rss_2.0Sports and Recreation FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sports and Recreation and Recreation Feed between differing magnitudes of inter-limb asymmetry and linear and change of direction speed performance in male youth soccer players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Study aim</italic>: This study examines the relationship between different magnitudes of asymmetry and their effects on speed performance.</p> <p><italic>Material and methods</italic>: Forty-two sub-elite male youth soccer players performed a 30-m sprint, change of direction, single leg countermovement jump and single leg hop. Subjects were divided into groups with vertical and horizontal asymmetry, and both groups were then divided into three groups according to magnitudes of inter-limb asymmetry (&lt;5%, 5–10%, and &gt;10%).</p> <p><italic>Results</italic>: The results showed no significant correlation between different jump asymmetry magnitudes and the mentioned outcomes of speed performance (p &gt; 0.05). In addition, larger asymmetries resulted in faster linear speed, even if small differences (g range = 0.00 to 0.57; p &gt; 0.05). But this was not similar for change of direction speed (g range = –0.42 to 0.34; p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic>Conclusions</italic>: There are inconsistent findings for the effects of inter-limb asymmetries on speed performance. The results of the present study indicate that the magnitude of asymmetry had no meaningful association with independent measures of performance in soccer players. Therefore, it seems more likely to explain the effects of individual asymmetries on performance rather than the idea that asymmetry negatively affects performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Neurodynamic Mobilisation Plus Core Stability on Pain and Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity in Athletes with Lumbar Radiculopathy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Lumbar radiculopathy (LR) is a common debilitating disorder of neuromuscular origin that affects athletes.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> This study was a parallel group design and a total of 24 clinically diagnosed athletes with LR were recruited for the study and randomly assigned to one of the two groups, i.e. neurodynamic mobilisation plus core stability group (NDS plus CS) and core stability group only (CS). NDS plus CS underwent neural mobilisation of the tibial nerve and core stability exercises, while CS group performed core stability for a total of 14 sessions on alternate days. The outcome measures of motor nerve conduction velocity (m NCV) of the tibial nerve and pain intensity were recorded before the start of the intervention, at midpoint (7<sup>th</sup> session) and at the end of the intervention (14<sup>th</sup> session).</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Baseline scores of pain and m NCV (NDS plus CS: 6.75 ± 0.62, 38.10 ± 7.21 and CS: 6.58 ± 0.79, 38.92 ± 6.37) were non-significant. The outcome measures improved significantly during treatment in NDS plus CS group (baseline to 7<sup>th</sup> session, 7<sup>th</sup> to 14<sup>th</sup> session and overall mean change for pain and m NCV was found to be 4.74 ± 0.37 and -6.43 ± 3.08, respectively. Non-significant improvement was reported for CS group. Two-way repeated measures (2 x 3) ANOVA was used to analyse the change in the outcome measures and revealed that NDS plus CS group showed statistically significant main effects for group on pain level (<italic>F</italic> (2, 5.34) = 0.89, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001 and m NCV (<italic>F</italic> (2, 5.21) = 0.40, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.03. Significant time and group x time interaction effects were also found.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The findings of the study revealed that neurodynamic mobilisation plus core stability were found effective in improving pain level and motor nerve conduction velocity of the tibial nerve in athletes with lumbar radiculopathy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Bioelectrical Phase Angle, Muscle Damage Markers and Inflammatory Response After a Competitive Match in Professional Soccer Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> The purposes of this study were 1) to evaluate changes from baseline levels in bioelectrical phase angle (PhA) and markers of muscle damage and inflammation in professional players 36 h after a soccer match, and 2) to analyze the relationships between PhA and markers of muscle damage and inflammation in order to investigate if PhA might be a useful parameter to monitor recovery.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> Eighteen male professional soccer players participated in this study. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations, and PhA were measured before and 36 h after a competitive match.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Changes in LDH and CK 36 h after the match were greater than their reference change values (RCV). Changes in CRP and IL-6 were, however, lower than their corresponding RCV. 36 h after the match, significant correlations were observed between PhA and LDH (r = 0.714, p = 0.001), PhA and CK (r = 0.787, p = 0.000), and PhA and CRP (r = 0.554, p = 0.017).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>. Although IL-6 and CRP have been traditionally analyzed together to monitor inflammation after intense exercise, since 36 h after the match they have already returned or started to return to baseline levels, the use of them alone is not a good option to monitor inflammation throughout recovery. PhA might be used as a predictor of muscle damage and inflammation, but further studies covering the whole recovery period are warranted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of Lactate, Heart Rate and Handgrip Force Responses of Climbers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Sport climbing, which is included in 2020 Olympic Games, is a new sport that is both recreational and performance-focused while being the subject of scientific research all around the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in lactate concentration, heart rate and handgrip forces all at once in the actual sport climbing competition.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> Thirteen male climbers volunteered for this study. The climbers climbed three different routes prepared according to the International Federation of Sport Climbing standards that are classified as easy, medium and difficult. Lactate, heart rate, dominant and non-dominant handgrip forces were measured for each route before climbing, immediately after, and during the third and fifth minutes after climbing. Climbing performance was determined using the number of holds that the competitor reached.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> We observed significantly higher post-lactate concentration in comparison to the pre-climbing values for all climbing routes (p &lt; 0.05). Statistical observation shows that post-climbing heart rate values were considerably higher than the pre-climbing values for all three climbing trials (p &lt; 0.05). There were also statistically significant differences in climbing performance and handgrip force between the three routes (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> According to the results of this study, significant increases were noted in all three climbing routes relative to the pre-climb in lactate, heart rate and climbing performance data between the routes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable Urban Tourism Development and Quality of Life: A Case of Kampung Bharu, Kuala Lumpur<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> With the transformation of Kuala Lumpur as a mega city and the boom of Malaysian urban tourism, understanding the interaction between tourism and local community livability is important for sustainable urban tourism development.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> Founded in 1899, Kampung Bharu is a famous traditional Malay village facing conflicting urban development and local community livability issues. Thus, to understand the local community perception of urban tourism development and its effect on their quality of life, this study investigates the effect of sustainable tourism development on the local Kampung Bharu community’s quality of life. This study collected 364 valid responses from the local community through a self-administered survey.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The study confirms that economic and environmental impacts of urban tourism development deteriorate the local community’s quality of life. However, the socio-cultural impacts of urban tourism development positively and significantly enhance the quality of life of the local community in Kampung Bharu.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The study highlighted the importance of the local community’s perceptions, community attachment, and perceived quality of life to destination managers responsible for planning and developing future tourism projects. Several limitations and recommendations for future research are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Predicting Sports Facility Revisit Intentions Based on Experience and Mediating Effects of Perceived Value<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Several factors, such as program offerings, atmosphere and provided amenities, motivate repeat visits to sports destinations, with continued patronage most often associated with perceived value.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods.</bold> This study sought to determine the extent to which perceived value in sports facilities influenced revisit intentions, for which a path analysis model was used and a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was completed by 384 recreational sports facility visitors.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Visit experience and perceived value were found to influence revisit intentions, with nearly 50% of the direct effect being because of perceived value.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The results of this study inform both academic practice and managerial decisions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Selected Risks of the Decompression Process, Part II: Analysis of Selected Types of Risk<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The safe transition from a higher pressure atmosphere to a lower pressure atmosphere is accomplished by planning the decompression process, typically through changes in pressure and/or composition of the breathing mix in a function of time. However, the decompression process is affected by a much greater number of inherent factors than changes in pressure and composition of the breathing mix. Their values should be kept within certain ranges, however, there are circumstances when it is not possible to maintain control over them. In this situation, they become elements of the residual risk of the decompression process. The safety of decompression should be ensured, inter alia, by analysing the residual risk for each execution of the decompression process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Research on Underwater Directional Swimming Skills of Divers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of research on the application of a physical exercise programme to improve the underwater orientation of military divers. The research was carried out on a group of 120 soldiers, some of whom (the study group) underwent additional training for 3 months. During the underwater straight-line swimming test in poor visibility conditions, the test group achieved statistically significantly better results than the control group. The test consisted in measuring the angle of deviation of the diver’s route from the given straight line.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Keeping Track of Scientific Dives in Countries with Incipient Diving Programmes: The Scidive Record Forms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pre-dive checks and dive logs are fundamental documentation for any diving operation and must be incorporated as mandatory ‘good operating practices’ in scientific diving (SD) projects. Data included in dive logs may vary in detail, however, there is basic information to provide based on global standards. Differently to several developed countries in Europe, North America and Australasia, there are countries with incipient, sometimes non-regulated, SD programmes. In this article the importance of documentation in SD is highlighted and record forms are provided as templates, including versions both in English and Spanish. The Diving Supervisor (DS) is the designated person to fill the ‘Daily SciDive Log’ and ‘SCUBA &amp; surface-supplied LogSheet’ (Table 1, 2 and 3, respectively), whilst every diver is responsible for filing their own ‘SciDiver’s Digital LogBook’ (Table 4). General and specific considerations for all tables are described throughout the text. This effort was done to facilitate systematic data management and start developing the bases towards solid national/regional standards on scientific diving operations, particularly for those countries with incipient (scientific) diving programmes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Different Forms of Extrinsic Feedback on the Accuracy of Force Production and to Differentiate this Force in the Simple Cyclic Movements of the Upper and Lower Limb<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background:</bold> This study aimed to assess the accuracy of force production by the limbs and to identify the ability to differentiate this force during a progressively increasing value, in response to different types of extrinsic feedback.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods:</bold> The study involved nineteen healthy and physically active boys and girls aged 12.82±0.34 years, body height 157.05±9.02 cm, and body mass 44.89±7.89 kg. The tasks were to perform a series of right and left upper limb pulls and pushes with increasing force using the levers of the kinesthesiometer and a series of lower limb presses on the pedal of the kinesthesiometer. The tasks were completed in three feedback conditions: no feedback, sound feedback, verbal feedback, and the retention test was used. To assess the level of accuracy of force production, the novel index of force production accuracy (FPAIndex) was used.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The outcomes expressing the value of FPAIndex on the point scale indicated that the highest level of kinesthetic differentiation was observed when no feedback was provided (1.17 points), and the lowest kinesthetic differentiation was recorded when verbal feedback was provided (3.33 points). However, they were devoid of statistical value. The repeated-measures analysis of variance ANOVA with the Tukey post-hoc test (HSD) indicated a significant lowest (p=0.0402) level of accuracy of FPA (x̄ 36.12±18.29 [N]) only for the act of left lower limb press (LL PRESS) in the retention test, while no feedback was provided to the subjects.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The results of this study showed that verbal and sound extrinsic feedback did not affect the accuracy of force production by the upper and lower limbs and the ability to differentiate this force in simple movements among children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Quality and Quantity Assessment of Groundwaters in the Vicinity of Kutno with Respect to Potability. Part I<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presents the characteristics of drinking water sources and subsequently performs an analysis of the deviations from the norm in terms of ions of iron, manganese, ammonia, sodium, chlorides as well as other factors affecting the quality of drinking water in the years 2015 - 2017 occurring in individual water intake points in the Kutno district.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Virtual reality and consumer behavior: constraints, negotiation, negotiation-efficacy, and participation in virtual golf<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The emergence of virtual sports shows promises in encouraging participation among those who may be constrained from participating in traditional recreational sports (Choi et al., 2019). To maximize virtual sports’ potential in increasing sports participation, this study aimed to investigate the relationships between constraints, negotiation, negotiation-efficacy, and participation. Results from virtual golf participants found that, as predicted, (a) constraints had a negative direct influence on participation, (b) negotiation-efficacy had a negative direct influence on constraints, (c) negotiation-efficacy had a positive direct influence on negotiation, and negotiation had a positively direct influence on participation. The findings of this study indicated that reduced constraints did not result in increasing virtual golf consumers’ participation because negotiation did not play a significant role in their decision to participate. Thus, the current study provides a comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among leisure participation, constraints, and negotiation, particularly extending to the context of virtual golf.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of an interdisciplinary Greek traditional dance programme on Middle School students’ goal orientation and anxiety<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of an interdisciplinary program of Greek folk dance, with topics from history and geography on Middle School students’ goal orientation and anxiety level. The sample consisted of 260 students (134 boys &amp; 126 girls). The experimental group (n=144) followed the interdisciplinary four-week program (two lessons per week) while the control group (n=126) followed the corresponding typical physical education program. For the data collection, the questionnaire used was the “Goal orientation” by Papaioannou, Milosis, Kosmidou, and Tsiggilis (2002) and the Greek version (Kakkos &amp; Zervas, 1996) of “Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2” (Martens et al., 1990). The students filled in the questionnaires before and after their participating in each program. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, and Repeated Measures ANOVA were used. Results showed that a. Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory. b. Τhe experimental group decreased significantly the levels of “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and on the contrary significantly increase the “personal development”, and “social acceptance”. c. Experimental group’s boys and girls decreased their “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and enhanced their “personal development” and “social acceptance” more than their control group peers. d. The experimental group decreased the levels of somatic and cognitive anxieties and increased significantly their self-confidence. e. male students increased their self-confidence more than female students. These findings support the view that an interdisciplinary program of traditional Greek dance with issues from history and geography enable us to reduce the rates of ego-strengthening, ego-protection, somatic and cognitive anxiety while simultaneously increases students’ personal development, social acceptance, and self-confidence</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors directing individuals to computer games in the process of evaluating recreational activities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aims to examine the motivational factors that direct individuals to computer games in the process of evaluating leisure activities. The study is designed in descriptive and relational survey models, which are among the quantitative research patterns. A total of 1677 individuals participated in the study. A personal information form and the Computer Gaming Motivation Scale were used. An independent sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation test were used to analyze the data. According to the results, there were significant differences in the concentration, entertainment, escape, learning, and socialization sub-dimensions of the participants in favor of the groups playing in Internet cafes. The findings indicate that when more time is spent with information and communication technologies, there is a decrease in concentration and an increase in entertainment and escape. Furthermore, when the relationship between the sub-dimensions of the scale was examined, positively moderate and high correlations were found among concentration, entertainment, escape, learning, and socialization. As a result, rapid technological changes and developments provide many opportunities for individuals. It is thought that individuals’ busy work lives and monotonous daily routines cause them to prefer easily accessible activities during their leisure time.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Coach or sensei? His group relations in the context of tradition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the perspective of the General Theory of Fighting Arts, an analysis of socio-cultural factors that determine the opposition of the role of a teacher of martial arts (Jap. sensei) to the role of a sports trainers was undertaken. The structural cultural context, cultural patterns, and social institutions resulting from divergent goals were taken into account. The roles of teachers and trainers result from these conditions. The existence of the separate roles of the master-teacher in martial arts and the sports trainer was established. These roles manifest themselves in different relations with students or players. Democratic and egalitarian interactions in sports teams include player and coach relations. In traditional martial arts, the dominance of the teacher is more accepted. However, there is also a social position combining the features of the sensei and the trainer that is typical for combat sports that are also martial arts (participating in sports competitions). As there are relationships of subordination in the hierarchical societies of Japan and Korea, there is no problem with recognizing the primary role of the sensei in these cultures. The position of the master-teacher is also sanctified by tradition. Reducing educational systems, which are the paths of martial arts, to oriental varieties of sports would be a serious factual mistake.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Participating in sports and practicing a religion are related to levels of happiness<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of this study was to ascertain whether happiness varies depending on sports participation and religious practice. The sample comprised 2,378 participants aged between 18 and 92 years. All analysis were carried out by testing the interaction effects of the variables of sex and age on sports participation, religious practice, and happiness. We found a high average level of happiness (<italic>M</italic> = 7.299, range 0–10). However, people who do not participate in sports or practice a religion indicated a level of happiness (<italic>M</italic> = 6.979) that was statistically lower than that of the other groups: people who practice a religion but do not participate in sports (<italic>M</italic> = 7.135); people who participate in sports but do not practice a religion (<italic>M</italic> = 7.478); and people who both participate in sports and practice a religion (<italic>M</italic> = 7.717). We conclude that happiness is associated with sports participation and religious practice, although with small or very small effect sizes (all <italic>p</italic>&lt; 0.050; <italic>η<sup>2</sup><sub>p</sub></italic> between 0.008 and 0.020).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Erratum Bone Injuries in Soccer Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soccer is the most common team sport in the world. A significant number of players are associated with a large number of injuries. Injuries occur in a variety of contexts regardless of the age or performance level of players. The vast majority of injuries involve soft tissues. Bone injuries are less common, but usually result in long-term exclusion from the game. Three different types of fractures related to soccer are classified as acute types, stress fractures and avulsion. This manuscript outlines the diagnostic procedures and treatments for stress fractures, avulsion fractures and bone cyst. The common feature of the described injuries includes frequent difficulties associated with the correct diagnosis and treatment direction. In therapeutic treatment, the doctor and the patient often have to choose between conservative treatment and surgical treatment, which in many cases is not simple. We suggest that in the event of injuries to soccer players, surgical treatment should be used, shortening the time to return to full sports activity. A very important element of the therapeutic process is proper rehabilitation, which should be individually tailored to the patient in order to optimize the treatment process. Some of the rehabilitation protocols should be permanently incorporated into the warm-up protocols for training. Such a procedure has a preventive effect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of an Olympic Distance Triathlon on Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity and its Recovery 24 Hours Later<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Olympic distance triathlon includes maximal exercise bouts with transitions between the activities. This study investigated the effect of an Olympic distance triathlon (1.5-km swim, 40-km bike, 10-km run) on pulmonary diffusion capacity (DL<sc>CO</sc>). In nine male triathletes (age: 24 ± 4.7 years), we measured DL<sc>CO</sc> and calculated the DL<sc>CO</sc> to alveolar volume ratio (DL<sc>CO</sc>/VA) and performed spirometry testing before a triathlon (pre-T), 2 hours after the race (post-T), and the day following the race (post-T-24 h). DL<sc>CO</sc> was measured using the 9-s breath-holding method. We found that (1) DL<sc>CO</sc> decreased significantly between pre- and post-T values (38.52 ± 5.44 vs. 35.92 ± 6.63 ml∙min<sup>-1</sup>∙mmHg<sup>-1</sup>) (p &lt; 0.01) and returned to baseline at post-T-24 h (38.52 ± 5.44 vs. 37.24 ± 6.76 ml∙min<sup>-1</sup>∙mmHg<sup>-1</sup>, p &gt; 0.05); (2) DL<sc>CO</sc>/VA was similar at the pre-, post- and post-T-24 h DL<sc>CO</sc> comparisons; and (3) forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV<sub>1</sub>) and mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) significantly decreased between pre- and post-T and between pre- and post-T-24-h (p &lt; 0.02). In conclusion, a significant reduction in DL<sc>CO</sc> and DL<sc>CO</sc>/VA 2 hours after the triathlon suggests the presence of pulmonary interstitial oedema. Both values returned to baseline 24 hours after the race, which reflects possible mild and transient pulmonary oedema with minimal physiological significance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Movement Tempo Distribution on Bar Velocity During a Multi-Set Bench Press Exercise<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of contrast tempo movement on bar velocity changes during a multi-set bench press exercise. In randomized and counter-balanced order, participants performed three sets of the bench press exercise at 60%1RM under two testing conditions: E-E where all repetitions were performed with explosive (X/0/X/0) movement tempo; and S-E where the first two repetitions were performed with a slow tempo (5/0/X/0) while the third repetition was performed with explosive movement tempo (slow, slow, explosive). Twelve healthy men volunteered for the study (age = 30 ± 5 years; body mass = 88 ± 10 kg; bench press 1RM = 145 ± 24 kg). The three-way repeated measures ANOVA (tempo × set × repetition) showed statistically significant multi-interaction effect for peak bar velocity (p &lt; 0.01; η2 = 0.23), yet not for mean bar velocity (p = 0.09; η2 = 0.14). The post hoc results for multi-interaction revealed that peak bar velocity in the 3<sup>rd</sup> repetition was significantly higher for E-E compared to SE only during set 1 (p &lt; 0.001). Therefore, the distribution of movement tempo had a significant impact on peak bar velocity, but not on mean bar velocity. The decrease in peak bar velocity in the 3<sup>rd</sup> repetition during the S-E condition was observed only in the first set, while such a tendency was not observed in the second and third set.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1