rss_2.0Social Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Social Sciences Sciences Feed the autopoiesis of imagination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Already in the romantic it has been assumed, that there is an existential interrelation between nature, human being and mind. According to this idea, there is a narrow interrelation of creation between literature, science, dream and reality, which should be expressed in a progressive universal poetry. Gestalt theory and the concept of autopoiesis, developed by Maturana and Varela, could be regarded as a scientific enhancement of this approach and are united in that sense. By analyses of dreams, it becomes evident, that neurobiological and mental processes are determined by the same principles of self-constitution and gestalt production. They are attending in equal measures to homeostatic conditions. The interaction of living systems with their environment as well as their evolution base on recursive reorganisation. Following this principle, imagination, speech and self-reflection are developed. The observer comes to existence by his own distinctions. Phenomenal appearance and real existence, poetry and scientific findings are results of the autopoietic organisation of living, of which we form a part.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Helmut Seel. 28. Februar 1933 – 14. April 2021Éric Trémault: Structure and sensation, Vrin, Paris, 2020, 196 pp in Motion: Slurs in Indirect Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Slurs are pejorative epithets that express negative attitudes toward a class of individuals sharing the same race, country of origin, sexual orientation, religion, and the like. The aim of this paper is to show what happens in communication when slurs are reported. It focuses on the derogatory content of such expressions and on the persistence of their performative effects in reported speech. In this respect, the question concerning the attribution of responsibility for the derogatory content conveyed by the slurs is relevant. Indeed, reporting a slur involves quoting not only the content but also the speaker’s personal commitment and (negative) attitude. Different theories on the status of the derogatory component of slurs make different predictions about their offensiveness in reported speech and about the speaker’s “responsibility” for the attitude and feelings conveyed by that word, be she the original speaker or the reporter. The results of a questionnaire show empirically that no single theory can provide a conclusive statement on this matter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Max Wertheimer (2020): Productive Thinking. New edition by Viktor Sarris. Birkhäuser/Springer Nature, ix + 257 pages, 485s/ w- Abbildungen; Paperback/Euro 35, 30 – ISBN 978-3-030-36065-8, eBook/Euro 26,75 – ISBN 978-3-030-36063-4. affordances in gestalt perception as well as in emotional facial expressions and gestures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Methodological problems often arise when a special case is confused with the general principle. So you will find affordances only for ‚artifacts’ if you restrict the analysis to ‚artifacts’. The general principle, however, is an ‚invitation character’, which triggers an action. Consequently, an action-theoretical approach known as ‚pragmatic turn’ in cognitive science is recommended. According to this approach, the human being is not a passive-receptive being but actively produces those action effects that open up the world to us (through ‚active inferences’). This ‚ideomotor approach’ focuses on the so-called ‚epistemic actions’, which guide our perception as conscious and unconscious cognitions. Due to ‚embodied cognition’ the own body is assigned an indispensable role. The action theoretical approach of ‚enactive cognition’ enables that every form can be consistently processualized. Thus, each ‚Gestalt’ is understood as the process result of interlocking cognitions of ‚forward modelling’ (which produces anticipations and enables prognoses) and ‚inverse modelling’ (which makes hypotheses about genesis and causality). As can be shown, these cognitions are fed by previous experiences of real interaction, which later changes into a mental trial treatment, which is highly automated and can therefore take place unconsciously. It is now central that every object may have such affordances that call for instrumental or epistemic action. In the simplest case, it is the body and the facial expressions of our counterpart that can be understood as a question and provoke an answer/reaction. Thus, emotion is not only to be understood as expression/output according to the scheme ‚input-processing-output’, but acts itself as a provocative act/input. Consequently, artifacts are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions for affordances. Rather, they exist in all areas of cognition—from Enactive Cognition to Social Cognition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Mauro Antonelli (2018): Vittorio Benussi in the History of Psychology. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-96682-3, ISBN 978-3-319-96684-7, , 384 Seiten, 106,99 Euro (hardcover), 85,59 Euro (ebook).änomenologischer Realismus. Voluntative und intentionalistische Realitätsbegründung bei Scheler und Husserl<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this text I argue that a phenomenological conception of reality cannot simply consider ‚reality’ to be a feature of the objects of our experience, nor can ‚reality’ be understood as a somehow subconscious experience of resistance, as Max Schelers notion of a „primary resistance“ tries to show. In opposition to these insufficient conceptions I suggest – following some husserlian inspirations – that the notion of ‚reality’ is to be understood as a elementary feature of our <italic>experience</italic> of objects – not of the objects of our experience. Is this perspective accepted, a minimal ‚realism’ appears as a presupposition of the concept of intentionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Verfahrensintegrierende Verhaltenstherapie bei Angsterkrankungen -Lernen und Verlernen von pathologischer Angst als ganzheitlicher Prozess<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nicht zu Unrecht gilt die Behandlung von Angsterkrankungen als die Paradedisziplin der Verhaltenstherapie (VT). Hier wie auch generell zeigt sich die VT dabei aber als zersplittert in eine Vielzahl von Einzelmethoden: Verschiedene Lernformen – Einsichtslernen, Konditionierungslernen und Habituationslernen - werden in ihrem Beitrag zu Angsterkrankungen isoliert voneinander konzipiert. Entsprechend stehen auch auf diesen Lernformen basierende Therapiemethoden für sich. Dadurch werden wichtige Synergiepotenziale verschenkt. Menschliches Lernen, auch und gerade das Lernen und Verlernen von pathologischer Angst, ist aber immer ein ganzheitlicher Prozess. Der Artikel skizziert eine ganzheitliche Psycho-Logik der Eskalation und Chronifizierung pathologischer Angst unter integrierendem Einbezug der o.g. Lernformen. Hieraus leitet sich eine verfahrensintegrierende VT ab, die die etablierten Behandlungsmethoden so kombiniert, dass Synergiegewinne entstehen, was an einem Fallbeispiel verdeutlicht wird. Den theoretischen Hintergrund bildet die Theorie der Selbstorganisation komplexer Systeme, insbesondere die Synergetik – ein Feld, in dem wichtige Aspekte der Gestalttheorie aufgehoben sind. It is not without reason that the treatment of anxiety disorders is considered the showpiece of behavioral therapy (BT). Here as well as in general, however, the BT shows itself fragmented into a multitude of individual methods: Different forms of learning - insight learning, conditioning learning and habituation learning - are designed in isolation from each other in their contribution to anxiety disorders. Correspondingly, treatment methods based on these forms of learning stand for themselves. This gives away important synergy potential. Human learning, also and especially learning and unlearning of pathological anxiety, is always a holistic process. The paper outlines a holistic psycho-logic of the escalation and chronification of pathological anxiety, integrating the above mentioned forms of learning. This leads to the derivation of a method-integrating BT, which combines the established treatment methods in such a way that synergy gains are achieved, as illustrated by a case study. The theoretical background is formed by the theory of the self-organization of complex systems, in particular synergetics - a field in which important aspects of gestalt theory are implied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Gestalt as a Determinant of Brand Management – A Sociological Perspective on Branding in German-Speaking Discourse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For almost 40 years, a specific form of brand management with scientific and practical resonance has been evolving in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland – along with a multitude of microeconomic schools and authors. This form of brand management goes by the term “Brand Sociology” and sees the brand as a Gestalt system of alliances. Brand Sociology fills a gap in the classical economic approach and makes it possible to understand the central target variables of brand management as social dynamics and to direct them in a targeted manner. The following article traces for the first time the foundations and history of a Gestalt sociological approach to brand research and relates its contribution in the field of interplay between Gestalt research, sociology, and identity-based brand economics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Announcement effects of guessing confidence on anticipatory behaviour in context understanding<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study investigates the anticipatory behaviour in a word guessing experiment with Slovak L2 speakers of English of varying proficiency levels. The L2 speakers are trying to correctly identify the word that the interlocutor is hinting at with two consecutive cues as soon as they are confident enough to provide the answer. This created a connection between anticipation and guessing confidence. The effect of guessing confidence on the anticipatory behaviour is measured through the change in response latency of how quickly the guessers produce their guesses after listening to the cues. The aim is to study how the response latencies of the listeners are affected by their previous correct or incorrect guesses. The findings suggest that the correctness of guesses has a measurable impact on response latency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The method of educational programs localization under internationalization of academic environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the context of the internationalization of education the need for localization and translation of educational programs into foreign languages with the aim of attracting foreign students is increasing. Consequently, new methods and resources are required to optimize educational process. However, currently there are not enough localized programs translated into English and localized for the new contingent of university students although localized programs are urgently needed as they give foreign students the opportunity to choose the most suitable direction for study. The purpose of the proposed research is localization as a linguistic and cultural adaptation of digital content to the requirements of the foreign market and translation into English the educational program “Software Engineering” for students of telecommunications specialties taking into account both technical and didactic terminology. To speed up the translation the glossary is compiled using online and offline services. As a result, the program “Software Engineering”, designed for foreign students, is localized, translated and adapted. Thus, a more “friendly” environment for entering the educational process in the new intercultural conditions is created. This practice becomes an integral part of the lecturers’ activities. On the other hand, students themselves can be involved in content creation and research. The design of localization should be directed from simple to complex, taking into account a certain balance between depth and composition of research. In general, the presentation of localized programs at the international level has a number of advantages for universities, including economic ones, for example, increasing the income invested in equipping the educational process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Traditional Segregation: Encoded Language as Powerful Tool. Insights from Ụmụakpo-Lejja chant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Language becomes a tool for power and segregation when it functions as a social divider among individuals. Language creates a division between the educated and uneducated, an indigene and non-indigene of a place; an initiate and uninitiated member of a sect. Focusing on the opposition between expressions and their meanings, this study examines Ụmụakpo-Lejja <italic>Okǝti Ọmaba</italic> chant, which is a heroic and masculine performance that takes place in the <italic>Okǝti</italic> (masking enclosure of the deity) of <italic>Umuakpo</italic> village square in Lejja town of Enugu State, Nigeria. The mystified language promotes discrimination among initiates, non-initiates, and women. <italic>Ọmaba</italic> is a popular fertility Deity among the Nsukka-Igbo extraction and <italic>Egara Ọmaba</italic> (<italic>Ọmaba</italic> chant) generally applies to the various chants performed to honour the deity during its periodical stay on earth. Using Schleiermacher’s Literary Hermeneutics Approach of the methodical practice of interpretation, the metaphorical language of the performance is interpreted to reveal the thoughts and the ideology behind the performance in totality. Among the Findings is that the textual language of Ụmụakpo-Lejja <italic>Okǝti Ọmaba</italic> chant is almost impossible without authorial and member’s interpretation and therefore, they are capable of initiating discriminatory perception of a non-initiate as a weakling or a woman.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguistic complexity of lecturers’ class register and its relationship to their personality traits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many research studies indicated a correlation between classroom behaviour and the language of the instructors and learners. The inter-language that the teachers prefer to use in the class differs from the natural, daily life conversations in linguistic terms. It is characterized by more simplistic, repetitive, carefully selected language, or “classroom register”. The paper discusses a „foreign language classroom register” as a specific linguistic subsystem which is operated both by the rules of linguistic simplification and by constraints imposed by the specific social (school) setting. The standard language used in a classroom communication with a high ratio of short basic and coordinate sentences, more universal constructions, such as base case nominal phrases and active present indicative verb phrases, the limited reduction in morphological complexity as a result of a preference for a simple sentence structure. The research study examines a linguistic complexity of the teacher talk with focus on reductions, modifications, and simplifications. It also studies the personal attitudes of lecturers toward school discourse and the relation between teachers´ personality and a language complexity of their language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Online interaction descriptors: A tool for the development of tasks for language competences and language use<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study focuses on a new scale of the framework introduced by the CEFR Companion Volume. Slovak and Maltese teachers were invited to participate in the training sessions in which they were exposed to lists of descriptors related to online interaction. The goal of familiarisation activities related to indicating reference levels was to prepare teachers for constructing tasks designed for practicing online communication in language classes, relevant to the proficiency levels of their students. The data on teachers’ judgements are clearly displayed and analysed in order to find out similarities and differences between teachers’ perceptions of language proficiency in two countries. Workshop sessions stimulated in-depth discussions the conclusions of which are reflected in the recommendations for language educators and teachers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The perceptions of intermediate EFL learners to the lexical instructional intervention<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the perceptions of high school EFL learners to the lexical instructional approach intervention in the contexts of learning vocabulary and grammar. Besides, an attempt was made to explore what difficulties the participants encountered during the experimentation. The data collected through the questionnaire were analyzed using a one-sample t-test, and the results showed that the estimated sample perception mean score was significantly higher than the hypothesized population perception mean score. This implies that EFL learners had positive perceptions towards the lexical instructional approach in the contexts of learning vocabulary and grammar. The data collected through interviews were analyzed qualitatively and the findings showed that students enjoyed and were interested in learning vocabulary and grammar through the lexical instructional approach. Students realized the importance of lexical chunks in learning vocabulary and grammar. In this regard, the interview results corroborated the results obtained from the questionnaire. Students encountered difficulties like lack of lexical awareness, lack of clear and adequate instructions on some activities, the lack of deliberate attention from some students during discussions, the lack of making some activities more interactive and engaging, and some classroom managerial problems. Finally, it was recommended that EFL teachers at high school should design their lexical approach-based activities systematically by considering their students’ interests, feelings, perceptions, levels, norms, cultures, and psychological setups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards Investigation of Instructional “Hiccups” of ELT Fraternity in EFL classroom<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to investigate and understand the causes of instructional “hiccups” of English language teachers at private schools in Pakistan. The questionnaire is the main tool for data collection among English language teachers who were teaching at the secondary level. Due to specific selection criteria, purposive sampling was employed among participants of the study. The findings reveal that English language teachers in private schools at the elementary level were facing teaching difficulties while teaching English textbook courses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Culinaronyms in formatting linguocultural competence in teaching Russian as a foreign language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Linguocultural approach is the new teaching direction in teaching Russian as a foreign language (RFL). Based on this approach, students are aimed to form a linguocultural competence. Studying scientific research show that there is a lot of linguistic units that are suitable to help students in forming their linguocultural competence. The purpose of the research is to apply the topic “Russian culinaronyms” (known as the name of Russian food) in the formation of the linguocultural competence of Vietnamese students who are learning Russian as a foreign language. The research was conducted by surveying and interviewing 26 Russian teachers in Vietnam by verifying the applicability of theory and practice of the topic “Russian culinaronyms”. The research results show that the teachers think that the application of this food topic in the formation of their linguocultural competence is appropriate with high survey results. Furthermore, it reveals the linguistic and cultural dimensions from Russian culinaronyms which can be used to form a linguocultural competence for Vietnamese students. The topic “Russian culinaronyms” can be applied in extracurricular sessions for language specialized students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The temporary return to the homeland in Michael Ondaatje’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study concentrates on memory in Michael Ondaatje’s <italic>Running in the Family</italic> because it is the foundation for the whole novel. Ondaatje’s attempt creates a relationship with the past by performing all acts of the journey in physical and imaginary performances of listening and reproducing. His attempt depends on his own memory; however, his memory does not coincide with stories he has heard, and the historical documents tend to conflict with each other. In the interior of his travels, Ondaatje reveals the extent of his isolation and the impact of his displacement. As he narrates the stories, he faces difficulties in distinguishing between rumors and lies, in organizing fragments of knowledge, and in explaining challenges tied to his methods of cultural revival. These challenges are met in the non-linear and sometimes stunning text plans which he uses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1