rss_2.0Sports and Recreation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sports and Recreation and Recreation Feed in fitness, motor competence and physical activity among children involved in single or multiple sports<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: While there is wide debate around specialization in one sport, there is a lack of information about fitness levels and motor competence of children participating in single or multiple sports.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study involved 358 fifth-grade children who participated in a set of health-related fitness and motor competence tests over two consecutive years. A subsample of children (<italic>n</italic> = 109) wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days. The independent samples t-test and ANCOVA were used to compare differences between single and multi-sport participants in study variables and changes between baseline and follow-up.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Multi-sport participants performed better in shuttle run (baseline/follow-up; <italic>p</italic> = 0.001/<italic>p</italic> = 0.006), push-up (<italic>p</italic> = 0.006/<italic>p</italic> = 0.036), and five leap tests (<italic>p</italic> = 0.001/<italic>p</italic> = 0.009) in baseline than single sport participants among boys. Likewise, multi-sport participants showed significantly more improvement in the throwing and catching combination test between study years among boys F<sub>1,159</sub> = 3.570, <italic>p</italic> = 0.030. Among girls, no differences were found in any study variable between single and multi-sport participants.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: From the perspective of fitness and motor competence tests, there are no arguments for participating in just one sport at an early age. Instead, multi-sport participants performed better than single sport participants in the majority of test variables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of effect of aquatic interventions on cardiac modulation of obese young males in motion. A crossover trial<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The study aimed to compare the effects of passive Watsu therapy and immersion on cardiac locomotor synchronization of obese young males.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty-six volunteer obese males participated in this study (age 18.3 ± 0.32, BMI 36.9 ± 6.52). Heart rate variability parameters were recorded in different positions by the Polar H7 heart rate sensor and HRV+ software. Participants were assigned to two groups, randomly, in a single-blinded crossover design. Kubios HRV 2.2 and MATLAB were used to analyze the bio-signals. Statistical analysis was performed via t-test and ANOVA (analysis of variance) using SPSS. For the significance in results and group comparison, the paired t-test and the independent t-test were used respectively.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Combined results indicated that Watsu therapy increased 3 HRV vertical position parameters and immersion increased 3 HRV non-locomotor parameters, significantly (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The findings show that Watsu and immersion improved the specific autonomic cardiac modulation. However, non-contact immersion seemed to provide better synchronization of cardiac control and locomotion. The close contact Watsu approach provided improvements in autonomic cardiac regulation. Collectively, these improvements suggest the combination of both therapies in maximizing the cardiac benefits sought by aquatic therapy programs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-27T00:00:00.000+00:00A study on the association of cervical spondylosis severity, as indicated by cervical motions, with hearing impairment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The present study investigates the possible relation between the limitation of cervical motion in a patient with cervical spondylosis and hearing impairment.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Cross-sectional research was performed based on 60 participants suffering from cervical spondylosis (CS) selected from an orthopaedic and physiotherapy department. The data collection techniques included questionnaire, electronic tools, measurements with a mechanical device including measuring the cervical range of motion (ROM) by goniometer, and physical examination including pure tone audiometry (PTA) and tympanogram.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Right rotation was the most common limitation, which affected 43 patients, followed by left rotation limitation, which was recorded in 40 patients. The extension, left lateral flexion, flexion, and right lateral flexion limitation showed less effect.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Left rotation limitation was found to be an independent predictor of hearing impairment especially in men. Age was also a risk factor for sensory neural hearing loss (SNHL). These findings are important in the facilitation of investigating SNHL in cervical spondylosis patients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Longevity of Polish male Olympic medallists born between 1888 and 1965<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of the study was to analyse the lifespan of Polish male Olympic medallists in comparison to the general male population.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study included 238 Polish male Olympic medallists who participated in the Olympic games in 1924–1992. Duration of life in relation to the general Polish population was assessed. The age of acquiring their first medal, type and number of medals won and sports discipline were taken into consideration.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Polish male Olympic medallists born before 1940 lived over 8 years longer in comparison to the general population (p &lt; 0.0001, d = 0.689 and d = 0.750). Over 80% of them lived up to 65 years of age and over 40% up to 80. In the general population only &lt;70% and &lt;30%, respectively, reached the equivalent lifespan (p = 0.010 and p = 0.040, RR = 0.480 and RR = 0.783). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that survival was shorter in Olympic medallists who won their first medal before the age of 25 (p = 0.040) and in those engaging in endurance or power sports vs. mixed or skill disciplines (p = 0.010).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Polish male Olympic medallists lived significantly longer than the general population of Polish men. The longevity of male Olympic medallists was affected by the age of acquiring their first medal and by the category of sport practised.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-27T00:00:00.000+00:00How does the ski boot affect human gait and joint loading?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To investigate the effect of wearing ski boots on kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs during gait. Furthermore, loads in lower limb joints were assessed using the musculoskeletal model.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: The study examined 10 healthy women with shoe size 40 (EUR). Kinematic and kinetic data of walking in ski boots and barefoot were collected using a Vicon system and Kistler plates. A musculoskeletal model derived from AnyBody Modeling System was used to calculate joint reaction forces.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Wearing ski boots caused the range of motion in the knee joint to be significantly smaller and the hip joint to be significantly larger. Muscle torques were significantly greater in walking in ski boots for the knee and hip joints. Wearing ski boots reduced the reaction forces in the lower limb joints by 18% for the ankle, 16% for the knee, and 39% for the hip.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Ski boot causes changes in the ranges of angles in the lower limb joints and increases muscle torques in the knee and hip joints but it does not increase the load on the joints. Walking in a ski boot is not destructive in terms of forces acting in the lower limb joints.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigating the landing kinetics factors and preparatory knee muscle activation in female handball players with and without dynamic knee valgus while performing single leg landing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: to examine the differences in landing kinetics factors (LKF) to assess the whole body stability and preparatory muscle activation (PMA) in female handball players with and without dynamic knee valgus.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty-four professional female handball players (11 with (DKV) and 13 without (Control) dynamic knee valgus) were asked to perform three trials of a single-leg landing. LKF and surface EMG were recorded. Initial contact knee valgus angle (IC KVA), vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), confidence ellipse area of center of pressure (CEA), time to stability (TTS) and EMG from 100 ms prior to ground contact were used in the data analyses.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Multivariate analyzing of LKF showed significant differences between two groups (p = 0.001) while for PMA the result was not significant (p = 0.361).</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Altered landing mechanism considered as a predictor of non-contact knee injuries such as ACL rupture. Therefore according to current study it seems important to focus on reducing valgus angle in designing injury prevention program.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of an 8-week Pilates-based physical training program on functional mobility: data from a septuagenarian group<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a Pilates-based training program on functional mobility and strength in community-dwelling adults over 70 years old.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty community-dwelling elderly subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to control (C = 10) or Pilates training (PT = 10) groups for 8 weeks (2 times/week). Anthropometric, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, functional mobility, and static and dynamic balance parameters were assessed before and after the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The PT group had higher values of lower limb strength (p = 0.013 <italic>d</italic> = 0.56) and 6-minute walking test distance (p = 0.04; <italic>d</italic> = 0.45) than the C group. The PT group also had differences in one leg stance duration and decrease in the Timed Up and Go test. We also observed a positive correlation between muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (p &lt; 0.01, r = 0.62), cardiorespiratory fitness and one leg stance, eyes closed, right and left leg (p = 0.04, r = 0.45; p = 0.05, r = 0.45, respectively).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Eight weeks of Pilates-based physical training induced improvements in skeletal muscle strength and functional mobility of community-dwelling septuagenarians.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of lower limb plyometric and resistance training on the stiffness of Achilles and patellar tendons in recreational athletes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aimed to investigate the influence of combined plyometric and resistance training of lower limbs when administered for a shorter duration of six weeks on the stiffness of Achilles and patellar tendons as well as the jump height.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods:</italic> Twenty recreational athletes were administered six weeks of a single session of lower limb resistance training and one session of plyometric training every week for a total duration of six weeks. Tendon stiffness was measured using MyotonPro, and vertical jump height was derived from the force plate at baseline and six weeks after the intervention.</p> <p><italic>Results:</italic> There was a statistically significant difference (p &lt; 0.01) between the baseline and post-training measures of patellar and Achilles tendons stiffness as well as the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: Both resistance and plyometric training may be incorporated into the training session as combined training showed significant improvements in jump height and tendon stiffness after six weeks of combined RT and PT.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Craniocervical flexion performance in computer users: An observational study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To compare the performance of deep cervical flexors (DCF) among computer users (CU) and non-users using the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Eighty nine computer users and 100 non-users were recruited for evaluation of their craniocervical muscle performance. The activation score and performance index were assessed using the CCFT. Comparison of craniocervical flexor performance between the two groups was evaluated using the Mann Whitney test. A Chi-Square test was used to test the association between age, years of work and craniocervical flexion. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The median activation score was lower among computer users (median pressure-24 mmHg as compared to non-users (median pressure-28 mmHg) (p &lt; 0.01). The performance index among computer users was lower when compared to non-users. Also, age (p &lt; 0.001) and the years of work experience (p = 0.006) were associated with the DCF performance.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: CU have lower activation and endurance of the DCF compared to non-users. The endurance of the DCF was associated with the age and years of computer usage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Classic sports massage vs. Chinese self-massage. Which one is more effective in warm-up?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Warm-up is an indispensable element of sports training. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of warm-up exercises with Swedish, classic sports massage and Chinese self-massage on functional limitations of the locomotive system.</p> <p><italic>Materials and methods</italic>: The study included 42 women and 13 men aged 19 to 22. They all performed the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test, without a warm-up, and then (after a week) performed it again after either a standard warm-up with sports massage (Group 1) or a warm-up with Chinese self-massage (Group 2).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Both groups obtained significantly higher results in the second measurement (FMS test), preceded by a standard warm-up with sports massage (Group 1, p = 0.003) and warm-up with Chinese self-massage (Group 2, p = 0.000). In Group 1, statistically significant differences were observed in the results of the exercises: hurdle step and push-ups. In Group 2, the difference was significant in the attempts to sit down deep, walk over the fence and pump.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: There were no significant differences between the groups that used massage and self-massage. Both methods can improve movement functionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Body fatness in sedentary and active students with different body mass index<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Numerous data have indicated that body fat stores undergo complicated regulation by genetic and environmental factors, including physical activity. However, the majority of studies did not take into account this aspect of lifestyle in proposed body fat limits. In this context it seems that a more precise and reliable classification of body fat is provided by the American Council on Exercise (ACE), which distinguishes individuals not only with respect to sex but also activity level.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 793 students (312 sedentary and 481 active) volunteered to participate in the study. Among sedentary participants 147 were male and 165 female. Among active subjects 206 were male and 275 were female. Active subjects were engaged in different modes of physical activity according to the study program. In all participants body mass index (BMI) was calculated. In participants with BMI 18.5–24.9 and BMI ≥ 25 body fat was determined using four skinfold measurements. Thereafter participants were classified according to the percentage of body fat using ranges for males and females provided by the American Council on Exercise (ACE) (essential fat, athletes, fitness, average and obese fatness).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: None of the sedentary and active males with BMI 18.5–24.9 had high (obese) fat. In contrast, in sedentary males with BMI ≥ 25 16.4% were obese vs. 1.8% of obese active ones. In sedentary females BMI from 18.5 to 24.9 did not exclude obesity, which was found in 16.9% of participants. In sedentary females with BMI ≥ 25 most of the subjects (97.1%) were obese. In contrast, in active females with BMI ≥ 25 a similar percentage of participants had average and obese fat (53.3% and 46.7, respectively).</p> <p><italic>Discussion</italic>: Our study clearly demonstrated that BMI as a simple measure of body composition provides false information concerning true adiposity in physically active male and female students. A similar BMI did not exclude marked differences in the percentage of body fat in sedentary and active students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of fatigue on jump height and the risk of knee injury after a volleyball training game: A pilot study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To investigate the effect of fatigue, induced by a volleyball training game on the risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Thirteen female volleyball college athletes, ages 18 to 21 years old, completed jump landings from a box 30 cm height, prior and post a 60-minute volleyball training game. The clinical tool Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) was employed in order to evaluate the technique of landing prior and post the game. The level of fatigue induced by the volleyball game was assessed by vertical jump test and Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale pre and post-game. In order to compare measurements pre and post-game t-tests for dependent samples were used.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Participants performed lower vertical jumps post-game with a Confidence Interval of 26.2 ± 2.3 cm (pre-game) and 24.9 ± 2.2 cm (post game). The difference between pre and post-game was found to be statistically significant with a t<sub>12</sub> = 2.55 and a p-value of 0.026. In the case of assessing fatigue, the Borg RPE scale scores were found to be statistically significant (t<sub>12</sub> = 14.05, p &lt; 0.001) higher post-game (10.2 ± 0.6), as compared to pre-game (6.5 ± 0.4). Similarly, LESS scores increased significantly (t<sub>12</sub> = 2.21, p = 0.047), post-game (6.3 ± 1.1) compared to pre-game (5.8 ± 1.0) that prove poorer landing ability.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: It seems that a short duration volleyball training game induces fatigue and negatively affects the jumping and landing ability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Reliability of 3D measurement of pelvic and lower limb kinematics during two single leg landing tasks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is one of the available methods used to evaluate body kinematics. The aim of this study was to assess the intrarater reliability of measurement of pelvic and lower limb kinematics during two single leg landing tasks using 3D motion analysis.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: 19 healthy volunteers (8 women, 11 men, age 23.1 ± 2.8 years, weight 70.7 ± 9.2 kg, height 174.8 ± 6.7 cm) performed five repeated single leg hurdle hops (SLHH) (30 cm height) and five single leg drop landings (SLDL) from a box (40 cm height) in one measurement session with a 15-minute break and after marker replacement with 3D assessment. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable differences (SDD) were used to examine the reliability of kinematic parameters during the landing phase.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The average intrarater ICC for SLHH was 0.92 (SEM = 1.69°, SDD 4.68°) and for SLDL was 0.96 (SEM = 0.81°, SDD = 2.26°). After marker replacement ICC decreased to an average value of 0.81 (SEM = 2.05°, SDD 5.68°) for SLHH and 0.82 (SEM = 2.36°, SDD 6.53°) for SLDL.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Using the 3D method to evaluate pelvis and lower limb kinematics during single leg landing in one measurement session is a high reliability method for most parameters. Marker replacement is one of the factors that reduce the reliability of measures. When applying the SEM and SDD values, which the present paper contains, it is worth mentioning that the obtained results are caused by measurement error or they are due to individual issues.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Effort distribution analysis for the 800 m race: IAAF World Athletics Championships, London 2017 and Birmingham 2018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To analyse the distribution of effort in the 800 m event at the IAAF World Athletics Championships in London 2017 (outdoor, 44 men, 45 women) and in Birmingham 2018 (indoor, 9 men, 14 women).</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 187 individual performances during heats, semi-finals, and finals were analysed. The official split times of each athlete every 100 m were taken as reference for the analysis of: times; percentages of times in regard to the final time; speed; changes in position during the races; percentage deviations in terms of the average time per race per section of 100, 200 and 400 m.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: There are different strategies used in the elite 800m race that are related to sex differences, the management of energy consumption and the differences and similarities between indoor and outdoor races.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Although diverse pacing strategies exist, more balanced strategies, after a fast start, have better results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Pressure distribution in tilting and reclining wheelchairs with an air cushion: A pilot study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal angle for maximizing pressure distribution in two types of wheelchairs (tilting and reclining) while using a ROHO cushion, which offers relatively effective pressure distribution.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: This study enrolled 28 male and female college students who understood the purpose of the study and agreed to participate. This study aimed to determine the optimal angle for tilting and reclining wheelchairs when using a ROHO cushion at angles of 10°, 20°, and 30° with tilted wheelchairs and 90°, 110°, and 130° with reclining wheelchairs.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The analysis showed that an improved pressure distribution when a tilting wheelchair was used versus a reclining one. A reclining position of ≥110° and a tilt angle of ≥20° led to significant pressure-reducing effects.</p> <p><italic>Conclusion</italic>: The results of this study will help wheelchair users or their guardians to select the optimal wheelchair angle when changing their posture to prevent bedsores. Although no slippage was observed in our study, it is important to remember the proper back position to prevent unnecessary slippage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Physical fitness changes among amateur soccer players: effects of the pre-season period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To assess changes in physical fitness of amateur soccer players after a pre-season training period and baseline fitness dependencies.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty-one amateur soccer players were assessed during the pre-season. The following physical variables were assessed before and after a two-month pre-season training period: (i) cardiorespiratory fitness, (ii) strength and power, and (iii) change of direction (COD).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Significant decreases were found for countermovement jump (CMJ) (p &lt; 0.001; d = 1.161), drop jump (DJ) (p = 0.014; d = 0.958), and horizontal jump (HJ) (p = 0.042; d = 0.640), while no significant changes were found for the overall variables from the beginning to the end of pre-season. Fit players revealed significant decreases for CMJ (p = 0.002; d = –2.495), DJ (p = 0.004; d = –1.760), HJ (p = 0.028; d = –1.005), COD deficit (p = 0.034; d = 1.013), and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) (p = 0.026; d = –4.053). No significant changes were found for unfit players.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Amateur soccer coaches should consider assessing physical qualities at the beginning of pre-season and use the free-of-charge monitoring tools such as session-rate of perceived exertion (s-RPE) during the training process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of additional load on angular parameters during gait and balance in children with hemiparesis – Cross sectional study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To study the effect of additional load over ankle and knee joints on angular parameters during gait and balance in children with hemiparesis.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: 10 children with hemiparesis were recruited and stratified into 2 chronological age groups: group A (4–8 years) and group B (9–12 years). Additional loads of 0.7 kg and 1.1 kg were placed on the affected and non-affected lower limb at the ankle and knee joint for group A and group B respectively. Angular parameters during gait were assessed using Kinovea software (version 0.8.15) and balance using the Pediatric Balance Scale.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Application of additional load of 0.7 kg over the non-affected leg knee joint is able to produce significant changes in ankle joint angles (p &lt; 0.05) at initial contact and knee joint angles at heel-off (p &lt; 0.05), toe-off (p &lt; 0.001), acceleration (p &lt; 0.05) and deceleration (p &lt; 0.05) phases of gait and balance in group A, whereas on application of additional load of 1.1 kg over the affected leg at the ankle joint significant improvement in knee joint angles at initial contact (p &lt; 0.001) and the deceleration (p &lt; 0.05) phase of gait in group B was observed. There was significant improvement in the Pediatric Balance Scale score in both groups (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Additional load over knee and ankle joints of the affected and non-affected leg showed more improvement in angular parameters during gait and balance in younger children with hemiparesis than older children, as they present an immature form of gait that can be modified, corrected and brought back to a normal angle.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of diurnal rhythms on static and dynamic balance performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of different times of day on static and dynamic balance performance.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Thirty male individuals (age 22 ± 1.2 years, BMI 23.4 ± 1.3 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, height 178.5 ± 6.52 cm) volunteered for the study. The participants performed static and dynamic balance tests at 10:00, 15:00, and 20:00. Static and dynamic balance were measured using Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). One-factor repeated measures ANOVA with the LSD post-hoc procedure was performed to examine balance changes in the morning, afternoon, and evening.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Results indicated a significant difference in static balance scores at different times of day (p &lt; 0.05). Post-hoc analysis indicates that mean of errors in afternoon exhibits significantly smaller than those of morning (p = 0.024), and evening (p = 0.029). Other results showed significant differences in dynamic balance at different times of day (p &lt; 0.05). Post-hoc analysis indicates that means of reaching distance in afternoon exhibits significantly larger than those of morning (p = 0.032), and evening (p = 0.026).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: The results provide strong evidence about the effect of different times of day on performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Correlation between clinical tests for gait and stability using biomechanical variables in the gait of institutionalized elderly subjects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study aims to identify biomechanical gait variables explaining clinical test results in institutionalized elderly people.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Twenty-nine elderly (82.0 ± 6.3 years) residents in a nursing home were assessed. They were able to walk 10 meters without walking aids. First, the spontaneous gait was assessed using inertial measurement units in a 10-meter long corridor. Fifteen biomechanical gait variables were analyzed. Then, three clinical tests usually used in elderly subjects were applied: the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Tinetti Scale and the Sit to Stand (STS) test. A correlation matrix using Pearson’s correlation coefficient between clinical and biomechanical variables was performed, obtaining a total of 45 potential correlations. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was then performed to determine the influence of each variable.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: TUG, Tinetti and STS were significantly correlated with similar biomechanical variables, including temporal, temporo-spatial and kinematic variables. Adults over 80 years old and women showed stronger correlations. Single support and ankle angle at takeoff were the two most important variables in stepwise regression analysis.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: In institutionalized elderly subjects, clinical variables for gait and postural stability are correlated with the biomechanical gait variables, especially in women and adults aged over 80 years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Aerobic capacity and respiratory patterns are better in recreational basketball-engaged university students than age-matched untrained males<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: To asses and compare the aerobic capacity and respiratory parameters in recreational basketball-engaged university students with age-matched untrained young adults.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: A total of 30 subjects were selected to took part in the study based on recreational-basketball activity level and were assigned to a basketball (BG: n = 15, age 22.86 ± 1.35 yrs., body height 185.07 ± 5.95 cm, body weight 81.21 ± 6.15 kg) and untrained group (UG: n = 15, age 22.60 ± 1.50 yrs., body height 181.53 ± 6.11 cm, body weight 76.89 ± 7.30 kg). Inspiratory vital capacity (IVC), forced expiration volume (FEV1), FEV1/IVC ratio, maximal oxygen consumption (VO<sub>2max</sub>), ventilatory threshold (VO<sub>2</sub>VT<sub>)</sub> and time to exhaustion, were measured in all subjects. Student T-test for independent Sample and Cohen’s <italic>d</italic> as the measure of the effect size were calculated.</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: Recreational basketball-engaged students (EG) reached significantly greater IVC (t = 7.240, p &lt; 0.001, d = 1.854), FEV1 (t = 10.852, p &lt; 0.001, d = 2.834), FEV1/IVC ratio (t = 6.370, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.920), maximal oxygen consumption (t = 9.039, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.310), ventilatory threshold (t = 9.859, p &lt; 0.001, d = 3.607) and time to exhaustion (t = 12.361, p &lt; 0.001, d = 4.515) compared to UG.</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: Long-term exposure to recreational basketball leads to adaptive changes in aerobic and respiratory parameters in male university students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1