rss_2.0Social Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Social Sciences Sciences Feed and Boundaries Issues in the Transition from Face-to-Face Talking Therapy to Online Therapy in the Time of Covid-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The primary main aim of this article is to explore the changes and adjustments brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic to the therapeutic process in the transition from face-to-face talking therapy to online therapy. Online therapy sessions, once a niche, have now become the norm in therapeutic work. This, more than ever before, raises the question of the efficacy of online therapy compared to face-to-face talking therapy. A related question is how the “classical” elements of in-person therapies (especially the psychodynamic, affective and relational-based), such as: the therapeutic alliance, the therapeutic containing space, the therapeutic relationship, etc. work in the on-line setting. This article draws on a primary qualitative exploratory research carried among Romanian clients who undergo a psychodynamic type of therapy and who transitioned from face-to-face to online therapy as a reaction to the new constraints engendered by the COVID-19 pandemic and after the measures were relaxed, the transition from on-line to in-person therapy. Our focus is on how they experience online therapy compared to face-to-face therapy in terms of intimacy, therapeutic frame and efficacy, as well as on the boundaries challenged, erased and created by the switch between the two types of therapy settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Centralised Multi-National Practices of Transfer and Managerial Discrepancies: Evidence from a Romanian Call Center<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes workplace dynamics in a call centre located in Romania, a subsidiary of a multi-national corporation (MNC). Positing a centralised practice transfer and global management strategy, the company relies exclusively on home-country decision makers. Placed within Romania’s dependent economic profile alongside its deregulated employment relations, centralised managerial decisions create widespread organisational uncertainty with numerous hire and fire and downsizing procedures, followed by subsequent recruitment campaigns designed to replace the previously displaced workforce.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Semantic Ambiguities and Classification Struggles in the Post-Socialist Informal Medical Economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper I will engage in a process of highlighting the way in which liberal and, later, neoliberal political agendas regulate and establish formal semantic registers in the field of medical informal economy within the Romanian public healthcare system. How accurate is the legalistic approach, which classifies any extra-payment as a bribe? Despite the questionable legal status, the voluntary informal economy acquires the role of establishing bridges at human level between doctor and patient. Far from pleading to accept the conditioning of the medical act by an additional payment from patients or their family members, facts that obviously fall within the scope of illegality, I claim that the labels of “corruption”, “bribe”, “informal payment” cannot be correctly applied to the whole phenomenon of informal exchanges. Moreover, the gifts offered as a form of gratitude or to tame the “medical gaze” even have a role of social link between doctor and patient, helping to bind an unwritten human contract between the two who, in fact, are victims of the same system and its political decision-makers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00A Typology of Shrinking Cities: The Social and Economic Dynamic of Romanian Urban Network 2010-2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to open the issue of multiple shrinkage trajectories in a context of extended urbanisation (Keil 2018) by delineating the different trajectories of Romanian cities. We employed principal component analysis to allow for a multi-criterial classification of Romanian cities based on k-means cluster analysis. Beyond the dominant representation of shrinkage as a process that is mainly correlated with population loss and economic decline, this paper calls for bridging together distinct dimensions which have been either under-studied, such as the aspect of human development, or studied separately across the existing literature, such as governance of shrinkage and economic growth. Therefore, the typology developed here accounts for understanding the process of shrinkage as a complex process, having multiple causes, which determine peculiar trajectories. The outcome confirms the existence of distinct and highly localised shrinkage identities (Martinez-Fernandez, Audirac, et al. 2012). We show that regrowth is not strictly related to the urban core, but it has more to do with a process of complexification of the landscape and social relations existing at the periphery of the city. Shrinking core cities coexists with growing peri-urban areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Considerations on the Role of the School in Social Mobility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The role of the school in the process of status attainment for individuals with different social origins should be analysed both from the perspective of social mobility flows (absolute rates of mobility) and inequality of social chances (relative rates and odds ratios). Inspired by Raymond Boudon’s earlier studies in the 1970s, the author scrutinises the complex relationships between expanding access to higher levels of education, social mobility trajectories, and inequality of chances of status achievement in the context of persistent inequalities in contemporary capitalist societies. He concludes that at the societal level, an increase of the dependency of achieved social status on educational qualification will lead to greater immobility if the inequality of educational chances remains constant. At the level of individuals, the same process will lead to greater probability of upward mobility in the case of people with higher levels of educational qualification, and greater probability of downward mobility for those with lower educational qualification.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: (), Silviu Medeșan, București: Ozalid, 2021, 334 pages.“Reluctant Gatekeeper of the National Inventory” – a Case Study of the Formation of the Faroese Inventory of ICH<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As the Faroe Islands ratified the 2003 UNESCO Convention in 2018 and immediately began to develop a National Inventory, the Faroese Ministry of Culture appointed “expert” representatives of the National Museum and the University of the Faroese Islands for a small assisting committee tasked with assessing and possibly editing proposals for the inventory. The present article is based on reflections from an insider perspective of the process, as the author is one of the members participating in the preparations. The various “candidates” submitted for the inventory are presented and discussed in relation to the analyses of the parliament debates preceding the ratification and media coverage before and after the Convention was passed in the Faroese Parliament. How and by whom is the inventory formed in theory and in practice? What is the appropriate role of scholars in the process? The article suggests that the participation of academic experts as “gatekeepers” of inventories can be used to lend credibility of specific selections of intangible cultural heritage worthy of safeguarding within a particular national community. This is problematic from an academic point of view, since scholars can easily get tangled up in essentialist and outdated understandings of national culture as they enter a stage operating by different objectives than the academic discourse of critical enquiry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00From Unicorns to Lipizzan Horses. Romanian Folklore Studies on the Way to the Implementation of the UNESCO 2003 Convention<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As a country officially engaged in the intangible cultural heritage (hereafter ICH) inventorying and other safeguarding mechanisms of the UNESCO 2003 Convention, Romania provides an example of how folklorists strive to transcend the traditional rules of their discipline and to adapt their methodology and overview to supporting the implementation of the Convention. Starting from the recent Romanian contribution to the multinational file for inscribing the “Lipizzan horse breeding traditions” on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, this paper highlights the counterbalancing influences encountered during this process. Given the distance between this ICH element and the topoi that stand in the mainstream of Romanian folklore studies, the author will provide arguments for considering horse husbandry as a worthy example of living heritage in Romania, ensuring visibility to this tradition in a context dominated by the definition of folklore as an artistic or expressive phenomenon that is being (re)presented as ICH and less by folklife and aesthetic social and cultural manifestations. Using other examples of Romanian living heritage less visible at the level of scholarly and policy initiatives, the author pleads for a middle ground between traditional folklore studies and the theory and current practices of documenting living heritage. The topic may thus contribute to greater efforts to break the old rules of the discipline, turning experts’ eyes from mythological horses to real ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Reviews as Folk Song Collectors in Slovakia. From Romantic Nationalism to the Beginnings of Modern Research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Collecting activities were an important cultural and social phenomenon in 19<sup>th</sup> century Europe. Women also participated in these activities, although in many cultures their role and the results of their collecting work have not yet been adequately evaluated. Taking the example of Slovakia, it is possible to highlight the contribution of women in collecting folk songs, while encompassing those features which are specific to the regional circumstances. Women took part in all important collecting projects of the 19<sup>th</sup> century in Slovakia. Reconstruction of their socio-cultural background highlighted the fact that at the inception of these projects women of the aristocracy and gentry were active collectors. The majority of female collectors came from families of the Slovak intelligentsia, who belonged to the middle class. By the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century many such families had become part of the contemporary elite of Slovak society. We focus on two research questions: 1, how did the gender category of the collector condition the record of song material (an aspect of the collection concept); and 2, what contribution did women’s collecting activities make to the study of traditional song culture (an aspect of the collected material). A definition of women’s concept of collecting, with primary orientation on song lyrics, was deduced from the 19<sup>th</sup> century preference for the national language and the role of Slovak women in its diffusion in private as well as public life, and from analysis of the genre structure of the collected material. The romantic concept of collecting in Slovakia is compared with an early concept of documentation at the beginning of the 20<sup>th</sup> century which derived from abroad, although some of its elements were beginning to take effect also in domestic collecting activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Multi-Ontological Dissonances and ICH Safeguarding Practices: The Case of the Patios in Cordova<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The contradictions embedded in the safeguarding practices of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) safeguarding practices have been the focus of analysis for the last couple of decades. In addition, the positioning, roles of scholars and their dilemmas are commonly analysed as a dual polarization: those scholars who analyse and criticise ICH regimes from the outside; as opposed to those who participate with a critical academic perspective in ICH safeguarding practices. This article adopts a different approach and proposes the concept “multi-ontological dissonances”. By this term, we refer to the simultaneous ontologies of ICH that take place both in the different actors involved in ICH heritage regimes and in the safeguarding instruments themselves. We analyse three levels of dissonances: various models and concepts of ICH coexist in the practices and discourses among different ICH researchers/specialists; among the safeguarding instruments and the researchers and even inside a single researcher/specialist. The case of the Fiesta of the Patios in Cordova will be used as an example of the multi-ontological dissonances in safeguarding practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Theorizing Practice and Practicing Practice – Public Folklore in US Higher Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Higher education learning programs in folklore and ethnology should include training for the mastery of ICH and public folklore practices that are integrated with core curricula, grounded in theory and designed to build comprehensive professionalization of these disciplines. It should theorize practice and include engagement in actual projects with impacts beyond the classroom. A disjunction between theory and public practice which persisted for decades is now being addressed in graduate programs in ethnology and folklore, reaching towards what Bourdieu calls the “reconciling of theoretical and practical intentions”. The theories, issues and practices of public folklore currently and potentially taught in the United States suggest approaches that can be used for ethnology and ICH training. Topics can include cultural brokerage, intervention, heritage policies, cultural representation theories, dialogism, cultural sustainability, recontextualization, activism and advocacy, how community is defined, ethics and informed consent along with topics in heritage studies and the study of tourism. Practices taught can include multiple modes of presentation, media production, archiving, organizational and financial management, folklore in education and community engagement. Graduate training should include the intellectual history and contemporary dimensions of intervention in ongoing cultural practices transformative for communities and relationships of practitioners to their traditions. Folklore should be viewed as a practicing profession integrating comprehensive university training and reciprocal relationships between knowledge production in universities and the public sphere.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Political Imperatives in the Heritage Regime and the Emergent Collaborative Scenarios on the Ground: Case Studies from the Baltics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article studies the political imperatives initiated by the UNESCO-related normative instruments, and the emergent terms of engagement in the dynamics of collaborative participation, both on scholarly and community level. The authors share participatory experience and expertise in the field of intangible cultural heritage in policy-making and research, with particular interest in the aftermath of UNESCO ICH-labelling and list inscriptions. We reflect at first critically upon the progress and stance of decisions taken as well as the international discursive framework and debates where we have participated. We likewise contemplate the collaborative role of experts in the intangible heritage framework. In our comparative case study into the impact on local heritage processes in the Baltics, the post-nomination circumstance has generated novel community-driven and negotiated collaborative efforts. Both the Seto community in Estonia and the Suiti community in Latvia have found diverse ways of using heritage resources for their own goals, but also in their continued creative collaboration where a growing self-esteem proves to be a solid basis. This investigation links community participation to the issue of agency, and its creative capacity to constitute and reconstitute with a substantial effect of generating action. We have discerned various moments of empowerment and creativity in local responses to transformational social and economic processes. Our research results foreground the functional capacity of creative collaboration as agency of change, where innovation and right to hybridity become enabling qualities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00“Only this Theatre, Faithful and True, Can Preserve the Distinctive Identity…”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores the complex role played by the staff of open-air museums in the Czech Republic, their relationship with the communities they work with, and their impact on the intangible cultural heritage outside the museum gates. It further explores the considerable role played by researchers active in policy making at open-air museums. The position of open-air museums is rather intricate from the perspective of communities and the state administration, with many different roles and tasks that allow and sometimes even encourage open-air museum employees to transform heritage rules or create new ones. Our conclusions are based on several case studies illustrating how the staff of Czech open-air museums build their relationships with communities, groups and individuals and how this collaboration effects the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. Ethical issues related to museum interpretation and perceptions of interpreted elements by the public are also discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Academic and Research Engagements Alongside Professional or Public Entanglements in the Field of Intangible Cultural Heritage Role Of Social Capital For Slovenian High-Tech Companies’ Internationalization<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The goal of the paper is to identify the importance and role of social capital accumulated in companies and state diplomacy for companies’ internationalization. The research aims to show the relations between the actors, to contribute to the discourse between the actors, to suggest possible improvements, and thus to contribute to the success in the internationalization of companies. The research approach is interdisciplinary. The paper offers not only a theoretical review and reflection but also new findings resulting from the concretization of the topic based on an inductive approach—the case of the Republic of Slovenia. The research has shown that the most important mechanisms for entering the market were product quality, brand, and personal acquaintances. The results of the interviews showed the importance of personal acquaintances, combined with the implicit knowledge, owned by the employees of the national institutions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Destitution And Prostitution In Nigerian Urban Areas: Evidence From Psychological, Social, And Economic Perspectives<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The impact of the problems of destitution and prostitution on the moral fabric of society cannot be overemphasized and thus calls for the attention of the relevant stakeholders (the government, civil society, and professionals) in restoring moral values and decency to our societies. This study is centered on the psychological, social, and economic impact that the activities of the destitute and prostitutes have both on the individual and the society at large. The study found that many individuals resort to begging on the streets because they are either physically challenged, lack basic necessities for decent living, have many dependents, or are the breadwinners of their families while at the same time receive little or no support from family and friends. While the above was the case for the destitute, others engaged in prostitution due to peer pressure, financial pressure from family and friends, greed, and marital issues, etc. It was also found that the problems of destitution and prostitution tend to be more prevalent in urban areas due to the increasing levels of economic activities in the cities, which therefore leads to more patronage. To avert the negative effects of the problems of destitution and prostitution in society and to completely wean those involved away from it, the study recommends the coordination of efforts by the government, psychologists, and social workers to help train and equip the victims with the skills necessary to assist them in forgoing their old lifestyle completely.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Skopje 2014: Disneyfication Of A City Or Powerful Tool In The Hands Of The Competitive Authoritarian Regime In Macedonia?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper focuses on research on the political decision-making process in the Skopje 2014 project. It describes the procedure for execution of the project from the aspect of transparency and involvement of different segments of Macedonian society based on journalistic article analysis. Thematic analysis was used as the method to accomplish the research. The analysis of the articles shows the undemocratic way of making decisions about the future urban landscape of the capital. In this case, the Disneyfication of the Skopje city centre was only used as a tool for the construction of a competitive authoritarian regime.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-20T00:00:00.000+00:00How Does The Internalization Of Misogyny Operate: A Thoretical Approach With European Examples<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present article will tackle the concept of internalized misogyny by trying to review existing theories and to extract a number of common threads of these theories in order to find some useful insights on the internal mechanisms that make up internalized misogyny, and on how internalized misogyny should be approached by practical action. I start the discussion by exploring oppression and the internalization of oppression, and afterwards move to internalized misogyny itself, charting its place within gender dynamics in general, as well as its impact on gender roles, on women’s actions towards other women, and their actions towards themselves. Using data from the World Value Survey (2017–2020), I will explore how internalized misogyny is reflected in specific sexist attitudes, how it relates to male misogyny, and which aspects of gender relations seem to come to the fore when dealing with internalized sexism. This will allow us to confront and complement the theories on internalized sexism with data on attitudes and beliefs, and develop a clearer picture of the phenomenon, as well as drawing some brief conclusions regarding practical action to mitigate gender oppression.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-20T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1