rss_2.0Theology and Religion FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Theology and Religion and Religion Feed and Theodoret on the Temptation of Christ: An Imaginary Dialogue Between Alexandrian and Antiochene Christological Positions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper some parallelisms and differences are presented between two ancient theological traditions concerning their model of Christ by comparing two representative figures of both schools, namely Theodoret of Cyrus and Cyril of Alexandria. Since the Christology of the two authors could not be compared in detail within such a paper, the investigation resumes itself to the mode how they interpret the Lord’s Temptation by the devil in the wilderness. The works involved in the analysis include Theodoret’s treatise <italic>On the incarnation</italic> written in 431 before the Council of Ephesus, the fragments of Cyril’s <italic>Commentary on Matthew</italic> as well as his <italic>Commentary on Luke</italic>. The doctrinal conclusion of this comparison is that the two traditions represented by these illustrious theologians—despite their conspicuous and undeniable differences— signify rather complementary than flatly opposing views and that the two ancient traditions have found their revival even in the sixteenth century, and continue to influence the theologians of our time. This is why the author considers Chalcedon as being a corridor (in which both traditions can walk side by side whilst respecting the limits set by ‘the columns’, i.e. the four famous expressions) rather than a narrow path or a tightrope-walking, where only one is able to go through.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00An Evaluation of the Puzzled Syntax of 2 John 1: 5<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The syntax of 2 John 1: 5 is problematic. Six manuscripts, Ψ 5. 81. 642*. 1852 l, try to solve this difficulty by emending the participle ‘γράφων’ to the indicative verb ‘γράφω’. Culy and Leedy on Greek NT diagrams, on the other hand, understand the participle ‘γράφων’ to modify ‘ἐρωτάω’. In the latter approach, the participle ‘γράφων’ serves to modify ‘εἴχομεν’. This last approach, however, is divided into two possibilities: either it functions as a participle of condition or of attendant circumstance. Three English Bibles use a participle of condition (Holman Christian Standard Bible, NET Bible, and Christian Standard Bible). The other English translations, however, employ the function of attendant circumstance participle. Despite these syntactical discrepancies, this research offers a fresh reading of the puzzled syntax of 2 John 1: 5.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00U. S. Political Economy on Migrants-Citizens Relations: State-Raids Vs. Church-Sanctuaries (Charity Re-Privatization)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This is a Political Economy study on migrants-citizens relations management in the United States of America, with special attention to the religious factor and the pendulum effect. There is a model switch, from integration policies (open doors and melting pot agenda, with expropriation of charity by Public Sector) to official persecution (state-raids and deportations, with re-privatization of charity), under a high social opportunity cost. Also, there is a split between the State and civil society (including the church), causing civil disobedience and sanctuary network across the country. The paper focuses on the development of the Sanctuary Movement, as a case of popular action against to the power elite policies and their sanctions. There was a revival of this movement during the values crisis or 2008 recession, but at the same time there was a critical division into the movement, with higher tension for the migrants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00To Touch or to Be Touched. Doubting Thomas in the Bible, Apocryphal Texts, and the Arts. A Literary Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Christian tradition, the name of the Biblical Thomas is connected primarily to the story of John 20: 27 in which the apostle in invited by Jesus to touch his tortured body. This invitation is the result of Thomas’ prior scepticism to the reality of the resurrection. Contrary to popular belief, the text of John does not indicate clearly if Thomas accepts Jesus’ offer. John creates a narrative gap for the readers to fill in, stimulating the reader to contemplate the relationship between the notion of seeing, touching and believing, and their mutual dependency (or the lack of it). In this historical-literary article, the author investigates this literary dependency in the synoptic gospels, John’s gospel, several apocryphal texts, and four famous paintings, all focussing on the character of Thomas, in search of the different ways in which these authors and artists try to fill in John’s apparent narrative gap.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00A Sign of the Types: A Critical Reflection on the Church-Sect Typology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Religion comes in many shapes and sizes, and the classification of religious movements may help scholars understand how these groups form, develop and change. One of the most common tools used in the sociology of religion to do so is the church-sect typology, which is rooted in the basic idea that religious movements can be placed along a continuum according to their degree of congruence with mainstream society. This article provides an overview of how this kind of thinking developed, in order to show how the church-sect typology has been widely accepted and built upon, as well as being heavily criticised by other sociologists. The first part consists of a survey of early versions of the typology, contains different methods of classifying religious movements and provides further explanations where necessary, especially where the term ‘cult’ is concerned. The next section is focused on the many criticisms of the church-sect typology as a whole, after which some possible solutions are offered, and it will end with some recommendations in the form of a new theoretical framework.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00 as a Hermeneutical Key to Ontology: Social Constructionism, Kierkegaard, and Trinitarian Theology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>If humans are created in the image of a trinitarian God, then we might consider that the fundamental ontology of humans would be relational, furthermore to some degree perichoretic. If <italic>perichoresis</italic> is somehow reflected in human relations (notwithstanding all Creation), <italic>perichoresis</italic> should be evident analogically in our social relations, theology, and various disciplines of thought. This relational concept of the Church Fathers failed to be further developed because the concept of the Trinity fell from theological focus over the centuries. Today subtle but radical changes are occurring in the field of social psychology and communications theory. Whereas it was once common for modern paradigms to dominate the field, social constructionists have begun to react against the preponderance of typically modern themes as the primacy of the subject or ontological discourse framed exclusively in the language of subject-subject. On the other hand, their work offers a unique opportunity for Christian theology to expand its understanding of <italic>perichoresis</italic>. For Kierkegaard the relationship itself becomes a positive third term that intensifies the polarities and therefore suggests an alternative tripartite consideration: subject-relationship-subject. From this tripartite relational structure of humanity as differentiated-unity, I am positioned to develop a logic of spirit and explore the possibility of <italic>analogia spiritus</italic>—the non-reflexive transformational dynamic facilitating holistic change and meaning—as the essential dynamic within <italic>perichoresis</italic>. This in turn reveals that these dynamics active as human spirit can be analogically correlated in <italic>mutual co-conditioning reciprocity</italic> in relation to the Trinity and <italic>the Eternal activity</italic> of the Spirit and Christ.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Staging and Performing Tradition in Kosova Restaurants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this essay, I describe and discuss the ways in which tradition is demonstrated, staged and understood in Kosova restaurants. After the 1999 war in Kosova, restaurants emerged as new places, privately public and publicly private, that display local aspirations and intentions to re-invent the roots of tradition and construct routes to Europe. In addition, they illustrate the intention to modernise, and provide routines for social life and conviviality. Within the context of gastronationalism and culinary diversity, I use local language derived concepts such as <italic>katunopia</italic> and <italic>sofraisation</italic> to argue that Kosova gastronomy is undergoing continuous change and transformation characterised by a process of searching, combining, inventing and re-vitalising ‘tradition’ to build a new culinary identity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00A Systematisation of Transcriptions of Early Olonkho Recordings According to Plot Peculiarity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article<sup>*</sup> presents the results of textual studies of the early recordings of the Yakut heroic epic Olonkho, recorded from the second half of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that scientific research of the texts of the early recordings of Olonkho with full broadcasts of the plot is most widely, systematically carried out. At the same time, researchers today continue to pay less attention to early recordings of Olonkho, producing brief or incomplete schematic statements of content. A review of early texts on Olonkho shows that these reviews have incomplete, overly concise, summaries of the plot, although they do confirm the stability of the ancient thematic content, plot structure, motifs, and image system. The richness of the poetic language and the beauty of the style, and the surprisingly artistic content and archaic motifs, which can be seen even in translations, are of considerable value for establishing a full picture of the unique oral creativity of the Yakut people. This study attempts for the first time to systematise transcriptions of early recordings of Olonkho using a summary of the plot in Russian compared with a summary of the plot in the original language. The systematised texts will be used in a comparative study of Olonkho texts recorded in the 19th and 20th centuries. This analysis shows that there has been a transfer of plot with epic texts of the late period in order to maintain a degree of continuity, using both common and specific features to bridge between traditional and modern forms of Olonkho, taking into account regional and local features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Notes and Reviews: Book Review: Voices of Weavers Wider Framings: World-Systems Analysis and Folklore Studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article<sup>*</sup> situates folklore studies in relation to the approach to social research known as world-systems analysis. In doing so, the work also serves as an evocation of world-systems analysis of potential usefulness for the practice of folklore research and for further thinking about the articulation of the field with others in the human or social sciences. Even if folklorists choose not to embrace a world-systems framework, it is valuable to position folklore studies within the matrix of social science disciplines that this perspective sees as important to the rise of the modern capitalist world-system. This positioning relates to interpretations of world history, but also to debates about the future status of the disciplines. While world-systems analysis is only one among several approaches to exploring the human experience in broad greater-than-local contexts, it offers a useful instance for a larger effort to work out more far-reaching modes of work in folkloristics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Impressions: On a Non-War Folk Narratives: On the Interstices of National Identity, National Values, and Character Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Folklore has been linked to national identity formation. In this article, informed by Johann Gottfried Herder’s romantic nationalism and following Alan Dundes’s (1965) method of folklore studies, it is argued that Indonesia has historically followed this trail, and its recent movement of collecting and disseminating Indonesian folk narratives from across the archipelago is a culminating point in this endeavour. Although the move was claimed to support the national literacy and character building movement, the rigorous endeavour of the government in garnering folktales from all 34 provinces can also be read as part of the national political agenda of strengthening the national integrity, promoting unity in diversity and disseminating so-called national values. Examining further the contexts and procedures of how the narratives were collected and selected for publication, the study reveals an effort to inculcate national values targeted at students in formal education, but more particularly young children as the future harbingers of national values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00“Rebuilding Ties that Existed Long Ago”: Experiences of Finnish Roma During Missionary Work in Estonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article analyses Finnish Roma experiences of interaction with Roma in Estonia, in the period after the historic fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 through to the present. The research data rely on semi-structured interviews and informal conversations, as well as indirect observations of Finnish Roma missionising activities. The results show that Roma identity was seen as a unifying factor and a source of a feeling of belonging, but not as the major factor driving mission. The driving force of the mission stems from the urge to evangelise, inherent in how Pentecostal teaching is lived and directed. This study contributes to the understanding of the interplay of ethnic identity and spirituality in Roma communities in the context of missionising, as well as the role of missionising for the missionaries themselves.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Delicious or Disgusting? The Winding Journey of Colostrum in Estonian Food Culture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article examines the changing meaning and status of colostrum in Estonian food culture, relying on data drawn from ethnographic archives and historical sources, cookbooks, and the media. From seasonal food consumed by both Estonian peasants and the Baltic German elite it has been transformed into a modern functional food. The study provides a lens through which to examine the economic, social, and cultural factors that have shaped the modernisation of food culture in Estonia as well as contemporary interpretations of food heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards the Analysis of Tradition-based Projects of Locality: A Case Study from Rural Hungary<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this case study<sup>*</sup> I offer an insight into the activity of an association for local traditions in a Hungarian village. In addition, I provide some general analytical frames for the examination of such tradition-based locality projects. The field of the observation is Kóny, a village in north-west Hungary. Its peasant traditions – especially the famous male dance, Kóny <italic>verbunk</italic> – were re-contextualised from time to time in the 20th century. The latest, recent, wave of re-construction concentrates on the systematic (re-)valorisation of locality by highlighting its former peasant traditions and the vernacularisation of the concept of heritage. While the organising work means a new, shared everyday practice for the association’s members, performing the traditions in the public space offers the villagers an occasion to reinforce local identity and identify with the locality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Church of Armenia and the Sacramental Sharing: Historical Horizon, Future Perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to offer reflections on the Eucharistic sharing based on the Church of Armenia’s historical experience and present situation. Rather than giving comprehensive or official standpoints, the paper aims to be a theological voice from the Church of Armenia with a pan-Christian perspective in mind. As intercommunion is not an isolated issue but is always linked to various aspects, the paper explores the concept of Oriental Orthodoxy and the Church of Armenia’s role in the Christian world. Next, the paper outlines and discusses the main Armenian views on intercommunion as they are today. Based on the previous observations and the Armenian Eucharistic experience, the paper draws conceptual principles as potential ways towards sacramental unity. I suggest two trajectories that are common historical traits among Armenian Christians, namely, forming friendships and mutual recognition of holy living.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Translation of the Parish across Borders and Cultures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Any collection of papers on the Eucharist – which is the foundation of the Church – would not be complete if we did not look at the actual communities that celebrate. Those communities, our parishes, are ‘the cells of worship life’ and it is in them that we discover the “catholic” – the completeness – in our experience that allows to understand the wider church but that the diocese or the oikumene. So if there is to be eucharistic sharing, it requires us to think about this reality: the parish and how people relate within it. This essay is a contribution to this reflection and calls us to recognise that while theologians “think global,” Christians “act local.” – Thomas O’Loughlin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Sabine Hark, . edition suhrkamp 2774, Berlin 2021, 271 S., ISBN 978-3-518-12774-2 the Body – what did St Paul mean? Admission of Baptized Children to Holy Communion before Confirmation Anglican Approaches<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The member churches of the Anglican Communion take different approaches to the admission of children to communion before they are confirmed. This article surveys developments in the Church of England, which introduced the practice experimentally in 1996 and gave it official sanction in 2006. Since then, dioceses have developed materials for preparation and training. There is a noticeable emphasis on the meal and community aspects of the eucharist in this provision, which tends to draw rather selectively on Scripture to provide a foundation. More active involvement of biblical scholars, theologians and liturgists would provide balance and depth. In the life of the church, such dialogue might contribute towards more imaginative involvement of children in the eucharist, beyond simply allowing them to be communicants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1