rss_2.0Pharmacy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Pharmacy Feed Pandemic: A Survey of Safety Practices among Eye Care Workers in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Objective: To assess safety practices among eye care workers in Nigeria during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. A structured electronic questionnaire was distributed among eye care workers (ophthalmologists, optometrists, ophthalmic nurses) across the six geographical zones of Nigeria. Information on socio-demographics, COVID-19 infection, current working conditions and safety practices were obtained. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc. Chicago Illinois, USA) for windows, version 22. Results: A total of 236 eye care workers participated in the study; their mean (±SD) age was 37.13 (±8.141) years, 125 (53%) were females, and 145 (61.4%) worked in a tertiary care hospital. All participants described COVID-19 as a viral disease and 98.3% agreed that the disease can affect the eyes. Outpatient clinic consultation was recorded as the highest (77.7%) service provided during the pandemic. Regarding preventive practices, 95% of eye care workers wore facemasks, 82.4% wore gloves during ophthalmic examination and Hazmat suit was the least used protective device (2.5%). About three-quarters (77.5%) reported feeling unsafe in their working environment and 63.9% were dissatisfied with the personal protective device provided by hospitals to eye care workers. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic presented an unprecedented challenge for eye care workers; with the practice of ophthalmology posing a high risk of transmission of the virus. Efforts should be made to provide the required personal protective devices needed for optimum protection of eye care workers in healthcare settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00New trend in transfusion medicine – Patient blood management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Transfusion is often part of hospital care, the indication being in constant change as an effect of latest multicentric studies’ result. Although transfusion-related complications decreased significantly, the intervention still involves risks, that are worth assuming if only the anemia of patient cannot be managed with other, safer methods. Management of patients declining transfusion or of those unsuitable for transfusion has brought instructive results in assessment of hemoglobin concentration conditioning the necessity of the intervention. Further development of these findings led to development of Patient Blood Management concept, aiming the optimization of blood product usage while improving morbidity and mortality of patient care. Patient Blood Management applies guides helping to avoid transfusions that are not definitely necessary for patients. Using restrictive transfusion principles, preoperative anemia management, tight hemostasis monitoring and treatment, is not only safer but also cost-effective. The objective of our paper is the brief report of some Patient Blood Management guidelines, and to promote and facilitate the application of the new approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Marfan syndrome associated with type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis in a 27 years old female patient - Case presentation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetically determined connective tissue disorder caused by a mutation in the FBN1 gene, located on chromosome 1, which regulates the production of the glycoprotein Fibrillin 1. This results in different connective tissue diseases, especially cardiovascular involvement. Objective: The aim of our presentation is the description of a case in which type 1 autoimmune diabetes and thyreoiditis coexists in a previously undiagnosed patient with MFS. Case presentation: A 27-years-old female patient presented to the emergency department with a 6 months long polyuria-polydipsia syndrome, with weight loss of -10kg. The onset of diabetes manifested with severe ketoacidosis (blood glucose=674 mg/dl, pH=7,036, urinary ketone bodies=159 mg/dl). Pathological laboratory findings include C-peptide=212 ng/ml, anti glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) = 5,1UI/ml, ATPO=558 UI/ml. Clinical features of MFS could be recognised, like dolicocephalic face with enophthalmus, height: 184 cm, weight: 40 kg with a BMI of 11,81 kg/m2 respectively 50 kg and 14,77 kg/m2 before weight loss; long limbs, arachnodactyly, kyphoscoliosis, mitral systolic murmur. Imaging procedures showed atrial septal defect with a 6 mm bidirectional shunt, the ascending aorta, the trunk and the aortic isthmus were dilated, mitral valve prolapse, tricuspid valve insufficiency and dilatation of the right heart cavities, interatrial septal aneurysm and pulmonary hypertension. The ECG showed a right branch block. Ophthalmologic examination confirms the lens subluxation. Discussion: The etiology of diabetes and thyroiditis has proven to be autoimmune. With the introduction of base-bolus insulin therapy glycemic control was obtained and beta-blocker treatment was started for the cardiac involvement. Summary: This particular case is unique due to the fact that associates two serious lifelong diseases. MFS should be considered on the basis of morphological characteristics, which requires further investigation due to its serious long term complications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The 150th anniversary of the Hungarian Pharmacopoiea – the role of Transsylvanian-born professionals. The challenges of the third millennium<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Two editions of the epoch-making first Hungarian pharmacopoeia (1871, 1888) were published in the 19th century. In the 20th century, this was followed by five more editions of the National Pharmacopoeia.</p> <p>There were many prominent Transylvanian specialists among the co-workers of these publications (III. - VII., 1909-1986) Lajos Dávid, senior dr. Béla Issekutz, dr.Zsigmond Jakabházy, junior dr. Miklós Jancsó, László Kovács, Dénes Kőszegi, István Novák, Tibor Széki, Lajos Winkler representing almost all fields of pharmacology and pharmacy. Their role in the field of Hungarian medical and pharmacist training, education and organization of scientific research proved to be perpetual.</p> <p>On the 150th anniversary of the publication of the first Hungarian pharmacopoeia, with this study we pay tribute to the memory of these outstanding scientists and their endeavour to create lasting values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of psycho-sociodemographic features in referred male psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Suicide is defined by the World Health Organization as an act in which an individual ends his or her own life. Suicidal behavior is a major public health problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, the global suicide rate is 10,5/100.000 – 13,5/100.000 in case of men and 7,7/100 000 in case of women and is the 2nd most common cause of violent death. Suicide is a multifactorial phenomenon that can be approached from different perspectives. In Romania, this rate is similar to the global rate: in 2016, the estimated suicide rate was 10.4/100,000, well below the European average. Suicide rates vary by region, age group, gender, ethnicity, and registration of mortality statistics. The aim of the present study is to investigate the psycho-socio-demographic indicators of a cohort of patients with suicidal thoughts emergency referred to a particular psychiatric ward in one year. In our research, we performed a case-control, analytical, randomized, observational study at the Clinical Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry Brasov among adult psychiatric patients admitted during 2014. The following data on patients were processed: demographic data (age, gender, place of residence), psychosocial data (social background, marital status, education), chronic somatic comorbidities, family history of psychiatric illness, pre-existing psychiatric illnesses, previous suicide attempts and their characteristics. The risk of suicide was assessed by the Modified Scale for Suicide Ideation - Miller et al. Questionnaire and distinguished 3 categories. In our sample of 77 cases we identified 14 patients with low suicide risk, 17 with moderate risk and 46 with high suicide risk. The focus of our study was on suicidal behavior. Suicide attempt, as a complex clinical problem with a waste complexity of ethiology, has high demands on psychiatric care. Being familiar with the different psycho-socio-demographic profiles by gender is proved to be a useful tool in both “screening” and in subsequent case management. These principles can facilitate decision-making, can increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the risk of repetitive attempts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Comments on the Hungarian pharmacopoeias in the 19th century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Before 150 years the first Hungarian pharmacopoeia was compiled in 1871 as a result of nearly one century of national efforts. The first four editions were published in two languages, Hungarian and Latin. The second edition (1888) became better than the first one showing significant progress mainly in terms of speciality language.</p> <p>Based on the first edition Prof. Kálmán Balogh, medical doctor, published an encyclopaedic commentary, which is an unparalleled source-work of the contemporary Hungarian pharmacological literature.</p> <p>Geyza Karlovszky and Lajos Winkler issued a pocket edition (“Pocket Commentary”) based on the chemistry articles of the second edition of the pharmacopoeia, which became an important practical handbook of pharmacist education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Inkblots as a cultural phenomenon: On the centenary of the Rorschach test<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Approved or not, the Hermann Rorschach test can be considered more than just a test to a clinical trial. Reflection on it as a broader phenomenon may yield what is the most valuable: better knowledge of human nature.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title> <p>This article aims to present the dual nature of Rorschach's inkblots: as a test of “guessing” the meaning of signs and as a test of perception.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>Narrative literature review on the meaning and interpretation of the Rorschach test.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p><italic>The nature and reception of inkblots.</italic> The inkblots have a dual nature: they require visual perception, and at the same time they are signs, whose meanings are extracted in the process of interpretation. This process is largely subject to cultural determinants; it also depends on the structure of stimuli and on their artistic expression.</p> <p><italic>Charles Sanders Peirce's theory of signs and the sign nature of inkblots.</italic> According to Peirce, the interpretation of a sign, as a triadic structure, belongs to the ontic order and is a continuous process, taking place perpetually. Mental interpretation, as it were, follows the ontic dimension and constitutes a kind of reflection of this dimension.</p> <p><italic>The phenomenology of perception and the interpretation of inkblots.</italic> Perception as viewed by Rorschach found its unintended, though strikingly consistent, complement in the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. This is particularly clear in the acknowledgment of the role of the body in perception and in emphasis placed on the active and dynamic nature of the subject–object relationship.</p> <p><italic>Rorschach and Merleau-Ponty vs. Peirce: similarities and differences.</italic> The seemingly completely different ways of understanding interpretation in Peirce's semiotics (indirect cognition) and in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology (direct cognition), actually show important similarities. I draw attention to the ontic dimension of interpretation and its systemic character, which both philosophers stress, and to the view of interpretation as a perpetual process that is never completed, both in Peirce's semiotics and in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The semiotic and perceptual nature of the inkblots created by the Swiss psychiatrist reflects two basic and mutually complementary ways in which humans experience the world. This experience has both a psychological and an ontic nature, which makes it possible for an examination using the Rorschach test to become an encounter with an existential dimension.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Carrier Screening for Single-Gene Disorders – A Brief Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Carrier screening (CS) is an approach to pre-reproductive identification of couples at risk of having offspring with a single-gene disorder (SGD). The goal of CS is to facilitate reproductive autonomy and informed decision-making of the revealed risk couples. Initially, CS was introduced in the 1970s among the Ashkenazi Jewish population in the USA with a high incidence of Tay-Sachs disease. Until recently, CS had a limited application, mainly among individuals of a particular ethnicity or family history of SGD, and a limited number of conditions are included. Implementing the revolutionary technology of next-generation sequencing revealed a much more comprehensive range of possibilities for CS. The expanded alternative variant introduced a new concept that allows screening for hundreds to thousands of SGDs without pre-selection of individuals based on their ancestry or family history. Furthermore, the number of detected pathogenic variants is much higher compared to the traditional CS. Currently, there is insufficient experience with the application of expanded CS, and the lack of uniform guidelines is a major problem when it comes to massive implementation. Nevertheless, the significant potential of the expanded CS has given rise to a growing interest in it and provoked in-depth discussions about the opportunities of widespread application in practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Single-Dose Cold Modified Bretschneider Solution for Myocardial Protection in the Surgical Treatment of Patients with Aortic Valve Stenosis and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is predominantly caused by degenerative calcification in patients over 70 years. It obstructs the left ventricular outflow tract. The result is concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) wall stress and ischemia-induced myocardial fibrosis. [1] According to the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, all high-grade AS patients are indicated for Aortic valve intervention [2]. One of the most recommendable methods for myocardial protection during surgical aortic valve replacement is antegrade delivery of cold crystalloid cardioplegia. Our retrospective study included 173 operated patients with AS and LVH. We observed the MB fraction of the enzyme creatine phosphokinase (CPK-MB) as a postoperative marker for myocardial hypoprotection in different patients. Our results showed that a single dose of modified Bretschnaider solution provided safe and long enough myocardial protection during conventional and minimally invasive aortic valve replacement in patients with AS and LVH [3].</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship between Elevated Maternal Serum Podocalyxin Concentrations with Blood Pressure Values and Routine Laboratory Parameters in Preeclampsia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Podocalyxin (PCX) is a glycoprotein member of the CD34 transmembrane sialomucin family and covers the surface of podocytes. It is assumed to be a marker of glomerular endothelial injury. In conditions, podocalyxin excretion in the urine is increased as a result of podocyte injury. Recent studies show that PCX is expressed not only in kidneys but also in the endothelial cells of other organs. Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by new-onset hypertension, generalized endothelial injury, and glomerular alteration. Having this in mind, in the present study, we aimed to: (1) determine circulating PCX levels in sera of women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy; (2) explore for an association between PCX and blood pressure and (3) investigate a possible relationship between PCX and routine laboratory markers of cardiac and renal injury/dysfunction. Fifty-five women with preeclampsia were examined. The mean age of patients was 24.9±6 years, and the mean age of the control group of 35 women with normal pregnancies was 24.7±5.4 years. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine concentrations of PCX. Levels of serum PCX in preeclamptic women were statistically significantly higher than those in women with normal pregnancy: 2.66±0.67 vs. 2.40±0.33 ng/ml (p=0.03). Podocalyxin correlated with SBP (r=0.30; p=0.004), DBP (r=0.35; p=0.0007), uric acid (r=0.32; p=0.002), CPK (r=0.22; 0.03) and its isoenzyme CK-MB (r=0.21; p=0.04). Our results showed significantly higher levels of serum PCX in women with preeclampsia than in healthy pregnancy. Elevated podocalyxin levels are associated with an increase in blood pressure in preeclampsia. We found a relationship between PCX and routine laboratory indicators of cardiac (CPK and CK-MB) and renal injury/dysfunction (uric acid). PCX has the potential as a future preeclampsia diagnostic biomarker.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00A Review of Results from Clinical Trials Based on Co-Variants of the R-CHOP Regimen in Untreated Patients with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Since 2000, new drugs for treating lymphoproliferative diseases have been introduced in haematology, and their initial indications have been gradually expanded. Some of the so-called „target molecules“ have shown good efficacy when treating some malignant non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The possibility of achieving therapeutic disease control in some indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas using drugs with a different mechanism of action from that of cytostatics has logically raised the question of a change in therapeutic management in other lymphoproliferative diseases. Since 2010, clinical trials have been initiated with untreated patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin‘s lymphoma - diffuse large B-cell lymphoma as the primary target. The key aim of most clinical trials has been to compare the efficacy of the so-called „gold standard“ - rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, oncovin, prednisolone (R- CHOP) versus its derivatives. The review discusses the results of completed clinical trials published on the Internet. These trials covered covariants of the R-CHOP regimen used as first-line treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The review also includes drugs registered in Bulgaria for the last ten years but with a different clinical indication at present. The results of five clinical trials in which obinotuzumab, venetoclax, lenalidomide, bortezomib, and ibrutinib were used are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Study of the Content of Heavy Metals in Foods in Bulgaria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Food safety is a priority for the European Union (EU). EU food safety policy covers all sectors of the food chain. In recent years, numerous studies have been conducted in Bulgaria on contaminants in plant and animal foods as one of the priority areas of food safety policy. Metals are part of the chemical pollutants in the environment. People are exposed to metals from the environment and food and water contaminated with metals. Researchers have found that the intake of metals with food is different and that food exposure is the primary way of metal exposure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Review on Anastomotic Leak Rate after ICG Angiography during Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Colorectal cancer is the 3<sup>rd</sup> most common type of cancer worldwide. The most devastating complication after colorectal surgery remains the anastomotic leak (AL). Many techniques have been developed to reduce its rate. One such new method is perfusion angiography using indocyanine green (ICG). A literary search in PUBMED on 1.03.2021 for full-text English articles published between 2014 and 2021 was performed. ICG, colorectal cancer, and angiography were the keywords we used. The review was performed following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The literature search yielded 27 results when searching the database of PUBMED with the above keywords. Twenty-one out of 27 identified articles were included. Six were excluded from the analysis – four case reports, one review on the evolution of treating gastrointestinal cancers, and one containing no information on AL rate with ICG. One included article was RCT, sixteen were cohort studies, and four were meta-analyses or reviews. All articles reported a reduction in the anastomotic leak rate. However, the reduction was significant only in nine of them. Anastomotic leak is a severe complication and a subject of extensive research. Perfusion angiography with ICG is a step towards predicting and preventing AL, although it does not guarantee success in all cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Aminosteroid U74389G in a Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Lazaroid U-74389G is a synthetic 21-aminosteroid with free radical-scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of U-74389G on experimental 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid hydrate (DNBS)-induced colitis in Wistar rats. Five experimental groups were formed: a sham control group, a control group, treated with 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol intrarectally (n=8), a group treated with DNBS (30 mg in 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol administered intrarectally, (n=8), a group treated with DNBS and U-74389G at a daily dose of 15 mg/kg i.p. (n=8), and a group treated with DNBS and sulfasalazine, orally, at a dose of 300 mg/kg. During the experiment, the bodyweight of the rats, food intake, stool consistency, and presence of blood in the stool were recorded as markers of clinical condition. On day 6, colonic tissues were excised and scored for macroscopic and histological damage. Blood samples were taken to measure levels of cytokines by ELISA methods. DNBS decreased significantly body weight (from 237.00±2.52 g to 212.50±6.25 g, p=0.04). The rats treated with U-74389G showed greater food intake and weight gain. U-74389G reduced ulceration index: the U-74389G score was 1.25±0.25, and the DNBS score –3.87±0.61; p&lt;0.05. All other macroscopic parametersassessed were significantly improved in rats treated with U-74389G. The levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, were significantly lower than those of the DNBS group, while U-74389G significantly elevated the level of anti-inflammatory IL-10. These findings indicate that U-74389G significantly inhibits colonic inflammatory damages in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Uterine Infection in Pregnancy Outcome: A Case Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>It was believed in the past that only the lower genital tract is inhabited by microorganisms, and the cervix was considered as a perfect barrier against the ascension of microbes. Nowadays, many studies using new sequencing technologies examining microbiomes with low biomass show that the microorganisms are gradually changing from the lower to the upper genital tract with decreasing bacterial abundance and increasing bacterial diversity. It is well documented that the endometrium is a non-sterile area, and in healthy women, the Lactobacillus spp. is the dominant flora. Lactobacillus - as a dominant endometrial microbiome, has a crucial role in implantation, early pregnancy development. It is also essential for a good pregnancy outcome. Non-Lactobacillus-dominant microbiome is associated with poor reproductive outcomes (recurrent implantation failure, recurrent miscarriages, outgoing pregnancy). This association is evidence of its significance for reproductive health.</p> <p>We present a case of unsuccessful first pregnancy with concurrent bacterial endometrial infection. A definitive antibiotic treatment resulted in a successful full-term second pregnancy. We present the influence of pathogenic microorganisms on uterine function and pregnancy development, current possibilities for diagnosis and treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Non-Absorbable Oral Gentamicin Sulphate: Biopharmaceutical and Dosage Form Evaluation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Gentamicin sulphate is an antibiotic belonging to the aminoglycosides and to class III of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). Gentamicin sulphate is highly water soluble, but has very low intestinal permeability. The wide use is because of its broad spectrum of activity. In the current study, the suitability of administering gentamicin sulphate orally for local action against susceptible gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bacteria was investigated. The possibility of the drug escaping into the systemic circulation even in the presence of some permeation enhancers was ascertained. Representatives of potential GIT bacteria pathogens were evaluated for their susceptibility to the drug at concentrations obtainable in the GIT using standard microbiological methods. Dose levels that will inhibit these potential bacteria pathogens were also established, as well as the frequency of their administration. Different batches of oral capsules of 250 mg gentamicin sulphate were formulated and their release profiles ascertained using standard methods. The results showed that the selected representatives of the GIT potential pathogenic bacteria were all susceptible to gentamicin sulphate. The drug at its plausible dosage levels of 14.28 mg/kg (1,000 mg/70 kg), 10.71 mg/kg (750 mg/70 kg) and 7.14 mg/kg (500 mg/70 kg) did not cross the mucosal barrier into the systemic circulation even in the presence of some permeation enhancers. The drug's frequency of administration were found to be on 8-hourly bases. Gentamicin sulphate (250 mg) granules formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000) as granulating aid were quick drying because the granules were not hygroscopic. The formulated gentamicin sulphate capsule batch released enough concentration of the drug that inhibits the test organism within 2 min of dissolution. The above stated doses are acceptable in the dosage form design; it is possible to formulate non-absorbable oral gentamicin sulphate dosage form for local activity in the GIT using existing conventional solid dosage formulating equipment.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Different Extracts of Beetroots as Antioxidant and Anti-Anaemia On Phenylhydrazine-Induced Rats<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>evaluate antioxidant and anti-anaemia activity of dichloromethane, hydroethanolic, and alkaloids-free hydroethanolic extracts of beetroot (<italic>Beta vulgaris</italic> (L.) subsp. <italic>vulgaris</italic>) on phenylhydrazine-induced rats.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>Male rats were divided into five groups: normal control group, negative control group, dichloromethane extract group, hydroethanolic extract group, and alkaloids-free hydroethanolic extract group. All groups were induced with phenylhydrazine (30 mg.Kg<sup>−1</sup> BW) for three days, except for the normal control group. After induction, each treatment group received each extract (200 mg.Kg<sup>−1</sup> BW) for 21 days. The haematology parameters (haemoglobin levels, the number of erythrocytes, and haematocrit levels) were measured using Haematology Analyzer, and the antioxidant activity was measured through MDA level parameters in rats. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and then continued with the Tukey test.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of beetroot increased the percentage of erythrocytes (33.5%), haemoglobin (25%), and haematocrit (24.4%) to the negative control group, which was comparable to the normal control group (p &gt; 0.05). In addition, the best antioxidant activity was shown in the hydroethanolic extract of beetroot, which is comparable to the normal group (p &gt; 0.05).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The beetroot hydroethanolic crude extract could be potentially produced in a natural pharmaceutical product as a beneficial resource within anti-anaemia and antioxidant activities.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Retraction Note syndrome in patients with anorexia nervosa - case reports<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Refeeding syndrome RS is a life-threatening acute hormonal and metabolic disorder that occurs in patients with moderate or severe malnutrition as a result of improperly administered nutritional therapy.</p> <p><bold>Material and method:</bold> The aim of this study is to describe the cases of two female patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, who developed a refeeding syndrome after starting nutritional therapy. Additionally, the available literature was reviewed in order to characterize the issue, including negative consequences and prevention of the refeeding syndrome.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> In both cases, the development of the refeeding syndrome was found in the patients, resulting from the excessive supply of energy and nutritional substrates in a short time, preceded by a previous, months long period of starvation and exhaustion of the organism (both patients had a decrease in the body mass index - BMI - to the value of about 14 kg / m<sup>2</sup>). In patient 1, the symptoms concerned mainly the cardiovascular system: a significant increase in the concentration of N-terminal B-type natriuretic propeptide (NT-proBNP) and tachycardia, as well as a decrease in the concentration of inorganic phosphates and hypokalemia. On the other hand, in the case of patient 2, symptoms such as confusion or deep disturbances of consciousness, which led to hospitalization in the intensive care unit, dominated the clinical picture.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Refeeding syndrome may develop during nutritional rehabilitation, especially in the case of a sudden, inadequately planned supply of nutrients. Particular care should be taken in patients with extremely low BMI when reintroducing nutrition.</p> <p>The presented case reports draw attention to the possibility of cardiological complications and mental disorders of the realimentation syndrome, and indicate the behavior of patients (eating excessive food) that may lead to the development of the refeeding syndrome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The use of rIX-FP in patients with haemophilia B: a nurse's perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The management of patients with haemophilia is complex and requires lifelong care to be delivered by a specialist multidisciplinary team. Haemophilia B results from a deficiency or absence in coagulation factor IX (FIX), leading to easy bruising, and musculoskeletal and internal bleeding. For patients with severe or moderate haemophilia B, prophylaxis with standard half-life (SHL) coagulation FIX products requires frequent intravenous administration, which may negatively impact treatment adherence and increase burden of care. A recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant FIX (rFIX) with recombinant human albumin, rIX-FP, has an extended half-life compared with SHL rFIX, and has demonstrated a favourable safety and efficacy profile for the prevention and treatment of bleeding episodes in phase III and real-world studies of patients with severe haemophilia B. rIX-FP enables treatment to be tailored to the needs of individual patients, with dosing flexibility allowing selected patients to be treated with prophylaxis dosing intervals of 7, 10, 14 or 21 days. Patients switching to rIX-FP can reduce their annualised bleeding rate and some have successfully reduced their prophylactic dosing frequency while maintaining low bleeding rates and consistent factor consumption. This may ultimately minimise the occurrence of haemophilic arthropathy and improve patient quality of life. Educating patients and caregivers on the sustained use of rIX-FP prophylaxis is essential. The lifelong support and guidance provided by healthcare professionals at haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) are critical for providing an optimal treatment approach that can increase adherence to treatment. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of rIX-FP demonstrated in clinical trials and clinical practice, and discusses haemophilia nurses’ clinical experiences with rIX-FP in patients in their HTCs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1