norms. For the citizens of the EaP countries to benefit from these agreements, a more in-depth knowledge of the EU and the EU Member States is required to be reflected in a comparative approach to European Union studies. We examine these implications on the need to expand and adapt, the content and approach to research and teaching European Union studies, with the transdisciplinary approach becoming increasingly dominant, becoming a modern tool for research in social sciences. This contribution aims to offer insight into the implementation of transdisciplinarity in the methodology of education and research as it is determined by current increasing global challenges. This approach should serve as a means of integrating a number of main goals as part of learning, teaching and research processes: strengthening employability of young people and preparing them for citizenship. We discuss the need for modernizing European studies in the EU Member States that could serve as an example for the EU Eastern Partnership countries. We conclude that the theoretical approach to European and related studies of other disciplines and their practical implications should always be transdisciplinary in nature and benefit from direct in-situ exposure and should be fully integrated in university curricula

Keywords

  • cooperation
  • European Union studies
  • implications of EU-Eastern Partnership
  • transdisciplinarity
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Towards Special Methodological Problems of Macro-Optimal Sociocybernetic International Economic Sanctioning Coordination Modelling: Introductory Remarks on Preliminary Postulates and Conjectures

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 150 - 158

Zusammenfassung

access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Developing Trade and Trade Policy Relations with the European Union: Experience of Visegrad Countries and Implications/ Lessons for Eastern Partners. East European Studies, no. 5. Budapest: Institute of World Economics MTA KRTK, 2014, 215pp.

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Nov 2014
Seitenbereich: 159 - 161

Zusammenfassung

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