rss_2.0Pharmacy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Pharmacy Feed Application for the Population Pharmacokinetic Service (WAPPS)'s impact on dosage selection: a single paediatric centre experience<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Current treatment for severe haemophilia includes prophylactic factor replacement to prevent bleeding. Coagulation factor products have significant inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Optimal management requires tailoring prophylaxis to individual PK parameters. Web-based Application for the Population Pharmacokinetic Service (WAPPS) is a tool that estimates individual PK values using a population approach. Despite its growing use to help guide dosing selection, few studies have investigated its clinical impact.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>To investigate any change in prophylaxis regimen and hours per week where factor level is under 1%, pre- and post-PK testing using WAPPS, for paediatric patients with severe haemophilia.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A retrospective chart review was conducted for all paediatric patients with severe haemophilia receiving care between April 2013 and July 2018 at McMaster Children's Hospital who have used WAPPS. Data extracted included: patient demographics, PK data generated by WAPPS, prophylaxis regimen pre- and post-PK testing, and reason for regimen change. The number of hours per week where factor level was under 1% pre- and post-PK testing was calculated using WAPPS.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Thirty-one patients were included; 42% (n=13) changed their prophylaxis regimen after PK testing. After using PK data to personalise prophylaxis recommendations, there was a decrease in the number of hours per week where factor level is under 1% (from an average of 13.1 hours/week to 11.8 hours/week), though not statistically significant (p=0.16).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>PK data generated by WAPPS has direct impact by informing changes to prophylaxis recommendations. This individualised approach promotes patient-centred care and patient engagement without increasing the time spent with factor levels below 1%. It also confirms and validates clinical practice.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Red Flag Study: An observational cross-sectional survey looking at bleeding in patients with a bleeding disorder who are lost to follow-up<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Regular follow-up visits and routine care is important for people with a mild bleeding disorder in terms of lowering their risk of complications from untreated bleeds and helping them maintain a healthy lifestyle. However, follow-up visits among this population can sometimes be missed for unclear reasons.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>The present study aimed to question if lost-to-follow-up patients with a bleeding disorder experience unreported but important bleeding events that are not communicated to their haemophilia treatment centre (HTC) and if they could benefit from more frequent clinic visits.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A multicentre paper-based cross-sectional survey was sent to people diagnosed with an inherited blood disorder and lost to follow-up for two years or more. Those who met the eligibility criteria received the survey by mail and completed and returned it to their HTC between October 2015 and July 2016.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Invitation packages were sent to 71 individuals; 14 questionnaires returned, with a survey response rate of 19.7%. Of the 14 returned surveys, only 11 participants were eligible who either responded completely or partially to the survey. Quality of life was reported as almost never or never a problem by all but one participant, who limited activities due to bleeding problems. Spontaneous nosebleeds were sometimes, often or always a problem for three participants; one female participant reported issues associated with heavy menstrual bleeding as often or almost always a problem.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>We concluded that although the mean annual bleeding self-reported events were relatively low, they cannot be underestimated when keeping in mind the limitations and challenges of accessing data among this population. Our study highlighted the importance of educating this group of patients on their bleeding disorder and engaging them in their own care and health status, which may result in improving their health-related quality of life and overall health outcomes.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The use of rIX-FP in patients with haemophilia B: a nurse's perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The management of patients with haemophilia is complex and requires lifelong care to be delivered by a specialist multidisciplinary team. Haemophilia B results from a deficiency or absence in coagulation factor IX (FIX), leading to easy bruising, and musculoskeletal and internal bleeding. For patients with severe or moderate haemophilia B, prophylaxis with standard half-life (SHL) coagulation FIX products requires frequent intravenous administration, which may negatively impact treatment adherence and increase burden of care. A recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant FIX (rFIX) with recombinant human albumin, rIX-FP, has an extended half-life compared with SHL rFIX, and has demonstrated a favourable safety and efficacy profile for the prevention and treatment of bleeding episodes in phase III and real-world studies of patients with severe haemophilia B. rIX-FP enables treatment to be tailored to the needs of individual patients, with dosing flexibility allowing selected patients to be treated with prophylaxis dosing intervals of 7, 10, 14 or 21 days. Patients switching to rIX-FP can reduce their annualised bleeding rate and some have successfully reduced their prophylactic dosing frequency while maintaining low bleeding rates and consistent factor consumption. This may ultimately minimise the occurrence of haemophilic arthropathy and improve patient quality of life. Educating patients and caregivers on the sustained use of rIX-FP prophylaxis is essential. The lifelong support and guidance provided by healthcare professionals at haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) are critical for providing an optimal treatment approach that can increase adherence to treatment. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of rIX-FP demonstrated in clinical trials and clinical practice, and discusses haemophilia nurses’ clinical experiences with rIX-FP in patients in their HTCs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Haemophilia specialist nurses’ perceptions of haemophilia B<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Some clinicians believe that haemophilia B is associated with less bleeding than haemophilia A, yet there appears to be little difference in health-related outcomes. Current clinical practice reduces the risk of bleeds, making differences difficult to measure. We surveyed specialist haemophilia nurses to discern their opinions about the impact of haemophilia B compared to haemophilia A.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>Between July and September 2020, European and Canadian nurses were invited to complete an online survey (25 questions) about perceptions of management and treatment of haemophilia B.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Fifty-nine nurses (46 European, 13 Canadian) completed the survey. Bleeding was reported as different in haemophilia B by 37% of respondents, and treatment as different by over half. Opinions and experience around using extended half-life (EHL) products varied. Self-reported confidence in using EHL products was rated at a mean of 7.1 (range 3–10) with 47% believing these would remain the optimal treatment in 2025.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Some nurses believe haemophilia A and B are managed differently. Variations in experience and levels of confidence in the use of EHL products, combined with a belief that these products will remain an optimal treatment for haemophilia B for the next five years, indicates a need for education to promote confidence and competence.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Telemedicine in haemophilia during COVID-19 and beyond: a comprehensive review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Patients with haemophilia require regular assessments and physical examinations. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the rapid adoption of telemedicine to enable virtual consultations and reduce hospital visits. However, the process of virtual consultations is new to many haemophilia clinics. A better understanding of best practices in telemedicine is important to ensure optimal quality of care for patients with haemophilia.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title><p>To summarise the current literature on the use of direct-to-consumer telemedicine for patients with haemophilia and to describe the effectiveness and potential limitations of the technology and methods used.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A comprehensive search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using terms referring to the concepts “haemophilia” AND “telemedicine” and their synonyms. There were no time or language restrictions. Title, abstracts, and full texts were screened. Included articles involved telemedicine interventions to facilitate clinical services directly between patients and providers without the use of third-party personnel. The primary outcome was the satisfaction of providers and patients. Secondary outcomes included economic considerations and clinical outcomes. Information was extracted based on study-specific, patient-specific, intervention-specific, and outcome-specific data.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Of the 925 articles screened, six were identified and summarised. Three described telemedicine within the context of COVID-19. Technologies used included telephone calls, videoconferencing, text messaging, and email. All studies involved a multidisciplinary team. Telemedicine in haemophilia care was found to positively impact the patient experience. Providers were satisfied with telemedicine. It was also suggested to be economically beneficial and positively impacted patient outcomes. However, none of the articles reported on how telemedicine was specifically used to perform assessments during the virtual consultation process.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>There is preliminary evidence that telemedicine may be beneficial in haemophilia care. Overall, patients and providers reported high satisfaction with the usage of direct-to-consumer telemedicine. This positive reception warrants improvements in standardisation of reporting and quality of study design to better assess its clinical and economic impact. Developing a standard guideline for virtual consultations would support healthcare practitioners in how to best incorporate telemedicine to improve quality of care.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Bone mineral density in Canadian children with severe haemophilia A or B: a cross-sectional study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Previous research has shown that bone mineral density (BMD), a measure of bone strength, may be lower among people with haemophilia. However, the majority of this research has been done in adults and in countries where the treatment for haemophilia differs from the standard of care in Canada, and there is a lack of paediatric data.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aims</title><p>The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Canadian children and youth with severe haemophilia A and B have BMD similar to healthy controls matched for height, age and weight (HAW-score). Secondary objectives included the exploration of any association between BMD and the following variables: factor replacement regimen, Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS), bleeding history, physical activity level, and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>A cross-sectional observational study was designed to determine the BMD of children with severe haemophilia A and B in Canada. Ethical approvals were obtained from participating institutions. Thirty-eight participants aged 3–18 with severe haemophilia A and B were recruited from two treatment centres in Canada. Subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, and data was collected from regular clinic visit to identify factor replacement regimen, HJHS, and number of joint bleeds over the lifespan. Physical activity level and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein were identified using self-report questionnaires.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Participants showed a mean spine BMD Z-score and HAW-score higher than controls, with no participants showing a spine Z-score or HAW-score of &lt;0. Hip BMD score was within normal range, and 2 participants had a Z-score and HAW-score of &lt;−2. Total body BMD score was lower than controls, with 6 participants having a Z-score of &lt;−2.0, and 3 participants having a HAW-score of &lt;−2.0. Factor replacement regimen, HJHS, calcium intake, and physical activity level had no relationship to BMD Z-score or HAW-score. Low intake of vitamin D was associated with a low hip and spine BMD Z-score and HAW-score. Participants with a HJHS joint score greater than 0 had a higher total body HAW-score than those who had a joint score of 0.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Canadian children with severe haemophilia A and B demonstrate differences in spine and total body BMD from height-, age-, and weight-matched controls, where spine BMD is higher than controls and total body BMD is lower than controls. Studies with a larger sample size are needed to clarify the status of BMD in children with haemophilia treated with primary prophylaxis.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-14T00:00:00.000+00:00A descriptive study of United States bleeding disorders camps<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Disease-specific camps present one means of helping children overcome the challenges associated with chronic conditions and improving clinical and psychosocial outcomes. For more than 50 years, bleeding disorders camps (BDCs) in the United States (US) have been promoting independence, self-care, and leadership skills in children with bleeding disorders, all while fostering camaraderie in a secure and safe environment. However, little is known about how BDCs are organised, administered, funded, staffed, or how staff are compensated.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>This article aims to describe the attributes of BDCs that service the US bleeding disorders community, and to compare and contrast these attributes to identify gaps in the BDC system and areas for improvement.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>The National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF), in collaboration with several members of its Nursing Working Group and Physical Therapy Working Group, developed a survey that was distributed to BDC administrators (CAs) and health care providers (HCPs).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>A total of 101 HCPs and 20 CAs completed the survey. Findings indicated that BDCs are an informal extension of both the HTCs and NHF chapters, reaffirming that camps play a crucial role in the overall care of bleeding disorders. In general, diminishing financial resources threaten the existence of BDCs. Although there are BDC guidelines for formal staff training and specific interventions delivered to camp participants, adherence is variable. Other gaps included minimal self-infusion education follow-up with no documentation on effect or benefit of infusion education provided at camp.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Addressing the gaps identified by this survey and documenting resultant data supporting the value of BDCs will facilitate their continued sustainability in light of increasingly limited funding.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The potential impact of gene therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains in haemophilia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder characterised by spontaneous bleeding, often leading to impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Commonly used treatments include episodic and prophylactic treatment regimens. Gene therapies could soon become available, potentially creating a paradigm shift in patient management.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>This paper proposes hypotheses about the potential impact of gene therapy on HRQoL domains in haemophilia, and how these impacts might differ compared with existing treatments.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>An expert working group with 10 individuals experienced in haemophilia and HRQoL research was established to discuss potential impacts of gene therapy on HRQoL in general and for specific domains in haemophilia. As part of a one-day workshop, domains of three widely used patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments were explored: the Haemo-QoL-A, the Patient Reported Outcomes, Burden and Experiences (PROBE), and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The group expected a greater improvement in HRQoL from gene therapy compared with existing treatments for the following domains: physical/role functioning, worry, and consequences of bleeding (Haemo-QoL-A); haemophilia-related health and EQ-5D-5L (part of the PROBE); leg and arm function, and leisure activities (HAL). In contrast, the experts suggested that no change or potential deterioration might be observed for the emotional impact (HAL) and treatment concerns (Haemo-QoL-A) domains.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>Current PRO instruments in haemophilia have limitations when applied in the context of gene therapy, and no single instrument fully captures the relevant HRQoL domains. However, the PROBE and Haemo-QoL-A were considered as the most suitable existing instruments. As haemophilia treatments evolve, further research should examine the potential effectiveness of existing PRO instruments as compared to the development of novel PRO measures.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The patient gene therapy journey: Findings from qualitative interviews with trial participants at one UK haemophilia centre<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Gene therapy for haemophilia is in late-stage clinical development and has the potential to become a therapeutic option in clinical practice.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Aims</title><p>To enhance the understanding of the perspectives of people with haemophilia around gene therapy, and to highlight their concerns about and motivations for having gene therapy.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title><p>Structured, qualitative interviews were conducted and recorded with six people who had received an investigational gene therapy product. The recordings were transcribed and thematically analysed.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Most of those interviewed were under the age of 40, and the mean time out from their gene therapy infusion was 10 months. Adverse events were the main concerns pre-infusion, and impact on quality of life was the main motivating factor for choosing to go ahead. Pre-infusion, the treating centre and the health care professionals working there were the main source of information regarding gene therapy; only two participants looked elsewhere for information to support their decision. None of the respondents expressed concerns about the infusion day itself, and all found the infusion to be simple or uneventful. Post-infusion, four found the frequency of follow-up appointments difficult, with time and travel the main issues.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Although participants' perspectives on gene therapy were generally positive, there remains a need for education and support. Nurses will play an important role in the delivery of gene therapy for haemophilia, but all staff within the haemophilia treatment centre should be armed with the knowledge and confidence to answer questions about gene therapy.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Dental extraction in congenital factor Vll deficiency with inhibitor – a case report<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Hereditary factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, and FVII deficiency with an inhibitor is extremely rare. There is sparse information in the literature on the management of tooth extraction in patients with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Case description</title><p>We report the case of a five-year-old child with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor who underwent dental extraction. The child had had multiple bleeding episodes including intracranial haemorrhage and had a history of severe allergic reaction to the infusion of recombinant FVII. The tooth was extracted using lignocaine gel and the antifibrinolytic agent oral tranexamic acid.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The extraction of a deciduous tooth in a patient with FVII deficiency and an inhibitor was undertaken without bleeding complications. There are currently no guidelines regarding management of this type of case. Further studies and evidence are required so that management can be standardised.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of heavy periods on women with a bleeding disorder<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>Women with a bleeding disorder (WBD), including those diagnosed as a carrier, often have heavy periods associated with prolonged bleeding and pain. This survey sought to describe the impact of this substantial burden on daily living and the personal cost of managing heavy periods.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>An online survey was promoted to women who identify as having a bleeding disorder via the social media of The Haemophilia Society in January and February 2020. The survey included 20 questions about personal data, symptoms and the practicalities of living with a bleeding disorder.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>A total of 181 responses were received, of which 151 were complete questionnaires. Of these, 58% of respondents were aged 18–45 and 136 identified as having a bleeding disorder, mostly haemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Thirteen (10%) had been diagnosed as a haemophilia carrier and a further four women were probable carriers. Prolonged or painful periods were reported by the majority of respondents; the median duration of bleeding was 7 days (range 2–42). Thirty-six per cent took time off work or study as a result and 42% reported a negative impact on social life. Eighteen women (13%) reported having to use a combination of sanitary protection products to manage their bleeding. Women diagnosed as a carrier reported morbidity comparable with that of women with a diagnosed bleeding disorder and reported greater use of combinations of sanitary protection.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>WBD experience a high prevalence of heavy bleeding and prolonged, painful periods despite using appropriate symptomatic treatment. The impact of heavy periods on women diagnosed as a being a carrier is comparable with that experienced by women with a diagnosed bleeding disorder, but as they are not always clinically recognised they may lack access to care and support.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Personalising haemophilia management with shared decision making<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The current standard of care for treating people with haemophilia (PWH) in the developed world is prophylaxis with regular infusions of clotting factor concentrates. Gene therapy is being investigated as a new treatment paradigm for haemophilia and if approved would potentially eliminate the need for chronic, burdensome infusions. In recent years, shared decision making (SDM) has become increasingly common in patient care settings. SDM is a stepwise process that relies on reciprocal information sharing between the practitioner and patient, resulting in health care decisions stemming from the informed preferences of both parties. SDM represents a departure from the traditional, paternalistic clinical model where the practitioner drives the treatment decision and the patient passively defers to this decision. As the potential introduction of gene therapy in haemophilia may transform the current standard of care, and impact disease management and goals in unique ways, both practitioners and PWH may find their knowledge tested when considering the appropriate use of a novel technology. Therefore, it is incumbent upon haemophilia practitioners to foster an open, trusting, and supportive relationship with their patients, while PWH and their caregivers must be knowledgeable and feel empowered to participate in the decision making process to achieve truly shared treatment decisions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Case report of nasal pseudotumor – a rare presentation in severe haemophilia A with high titre inhibitors<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Haemophilia patients with inhibitors suffer from increased morbidity and mortality due to the ineffectiveness of factor VIII replacement. Pseudotumors are rare but dangerous complications in these patients, and nasal pseudotumors are even rarer. Here, we present the case of a young child with severe haemophilia A with high titre inhibitors who developed a nasal pseudotumor. When immune tolerance therapy was not possible due to financial constraints, he was treated with FEIBA prophylaxis and rituximab. The pseudotumor was managed with surgical excision. We conclude that epistaxis in haemophiliacs can be due to an underlying nasal pseudotumor, and highlight the use of rituximab for the eradication of inhibitors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Book of Abstracts 38th Technology Days 9th and 10th September 2021 bilayers in model membranes and drug delivery systems: from physics to pharmacy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lipids spontaneously aggregate in an aqueous environment forming supramolecular structures of various architectures known as liquid crystalline mesophases. Their thermodynamic properties determined by dual polar/apolar nature coupled with the possibility to modulate the structural parameters, phase geometry and stability are challenging for applications in drug delivery systems. We review a few examples of functionality of lipid bilayers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of transition metal carboxylates derived from agaric acid<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Carboxylato-type transition metal complexes with agaric acid, a bioactive natural compound derived from citric acid, were prepared, and tested <italic>in vitro</italic> for their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. The products as well as agaric acid itself are amphiphilic compounds containing a hydrophilic head (citric acid moiety) and a hydrophobic tail (non-polar alkyl chain). The putative composition of the carboxylates was assigned on grounds of elemental analysis, infrared (IR) and high-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS), as well as in analogy with known complexes containing the citrate moiety. The metal carboxylates showed interesting activity in several microbial strains, especially against <italic>S. aureus</italic> (vanadium complex; MIC = 0.05 mg/ml). They were also tested for their cytotoxic activity in hepatocytes, the highest activity having been found in the copper(II) and manganese(II) complexes. Further research based on these preliminary results is needed in order to evaluate the influence of parameters like stability of the metal complexes in solution on the bioactivity of the complexes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00EPR study of effect of ascorbic acid on hair and feather samples in relation to eumelanins and pheomelanins Effect and Standardization Parameters of Herbal Medicinal Product Obtained from the L. Herb<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sedative phytomedications continue to play an important role in the management of a considerable amount of anxiety symptoms because of the various side effects of synthetic sedatives and tranquilizers. However, developing new herbal drugs needs their appropriate quality control according to the relevant requirements. The aim of the study was to determine the sedative properties of the tinctures obtained from the American basil (<italic>Ocimum americanum</italic> L., <italic>Lamiaceae</italic> Martinov family) herb and to develop the standardization parameters for the promising herbal medicinal product. The open field test was used to evaluate the sedative effect of the prepared tinctures: (1) with the added of <italic>O. americanum</italic> essential oil (OATEs) and (2) without adding <italic>O. americanum</italic> essential oil (OAT). The standardization parameters for the OATEs were developed using validated High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods. The HPTLC analysis was used for the chromatographic fingerprints of polyphenols and for identifying linalool in the OATEs. The HPLC analysis found the significant content of rosmarinic acid (RA) (0.26%) in the OATEs. In conclusion, the developed OATEs can be considered as the new herbal medicinal product with significant sedative properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Purification of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 With Use of Differential Centrifugation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The method for separation of viral particles in a concentrated form from the environment is called virus purification. Viruses are required to be purified for a range of studies in which it is necessary to distinguish the properties or structure of a virus from the host cells or culture media, including analysis of viral polypeptide structures and membrane glycoprotein function. Our objective was to purify murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68, MuHV-4) using the centrifuge, equipment and other materials available in our laboratory. After infection of baby hamster kidney 21 (BHK-21) cells with MHV-68 with the multiplicity of infection (MI) of 0.01 and following virus multiplication, we repeatedly froze and thawed the cell culture to disrupt the cells and release the virus particles into the culture medium. We used low-speed centrifugation (3000 rpm at 4°C) to separate the viral particles from cell debris. Subsequently, we transferred the supernatant containing virus particles to a fresh centrifuge tube and centrifuged at a speed of 8000 rpm (8801 <italic>g</italic>) and 11,000 rpm (=16,639 <italic>g</italic>) and at 4°C. We tested different centrifugation durations of 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. To evaluate the quality of the obtained purified MHV-68 virus by this method and compare it to purified MHV-68 sample acquired by conventional ultracentrifugation on sucrose cushion (30%, w/v), we used the SDS-PAGE separation method using a 4%–20% (w/v) and 6%–14% (w/v) gradient gel. We obtained the best results with 6-hour-long centrifugation at 11,000 rpm. In conclusion, we managed to optimise virus purification method using the equipment available in our laboratory and prepared purified MHV-68 virus in sufficient concentration for determination of MHV-68 virus proteins.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Nanoscience – from manipulation of atoms to human needs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nanoscience and nanotechnology are an extrapolation from the field of microtechnology to the atomic level. The development is based on the 60-year-old message of R. Feynman, ‘There's plenty of room at the bottom’. His vision has fertilised at the turn of the millennium with the announcement of generously funded nanotechnology initiatives. The journey was paved by seven Nobel Prizes (1986–2016) for new microscopes, low-dimensional materials (fullerenes, graphene), theories and computer methods up to the building of molecular engines. However, the enthusiasm for this technically and IT-oriented ‘business as usual’ partly dissolves in the problems of a planet burdened by climate change, depletion of raw materials, new diseases and pandemics. It is a challenge for nanoscience to adapt to these goals. Therefore, after a brief recapitulation of the history and achievements of nanotechnology, the paper will focus on its new directions. Among them, nanomedicine and pharmacy are of the topmost interest. Moreover, in the interaction of the nanoworld with humans, cross-sectional topics such as nanoethics and nanotoxicology (hampered by commercial interests) must be placed at a higher level at the same time as addressing specific applications. The world counts on nanomedicine at first in areas where overcoming of physiological barriers is not so difficult. These are dentistry and dermatology. In pharmacy, promising is the administration of drugs by methods of a ‘Trojan horse’ – their introduction directly to a therapeutic target. We also provide examples of gas nanosensors for diagnostics. These topics will be processed in such a way as to highlight the importance of nanoscience for human health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-23T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1