rss_2.0Philosophy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Philosophyhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/PLhttps://www.sciendo.comPhilosophy Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Philosophy.jpg700700Aquinas on Relations: A Topic Which Aquinas Himself Perceives as Foundational to Theologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejsta-2020-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Fundamental to theology is the ordering of all things to God, yet this ordering is directly tied to the topic of relation. Thus, while the category of relation is inherited by Aquinas from ancient philosophy, it mostly shows up in Aquinas’ theological treatments. This paper will look specifically at the distinction between God and creatures as understood through Aquinas’ use of mixed relations. It will provide an expository treatment of Aquinas’ use of mixed relation in attempt to bridge his philosophy and theology while seeking to encourage and aide others to more actively incorporate the category of relation in theological work, as Aquinas himself did.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Thomas Aquinas on Human Beings as Image of Godhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejsta-2020-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Employing a work of modern conceptual art, a manipulated photograph entitled ‘The Missing Person’, the author studies Thomas Aquinas on the concept of human beings as image of (the Triune) God. Typical for Aquinas’ approach is the theocentric focus of his Christian anthropology. The threefold (nature, grace, glory) ‘image of God’, a central and dynamic concept in Aquinas’ <italic>Summa Theologiae</italic>, is both descriptive and prescriptive in nature, corresponding to an account of both analogical naming of the divine ánd living according to the vocation to become more and more image of the Triune God.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Book reviewshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejsta-2020-0004ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The and the in Aquinashttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ejsta-2020-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Contemporary discussions of Aquinas’ understanding of the passions often mention the <italic>passio corporalis</italic> and the <italic>passio animalis</italic>, but no recent scholarship has paid close attention to what these terms mean, largely because many scholars wrongly assume that ‘<italic>passio animalis</italic>’ simply means the same thing as ‘<italic>passio animae</italic>’. However, this paper argues that ‘<italic>passio corporalis</italic>’ and ‘<italic>passio animalis</italic>’ are specialized terms that Aquinas uses in order to explain the ways in which Christ experienced suffering on earth. Furthermore, understanding these terms properly bears important implications for understanding the development of Aquinas’ thought on the passion of pain.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Kripke Was Right Even If He Was Wrong: Sherlock Holmes and the Unicornshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/disp-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the Addenda to <italic>Naming and Necessity</italic> (1980), Kripke famously argues that it is false that there could have been unicorns, or more properly, that “no counterfactual situation is properly describable as one in which there would have been unicorns.” He adds that he holds similarly that ‘one cannot say of any possible person that he <italic>would have been</italic> Sherlock Holmes, had he existed.” He notes the “cryptic brevity” of these remarks and refers to a forthcoming work for elaborations—the work being, of course, the <italic>John Locke Lectures</italic> (2013). Coming as it does at the end of <italic>Naming and Necessity</italic>, it is natural to read this discussion as drawing out consequences of Kripke’s non-descriptivist picture of proper names and names of natural kinds. In fact, so much is suggested there by Kripke himself. The question thus arises: can the contentious claims quoted from the Addenda be defended independently of Kripke’s rejection of descriptivism? I shall argue that, as appears from the <italic>John Locke Lectures,</italic> they can be.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Just Kidding: Stand-Up, Speech Acts and Slurshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/disp-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>People respond to moral criticism of their speech by claiming that they were joking. In this paper, I develop a speech act analysis of the humor excuse consisting of a negative stage, in which the speaker denies he or she was making an assertion, and a positive stage, in which the speaker claims she or he was engaged in non-serious/humorous speech instead. This analysis, however, runs afoul of the group identity objection, according to which there is a moral distinction between jokes targeting members of vulnerable groups made by members of those groups and similar jokes made by non-members. In order to avoid this objection, I offer a revision to the speech act analysis that draws upon Perry’s distinction between beliefs and belief-states.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Practical Identity and Duties of Lovehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/disp-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper defends the view that we have special relationship duties that do not derive from our moral duties. Our special relationship duties, I argue, are grounded in what I call <italic>close relationships</italic>. Sharing a close relationship with another person, I suggest, requires that both people conceive of themselves as being motivated to promote the other’s interests. So, staying true to oneself demands being committed to promoting the interests of those with whom we share a close relationship. Finally, I show that the proposed account of special relationship duties circumvents two problems facing self-conception accounts of special relationship duties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of the Bank in Meeting the Housing Needs of an Average Household – Evaluation of the Situation in 2018https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to determine the profile of an average Polish household and the possibility of satisfying average housing needs thereof as well as to indicate the role played by the bank in their implementation. The characteristics of an average household, the value of income and expenses thereof, the prices of residential properties and the data of the credit market were determined. statistical studies, The research material was obtained from reports and including data from the Statistics Poland, Eurostat, the database of residential property prices of the National Bank of Poland and the average offer prices of the rental market – for 2018, which reflects the current economic situation. The research was of a quantitative nature (statistical measures, housing availability index, credit simulations). The results indicate that as of 2018 an average household cannot afford to buy or rent a flat. The bank’s role in satisfying housing needs is not only important but rather necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Public Debt Management and The Country’s Financial Stabilityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The government debt portfolio is usually the largest financial portfolio in the country. It often contains complex and risky financial structures and can generate significant risk to the state budget and the country’s financial stability. Therefore, governments are required to have sound risk management and sound public debt structures to limit exposure to market risk, debt financing or rolling risk, liquidity risk, credit, settlement and operational risk. In recent years, the debt market crises have highlighted the importance of sound public debt management practices and related risks, and the need for an effective and well-developed domestic capital market. This may reduce the vulnerability of the economy to adverse economic and financial shocks. However, it is also important for the government to maintain a macroeconomic policy that ensures sound fiscal and monetary management. The aim of the research is to present the theoretical and practical aspects of extremely important issues such as public debt management and to indicate the most important implications for the financial stability of the country on the example of the Polish economy. The study uses a research method based on literature studies in the field of macroeconomics, economic policy and finance, as well as statistical analysis of the studied phenomenon. Results of research indicate that effective public debt management can reduce the economy’s vulnerability to financial threats, contribute to the financial stability of the country, maintain debt stability and protect the government’s reputation among investors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Financial Factors Influencing the Development of Product Innovations in Polish Small and Medium Enterpriseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of product innovations in small and medium enterprises is determined mainly by their financial capabilities. These enterprises usually encounter financial problems when it comes to the introduction of product innovations. Therefore, managers should manage the company’s finances in the way that will enable them using all available means to solve these problems. This means that they ought to use external financial resources to a greater extent (not only in the form of loans). The article focuses on the financial conditions for the development of product innovations in small and medium enterprises, while other forms of innovation are omitted. Product innovations are given the highest priority by mentioned companies. The analysis covered the years 2010-2017. The case study allowed to present changes in this most important form of activity for enterprises in the SME sector during the analyzed period<fn id="j_sh-2021-0017_fn_001" symbol="1"><p>For the purpose of this paper, large companies have also been included in the study in order to extend the comparative base.</p></fn>. In the article there were used data published by GUS, NBP, PARP, Eurostat. The article presents the following thesis: The innovative activity of Polish enterprises takes mainly the character of product innovations, which often require large financial outlays. Two hypotheses were used to verify the thesis: HPT1: The increase in the outlays of enterprises on technical progress and on research and development works (R&amp;D) leads to companies' own the development of product innovations. HPT2: The resources are the main source of financing for product investments. Due to the greater capacity of large companies to spend on R&amp;D, they are more active in product innovation than small companies, whose financial resources are significantly limited. Broader implementation of product innovations in SMEs requires wider access to finance and greater involvement of many participants. In order to be able to take advantage of all possible opportunities to renew the production programme, the company should ensure appropriate internal and external integration in the management of the process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the Financial Condition of Knowledge Based Economy Entities – an Example of Polish Video Game Sectorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The video game producers are currently in spotlight of market information services. Successes and huge budgets of such companies attract many readers. However, scientific studies related to this sector do not share the same popularity. A reflection on the source of value in this sector shows that what generates revenues is not disclosed in the report. Great examples are customers’ relationships or the value of employees creating the game code and story of the game. Video games producers sector presents a good combination of business and culture that allows reflection on financial characteristics of knowledge based companies. Prior studies show that market’s valuation takes into account unrecognised assets but capital-intensive character of a production and intangibility of a product and its assets causes problems with exact valuation. In this paper the author asks about the impact of the characteristics on the assessment of a financial condition. The research question in this paper is whether it is possible to use and interpret correctly popular discriminant analysis model for knowledge based entities on the example of video game companies. Results are applicable by analysts and managers of this sector and help to determine the usefulness of this method, but it still depends on assumptions and accounting policies. The reflection presented also broadens the discussion on financialisation because analysed companies can oppose this trend in a specific way.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Investments of Polish Family Businesseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper the authors address the issue of investments made by family businesses. Their study attempted to verify the level of investments made by Polish family businesses in comparison with the level of investments made by Polish non-family businesses. The study focused on the analysis of investment flows of Polish listed companies included in the WIG index for the years 2006-2018. A total of 233 companies were analyzed, including 177 non-family businesses and 56 family businesses. The results corroborated the argument that Polish listed non-family businesses invest much more money than family businesses. It was also observed that only a small percentage of companies in both groups invest their finances in research and development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in End-Customer Power Prices Across the EU – Reasons and Challenges for the Futurehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many years have passed since the first liberalization processes in the electricity sectors the in European Union that were performed in order to establish a single market for electricity. In practice, convergence between neighbouring market areas was established mainly between the Member States in Central-Western Europe, while other countries have allowed for only limited levels of competition. As a consequence, many market areas remain illiquid and consumers pay relatively higher prices for the energy they consume. The final bill is further increased through financing the increasingly ambitious climate agenda, gradually leading to social opposition against ever-growing prices. The aim of this article is to provide examples of differences in market functioning in Member States, leading to discrepancies in average energy costs for end consumers. The consequences of different levels of market concentration, infrastructure investments and renewable generation subsidization are analysed using publicly available statistics. Careful literature review is also performed before the conclusions are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Financialization of Commodity Markethttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to present possible consequences caused by the development of commodity market financialization understood by the influence of financial investor’s speculation. Also the task of elaboration is to outline the existence of financial factors in the price creation process of commodities. The existing impact of financialization on the volatility of commodity prices significantly modifies the market. The results of the research and analyzes carried out indicate a similarity in the behavior of the markets of commodities. The situation results from the redistribution of the risk of financial investors who having a few goods in the investment portfolio, next to large transaction volumes affect the unification of price trends. Price shaping factors are being transformed. The decrease importance of supply or consumption in the context of the commodities market changes its form. The growing influence of investors who create numerous speculations transforms the market. Trade in <italic>futures</italic> contracts affects the level of commodities prices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Music in the Polish-Jewish theatre in the first decades of the 20 century in the light of surviving sourceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/prm-2021-0002ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The symbolism of water in the documentary film from Maramureșhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/saec-2021-0009ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Non-Linguistic Communicationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/saec-2021-0001ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The archetype of the pathetic man, between objectivation and objectificationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/saec-2021-0010ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Saudek’s Mirrorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/saec-2021-0012ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Rebekah Hyneman’s “The Lost Diamond“ – Towards Jews’ and Gentiles’ Mutual Exchangehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/saec-2021-0003ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1