Petroleum substances are a mixture of many hydrocarbons of various structures; some of them are toxic for marine organisms. In case of pollution of the aquatic environment, these compounds may enter seawater organisms and adversely affect gas exchange and inhibit photosynthesis. Therefore, it is important to take measures to reduce the emissions of these compounds into the aquatic environment and quickly to remove possible spills of uncontrolled pollution. Sorbents are materials that soak up oil from water. They are best suited for the absorption of oil – derived substances. They are used to absorb leaks in open and closed tanks, particularly in hard – to-reach places. Sorbents can be natural organic, natural inorganic or synthetic. Natural sorbents are divided to organic materials such as peat moss or wood products, and inorganic materials such as vermiculite or clay. Sorbents are available in a loose form, which includes granules, powder, chunks and cubes. Synthetic sorbents are used to wipe other oil spill recovery equipment such as skimmers and booms after a spill clean-up operation. The thesis deals with the issues related to the analysis of the possibility of using sorbents to combat oil pollution in port and coastal areas. The article discusses the types of pollution occurring in coastal waters, as well as the types of sorbents used and the forces and measures to combat pollution. The characteristic features of sorbents are rate of absorption and adsorption, oil retention and ease of application. Absorption tests were carried out and the best sorbents for combating oil pollution were selected.